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AMSY-6 Operation Manual Document version 04-2017
AMSY-6 Operation Manual Document version 04-2017

AMSY-6 Operation Manual

Document version 04-2017

AMSY-6 Operation Manual Document version 04-2017
AMSY-6 Operation Manual Document version 04-2017
Contact Address Vallen Systeme GmbH email: info@vallen.de Tel: +49 8178 9674-400 Schaeftlarner Weg 26a

Contact Address

Vallen Systeme GmbH

Tel:

+49 8178 9674-400

Schaeftlarner Weg 26a D-82057 Icking Germany

Fax:

+49 8178 9674-444

Comments and recommendations are appreciated and may be mailed to: sales@Vallen.de

Copyright © 2017, Vallen Systeme GmbH

All rights reserved.

Electronic versions of this document may be read online, downloaded for personal use, or referenced in another document as a URL to a Vallen website. No part of this specification may be published commercially in print or electronic form, edited, translated, or otherwise altered without the permission of Vallen.

Trademarks and Licenses

The hardware and/or software described herein are furnished under a license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license.

AMSY-5, AMSY-6, ASIP-2, VisualAE, VisualClass and VisualTR are trademarks of Vallen Systeme GmbH

Disclaimer

The material contained in this document is provided “as is” and is subject to being changed, without notice, in future editions. Further, to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, Vallen Systeme disclaims all warranties, either expressed or implied with regard to this specification and any information contained herein, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Vallen Systeme shall not be liable for errors or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, use, or performance of this document or any information contained herein.

Vallen Systeme shall not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential or incidental damage arising out of the use or inability to use of the AMSY-6 and the equipment delivered with it. Vallen Systeme reserves the right to charge for any efforts taken to remedy any problems for which we are not responsible.

Revision Record

Date

Changes

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Updated info, added global coordinate info, changes related to USB3.1

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Purpose of this Document This document: • Describes the operation of the AMSY-6 system •

Purpose of this Document

This document:

Describes the operation of the AMSY-6 system

Provides hints on how to perform AE-measurements with AMSY-6

Outlines the most important tools and procedures required for system maintenance and test

This document is one out of four documents describing the AMSY-6 system. Additional information can be found in:

AMSY-6 System Specification

AMSY-6 System Description

Vallen AE-Suite Software Manual

Contents

1 Introduction

 

8

2 Installing Vallen AE-Suite software

9

2.1

Installation requirements

9

2.2

User Account Control settings for Windows 7 and Windows VISTA

9

2.3

Obtaining the software

10

2.4

Pre installation

10

2.5

Software installation

11

2.6

Installation Troubleshooting

15

2.6.1 Installation process does not continue after internet activation

15

2.6.2 AMSY-6 hardware detection failed

15

2.6.3 Hardware initialization reports a firmware mismatch

15

2.7

Updating software

15

2.8

Upgrading software

16

3 Setting up measurement hardware

17

3.1

Position of mains switch

17

3.2

Chassis

setup

17

3.3

Multi chassis setup

17

3.4

Elements of

the chassis

18

3.4.1 Control panel elements

19

3.4.2 ASIP-2 front panel elements

23

3.4.3 Back panel elements

25

4 Extending hardware

28

4.1

Adding

ASIP-2

28

4.2

Adding

external parameter inputs

28

5 Mounting AE-Sensors

29

5.1

Basic information about AE-sensors

29

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  5.2 Sensor mounting   30 5.3 Mounting verification 30 6 Setting up preamplifiers 31
 

5.2

Sensor mounting

 

30

5.3

Mounting verification

30

6 Setting up preamplifiers

31

 

6.1

AEP3

Preamplifier

31

6.2

AEP4

Preamplifier

32

6.3

AEP5

Preamplifier

32

7 How to perform data acquisition

33

 

7.1

Data Stored in Primary Data Files

33

7.2

Signal Measurement

 

33

7.3

Getting started with Acquisition

34

7.4

Hardware detection

 

34

 

7.4.1 Very first connection of PC to chassis

35

7.4.2 No change in system configuration detected

35

7.4.3 System configuration change detected

36

7.4.4 Changing channel configuration

37

 

7.5

Defining ASIP-2 input devices

39

 

7.5.1 Channel configuration for individual chassis

40

7.5.2 Finishing hardware detection

41

 

7.6

Acquisition

Setup

 

41

7.7

Acquisition

File

42

7.8

Acquisition

Settings

42

 

7.8.1 General Settings

43

7.8.2 AE-Channels

44

7.8.3 Parametric Input Settings

47

 

7.9

Transient Data recording modes

48

 

7.9.1 Fixed page length recording

48

7.9.2 Duration adapted transient recording

49

7.9.3 Trigger groups and Trigger modes

50

 

7.10 Continuous Mode data acquisition

50

7.11 Data Recording

 

52

8 Introduction to data analysis

53

 

8.1 VisualAE Overview

 

53

 

8.1.1 Relation of VisualAE to Acquisition

55

8.1.2 Analysis using VisualAE

55

8.1.3 Data Processing

 

55

 

8.2 Event Builder

56

 

8.2.1 Assembling individual hits into an event data set (FHCDT condition)

57

8.2.2 Additional conditions for terminating an event data set assembling process (DT1X-Max and DTNX-Max)

59

8.2.3 Some practical remarks about FHCDT, DT1X-Max and DTNX-Max

59

8.2.4 Channel functions

 

60

 

8.3 Location Processor

60

8.4 Cluster Processor

61

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  8.5 Filter Processor   61 8.6 User Processor 61 8.7 Polygon Processor 62 8.8
 

8.5 Filter

Processor

 

61

8.6 User Processor

61

8.7 Polygon

Processor

62

8.8 Grading

Processor

62

8.9 ECP Embedded Code Processor

62

8.10 Alarm Processor

 

62

8.11 Visuals in VisualAE

62

9 How to setup visuals in VisualAE

64

 

9.1 Formatting Conventions

 

64

9.2 Diagram Example 1: Superposition of AE and Load

64

9.3 Diagram Example 2: Superposition of Transient and Background Activity

70

9.4 Diagram Example 3: Planar Location Diagrams with Clustering

73

9.5 Diagram Example 4: Correlation Diagrams

78

9.6 Diagram Example 5: cumulative amplitude diagrams

80

9.7 Diagram Example 6: 3D location plots

82

10 Examples of visuals in VisualAE Library

87

 

10.1 Examples of diagrams in Library

87

10.2 Applied AE-diagram examples from VisualAE

91

11 Page Analysis and Page Layouts in VisualAE

95

12 Example of location diagrams in case of a pressure vessel

101

 

12.1

Using spherical location algorithm to located AE-sources on end caps

101

12.1.1

Displaying results of location processor

102

12.2

Approximating end caps with planes for planar location algorithm

104

12.2.1 Orthographic projection of end cap onto a plane

104

12.2.2 Lambert projection of end cap onto a plane

106

12.3 Comparison of end cap location results

107

12.4 About the diagrams used in this example

108

12.4.1

Advanced application of background image

109

13 Results in VisualAE

 

111

 

13.1 Hit

Data

111

13.2 Hit Data Flags

 

