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# Advanced Materials Research Vols 791-793 (2013) pp 374-377 Online: 2013-09-04

## © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.791-793.374

## Xinwei Zhu1,2, Honghui Cheng2,*, Meihua Shen1, Jinping Pan1

1
Jiaxing Special Equipment Inspection Institute, Jiaxing 314001, China
2
College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, China
*
Corresponding author: 31834385@qq.com

## Abstract. A new method of determination of C parameter of Larson-Miller equation was introduced.

For 15CrMo steel, the optimal value of parameter C in the equation was derived. The reliability of the
obtained results was analyzed.

Introduction
Time-temperature parameter methods, which are extrapolating the residual life under low
temperature and low stress according to the short-term experimental data at high temperature, were
developed in the nineteen fifties[1, 2]. Among of them, Larson-miller method[3-5] is very popular in
extrapolating the residual life of high-temperature parts in the fields of petrochemistry and electric
power. The Larson-miller expression is LMP = T (C + lgtr), thereinto, LMP is the famous
Larson-miller parameter, which is also often expressed by P, T is the temperature, tr is the life of
original material at a certain temperature and a certain stress. The relation between Larson-miller
parameter (P) and stress (σ) can be described by a function. The σ-P curve (Fig.1) of material will shift
to the left after running in high temperature environment. Hence, the residual life (tres) is equal to the
full life (tr) minus running time (top). According to the Larson-miller expression, we can get the
expression: tr=10^(P/T-C). The tradition modus operandi is: (1) fix C value to or around to 20[6-8];
then, (2) according to the σ-P curve or the fitting function from σ-P curve, determine the numerical
value of P; then, (3) according to the expression tr=10^(P/T-C), get the value of tr. The fitting function
of σ-P curve can be expressed by the function:
P (σ ) = B0 + B1 ( lg σ ) + B2 ( lg σ ) + B3 ( lg σ ) + .... + Bm ( lg σ ) . In most time, the σ-P function is
2 3 m

## expressed in the form of P (σ ) = B0 + B1 ( lg σ ) + B2 ( lg σ ) + B3 ( lg σ ) , the B0, B1, B2, and B3

2 3

parameters are calculated by the experimental data and least square method. Finally, the numerical
B0 + B1 ( lg σ ) + B2 ( lg σ ) + B3 ( lg σ )
2 3
−C
value of tr can be calculated by the expression tr = 10 T
.

Fig.1 σ-P curve evolvement when material running in high temperature environment

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Advanced Materials Research Vols. 791-793 375

Because the mathematical solution to C value is difficult, most people set it to 20. However, a lot
of experimental data prove that C value is not 20 and C value can fluctuate in a big scope. Because
prediction of residual life involves exponential calculation, which needs very accurate value for each
parameter, this modus operandi may produce serious prediction error. Sometime, the prediction error
may reach to 1×105 hours level.
MATLAB is a very powerful software package that has many built-in toolboxes for solving
problems and developing graphical illustrations[9, 10]. The simplest method for using the MATLAB
product is interactively; an expression is entered by the user and MATLAB immediately responds
with a result. It is also possible to write scripts and programs in MATLAB, which are essentially
groups of commands that are executed sequentially.
To solve the prediction problem, a new method of determination of C parameter of Larson-miller
equation based on MATLAB was brought forward.

## Principle of the new method

According to Larson-miller equation, we can get T (C + lgtr) = P(σ). Because the σ-P relation can
be described by P (σ ) = B0 + B1 ( lg σ ) + B2 ( lg σ ) + B3 ( lg σ ) , we can acquire the function that
2 3

T ( C + lg tr ) = B0 + B1 ( lg σ ) + B2 ( lg σ ) + B3 ( lg σ )
2 3
. Then the function can transform to
B + B1 ( lg σ ) + B2 ( lg σ ) + B3 ( lg σ )
2 3

## lg tr = 0 − C . On the assumption that z = lg tr , x = T , y = lg σ , then

T
B0 + B1 y + B2 y 2 + B3 y 3
the function changes to z = −C .
x
Based on the function, if we get the experimental data of high temperature tensile creep test, we
can use MATLAB surface fitting tool to get the parameters of B0, B1, B2, B3 and C. Then, according to
the working stress, the residual life of high temperature parts can be calculated.

