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Section A : HISTORY A-1–A-166

1. Indus Valley Civilization 1-9

2. Vedic Period and Religious Movements 10-26
3. Maurya Period and Post Mauryan Period 27-39
4. Gupta Period and Post Gupta Period 40-66
5. Ancient History (Miscellaneous) 67-72
6. Delhi Sultanate 73-91
7. Mughal Period 92-109
8. Initial Modern History 110-130
9. Indian Freedom Struggle - I (1857-1917) 131-145
10. Indian Freedom Struggle - II (1917-1947) 146-166

Section B : GEOGRAPHY B-1–B-36

1. Astronomy 1-6
2. Physical Geography 7-13
3. Economic Geography 14-20
4. World Geography 21-28
5. Geography of India 29-36


1. Indian Constitution 1-15

2. Political System 16-26
3. Panchayati Raj and Public Policy 27-33
4. Judiciary 34-40
Section D : ECONOMICS D-1–D-34

1. Indian Economy 1-9

2. Planning and Economic Development 10-16
3. Agriculture in Indian Economy 17-22
4. Industry 23-28
5. World Economy 29-34

Section E : GENERAL SCIENCE E-1–E-78

1. Physics 1-15
2. Chemistry 16-25
3. Biology (Zoology, Botany, Diseases) 26-59
4. Environment and Ecology 60-68
5. Science and Technology 69-78


1. Art and Culture 1-5

2. National and International Awards 6-13
3. Books and Authors 14-17
4. Sports and Games 18-23
5. Miscellaneous 24-32

Section G : CURRENT AFFAIRS G-1–G-64

1. National Issues 1-11

2. International Issues 12-22
3. Economical Issues 23-28
4. Awards and Honours 29-36
5. Sports and Games 37-45
6. Science and Technology 46-57
7. Miscellaneous 58-64
Section A : History