113

13.3 Status Data

115

13.4 Parametric Data

115

13.5 Location Results

116

13.6 Grading Processor Results

118

13.7 Administrative Results

 

118

13.8 TR-Feature Extractor Results

119

13.9 Classifier Results

 

120

14 Accessing and exporting measurement data

121

15 Reporting analysis results

 

123

 

15.1 Exporting Diagrams

123

15.2 Printing

123

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16 Alarm Manager 124   16.1 Evaluators 124 16.2 Actions 125 16.3 Signals 125 16.4

16 Alarm Manager

124

 

16.1 Evaluators

124

16.2 Actions

125

16.3 Signals

125

16.4 Interaction of Alarm system components

126

16.4.1 Interaction between Evaluators, Signals, Actions and user interaction

126

16.4.2 Log file

127

17 Introduction to VisualTR

128

 

17.1 Example: a closer look at thresholds

130

17.2 Tools of VisualTR

130

17.2.1 Filtering of Transient Recorder Data

130

17.2.2 FFT Averager

130

17.3

Reporting in VisualTR

131

18 Introduction to Vallen TR-Feature Extractor

132

 

18.1

FFT Feature

Extractor

133

19 Introduction to VisualClass

135

 

19.1

Inside

VisualClass

136

20 Guide to good AE-measurement practice

138

 

20.1

Step 1: Equipment verification

138

20.1.1 ASIP-2 channel - and chassis verification

138

20.1.2 Verification of sensitivity of sensors

138

20.1.3 Common Mode test for AE-sensors

138

20.2 Step 2: Mounting sensors and mounting verification

138

20.3 Step 3: Conducting a noise test

138

20.3.1 Noise – a definition

138

20.3.2 Goals of noise reduction

139

20.3.3 Noise effecting signals

139

20.3.4 AE-signal and event interference

139

20.3.5 Measuring noise

140

20.3.6 Strategy to reduce noise

140

20.3.7 Specific measures against noise

141

20.4 Step 4: 1 st reference measurement for stability of sensor coupling quality

144

20.5 Step 5: measuring speed of sound

145

20.6 Step 6: measuring attenuation

146

20.7 Step 7: conducting AE-test

146

20.8 Step 8: Post-test pulsing table for judging stability of sensor coupling quality

146

20.9 Step 9: verifying location results

146

21 Maintaining AMSY-6 hardware

147

 

21.1

System Verification

147

 

21.1.1

Requirements

147

 

21.2

Sensor Tester

148

22 AE-Accessories

149

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1 Introduction This operation manual is part of the AMSY-6 product. Please read it carefully

1

Introduction

This operation manual is part of the AMSY-6 product. Please read it carefully before putting an AMSY-6 into operation. Make sure that an operation manual is always accessible to operators throughout lifetime of the product.

Following symbols are used throughout the operation manual:

Note:Following symbols are used throughout the operation manual: Indicates a note or comment Literature: Indicates additional

Indicates a note or comment

Literature:the operation manual: Note: Indicates a note or comment Indicates additional literature references for further

Indicates additional literature references for further reading

Special Feature:additional literature references for further reading Indicates a unique feature of Vallen hard- or software

Indicates a unique feature of Vallen hard- or software

Following symbols can be found on the equipment

IEC 60417-5017

Protective ground

IEC 60415-5007

“ON” (power)

IEC 60415-5008

“OFF” (power)

ISO 7000-0434

General notice of danger. Please refer to operation manual

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2 Installing Vallen AE-Suite software This section describes the Vallen AE-Suite software installation. It starts

2 Installing Vallen AE-Suite software

This section describes the Vallen AE-Suite software installation. It starts with the installation requirements and how to obtain the Vallen AE-Suite software. Please read these parts carefully and compare the requirements with your PC system.

Section 2.5 describes step by step how to get the Vallen AE-Suite software up and running. The installation process is fully automated. In the unexpected case that you run into any problems follow the step-by-step instructions in this document.

2.1 Installation requirements

The Vallen AE-Suite software installation requires

AE-Suite software

a standard Windows PC. For detailed system requirements see the AMSY-6 System Specification

a valid KeyFile (please contact sales@vallen.de, if you need one)

administrative rights to your PC (if you do not have administrative rights you cannot install AE-suite software. Please contact your administrator if you do not have appropriate rights on your PC)

about 100 MB of free disk space for AE-Suite installation. We strongly recommend using NTFS file format for best data acquisition performance.

2.2 User Account Control settings for Windows 7 and Windows VISTA

Account Control settings for Windows 7 and Windows VISTA User Account Control (UAC) does not have

User Account Control (UAC) does not have to be disabled anymore when software version R2011.1115 or later is used.

Windows XP does not require these settings as UAC was not implemented in Windows XP.

UAC (user account control) has to be disabled for installation purposes and running the AE- suite software. In order to do so, follow these steps.

Windows VISTA

1. Launch MSCONFIG: StartRunMSCONFIG

2. Click on the Tools tab. Scroll down till you find "Disable UAC/User account control". Click on that line.

3. Press the Launch/Start button or Tools tab.

4. A CMD window will open. When the command has been executed, you can close the window.

5. Close MSCONFIG. You need to reboot the computer for changes to apply.

You can re-enable UAC by selecting the "Enable UAC" line and then clicking on the Launch button. However, enabled UAC will prevent execution of any AE-Suite software programs.

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Windows 7 1. Launch MSCONFIG: Start  Run  MSCONFIG 2. Click on the Tools

Windows 7

1. Launch MSCONFIG: StartRunMSCONFIG

2. Click on the Tools tab. Scroll down till you find “UAC/User account control settings". Click on that line.

3. Press the Launch/Start button.

4. A pop up menu opens where the UAC setting can be changed by use of a slide control. Disable UAC by setting it to the lowest value and confirm it with “OK”

5. Close MSCONFIG. You need to reboot the computer for changes to apply.

You can re-enable UAC by choosing a higher security setting. However, enabled UAC will prevent execution of any AE-Suite software program.

2.3 Obtaining the software

The AE-Suite software is shipped on CD-ROM with every AMSY-6. Latest updates can be downloaded from the Vallen Website at www.vallen.de/downloads . Authentication is requested before you can access the download area. Please ask Vallen support for valid authentication data.

To install the AE-Suite you will need a KeyFile. A KeyFile is shipped on a KeyCD with every instrument or can be requested from Vallen Systeme (sales@vallen.de).

Please request an evaluation KeyFile by email from sales@vallen.de for a time limited demo installation in order to test software modules.

2.4 Pre installation

1. Copy your KeyFile to HDD. We recommend copying it to your desktop. Further we recommend making a backup copy of KeyFile.

2. Remove older versions of the AE-Suite software. We strongly recommend a backup of files that you would like to keep (e.g. library files and vac files). Data files (primary, transient and transient feature data files) will not be deleted during uninstall process.

Internet download

If the AE-Suite software is obtained by downloading it from the internet:

1. Store and unzip the AESuiteYYYY.MMDD.zip (e.g. to your Windows desktop). Open the folder to which AE-Suite was unzipped and read the ReadMe.rtf first, please.