## C parameter determination of 15CrMo steel

The first step is acquiring the experimental data of high temperature tensile creep test. However,
before test, every tensile sample should be analyzed by metallography to insure that no surface cracks,
holes and other defects, which can evidently affect the test results, exist in the tensile samples. After
greater than 10 tests, we get the test data (Table 1).
Table 1 High temperature tensile creep test data of 15CrMo steel
Sample no. Temperature (℃) Tensile stress (MPa) Rupture time (h)
1. 550 200 46
2. 550 180 205
3. 550 150 960
4. 550 140 1440
5. 550 130 6048
6. 550 120 11088
7. 690 65 77
8. 670 65 218
9. 650 65 672
10. 630 65 1673
11. 610 65 5032
Then, in Workspace of MATLAB, an 11×3 array named data was built. The temperature data were
filled into the first column of the array. The stress data were filled into the second column of the array.
The rupture time data were filled in to the third column of the array. Then, in the Command Window
of MATLAB, the following commands were inputted.
376 Chemical and Mechanical Engineering, Information Technologies

T=273.15+data(:,1);sigma=data(:,2);tr=data(:,3);z=log10(tr);x=T;y=log10(sigma); sftool
Then, in the window of surface fitting tool, the fitting model was set to
(B0+B1*y+B2*y^2+B3*y^3)/x-C. In the first fitting, the StartPoint in Fit Options was default
settings. After the first fitting, the results of B0, B1, B2, B3 and C were filled into StartPoint, and then
surface fitting was repeated. The process repeated till the results of B0, B1, B2, B3 and C were stabilized.
At last, the fitting results (Fig.1) were B0=-2.549e+005, B1=3.934e+005, B2=-1.851e+005, B3 =
2.838e+004, C=18.07. From the results of Goodness of Fit: SSE (the sum of squares due to error)
=0.07078, R-square (coefficient of determination) =0.9885, Adjusted R-square (degree-of-freedom
adjusted coefficient of determination) =0.9808, RMSE (root mean squared error) =0.1086 and the real
graph, we know the fitting is very good. From the fitting result, we know the C is indeed not equal to
20. If we compulsively set it to 20, the fitting model was set to (B0+B1*y+B2*y^2+B3*y^3)/x-20.
However the final fitting results (Fig.2) were B0=-2.133e+005，B1=3.386e+005，B2=-1.6e+005，
B3=2.456e+004, with SSE=0.08831 ， R-square=0.9856 ， Adjusted R-square=0.9794 and
RMSE=0.1123. Comparing the results of Goodness of Fit, we find that the aforementioned SSE and
RMSE are closer to 0, and the aforementioned R-square and Adjusted R-square are closer to 1, which
means the first results are better.

## Fig.2 The final results of surface fitting

Fig.3 The final results of surface fitting when C was forcibly set to 20
Advanced Materials Research Vols. 791-793 377

According to the first results, the residual life of 15CrMo steel is 160570 hours, when the working
temperature is 550℃, and the working stress is 61MPa. According to the second results, the residual
life of 15CrMo steel is 311320 hours when it has the same working temperature and working stress.
Great difference exists between the two results. However, from the high temperature creep tensile
data of the appendix of the Chinese standard GB5310-2008, we can easily confirm the residual life of
311320 hours is not right. From the example, we can find that although the difference between the
goodness of fit of the two fittings is very tiny, the life prediction results from the two fittings have
huge gap. This is because life prediction includes exponential computation.

Conclusion
(1) The C Parameter of Larson-Miller Equation for 15CrMo steel is 18.07; (2) MATLAB surface
fitting tool is a good software tool for analyzing the residual life of low alloy heat-resistant steel; (3)
The four parameters SSE, R-square, Adjusted R-square, and RMSE can be used to estimate goodness
of fit. SSE and RMSE closer to 0, and R-square and Adjusted R-square closer to 1 mean the fit is
better.

Acknowledgments
This work was financially supported by the Quality and Technology Supervision of Zhejiang
Province under grant No. 20120327, 20120249 and 20100229.

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Chemical and Mechanical Engineering, Information Technologies
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.791-793

## Determination of C Parameter of Larson-Miller Equation for 15CrMo Steel

10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.791-793.374

DOI References
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