Indus Valley Civilization 1

1. Indus Valley Civilization was discovered in: 11. Which of the following animals was unknown in
(a) 1911 (b) 1921 Indus Valley Civilization?
(c) 1931 (d) 1941 (a) Lion (b) Bull
2. Almost the people of Indus Valley Civilization (c) Elephant (d) Horse
were: 12. Which one of the following Indus Valley
(a) Nigroid (b) Proto-Austroloid Civilization sites gives evidence of a dockyard?
(c) Mediterranean (d) Nordic (a) Harappa (b) Mohenjodaro
3. Which metal was unknown to Indus Valley (c) Lothal (d) Dholavira
Civilization? 13. Which one of the following Indus Valley
(a) Gold (b) Silver Civilization sites gives evidence of a stadium?
(c) Copper (d) Iron (a) Harappa (b) Kalibangan
4. The nature of Indus Valley Civilization was: (c) Mohenjodaro (d) Dholavira
14. The people of Indus Valley Civilization usually
(a) Urban (b) Rural
built their houses of:
(c) Agricultural (d) None of these
(a) Pucca bricks (b) Wood
5. Indus Valley Civilization belongs to:
(c) Stone (d) None of these
(a) Pre-historical (b) Historical period
15. A seal depicting Mother Goddess with plant
(c) Proto-historical (d) Post-historical
growing from the womb, has been found from:
6. A statue of bearded man was found at
(a) Harappa (b) Mohenjodaro
(a) Harappa (b) Mohenjodaro
(c) Kalibangan (d) Dholavira
(c) Chanhudaro (d) Dholavira 16. Indus Valley Civilization was discovered by:
7. In Indus Valley Civilization, the script was: (a) Dayaram Sahni (b) R.D. Banerji
(a) Kharosthi (b) Brahmi (c) Cunningham (d) Wheeler
(c) Boustrophedus (d) None of these 17. A lot of beads were discovered from:
8. Which of the following is the latest site found? (a) Harappa (b) Mohenjodaro
(a) Dholavira (b) Amri (c) Lothal (d) Dholavira
(c) Lothal (d) Kalibangan 18. Almostly, beads were made of:
9. Harappa is located on the bank of river: (a) Terracotta (b) Jasper
(a) Indus (b) Ravi (c) Lapis (d) Steatite
(c) Beas (d) Sutlej 19. Which of the following cannot be considered
10. The local name of Mohenjodaro is: Proto-Harappan culture?
(a) Mound of Living (b) Mound of Survivor (a) Sothi culture (b) Jornie culture
(c) Mound of Dead (d) Mound of Great (c) Kot-Diji culture (d) Amri culture
A-2 || Indus Valley Civilization
20. Which of the following showed the greatest 30. Which of the following is the most common motif
uniformity in Indus Civilization settlement? of the Indus seals?
(a) Town planning (a) Elephant (b) Bull
(b) Bricks (c) Rhinoceros (d) Unicorn
31. The dockyard at Lothal was well connected with
(c) Religious practices
the river:
(d) Building (a) Ghaggar (b) Bhogavo
21. The site of Mohenjodaro is located on the bank of (c) Narmada (d) Tapti
river: 32. The Indus Valley Civilization people traded with
(a) Ravi (b) Beas the:
(c) Indus (d) Sutlej (a) Romans (b) Parthians
22. The site of Mohenjodaro was discovered by: (c) Mesopotamians (d) Chinese
33. Which of the following was unknown in Indus
(a) Dayaram Sahni (b) R.D. Banerji
Valley Civilization?
(c) N.G. Majumdar (d) S.R. Rao (a) Wheat (b) Pulses
23. The largest of sites found in post-independence (c) Barley (d) Cotton
India in: 34. Which type of seals was the most popular in
(a) Rajasthan (b) Gujarat Harappan culture?
(c) Punjab (d) Haryana (a) Oval (b) Cylindrical
24. The best drainage system (water management) in (c) Rounded (d) Quadrate
Indus Valley Civilization was: 35. Remains of horse bares have been found from:
(a) Mohenjodaro (b) Lothal
(a) Harappa (b) Lothal
(c) Surkotada (d) Sutkagendor
(c) Mohenjodaro (d) Kalibangan 36. In which of the following Indus Valley Civilization
25. The famous dancing girl found in the Mohenjodaro sites, the cotton piece was found ?
was made up of: (a) Mohenjodaro (b) Lothal
(a) Bronze (b) Red limestone (c) Harappa (d) Chanhudaro
(c) Steatite (d) Terracotta 37. Which of the following was unknown in Indus
26. The unique structure in Mohenjodaro was: Valley Civilization?
(a) Construction of wells
(a) Bathing pool (b) Assembly hall
(b) Construction of arches
(c) Granary (d) Dockyard
(c) Construction of pillars
27. In which of the following Indus Valley sites the (d) Construction of drains
famous Bull-seal was found? 38. Which of the following Indus Valley Civilization
(a) Harappa (b) Mohenjodaro sites provides the evidence of fire-altars?
(c) Lothal (d) Chanhudaro (a) Alamgirpur (b) Kalibangan
28. Which of the following Indus Valley Civilization (c) Banavali (d) Kunal
site was located on the Iranian border? 39. The earliest evidence of agriculture in Indian
subcontinent has been obtained from:
(a) Surkotada (b) Sutkagen Dor
(a) Brahmagiri (b) Chirand
(c) Kot Diji (d) Balakot (c) Mehargarh (d) Burzahom
29. In which of the following Indus Valley sites, the 40. Which of the following was not worshipped by
cemetry R-37 was found? Indus Valley people?
(a) Lothal (b) Mohenjodaro (a) Shiva (b) Peepal
(c) Harappa (d) Dholavira (c) Mother Goddess (d) Vishnu
History || A-3

