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This conforms with the requirements of Offered Traffic where it cannot be calculated and the channels are infinite. • In this topic we will look into the FINITE channels where there will be blockings once all the channels are occupied. STATE PROBABILITIES

• We will get the similar cut equations as what we’ve discussed before in the infinite case, but in this case, the number of states (which represents the busy channels) is limited and the normalisation conditions now becomes:

⎧ A ⎫ p(0 ) = ⎨∑ ⎬ ⎩ j =0 j! ⎭

n j

−1

• So the distribution will be called as the Truncated Poisson Distribution, or Erlang’s first formula, i.e. Erlang-B formula, given as…

Ai p(i ) = n i! i , 0 ≤ i ≤ n A ∑ j =0 i!

Thus we can assume that i = n and … From Ai p(i ) = n i! i .TRAFFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ERLANG’S B-FORMULA • By calculating the state probabilities.. 0 ≤ i ≤ n A ∑ j =0 i! We derive it to… An n! E n ( A) = p(n ) = A2 An 1+ A + + . we can find the performance measures defined by state probabilities.. + 2! n! (Erlang’s Famous B-formula) . o Time Congestion It’s the probabilities that all n channels are busy at a random of time EQUAL to the proportion of time all channels are busy.

If we consider one time unit. . The carried traffic will be less than both A and n. we find B = Bn ( A) : B= λ ⋅ p(n ) ∑ λ ⋅ p(v ) n v =0 = p(n ) = En ( A) o Carried Traffic: If we use the cut equation between states [i – 1] and [i] we get: λ ⋅ p(0 ) = μ ⋅ p(1) λ ⋅ p(1) = 2 μ ⋅ p(2) L λ ⋅ p(i − 2 ) = (i − 1)μ ⋅ p(i − 1) λ ⋅ p(i − 1) = iμ ⋅ p(i ) λ ⋅ p(i − 1) = i ⋅ p(i ) μ n λ Y = ∑ ⋅ p (i − 1) = ∑ i ⋅ p (i ) = A ⋅ { − p (n )} 1 i =1 μ i =1 n Which translates to … Y = A ⋅ { − E n ( A)} 1 Where A is the offered traffic.o Call Congestion: The probability that the call will lost is EQUAL to the proportion of call attempts blocked.

o Lost Traffic: Al = A − Y = A ⋅ En ( A) o Traffic congestion: C= A−Y = E n ( A) A • We thus have E = B = C because the call intensity is independent of the state (valid for all Poisson processes) ERLANG-B FORMULA GRAPH .

The total carried traffic is independent of the hunting strategy and we find the utilisation: ai = a = 1 Y A{ − En ( A)} = n n o We observed that for a given congestion E we obtain the highest utilisation for large channel groups (economy of scale) .TRAFFIC CARRIED BY THE i'th TRUNK (THE UTILISATION ai ): • Random Hunting: o In this case all channels carry the same traffic on the average.

Z= σ2 m = 1 − A{En−1 ( A) − En ( A)} = 1 − an . Thus for Truncated Poisson Distribution. when the number of channels increased by one (1). IMPROVEMENT FUNCTION: • The improvement function shows the increase in carried traffic. from n to n+1: Mathematically we can equate it as … Fn ( A) = Yn +1 − Yn = A{ − En+1 } − A{ − En } 1 1 = an +1 Fn ( A) = A{En ( A) − En +1 ( A)} And… 0 ≤ Fn ( A) ≤ 1 PEAKEDNESS • Defined as the ratio between the variance and the mean value of the distribution of the number of busy channels.• Ordered hunting = Sequential hunting: The traffic by channel i is the difference between the traffic lost from i – 1 channels: ai = A.{Ei −1 ( A) − Ei ( A)} Note that also that the traffic carried by the i channels is independent of the total number of channels and thus no influence on the traffic carried by channel i.

the duration of the time in state [i] is exponentially distributed with density function: f n (t ) = (nμ ) ⋅ e −( nμ )t . 0≤i≤n i=n . Thus.DURATION OF STATE [i] • Total intensity for leaving state [i] is constant and equal to (λ + iμ ) . f i (t ) = (λ + iμ ) ⋅ e − ( λ +iμ )t .

• With this we may obtain the complete state transition diagram. . • We can generalise the steps to produce state transition diagrams. • Draw the states as circles. • Consider the states one at a time and draw all possible arrows for transitions away from this state due to: o The arrival process (new arrival or phase shift in the arrival process) o The departure (service) process (the service time terminates or shifts phase).GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR STATE TRANSITION DIAGRAMS • Very important tool in Teletraffic theory where it models the formulation and solution of the traffic problems. the steady state equations can be obtained from o Node equations (general) o Cut equations. STEP 1: Construction of the state transition diagram • Define the states of the system in a unique way. STEP 2: Set up the equations describing the system. • If the conditions for statistical equilibrium are fulfilled.

we let the non-normalised value of the state probability q(0) equal to one. p(0). and then calculate the relative values q (i).. • Find p(0) by normalisation. • By normalising we will find that … p(i ) = q(i ) . (i = 1... n.. …). 2. STEP 4 • Calculate the performance measures expressed by the state probabiltities. • Express all state probabilities by for example the probability of state [0].1.STEP 3: Solve the balance equations assuming statistical equilibrium. NOTE: • In practice. Qn n Where Qn = ∑ q(v ) v =0 • Time congestion becomes: p(n ) = Q q(n ) = 1 − n −1 Qn Qn . i = 0.

. E n ( A) = A ⋅ En−1 ( A) . n + A ⋅ En −1 ( A) E0 = 1 Example: We consider an Erlang-B loss system with n = 6 channels. we obtained the Time Congestion formula as: - An n! E n ( A) = p(n ) = A2 An + . arrival rate λ = 2 calls per time unit. If we denote the nonnormalised relative state probabilities by q(i)… (a) Draw the state transition diagram and find the state probabilities when the system is in statistical equilibrium. it’s more stable. so that the offered traffic is A = 2 Erlang. (b) Calculate the Time Congestion (c) Calculate the Traffic Congestion (d) Calculate the Call Congestion . from the numerical point of view. + 1+ A + 2! n! • However for numerical calculations. the formula above is not appropriate since both n! and An increase so quickly which results the occurrence of overflow in the computer.EVALUATION OF ERLANG’S B-FORMULA • Earlier on. and departure rate of μ = 1 departure per time unit.. • With the recursive formula.

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