2. Start the installation by executing AESuite.msi.

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2.5 Software installation 1. Insert Vallen AE-Suite CD in your CD/DVD drive. A welcome dialog

2.5 Software installation

1. Insert Vallen AE-Suite CD in your CD/DVD drive. A welcome dialog should start automatically. If AutoRun is disabled on your PC, use your mouse or keyboard and select: Start Run and type or select D:\CDStart.exe, presuming your CD/DVD is drive

D.

Click

“Install software”

to

proceed with the installation

2. “Next”

Click

on

the

welcome

screen

3. read

Please

the

License

Agreement carefully.

Check

“I

accept

the

license

agreement”

Click “Next >”.

the license agreement” Click “Next >”. 04-2017 file: amsy-6_opman.docm 11 of 149 AMSY-6 Operation
the license agreement” Click “Next >”. 04-2017 file: amsy-6_opman.docm 11 of 149 AMSY-6 Operation
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4. The “Readme Information” provides latest information. Please read carefully and continue with “Next >”.

4. The “Readme Information” provides latest information. Please read carefully and continue with “Next >”.

5. A short description of the product activation process follows.

Continue with “Next >”.

6. Browse to the location of your KeyFile. Select the KeyFile and open it.

In the subsequent pop up menu

you can choose the activation

process.

Activating the software requires

a KeyCode, which has to be

requested. If the PC is connected to the internet, you can use “Internet Activation” to

get your KeyCode on the spot.

“Internet Activation” to get your KeyCode on the spot. Alternatively, choose “KeyCode Request Form” and fill
“Internet Activation” to get your KeyCode on the spot. Alternatively, choose “KeyCode Request Form” and fill
“Internet Activation” to get your KeyCode on the spot. Alternatively, choose “KeyCode Request Form” and fill

Alternatively, choose “KeyCode Request Form” and fill out the required fields.

Send the document by email or fax. We will respond with a KeyCode which you should paste into the lower field.

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7. When using “Internet Activation”, the KeyCode will be pasted automatically into the appropriate field.

7. When using “Internet Activation”, the KeyCode will be pasted automatically into the appropriate field. Once your KeyCode is entered the activation is completed. Click “OK” to continue.

The RequestCode -KeyCode combination is unique for every PC and installation and can be kept for future references.

If internet activation fails, use the KeyCode Request Form to get your KeyCode

8. Choose “Analysis only, no acquisition”, if the PC is used for analysis only, otherwise leave the default setting and click “Next >”.

9. Click “Next>” to start copying the selected files to HDD.

“Next>” to start copying the selected files to HDD. 04-2017 file: amsy-6_opman.docm 13 of 149 AMSY-6
“Next>” to start copying the selected files to HDD. 04-2017 file: amsy-6_opman.docm 13 of 149 AMSY-6
“Next>” to start copying the selected files to HDD. 04-2017 file: amsy-6_opman.docm 13 of 149 AMSY-6

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10. If you want to install the AE-Suite for all users who work with this

10. If you want to install the AE-Suite for all users who work with this PC, check “Anyone who uses this computer” (all user profiles, recommended) otherwise check “Only for me” (current user profile).

Continue with “Next >”.

11. After the installation of the software you will be prompted to finish the installation.

Continue with “Finish”

12. Finally hardware detection can be carried out. If you have not connected your AMSY-6 to the PC before, do so now and power it up.

The operating system will recognize a new USB hardware and prompt you to install the driver. Follow the instructions for automatic installation of the AMSY-6 driver. If the driver has been successfully installed, the operating system will recognize the USB device as AMSY-6.

operating system will recognize the USB device as AMSY-6. After successful installation of the driver you
operating system will recognize the USB device as AMSY-6. After successful installation of the driver you
operating system will recognize the USB device as AMSY-6. After successful installation of the driver you

After successful installation of the driver you can carry out the hardware detection by clicking “Next >”.

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13. After successful hardware detection the installation process is finished. The AMSY-6 hard- and software

13. After successful hardware detection the installation process is finished. The AMSY-6 hard- and software can be used.

is finished. The AMSY-6 hard- and software can be used. 2.6 Installation Troubleshooting 2.6.1 Installation process

2.6 Installation Troubleshooting

2.6.1 Installation process does not continue after internet activation

In some occasions the installation process will not continue after the internet activation step

(step number 7). Instead you are asked to activate the software by requesting the KeyCode again.

In such a case the UAC has not been properly disabled. UAC will prevent the installation routine

from continuing. Please follow the instructions in chapter 2.2 to disable UAC.

2.6.2 AMSY-6 hardware detection failed

The installation cannot be finished successfully since hardware detection cannot be carried out. Most likely the USB driver for the AMSY-6 was not properly installed.

Go to Windows Control Panel and execute the Device Manager. If the Device Manager reports an Unknown Device, the driver installation of AMSY-6 has failed. Right click on the unknown device to open the context sensitive menu and select to install the driver software from the local PC (not from CD or Internet).

After successful installation the AMSY-6 device is recognized by the operating system.

2.6.3 Hardware initialization reports a firmware mismatch

A firmware mismatch may be reported during hardware initialization, when a chassis or ASIP-2

firmware does not match the requirements of Acquisition program (e.g. a new software version

is installed).

Two FPGAs require dedicated firmware versions: chassis FPGA and ASIP-2 FPGA. Please start the “Firmware Updater” utility from Utilities tab of Vallen Control Panel and proceed accordingly to update either ASIP-2 firmware or chassis firmware.

2.7 Updating software

ASIP-2 firmware or chassis firmware. 2.7 Updating software In regular intervals new versions of the Vallen

In regular intervals new versions of the Vallen AE-Suite software are released. New versions contain fixes, performance improvements and new features.

It is recommended to always use the newest software version.

The newest software version can be obtained from the Vallen website. Please refer to chapter 2.3 for obtaining the software.

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The installation process will be identical to the one described in chapter 2.4 and 2.5.

The installation process will be identical to the one described in chapter 2.4 and 2.5.

2.8 Upgrading software

Since the Vallen AE-Suite software is completely modular, new modules can be added and activated any time. To add new modules you will need a new KeyFile which enables their usage. Please contact Vallen sales staff (sales@vallen.de) if you want to extend the functionality of your software.

In most cases you can activate the new modules

by just installing the new KeyFile.

A new KeyFile can be installed by use of the “Key

Setup” utility in the Utilities tab of the Vallen Control Panel.

Execute the Key Setup program and follow the instructions (steps 6 and 7 of chapter 2.5).

If you are adding VisualTR or VisualClass to your

KeyFile you will need to reinstall the AE-Suite software (as described in chapter 2.5).

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3 Setting up measurement hardware Parts of an AMSY-6 system are (i) up to eight

3 Setting up measurement hardware

Parts of an AMSY-6 system are (i) up to eight chassis holding (ii) ASIP-2 boards and (iii) AE- sensors, (iv) preamplifiers, (v) a PC and (vi) cables for connecting sensors and preamplifiers to the measurement system.

3.1 Position of mains switch

to the measurement system. 3.1 Position of mains switch 3.2 Chassis setup Mains switch of MB2-V1

3.2 Chassis setup

Mains switch of MB2-V1 chassis is located at the rear panel. It is part of power inlet module which also contains fuses and power connector.