41. The excavation at Chanhudaro was directed by 51. A glaring evidence of the art of dance in Harappan
(a) John Marshall (b) J.H. Mackay culture comes from:
(c) M. Wheeler (d) Aurel Stein (a) Lothal (b) Harappa
42. A granary outside to citadel was found at: (c) Mohenjodaro (d) Kalibangan
(a) Harappa (b) Mohenjodaro 52. Which among the following was the most extensive
(c) Lothal (d) Dholavira Harappan city?
43. Which of the following Indus Valley Civilization (a) Banavali (b) Ropar
towns divided into three parts? (c) Lothal (d) Rakhigarhi
(a) Kalibangan (b) Lothal 53. From which of the Harappan sites the evidence of
(c) Chanhudaro (d) Dholavira bead making has been found?
44. Indus Valley Civilization site Manda is situated (a) Dholavira (b) Ropar
near the bank of: (c) Chanhudaro (d) Kalibangan
(a) Sutlej (b) Jhelum 54. Name the site which has revealed the earliest
(c) Chinab (d) Indus evidence of settled life?
45. The archaeological finds from Alamgirpur in (a) Harappa (b) Mohenjodaro
Meerut district reflect the: (c) Kalibangan (d) Mehargarh
55. The most common form of Harappan seal is:
(a) Harappa period (b) Vedic period
(a) Cylindrical (b) Rectangular
(c) Budha period (d) Mauryan period
(c) Square (d) Rounded
46. Which of the following sites has a pre-Harappan
56. Which of the following is not depicted on the
settlement not been found?
Pashupati seal of Mohenjodaro?
(a) Harappa (b) Mohenjodaro
(a) Rhinoceros (b) Tiger
(c) Kalibangan (d) Dholavira
(c) Bull (d) Elephant
47. The Director General of Archaeological Survey
57. Bronze statue of dancing girl has been excavated
of India at the time of the excavation of Harappan
site was:
(a) Mohenjodaro (b) Harappa
(a) Dayaram Sahni
(c) Chanhudaro (d) Kalibangan
(b) R.D. Banerji
58. Which one among the following sites is located in
(c) John Marshall the valley of Ghaggar and its associated rivers?
(d) Mortimer Wheeler (a) Alamgirpur (b) Lothal
48. The most suitable name of Indus Valley Civilization (c) Kalibangan (d) Banavali
is: 59. Which of the Harappan sites has yielded evidence
(a) Harappan Civilization of two cemeteries?
(b) Indus Civilization (a) Mohenjodaro (b) Harappa
(c) Saraswati Civilization (c) Kalibangan (d) Ropar
(d) Bronze Time Civilization 60. Which of the following sites was founded the
49. A clay model of plough has been found from: evidence of ‘Swastik’?
(a) Banawali (b) Kalibangan (a) Harappa (b) Mohenjodaro
(c) Rakhigarhi (d) Mitathal (c) Chanhudaro (d) Kalibangan
50. In the excavations of Harappan sites, bones of 61. Which of the following Harappan sites was found
camels have been founded at: the earliest evidence of surgery?
(a) Kalibangan (b) Lothal (a) Harappa (b) Mohenjodaro
(c) Harappa (d) Mohenjodaro (c) Kalibangan (d) Dholavira
A-4 || Indus Valley Civilization
62. Which of the following Harappan sites shows the 72. In which Indus Valley Civilization sites, both
earliest evidence of Earthquake citadel and lower town were fortified?
(a) Harappa (b) Mohenjodaro (a) Mohenjodaro (b) Surkotada
(c) Kalibangan (d) Dholavira (c) Kalibangan (d) Lothal
63. Three-paired cemetry was found in: 73. In the Indus valley civilization period. Lapis-
(a) Kalibangan (b) Lothal Lazuli was imported from:
(c) Chanhudaro (d) Mohenjodaro (a) Badakhshah (b) Iran
64. Which amongst the following is not a site of Indus (c) Mesopotamia (d) Gujrat
Valley Civilization? 74. The Indus Valley Civilization was:
(a) Banawali (b) Rakhigarhi (a) Father base
(c) Hastinapur (d) Ropar (b) Mother base
65. On which object, do we mainly find the inscriptions (c) Same rights of mother and father
of Harappan civilization? (d) None of these
(a) On pillars (b) On rocks 75. Which of the following was one of the causes of
(c) On caves (d) On seals Harappan decline?
66. Which site of Harappan civilization has yielded a (a) Ecological change
beautiful bronze image of a chariot? (b) Earthquakes
(a) Daimabad (b) Mohenjodaro (c) Aryan attack
(c) Kalibangan (d) Rakhigarhi (d) All of these
67. Which amongst the following civilizations was not 76. A ploughed field was discovered at:
contemporary with the Harappan civilization? (a) Harappa
(a) Greek civilization (b) Mohenjodaro
(b) Egyptian civilization (c) Kalibangan
(c) Mesopotamian civilization
(d) Lothal
(d) Chinese civilization
77. Which was the only Indus city without a citadel?
68. In which Indus Valley Civilization sites, drainage
(a) Kalibangan (b) Harappa
system was absent?
(c) Mohenjodaro (d) Chanhudaro
(a) Banawali (b) Dholavira
78. Which one of the following sites has yielded
(c) Lothal (d) Rakhigarhi
the cultural remains from Neolithic to Harappan
69. In which indus valley civilization sites, the people
were known water reservoir technique?
(a) Amri (b) Mehargarh
(a) Banawali (b) Kalibangan
(c) Kotdiji (d) Kalibangan
(c) Dholavira (d) Chanhudaro
79. Which of the following ethenic races was not
70. Which of the following indus valley civilization
founded from skeleton of Harappan sites?
sites gives evidence of a Lipstick?
(a) Chanhudaro (b) Banawali (a) Alpine (b) Mediteranean
(c) Mohenjodaro (d) Kalibangan (c) Mongoloid (d) Negrito
71. The site of Alamgirpur is located on the bank of 80. Which of the following sites of Harappan culture
river: gives evidence of ‘Sindoor’?
(a) Maskra (b) Hindon (a) Harappa (b) Mohenjodaro
(c) Chinab (d) Bhader (c) Naushero (d) Balakote
History || A-5

