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Contents

1. Acknowledgements
2. Certificate
3. Introduction

4. Principal

6. Construction

7. Theory

9. Bibliography
Acknowledgement

I sincerely extend my deepest gratitude to our

principal Dr. Nidhi Maheshwari for providing us with
all the facilities and kind moral support for carrying

endeavors to accomplish this project material.

Certificate
This is to certify that Hardik Seth of class XII has

completed his physics project entitled "Transformer & its

Working".

I appreciate his effort and wish him for his bright future.

Submitted to:

Principal

Introduction

Principal

It is based on the principle of mutual induction that is if a varying current

is set-up in a circuit induced e.m.f. is produced in the neighboring circuit.
The varying current in a circuit produce varying magnetic flux which
induces e.m.f. in the neighboring circuit.
Step Down Transformer

in primary coil remains large as compare to secondary coil.

Construction

The transformer consists of two coils. They are insulated with each

other by insulated material and wound on a common core. For

operation at low frequency, we may have a soft iron. The soft iron

circuit is called primary. And the output circuit is called secondary.

Theory
Suppose, the number of turns in the primary coil is NP and
that in the secondary coil is NS.
The resistance of the coil is assumed to be zero. Let
be the rate of change of flux in each turn of the primary
coil.

EP = –NP (1)

We suppose that there is no loss of flux between the

primary and secondary coils.

Then, the induced e.m.f. in the secondary coil will be:

ES = –NS (2)
From equations (i) and (ii), we find:

If Ip and Is be the currents in the primary and secondary

circuits.
For ideal transformer = 1 = 100%.

Or

Therefore, for step up, transformer current in the

secondary is less than in the primary (IS < IP). And in a step

down transformer we have IS > IP.

Energy Losses in Transformer

In practice, the output energy of a transformer is

always less than the input energy, because energy losses occur

produced in the iron core.

3. Copper Loss: In practice, the coils of the transformer

Bibliography