Mains switch of MB6-V1 chassis is located at rear panel. Similar to MB2- V1 chassis it is part of power inlet.

Mains switch of MB19-V1 and EB21-V1 chassis is located at rear panel on extra module-panel called “SM” (Supply monitor).

With MB2-V1, MB6-V1, MB19-V1 and EB21-V1 cool air is drawn in through slits in the bottom plate and blown out through openings in the rear panel.

Care must be taken that the chassis is placed on a flat support and that no table cloth or loose pieces of paper hinders the flow of cool air into the bottom of the enclosure. The rear of the AMSY-6 should be clear of any obstacles.

The front feet shall be expanded for a better cooling performance.

3.3 Multi chassis setup

In a multi chassis setup, more than one chassis is used to form a larger AMSY-6 system. Reasons for using a multi chassis setup are:

Realizing a channel number, larger than which can be achieved with one chassis

Increase transient data transfer rate by using different USB Root Hubs of an acquisition PC or laptop. This strategy may be important also for small channel number AMSY-6 system in case of a streaming application.

An AMSY-6 multi chassis setup can contain up to eight chassis. The maximum AE-channel number that can be achieved is 254.

In a multi chassis setup each chassis must have a unique address (see section 3.4.3, Address Selector for more information).

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Each chassis has to be connected via USB to the same PC or laptop running

Each chassis has to be connected via USB to the same PC or laptop running the data acquisition program. A USB hub can be used if not enough connectors are available on the PC or laptop.

The chassis have to be daisy chained by the use of special sync-cables using connectors

labeled “Prev. Port”, “Next Port” (see section 3.4.3 for more information). This is necessary to get time synchronization across all channels in a multi chassis setup. Make sure that the chassis with lowest address is the first in chain, followed by the other chassis in ascending order

of their address.

The first chassis in the chain must be the one with the lowest address. It acts as “Master”, while all following chassis are considered to be “Slaves”. Externals connector and Alarm connector (see section 3.4.3 for more information on both connectors) will work in the “Master” chassis, only. Furthermore LEDs like “Run”, “Alarm”, “Warning”, “SP0” and “SP1” (see section 3.4.1) are functional only in a “Master” chassis.

Up to 16 parametric inputs can be used. Up to 8 inputs can be mounted in a “Master” or a “Slave” chassis.

3.4 Elements of the chassis

Chassis of an AMSY-6 system are available in different sizes: MB2-V1, MB6-V1 and MB19-V1 for a maximum of 4-, 12- and 38 AE channels. The capital letters MB indicate that it is a Master Box, a chassis which can be operated stand alone. Additionally there is an EB21-V1 chassis available for a maximum of 42 AE-channels. The EB indicates that it is an extension box, a chassis that can only be operated together with an MBx-V1.

a chassis that can only be operated together with an MBx-V1. Figure 1: MB2-V1-, MB6-V1- and

Figure 1: MB2-V1-, MB6-V1- and MB19-V1 chassis.

Every MBx-V1 comes with a Control Panel that holds parametric inputs and control elements.

The EB21-V1 does not have a Control Panel. Instead it can house two additional ASIP-2 boards

at the same size as an MB19-V1.

A chassis offers a defined environment for the ASIP-2 cards providing the appropriate power

and busses for data transfer. The number in the chassis designation indicates the maximum

number of ASIP-2 cards a chassis can house.

A MBx-V1 chassis has a control panel which holds the parametric input channels, record enable

switches and various LEDs indicating the runtime status.

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A chassis has to be connected to a PC on which the system front-end software

A chassis has to be connected to a PC on which the system front-end software runs. The system front-end software controls every aspect of data acquisition.

software controls every aspect of data acquisition. Figure 2: front of a MB6-V1 chassis and front

Figure 2: front of a MB6-V1 chassis and front panel elements.

Figure 2 shows the front panel elements of an MB6-V1 chassis. On the left hand side of the chassis resides the Control Panel (CP), containing 4 parametric input channels, record enable switches and LEDs. Next to Control Panel are ASIP-2 slots which can hold ASIP-2 signal processor boards. An ASIP-2 has two BNC connectors, one for each AE-channel, a switch for selecting one or both channels for audio output and 8 LEDs indicating the status of the ASIP-2. A speaker is either mounted at the front panel (MB6-V1) or at the rear panel (MB19-V1, EB21-

V1).

3.4.1 Control panel elements

rear panel (MB19-V1, EB21- V1). 3.4.1 Control panel elements 04-2017 Figure 3: Control Panel elements file:

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Figure 3: Control Panel elements

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On LED (green) In on state indicates that power is applied to the chassis and

On LED (green)

In on state indicates that power is applied to the chassis and it is switched on.

Alarm LED (red)

The Alarm LED of a master chassis can be set by the Alarm Manager via the acquisition program. It can be used to indicate potentially dangerous situations. If the Alarm LED is set to on, the according pin at the alarm connector is set to active.

The state of the Alarm LED can also be set by asserting ground to the ALARM signal at the Alarm Connector.

In a slave chassis this LED is always off, except the local ALARM signal is asserted.

Warning LED (yellow)

The Warning LED of a master chassis can be set by the Alarm Manager via the acquisition program. It can be used to indicate situations that require special attention. If the Warning LED is set to on, the according pin at the alarm connector is set to active.

The state of the Warning LED can also be set by asserting ground to the WARNING signal at the Alarm Connector.

In a slave chassis this LED is always off, except the local WARNING signal is asserted.

SP0, SP1 (yellow)

The SP0 and SP1 LED of a master chassis can be set by the Alarm Manager via acquisition program or by asserting ground to the SP0 signal at the Alarm Connector.

In a slave chassis this LED is always off, except the local SP0 signal is asserted.

SP1L, SP2L

These two LEDs are reserved for future usage.

Master (green)

The Master LED indicates the master chassis in a multiple chassis setup. The LED is off in all slave chassis during hardware detection.

LED is off in all slave chassis during hardware detection. Full (red) This LED is always

Full (red)

This LED is always off unless PC resources are running low or a process such as an updating or scanning anti-virus software locks down CPU. A blinking Full LED indicates that the chassis output buffer runs about 80% full (in this case the chassis enters long duration mode). This situation is indicated by the “E” hit flag. Once the buffer is emptied the Full LED will cease blinking.

Full LED is constantly on, if the output buffer gets an overflow (fatal, non-recoverable error).

This LED is controlled for each chassis individually.

Please “Pause” Acquisition to reset a “Full” LED that was permanently on.

USB (green)

When Acquisition is running, this LED is switched on whenever data is transferred over USB. If USB LED is off no USB data transfer happened for over 1s.

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This LED is controlled for each chassis individually. No Pol (red) This LED is always
This LED is controlled for each chassis individually. No Pol (red) This LED is always

This LED is controlled for each chassis individually.

No Pol (red)

This LED is always off. It will be on in similar cases as documented for Full LED. No Poll LED is switched on, if the chassis was not polled for data by the acquisition program for at least 5 seconds. Power down AMSY-6 and switch it on again to reset No Poll LED.

It is required to check and repair PC configuration, if this LED gets on.

This LED is controlled for each chassis individually.