1. (b) 11. (d) 21. (c) 31. (b) 41. (b) 51. (c) 61. (c) 71. (b)
2. (c) 12. (c) 22. (b) 32. (c) 42. (b) 52. (d) 62. (c) 72. (b)
3. (d) 13. (d) 23. (b) 33. (b) 43. (d) 53. (c) 63. (b) 73. (a)
4. (a) 14. (a) 24. (b) 34. (d) 44. (c) 54. (d) 64. (c) 74. (b)
5. (c) 15. (a) 25. (a) 35. (c) 45. (a) 55. (c) 65. (d) 75. (d)
6. (b) 16. (a) 26. (a) 36. (a) 46. (a) 56. (c) 66. (a) 76. (c)
7. (c) 17. (b) 27. (a) 37. (c) 47. (c) 57. (a) 67. (d) 77. (d)
8. (a) 18. (d) 28. (b) 38. (b) 48. (a) 58. (b) 68. (a) 78. (b)
9. (b) 19. (b) 29. (c) 39. (c) 49. (a) 59. (b) 69. (c) 79. (d)
10. (c) 20. (a) 30. (d) 40. (d) 50. (a) 60. (b) 70. (a) 80. (c)

Hints & Solutions

1. (b) The Indus Valley was discovered by Dayaram Mohenjodaro. His eyes are half closed indicating a
Sahni in 1921. It is one of the world’s earliest urban posture of meditation. Across the left shoulder is an
civilizations alongside with its contemporaries, embroidered cloak. In the opinion of some scholars,
Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. The Indus Valley it could be a bust of a priest.
covers modern day Pakistan and the northwest of 7. (c) Indus Scripts are popularly known as
India. Boustrophedon scripts which are still not deciphered
2. (c) Indus Valley Civilization had been a combination by the historians, researchers and scholars.
of diverse racial elements. Certain anthropological 8. (a) Dholavira is the latest Indus Valley Civilization
investigations and examinations of the human site. This site was discovered by J.P. Joshi in 1967-68.
remains show that four racial types existed in this Dholavira is located at Kutch district in Gujarat.
civilization namely Proto-Australiod, Mediterranean, 9. (b) Harappa is situated on the banks of river
Alpinoid and the Mongoloid. Most of the people Ravi in Montgomery district of western Punjab (in
belong to Mediterranean race. Pakistan).
3. (d) Iron was not known to Indus Valley Civilization
10. (c) Mohenjodaro is not the original name, of
people. The first evidence of Iron is found about l000
course, but one given by local villagers referring
B.C. from Ataranjikhera in Etah district.
to the ‘mound of the dead’: the tower and hillocks
4. (a) Indus Valley Civilization was urbanized, highly
of abandoned debris of bricks that they had their
developed and sophisticated. The ruins exhibit high
forefathers had noticed in the surroundings.
level of planning in the cities. Excavations have
indicated that the buildings were built with baked 11. (d) Animals like buffaloes, sheeps and pigs and
bricks. The streets were well constructed at right the humped bull were bred. Animals like elephant,
angles with an elaborate and covered drainage camels and dogs were also domesticated. There is
system. The civilization also had public buildings no evidence found about horses in the excavation of
including the vast granaries and the Great Bath at Indus valley civilization.
Mohenjodaro. 12. (c) The Indus Valley Civilization site Lothal gives
6. (b) A well-known piece of art of the Harappan period evidence of a dockyard. Lothal was discovered by
is a stone sculpture of a bearded man discovered at S.R. Rao in 1954 A.D. The dockyard is located in
eastern side of Lothal.
A-6 || Indus Valley Civilization
13. (d) Recent excavations at the small township of 21. (c) Mohenjodaro is situated along the west bank
Dholavira, in Kutch, Gujarat (India) have presented of the Indus River while Harappa is located 640 km
to the world some of the oldest stadiums and sign northeast of Mohenjodaro.
board, built by the Harappan civilization. One of 22. (b) The site of Mohenjodaro was discovered in 1922
the stadiums, with terraced seats for spectators, by R. D. Banerji, an officer of the Archaeological
Survey of India, two years after major excavations
around 800 feet in length (around 283 metres) can
had begun at Harappa, some 590 km to the north.
accommodate as many as 10,000 persons. The other Large-scale excavations were carried out at the site
stadium is much smaller in size. under the direction of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit,
14. (a) Houses of Indus Valley Civilization were one Ernest Mackay, and other directors through the
or two stories high, made of baked (Pucca) bricks, 1930s.
with flat roofs. Each was built around a courtyard, 23. (b) The state which has accounted for highest number
with windows overlooking the courtyard. The outside of Harappan sites after independence is Gujarat.
walls had no windows. Each home had its own private Gujarat has been one of the main centre of the
drinking well and its own private bathroom. Clay Indus Valley Civilization. It contains major ancient
pipes led from the bathrooms to sewers located under metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley such as
Lothal, Dholavira, and Gola Dhoro.
the streets.
25. (a) The famous ‘Dancing girl’ found in Mohenjodaro
15. (a) Plant growing from the womb of women has is an artifact that is some 4,500 years old. The 10.8
been found from Harappa on a seal. That represents cm long statue of the dancing girl was found in 1926
Earth Goddess. from a house in Mohenjodaro is made of bronze.
16. (a) Harappan civilization was discovered in 26. (a) The bathing pool was the unique structure of
1921–22 when two of its most important sites were Mohenjodaro. It measures 11.88 × 1.01 × 2.43 mt.
excavated. The first was excavated by Dayaram Sahni The floor of the bath pool was made of burnt
and the second by R.D. Banerji. bricks.
17. (b) Many beautiful beads of blue lapis lazuli, red 27. (a) On the site of Indus Valley Civilization, the
carnelian, and agate stones of all colours have been famous Bull-seal was found in Harappa. The Bull-
seal shows a humped bull displaying a strong and
found throughout Mohenjodaro and were likely worn
energetic bull. The figure has been made well, a proof
by the women. Archaeologists have found beads of the fine artistic skills acquired by the people of that
in such locations as the Great Bath, where bathers time. Seals are mainly in square or rectangular shape.
probably lost them, and in the lower city, where bead This bull-seal dates to around 2450-2200 BC.
makers may have dropped them in and around the 28. (b) Sutkagen Dor is the westernmost known
kilns they used to make the beads. archaeological site of Indus Valley Civilization. It
18. (d) The vast majority of the beads are made of is located about 480 km west of Makran coast near
fired steatite, which was a widely used raw material, the Iran border in Balochistan province of Pakistan.
beginning with the Ravi period and continuing Sutkagen Dor would have been on the trade route
through the Late Harappan period. Beads that are from Lothal in Gujarat to Mesopotamia and was
probably heavily involved in the fishing trade
made of hard stone, such as Agate, Carnelian, are
similar to that which exists today in the coast along
relatively less common, with a significant drop in Balochistan.
numbers for stones, such as Lapis Lazuli, grossular 29. (c) There are over fifty-five burial sites in the
garnet, serpentine and amazonite. Indus Valley were found in Harappa. The burials
20. (a) The greatest uniformity is noticed in the layouts are interpreted primarily as reflections of social
of the towns, streets, structures, brick size, drains, etc. structure and hierarchy. The strongest evidence for
Almost all the major sites (Harappa, Mohenjodaro, this interpretation would be burial sites in Harappa,
Kalibangan and others) are divided into two parts–a cemetery R-37 and Cemetery H. R-37 is the smaller
citadel on higher mound on the western side and a site compared to Cemetery H, and has about 200
lower town on the eastern side of the Indus Valley burials. Archeologists believe it was a restricted
cemetery that was used by a particular group or family
Civilization settlement.
that lived in Harappa.
History || A-7