Please “Pause” Acquisition or disable recording by use of AE enable/disable switch to reset “No Poll” LED if it was on.

If No Poll LED cannot be reset power down AMSY-6.

Long (yellow)

The LED is usually off. If on, the Long LED indicates that at least one channel in the chassis entered long duration mode.

An AE-channel enters long duration mode, if a channel’s buffer runs half full. With AMSY-6 this can only happen if hit rate exceeds 100 000 hits/s per chassis. When in the Long Duration Mode, the Duration Discrimination Time of the AE-channel is (temporarily) set to 98ms. This causes the hits currently processed in the channel to last until termination by the timeout feature (approx. 100ms after the start of the hit). This effectively reduces the maximum feature data set rate to 10 hits per second.

A low hit rate ensures that buffers can be emptied preventing loss of data.

During the Long Duration Mode, the “D-Flag” is set in the hit data sets, identifying data generated during Long Duration Mode. (Find in help text under “Hit Flags” more details about flags in hit data sets). Such data does not retain individual hit information; therefore it is unsuitable for calculation of location, for counting hits, and for processing distributions and correlations of the AE feature set (amplitude, risetime, duration, energy, counts). On the other hand, cumulative information about number of cascaded hits (CHIT, see section 0), counts (CCNT, see section 0) and energy (CENY, see section 0) is completely maintained during Long Mode. The Long LED goes off when the buffers in all channels have been emptied.

This LED is controlled for each chassis individually.

Pulsing (green)

The Pulsing LED indicates that a chassis is generating pulses. This LED is only active in the master chassis of a multiple chassis setup and indicates also pulsing slave chassis. A “C” hit- flag indicates a pulsing channel while a “c” hit-flag indicates a receiving channel.

In a slave chassis this LED is always off.

Run (green)

In

a master chassis this LED is on, if the acquisition program is in recording mode.

If

recording is disabled by hardware (AE Switch disabled or /DISABLE signal active) when

recording mode is started, this LED remains off, until recording is enabled by hardware. Then it stays on until acquisition is suspended.

While this LED is off, the time counter is not running, the parametric counter PCTA is frozen, and the parametric counter PCTD is cleared. No data sets are being generated when the Run LED is off.

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In a slave chassis this LED is always off. AE-Disable Switch This switch is located

In a slave chassis this LED is always off.

AE-Disable Switch

This switch is located to the left of the “AE disable” LED. Pushed to the right (towards the LED), the switch disables data acquisition (AE and TR).

It can be used to disable acquisition of data when, for example, work on the test object has to be carried out or when it is clear that by an external incident false data would be generated. Data acquisition is disabled as long as “AE disable” LED is blinking. Blinking shall draw operator’s attention not to forget the disable state of measurement hardware.

TR-Disable Switch

This switch is located left of the “TR disable” LED. Pushed to the right, it disables TR-data (waveform) acquisition only, but AE-data will still be recorded.

This can be used to reduce the amount of data stored to disk: e.g. enable TR recording only from time to time may provide useful information but reduces the data volume considerably.

AE Disabled LED (yellow)

The AE Disabled LED indicates that the generation and recording of new data (AE as well as TR) is disabled. Data recording is disabled and LED is on:

If acquisition is not started

If primary data file is full (acquisition terminated)

If AE-disable switch is in disable position (right position)

If an out-of-limit condition occurs at a parametric input channel selected to control recording.

If an external /Disable is applied to the Externals connector (AMSY-6 rear side)

It is blinking when the acquisition program is in recording mode and recording is disabled by AE switch (blinking has priority).

When the AE-disabled LED is on, the TR-disable LED is on too. TR-data cannot be recorded without AE-data.

External Disabled LED

The External Disabled LED indicates that data generation is disabled externally. If the “Ext dis” LED is on, the “AE disable” and “TR disable” LEDs will also be on.

TR Disabled LED

The TR Disabled LED indicates that transient recording is disabled. This LED is on if:

transient recording is disabled globally in the acquisition setup

TR disable switch is in disable position

AE-disable LED is on

It is blinking when the acquisition program is in recording mode and recording is disabled by AE or TR switch (blinking has priority, except TR data acquisition is not enabled).

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3.4.2 ASIP-2 front panel elements Figure 4: ASIP-2 front panel elements Audio Selection Switch Dipping

3.4.2 ASIP-2 front panel elements

3.4.2 ASIP-2 front panel elements Figure 4: ASIP-2 front panel elements Audio Selection Switch Dipping this

Figure 4: ASIP-2 front panel elements

Audio Selection Switch

Dipping this switch to the left selects the odd channel for “audibility”, dipping it again to the left, deselects the odd channel. Dipping to the right controls the even channel. “Audibility” means that the frequency filtered AE signal is passed to the central Audio Unit. The Audio Unit selects the maximum rectified signal level received from all “audio-selected” AE channels (ASIP-2 or ASIPP). By rectifying the AE signal, AE bursts produce a signal in the audible frequency range, which can be played back by the loudspeaker in the control panel.

Threshold LED

This green LED is on for at least 30 ms, when the respective channel detects a threshold crossing. The LED flashes yellow, if the AE signal - before digital filtering - exceeds 95% of the input range. This indicates that the preamplifier output is nearby or above the saturation point.

Selected LED

This green LED indicates when the channel is selected for audibility (see Audio Selection Switch). The LED flashes yellow, when this channel is in pulsing mode. In pulsing mode a pulse of programmable amplitude is passed through the ASIP-2 to the corresponding BNC connector. It can be passed through the preamplifier up to the sensor’s piezoelectric element in order to excite an acoustic event for a sensor coupling test.

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Open LED

This LED indicates if the DC current consumption at the BNC socket is less than 8-12mA. This indicates that no preamplifier is connected to the BNC-connector.

The Open LED makes it easy to find out to which channel a certain preamplifier is connected:

By removing the cable from the preamplifier, the corresponding Open LED turns on.

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The Open LED is also on when the channel is in AC mode, i.e. when

The Open LED is also on when the channel is in AC mode, i.e. when no DC voltage is supplied to the preamplifier.

i.e. when no DC voltage is supplied to the preamplifier. This LED blinks red, when the

This LED blinks red, when the DC-supply current exceeds about 95-105mA. This indicates either a defective preamplifier or a short cut on the cable to the preamplifier

DC OUT LED

This LED is green, when the channel is set (by software) to 50 Ohm input impedance with an 8- 28V DC supply for a preamplifier. This is called the DC-50 Ohm mode.

This LED is yellow, when the channel is set to 3 rd input mode with an 8-28V DC supply e.g. for a preamplifier. On default, 3 rd input mode means 200 Ohm. Note: The 200 Ohm resistor can be replaced by another resistor or by a constant current diode in order to use a preamplifier with ICP interface.

The DC OUT LED is OFF, when the channel is set to AC-mode. Then the connector does not deliver DC and the input impedance is 100kOhm. Paralleling up to 20 channels in AC mode to one in DC@50 Ohm mode does not cause a significant amplitude reduction.

BNC connector “odd channel No.” and “even channel No.”

The preamplifier output is to be connected to this socket over a BNC-BNC-cable. If a DC mode is selected by software, this connector delivers the supply voltage (e.g. 28 V DC ) to the preamplifier and receives the AE-signal from the preamplifier. In pulsing mode, it delivers the pulse and no DC-voltage.

When an ASIP-2 channel is sending pulses to a preamplifier, these are internally fed over a 36dB attenuator into the ASIP-2 channel and processed as a hit (to have an exact time stamp). That means the pulse at the BNC connector is approx. 63 times the pulse amplitude measured at the sending channel, multiplied by the gain factor of the preamplifier.

Example:

Measured 94dB => 50mV, preamp. gain 34dB => factor 50,

Pulse amplitude = 50mV * 63 * 50 = 157V

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3.4.3 Back panel elements Figure 5: back panel elements of UD2. Alarm connector The Alarm

3.4.3 Back panel elements

3.4.3 Back panel elements Figure 5: back panel elements of UD2. Alarm connector The Alarm connector

Figure 5: back panel elements of UD2.

Alarm connector

The Alarm connector provides access to 4 signals:

Warning

Alarm

SP 0 and SP1 (two spare signals) for future developments

The respective pins are driven low by AMSY-6 (usually by use of the Alarm Manager) if the Warning, Alarm, SP0 or SP1 LED is on. Hence the Alarm connector provides an interface for external applications to read out the status of the LEDs. If the pins are driven low externally, the according LED on the Control Panel will be switched on.

Externals Connector

The Externals Connector is a D-Sub connector which provides access to following functions

External record control: enables or disables data acquisition. Driving pin #8 low disables acquisition of AE- and TR-data.

Control of the digital parametric counter PCTD: by use of pins 11 to 14 the PCTD can be configured. Pin #11 is input for PCTD-Clock. Every rising and falling edge of digital signal increments/decrements counter. Up-counting is enabled if pin 12 is set high, down-counting if pin 12 is set low. PCTD is enabled if pin 13 is high, otherwise it is disabled. Pin 14 governs PCTD-reset: high or open resets counter, low enables storage of current counter value. PCTD can only be reset if PCTD is enabled (pin13 is high).

I²C interface (prepared for future functionality): I²C Bus can be extended through the Externals connector, so application or user specific external extension modules could be controlled by this bus. Since the I2C bus is controlled by the NIOS processor the development of such modules can only be performed by Vallen Systeme. Currently it is only in use for internal verification.

User defined DAC Output (prepared for future functionality)

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• External trigger input (prepared for future functionality) The Externals connector can be used in

External trigger input (prepared for future functionality)

The Externals connector can be used in a master chassis only. In a slave chassis the signals are undefined.

For detailed information see AMSY-6 System Specification.

USB port

The USB port is used for connection to a PC supporting USB 3.1 Gen 1. The 5V line on the USB cable is not used in AMSY-6, so no USB-power is required.

A special USB connector type was chosen that avoids unwanted cable separation by extra strong retention force.cable is not used in AMSY-6, so no USB-power is required. Audio output The audio jack

Audio output

The audio jack is a 3,5mm TRS type connector with both audio channels driven from the same mono signal. It can be used to connect either one passive 4 or 8 ohm speaker or two 8 ohm speakers in parallel.

It is not allowed to connect a TS type connector (mono), a headphone or an active speaker to this connector.4 or 8 ohm speaker or two 8 ohm speakers in parallel. If an external audio

If an external audio device is attached, internal speaker is disabled. Internally 8 ohm speakers are used, so parallel operation of one speaker at the rear and one speaker at the front is possible (e.g. in MB19-V1).

The signal on the audio jack is chassis specific and identical with the signal for the internal speaker.

Next / Prev. Port

In a multi chassis setup (see section 3.3) the participating chassis have to be connected in a daisy chain via the Next Port / Prev. Port connector for time synchronisation reasons. Master chassis must be the first of the chain.

Address selector

The rotary switch defines the address of the chassis, which can be any number between 1 and 9. In a multiple chassis setup (see section 3.3) each chassis must have a unique address. The chassis with the lowest address is automatically the master chassis of the setup. A chassis with address 0 or multiple coupled chassis with the same address are not allowed.

The Acquisition software automatically detects reports and rejects invalid address selection.

Pulse out

Each chassis has its own pulser module, generating pulses under control of software. Within each chassis, this pulse goes to all ASIP-2 and to this BNC connector.

The Pulse out connector should only be used for equipment testing purposes.this pulse goes to all ASIP-2 and to this BNC connector. The pulse at this connector

The pulse at this connector can have up to 450Vpp, with approximately 2 µs rise time. Connecting any other instrument (e.g. preamplifier without pulse-through function or an Ethernet network) to this connector might cause permanent damage to such instruments.should only be used for equipment testing purposes. 04-2017 file: amsy-6_opman.docm 26 of 149 AMSY-6 Operation

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Ground Connector (element of power supply) This connector can be used to ground AMSY-6 if

Ground Connector (element of power supply)

This connector can be used to ground AMSY-6 if proper grounding cannot be provided via the power outlet. Use only this connector to ground the AMSY-6. It can also be used to ground a conductive but floating test object.

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4 Extending hardware AMSY-6 hardware was designed under the aspect of modularity. You can add

4 Extending hardware

AMSY-6 hardware was designed under the aspect of modularity. You can add new ASIP-2 boards to free slots of your chassis any time as long as it is disconnected from power. You can extend the chassis with up to 8 parametric inputs. Even multiple chassis can be interconnected

to form one large measurement system. Following sections briefly describe the possibilities of

extending measurement hardware.

4.1 Adding ASIP-2

The AMSY-6 is completely modular. ASIP-2 boards can be added when the chassis has free slots left. ASIP-2/S and ASIP-2/A can be operated in the same chassis. If both types of ASIP-2 boards are enabled in an AMSY-6, the 20MHz and 40MHz AE-sample rate for feature extraction cannot be used (feature of ASIP-2/A).

Please refer to the Service Manual for information on how to mount or unmount ASIP-2 boards.

4.2 Adding external parameter inputs

A chassis, except for the MB2-V1, can hold up to 8 parametric inputs. Additional inputs can be

added until maximum possible input number is reached. An MB2-V1 can hold 4 parametric inputs only.

A MB6-V1 chassis can be equipped with up to 8 parametric inputs without losing ASIP-2 slots. A

MB19-V1 chassis with 8 parametric inputs can hold a maximum of 17 ASIP-2 boards, only (two less than an MB19-V1 with 4 parametric inputs).

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5 Mounting AE-Sensors AE-sensors are the most important part in the measurement chain. Only signals

5 Mounting AE-Sensors

AE-sensors are the most important part in the measurement chain. Only signals picked up by AE-sensors are available in data analysis. An unsuitable AE-sensor may not detect all relevant elastic waves from AE-sources.

5.1 Basic information about AE-sensors

AE-sensors transform surface displacement into an electrical signal, which, after amplification, can be processed by an ASIP-2.

Most AE-sensors rely on the piezo effect to transform a surface motion or displacement into an electrical signal. A piezo sensor has the advantage that it is very sensitive and does not saturate.