30. (d) The unicorn is the most common motif on Indus 40. (d) The numerous seals and figurines discovered in
seals and appears to represent a mythical animal that the excavations carried out at various sites connected
Greek and Roman sources trace back to the Indian with the Harappan culture point out to the religious
beliefs of the Indus Valley people.
Worship of Mother Goddess: A large number
32. (c) The people of Indus Valley Civilization mainly of excavated terracotta figurines are those of a semi-
traded with the Mesopotamians. Dilmun and Makan nude figure which is identified with some female
were intermediate trading stations between Meluha energy or Shakti or Mother Goddess, who is the
and Mesopotamia. Meluha is the earliest name of source of all creation.
Indus area. Worship of Pashupati or Lord Shiva: The
Pashupati seal in which the three-faced male god is
33. (b) In Indus Valley Civilization, pulses were
shown seated in a yogic posture, surrounded by a
unknown. The chief food crops included wheat, rhino and a buffalo on the right, and an elephant and
barley, sesasum, mustard, peas, etc. The evidence a tiger on the left, make the historians conclude that
for rice has come from Lothal and Rangpur in the the people of those days worshipped Lord Shiva.
form of husks embedded in pottery. Cotton was Discovery of a large number of conical or cylindrical
another important crop. A piece of woven cloth has stones shows that the people worshipped lingam, the
symbol of Lord Shiva.
been found at Mohenjodaro. Apart from cereals, fish
Worship of Trees: The worship of trees was
and animal meat also formed a part of the Harappan widespread. The Pipal tree was considered most
diet. sacred.
34. (d) Quadrate type of seals was the most popular in Other Objects of Worship: People also
Harappan culture. worshipped animals, such as the bull, buffalo and
35. (c) Surkotada site contains horse remains dated tiger. Besides animals, these people also worshipped
the Sun, the Fire and the Water.
to 2000 BC, which is considered a significant
There was no evidence of the God Vishnu
observation with respect to Indus Valley Civilisation. worshipped by the people of Indus Valley
During 1974, Archaeological Survey of India Civilization.
undertook excavation in this site and J.P. Joshi and 41. (b) Chanhudaro was investigated in 1931 by the
A.K. Sharma reported findings of horse bones at all Indian archaeologist N. G. Majumdar and was
levels. excavated in 1935-36 by the British archaeologist
Ernest John Henry Mackay.
36. (a) The cotton piece was found in Mohenjodaro.
42. (b) In Indus Valley Civilization, a granary outside to
Traces of cotton fibres and textile fragments provide citadel was found at Mohenjodaro. Because farmers
evidences of production of cotton textiles from early outside the walls of Mohenjodaro usually had their
Harappan period. Cotton was a commodity the own granaries, some archaeologists think that grain
people of Mohenjodaro probably exported, perhaps stored within the citadel granary may have been
in exchange for minerals, tools or other goods. collected as taxes.
43. (d) The Indus Valley Civilization town Dholavira is
38. (b) Kalibangan – is an archaeological site where
divided into three parts. The citadel, middle town and
ploughed field, bones of camel, circular and the lower town were the three pre-existing planned
rectangular graves, distinctive fire (Vedic ) altars with geometrical divisions in Dholavira. The middle town
provision of ritual bathing have been found. had its own defense mechanism, planned streets,
39. (c) The site of Mehrgarh provides evidence for gateways, wells and roads. Most of the buildings
the earliest agricultural and pastoral communities in were built with stones.
44. (c) Indus Valley Civilization site Manda is situated
South Asia. The first inhabitants of Mehrgarh, dating
on the right bank of Chenab river in the foot hills
to around 6500 BC, were farmers who cultivated of Pir Panjal range, 28 km northwest of Jammu.
wheat and barley as their main grain crops and had Manda is the north site of Indus civilization. It was
herds of cattle, sheep and goats. discovered by J.P. Joshi in 1982.
A-8 || Indus Valley Civilization
45. (a) The archaeological evidences found from 59. (b) The evidence of two cemeteries has been found
Alamgirpur in Meerut district reflect the Harappan from Harappa. The strongest evidence for the burial
period. sites in Harappa are Cemetery R-37 and Cemetery
47. (c) At the time of excavation of Harappan site, H.
the Director General of Archaeological Survey of 60. (b) The Swastika is said to have originated in both
India was John Marshall from 1902-28. In 1921, the Indus River Valley Civilization and in some
he focused on the Indus Valley, which led to the ancient Mediterranean Civilizations. A tablet with
discovery of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, Swastika has been excavated at Mohenjodaro.
the ancient cities Harappa and Mohenjodaro. 61. (c) The earliest evidence of surgery was found from
48. (a) Harappan Civilization is the most suitable name Kalibangan. Archaeologists made the discovery that
for Indus Valley Civilization because Harappa lies in the people of Indus Valley Civilization, even from the
the centre of Indus Civilization. It was also an urban early Harappan periods, had knowledge of medicine
trade centre. and surgery.
49. (a) A clay model of plough has been found from 62. (c) The earliest evidence of earthquake was found
Banawali. It is an archaeological site belonging to from Kalibangan. B. B. Lal, former DG of ASI, said:
Indus Valley Civilization period in Fatehabad district “Kalibangan in Rajasthan has shown that there
of Haryana. Banawali is earlier called Vanavali, occurred an earthquake around 2600 BC, which
is situated on the left banks of dried up Saraswati brought to an end the Early Indus settlement at the
river. site.
50. (a) In the excavation of Indus Valley Civilization 63. (b) In Indus Valley Civilization, the three paired-
sites, the camel bones have been found at cemetery was found from excavation of Lothal.
Kalibangan. 64. (c) Hastinapur is not a site of Indus Valley
52. (d) Rakhigarhi was a large Harappan town Civilization. Hastinapur was the capital of the Kuru
known in 1963, when the area was first surveyed. dynasty of kings. All incidents in the epic Mahabharata
Archaeologists found it the biggest Harappan city, have taken place in the city of Hastinapur.
larger and more extensive. 65. (d) Most of the inscriptions are found on seals
53. (c) The evidence of beadmakers’ shops has mostly made out of stone. Some inscriptions are also
been found at Chanhudaro and Lothal. Gold and found on copper tablets, bronze implements and small
silver beads have also been found. Ivory carving objects made of terracotta, stone and faience.
and inlaying used in beads, bracelets and other 66. (a) A sculpture of a bronze chariot, 45 cm long,
decorations were also in practice. 16 cm wide, yoked to two oxen, driven by a man
55. (c) The square shape of the seal is the most common 16 cm high standing in it and three other bronze
form of Harappan seals, although there is great sculptures a rhinoceros, an elephant and a buffalo
variety in their size and shapes. were found at Daimabad in the Ahmednagar district
56. (c) Bull is not depicted on the Pashupati seal of of Maharashtra.
Mohenjodaro. The seal shows poor animals as an 67. (d) Archaeologist Sir John Marshall thought that
elephant, a tiger, a rhinoceros and a buffalo. the Indus Valley Civilization belonged to the period
57. (a) The most famous bronze ‘dancing girl’ figurine between 3250 BC and 2750 BC. It is the period
discovered at Mohenjodaro. It is a female figure, with when the Egyptians, Babylonian and Mesopotamian
right arm on the hip and left arm hanging in a dancing Civilizations flourished. From the objects discovered
pose. She is wearing a large number of bangles. It is at the cities of the Indus Valley Civilizations,
the first sculpture in dancing gesture discovered in historians have made a comparative study of the
the Indian subcontinent. contemporary civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt
58. (b) Lothal is one of the most prominent cities of and Babylonia. They came to the conclusion that the
the ancient Indus Valley Civilization located in the Indus Valley Civilization was at its height of glory
valley of Ghaggar-Harka river. Many Indus Valley during the period of the contemporary civilizations
(or Harappan) sites have been discovered along the of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Babylonia.
Ghaggar-Hakra beds.
History || A-9