All Vallen AE-sensors are supported by an AMSY-6 (see separate document Acoustic Emission Sensors). Additionally a wide range of other AE-sensors are supported as well (for correct setup of measurement equipment see section 7).

An AE-sensor will usually need a preamplifier before a sensor signal can be processed by an ASIP-2. A preamplifier can be integrated in a sensor or standalone. Therefore two types of AE- sensors are available: AE-sensor with integral preamplifier and AE-sensors without one.

AE-sensors without integral preamplifier are usually smaller in size but need to be connected by use of a sensor cable (SEC) to an external preamplifier. The SEC has to be thin and short in order to minimize transmission losses of the sensor signal. This makes it prone to damage. However standalone preamplifiers are a flexible solution since they can be used with various different AE-sensors.

AE-sensors with integral preamplifier are usually larger than their counterpart without integral preamplifier. Nevertheless they are a compact and easy to handle solution. They do not require extra SEC and external preamplifier. AE-sensors with integral preamplifier can be connected to an ASIP-2 using a strong BNC cable (RG58C/U).

AE-sensors are characterized by their frequency response, i.e. the sensitivity as a function of frequency. Acoustic Emission basically distinguishes three frequency domains:

Low frequency regime from approximately 20kHz to 100kHz. A low frequency regime is utilized by measurements where the burst of an acoustic emission has to propagate a large distance before it can be picked up by an AE-sensor (e.g.: detecting corrosion and leakage in flat bottom storage tanks, monitoring concrete girders, etc.)

Standard frequency regime from 100kHz to 300kHz. This frequency domain is used predominately for integrity tests (e.g. pressure vessel testing). The most popular AE-sensor is the VS150-RIC, a sensor with integral preamplifier, a frequency response in the range from 90kHz to 400kHz and a peak response (resonance frequency) at approximately

150kHz.

High frequency regime: any frequencies above 300kHz. Measurements utilize the high frequency domain in very noise environment. By design, AE-sensors for high frequency regime are very small. Hence, applications where small AE-sensors are a must utilize the high frequency regime as well.

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5.2 Sensor mounting An AE-sensor needs to be mounted firmly onto the test object. Vallen

5.2 Sensor mounting

An AE-sensor needs to be mounted firmly onto the test object. Vallen Systeme offers magnetic lock downs (see the separate document Acoustic Emission Accessories for more information) for this task. However, and in case of non-ferromagnetic surfaces, any other method is suitable for mounting sensor onto the test object that provide for a

Minimum contact force of 10N

Constant contact pressure throughout the test (no aging effect or effect from changing environmental conditions)

A coupling agent should be used as interface layer between test object surface and sensor. The coupling agent reduces the transmission losses of acoustic energy. Coupling agents are usually some sort of grease. Care has to be taken that the coupling agent is stable throughout the test.

5.3 Mounting verification

Once the sensors are mounted onto the test object, the quality of acoustic coupling to the test object has to be checked. This check is one of the keys to good data acquisition. AE-sensor mounting is usually verified by Hsu Nielsen sources. A Hsu-Nielsen source is a pencil lead break of a 0.5mm 2H lead at a 30° angle to the surface (see separate document Acoustic Emission Accessories for more information about Hsu Nielsen source). AE-sensor mounting is considered good, if the responses of all AE-sensors to Hsu Nielsen sources differ less than 3dB. For further details see section 20.2.

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6 Setting up preamplifiers Preamplifiers are used to amplify and transform the high impedance signal

6 Setting up preamplifiers

Preamplifiers are used to amplify and transform the high impedance signal of an AE-sensor to a low impedance signal suitable for transmission over long distances with optimum signal-to-noise ratio. Transmission distance can be several 100m.

A preamplifier is connected to an ASIP-2 board of a chassis by a single coaxial cable over

which preamplifier supply (28V DC ), amplified AE signal, gain control information and test pulses

are transmitted.

In low-noise applications, the very first amplification stage of a measurement chain determines

the quality (signal to noise ratio) of the complete measurement chain. Subsequent stages of the measurement chain amplify not only the desired signal, but also noise from the first amplification stage. Best signal-to-noise ratio is achieved with a high gain of the very first amplification stage.

On the other hand, when high input voltages are expected, a high gain of the first stage would saturate the measurement chain, hence the gain of the first stage must be lowered for applications where strong signals are expected.

AE applications are so diverse that a fixed gain of the very first stage of the measurement chain might not be the optimum for all applications.

Vallen Systeme offers three preamplifier models: AEP3, AEP4 and preamplifiers built into a sensor case. All three models are available with various gain settings.

Pulse-Through

A chassis is able to generate an electrical pulse. Such a pulse can be used to excite the piezo

element in the sensor which will induce a surface displacement leading to excitation of a surface

wave. For an electrical pulse to reach the AE-sensor it has to by-pass the ASIP-2 and preamplifier. Pulse-through describes the capability of a preamplifier to connect-through an electrical pulse to an AE-sensor.

Automatic Sensor Test (AST)

This feature does not use a central pulsing module to generate an electrical pulse. Instead a pulse is generated within a preamplifier under control of an ASIP-2. Vallen pre-amplifiers supporting this function are in preparation.

6.1 AEP3 Preamplifier

The AEP3 is a programmable gain preamplifier with single-ended and differential inputs and pulse through capability. It has four external elements:

“OUTPUT (+28V DC INPUT)" BNC connector: This connector is to be connected to the BNC connector “DC” at the AMS3, AMSY4, AMSY-5 or AMSY-6 over a BNC-to-BNC cable.

Single ended input connector (BNC): A single-ended (also called coaxial) sensor can be connected to this socket.

Differential input connector (BNO): A differential sensor can be connected to this 2-pole BNC connector (also called BNO connector). A single ended AE sensor with BNC connector does not fit onto this socket.

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• “INPUT” switch: This switch selects whether signals from the single-ended or from the differential-ended
• “INPUT” switch: This switch selects whether signals from the single-ended or from the differential-ended

“INPUT” switch: This switch selects whether signals from the single-ended or from the differential-ended connector are amplified by the preamplifier. This switch should be set towards the used sensor connector.

Internally AEP3 offers filter modules with sharp band pass filter characteristic as plug-ins. A frequency range according to an application can be selected.

If the switch is set towards an empty connector, no AE signal can be amplified and sent to the ASIP-2. With an empty input, the preamplifier output shows usually a higher noise

More information can be found in the separate document “Acoustic Emission Preamplifiers”

6.2 AEP4 Preamplifier

The model AEP4 preamplifier is more compact and has a slightly better signal to noise ratio than the model AEP3. An AEP4 supports pulse through but does not offer differential input, or sharp filters, or programmable gain. AEP4 preamplifier is available in following configurations:

The model AEP4-IS integrates a sensor of model VSxxx-H or –M plus magnet holder. The gain must be specified at order time to either 34dB or 40dB and cannot be changed later.

The model AEP4H-ISTB houses a VS30-V sensor plus magnet holder and has 46dB gain. It is optimized for tank floor testing purposes.

6.3 AEP5 Preamplifier

The model AEP5 preamplifier is more compact and has a slightly better signal to noise ratio than the model AEP3. An AEP5 supports pulse through but does not offer differential input, or sharp filters, or programmable gain.