69. (c) Dholavira had a series of water storing tanks good at that time. They were entitled equal honour
and step wells, and its water management system along with men in the society. The worship of mother
has been called ‘unique’. The unique feature is the goddess demonstrates that they were respected in the
sophisticated water conservation system of channels form of mother.
and reservoirs, the earliest found anywhere in the 75. (d) Definite reason to the decline of the Indus Valley
world and completely built of stone. Civilization is not known, as no reliable resource of
70. (a) The Indus Valley Civilization site Chanhudaro that period is available at present. Every conclusion
finds indicate the use of lipstick. regarding the decline is based upon speculations of
71. (b) An Indus site has been discovered at Alamgirpur, historians. It is commonly believed that ecological
27 km west of Meerut. Alamgirpur is located on change, earthquake, Aryan attack, etc. were the
the left bank of the Hindon river, a tributary of the causes of Harappan decline.
Yamuna. 76. (c) Kalibangan is distinguished by the world’s
72. (b) Surkotada was excavated in 1970-72 bringing to earliest attested ploughed field.
light a three-fold cultural sequence and the settlement 78. (b) The best-known site of the cultural remains
patterns of the Harappans. A fortified citadel with is Mehrgarh. Mehrgarh is a neolithic site seen as a
an impressive centrally placed gateway and well- precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization.
arranged houses with lanes have been exposed both
79. (d) The skeleton of Negrito was not found in any
in the citadel and residential complexes.
Harappan site. Negrito refers to several ethnic groups
73. (a) The Sar-i Sang mines in the region of
who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia.
Badakhshah in north east Afghanistan were probably
80. (c) Naushero gives the evidence of Sindoor in
the source for all Lapis-Lazuli used by the ancient
Harappan culture. The site of Naushero, located
people. So the people of Indus Valley Civilization
6 km away from Mehargarh had developed Kotdijian
period imported Lapis-Lazuli from Badakhshah
settlement. It was a smaller settlement but sharing
74. (b) The nature of Indus Valley Civilization was fully the developmental process towards maturity
mother base because condition of women was pretty of urbanization.
Vedic Period and
Religious Movements 2
Vedic Period 10. Who of the following was the God of morality
1. Vedic literature is also known as : during the Rigvedic times?
(a) Shruti (b) Smriti (a) Indra (b) Rudra
(c) Sanhita (d) Vedanga (c) Agni (d) Varuna
2. Who was the founder of Vedic culture? 11. The river Chenab was known during the Vedic
(a) Dravid (b) Arya period by the name :
(c) Harappan (d) None of these
(a) Askini (b) Parushni
3. The word ‘Aryan’ denotes :
(c) Shutudri (d) Vitasta
(a) Ethnic group (b) Nomadic people
(c) Speech group (d) Superior race 12. Which one of the following assemblies was also
4. The staple food of the Vedic Aryan was : called Narishta meaning a resolution that cannot
(a) Barley and rice be broken?
(b) Rice and pulse (a) Gana (b) Vidhata
(c) Vegetables and fruits (c) Sabha (d) Samiti
(d) Milk and its product 13. Which of the following does not come under
5. Who is the most important God in Rigaveda? Shruti literature?
(a) Agni (b) Indra (a) Brahmana (b) Vedanga
(c) Varun (d) Vishnu (c) Aranyaka (d) Upanishad
6. Who wrote a book ‘Return of the Aryans’ ?
14. The Vedic river Vitasta has been identified with :
(a) Bhagvan Das Gidvani
(a) Ravi (b) Jhelum
(b) L.D. Kalla
(c) Avinash Chandra Das (c) Chenab (d) Beas
(d) D.S. Trivedi 15. Which of the following Brahmana texts belongs
7. Which river has not been mentioned in Rigveda? to Atharvaveda?
(a) Sindhu (b) Saraswati (a) Shatpatha (b) Aitareya
(c) Narmada (d) Tapti (c) Gopatha (d) Panchavinsh
8. Which of the following is the major impact of 16. Who of the following led the confederacy of ten
Vedic culture on indian history? kings against Sudasa?
(a) Progress of philosophy (a) Vishwamitra (b) Bharadwaja
(b) Development of culture (c) Vashistha (d) Atri
(c) Rigidification of caste system 17. Dasarajana was :
(d) Perception of a new world
(a) ten incarnations of Vishnu
9. Which of the following Vedic deities is not
mentioned in the Boghazkoi inscription ? (b) a sacrifice to be performed by the king
(a) Indra (b) Agni (c) battle of ten kings
(c) Mitra (d) Varun (d) None of these
History || A-11

18. Which part of Rigveda gives an account of the 29. The word Gotra occurs for the first time in :
origin of the Universe? (a) Rigveda (b) Samveda
(a) Second Mandala (b) Fourth Mandala (c) Yajurveda (d) Atharveda
(c) Ninth Mandala (d) Tenth Mandala 30. The word Visamatta was used in the latter Vedic
19. The famous ‘Battle of Kings’ between Bharat and Age for :
the host of ten kings was fought near the river :
(a) The king (b) The priest
(a) Sindhu (b) Saraswati
(c) Parushni (d) Vitasta (c) The trader (d) The tax collector
20. Which one of the following Vedic Gods depicts 31. In the Vedic Period, which animal was known as
an association with the Sun? ‘Aghanya’?
(a) Ashvin (b) Pushan (a) Bull (b) Sheep
(c) Indra (d) Brihaspati
(c) Cow (d) Elephant
21. Which of the following is concerned with origin
32. Which of the following Samhitas of Yajurveda
of Indian medicine?
(a) Rigveda (b) Samveda contains only hymns and no prose?
(c) Yajurveda (d) Atharveda (a) Katha (b) Maitrayaviya
22. Which one of the following is described in (c) Taittriya (d) Vajasaneyi
Upanishad? 33. The game of ‘dice’ was part of the ritual of :
(a) Dharma (b) Yoga (a) Agnistoma (b) Aswamegha
(c) Philosophy (d) Law (c) Rajasuya (d) Vajapeya
23. Which of the following Purusarthas is not a part 34. The rivers Ganga and Yamuna are mentioned for
of Trivarga? the first time in :
(a) Artha (b) Dharma
(a) Rigveda
(c) Moksha (d) Kama
(b) Atharvaveda
24. Who of the following has opened that the original
homeland of the Aryan was Arctic region? (c) Satapath Brahmana
(a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak (d) Chhandogya upanishad
(b) Max Muller 35. The Gayatri mantra is dedicated to :
(c) Dayanand Saraswati (a) Indra (b) Aditi
(d) A.C. Das (c) Gayatri (d) Savitri
25. In Rigveda, maximum number of shlokas are 36. Who among the following was a Brahmavadini
written in the memory of : that composed some hymns of the Vedas?
(a) Indra (b) Brahma (a) Lopamudra (b) Gargi
(c) Vishnu (d) Shiva
(c) Leelavati (d) Savitri
26. How many times the word ‘Jana’ occur in the
37. The river most mentioned in Rigveda is :
(a) 75 times (b) 175 times (a) Sindhu (b) Sutudri
(c) 275 times (d) 375 times (c) Saraswati (d) Gandaki
27. Which of the following assemblies was normally 38. The famous dialogue between Nachiketa and
involve in the election of king? Yama is mentioned in the :
(a) Sabha (b) Samiti (a) Chhandogyopanishad
(c) Gana (d) Vidatha (b) Mundakopnishad
28. The expounder of Yoga philosophy was : (c) Kathopanishad
(a) Patanjali (b) Shankaracharya (d) Kenopanishad
(c) Jaimini (d) Gautam