An AEP5 offers a combined 28V DC-input/signal-output BNC connector and a second BNC connector for single ended sensors. Gain can be set by a switch to either 34dB or 40dB.

Derivative models of AEP5 is the AEP5H, which has a high pass cut-off frequency of 20 kHz (instead of 2.5 kHz)

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7 How to perform data acquisition AE Measurements are all taken from a one-dimensional time

7 How to perform data acquisition

AE Measurements are all taken from a one-dimensional time stream of digitized amplitudes in µV, referenced to preamplifier input at each point in time in specified sampling steps (100ns, 50ns or 25ns, the latter two sampling intervals are only available with ASIP-2/A). Units for AE measurements (and simple derivations of AE measurements) are voltage, time or combinations of voltage and time. Measurements can be interpreted to obtain other results, for instance the position of individual channels in combination with measured arrival time differences between sensors can be used to perform location analysis work.

Acquisition program writes measurement data to two separate files:

Primary data file: contains the AE-feature data in a free file format

Transient data-file: contains the transient data in a free file format

7.1 Data Stored in Primary Data Files

Primary data files store characteristics from individual signals as processed by ASIP-2 boards. For each signal exceeding detection threshold a data set is stored. A data set contains characteristic attributes such as AE-channel number (CHAN) and a globally synchronized timestamp for each channel to the sampling interval time resolution (time components DAY=day of month, HH:MM:SS and MS.xxxx) for the first threshold crossing.

7.2 Signal Measurement

AE signals have been traditionally reduced to 5 main attributes which are commonly called the AE parameter set. These parameters are counts, (peak) amplitude, energy, rise time, and duration. As an example, from the transient signal at the right, the parameters measured are listed below.

at the right, the parameters measured are listed below. CHAN DAY HH:MM:SS MS.xxxx CNTS A ALIN

CHAN

DAY HH:MM:SS MS.xxxx CNTS

A

ALIN

E

R

D

 

[dB]

[µV]

[eu]

[µs]

[µs]

11

19

19:30:04 554.6679

7

53.2

456

96E-1 9.6

17.0

Meaning of the variables in the above snippet is as follows:

Column

Parameter

Description

CNTS

Counts

Number of positive threshold crossings (only upwards)

A

Amplitude in dB AE

dB AE = 20 Log (V sensor /1 µV)

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ALIN Amplitude in µV V s e n s o r = sensor output voltage

ALIN

Amplitude in µV

V sensor = sensor output voltage

E

Energy in energy units (eu)

1 eu= 10 -18 Ws => 10 -14 V 2 s (True Energy)

1 eu= 1 nVs (Signal Strength Mode)

R

Risetime

1 st threshold crossing to peak

D

Duration

first to last threshold crossing

Since the generation of AE events are asynchronous (stochastic), the AE events do not always readily separate from one another, especially at high AE event rates. The system requires directives to detect (the threshold = voltage level to trigger a hit; see section 7.8.2) and separate (duration discrimination time and the rearm time; see section 7.8.2) discrete AE bursts.

Two types of measurements are done which do not rely on the separation of individual hits:

Status data e.g. root mean square status (RMSS). RMS is acquired for each channel for time intervals of specified length. It averages just noise excluding hits.

Parametric data: parametric data is acquired at certain time intervals (interval setting:

please refer to the online help file) independent of hits. Additionally parametric data sets are stored in between the interval setting if hits occur.

7.3 Getting started with Acquisition

The Acquisition program manages acquisition parameters, the activation or deactivation of data acquisition, the use of pulsing modes, the insertion of labels into primary data files, data storage to hard disk, and the link of acquired data to on-line analysis programs like VisualAE.

The correct setup of the data acquisition requires a procedure which is divided into four steps:

1)

Detecting the hardware and defining the input devices (see section 7.4 and 7.5)

2)

Specifying the name of the data file (see section 7.7)

3)

Setting up the acquisition parameters (see section 7.8)

4)

Switching into record control mode (see section 7.9)

The subsequent and final step is starting the data recording (see section 7.9)

7.4 Hardware detection

Acquisition software requires a proper mapping of logical channel numbers to physical AE processors. The logical channel numbers are user defined and will be used in the analysis programs to identify the AE-channel. The physical AE processor constitutes a channel of an

ASIP-2.

When the program Acquisition is launched, it first analyses the chassis configuration connected to the PC and compares it with the previously stored hardware configuration file. The result of the hardware detection can be one of the following:

No stored hardware configuration found because the chassis is connected the very first to the PC or because the configuration file has been deleted (see section 7.4.1).

No change in hardware configuration detected (see section 7.4.2).

Change in hardware configuration detected (see section 7.4.3).

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7.4.1 Very first connection of PC to chassis In this case, Acquisition can initiate a

7.4.1 Very first connection of PC to chassis

In this case, Acquisition can initiate a proper channel mapping but cannot find any assignment of input devices to AE signal processors. As a result the window on the right appears and must be confirmed by a click on “OK“. This opens the “Hardware Detection Results & Channel Configuration“ menu where the column “Input Devices“ is colored in red.

menu where the column “Input Devices“ is colored in red. Figure 6: hardware detection tab in
menu where the column “Input Devices“ is colored in red. Figure 6: hardware detection tab in

Figure 6: hardware detection tab in Edit Mode after very first connection of a chassis to a PC

For a proper initiation and in order to continue with the acquisition setup, an input device per channel has to be defined. Please see or continue to section 7.4.4 for more information.

7.4.2 No change in system configuration detected

If no changes to the hardware have been made, starting Acquisition program redirects directly to Vallen Acquisition panel (see section 7.5.2). The Hardware Detection Results & Channel Configuration menu can be opened if “Step 1” (see section 7.6) is selected.

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Figure 7: example of hardware detection result tab when no changes are detected Status column
Figure 7: example of hardware detection result tab when no changes are detected Status column

Figure 7: example of hardware detection result tab when no changes are detected

Status column (last column in menu shown in figure 7) shows “no change“. Channel mapping is done properly and an input device is specified for each channel.

7.4.3 System configuration change detected

Changes will be detected if features in hardware or software configuration are added or removed. If for example two systems are combined to form one large system with many AE channels, the user has to specify a meaningful channel mapping, i.e. a unique logical channel number is assigned to each hardware channel.

When channels were added or removed, the software always tries to keep the channel mapping as specified in the hardware configuration file and adds new channel numbers when it detects additional channels. If the proposed channel mapping is confusing or not as intended, click on “More…/default mapping” to initiate a default channel mapping.

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Figure 8: example of the hardware detection result when two channels have been removed. 7.4.4
Figure 8: example of the hardware detection result when two channels have been removed. 7.4.4

Figure 8: example of the hardware detection result when two channels have been removed.

7.4.4 Changing channel configuration

A channel configuration can only be changed in Edit Mode (click on Edit Mode button to enter the Edit Mode). Edit Mode allows changing:

Logical channel number assignment

Input device

Pulser function, if selected input device supports it

DC supply voltage, in case of ASIP-2/A for input devices +8-28V@50R and +8-28V@200R

Commentary fields “Preamp. ID” and “Sensor ID”

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Figure 9: example of the Hardware Detection Results & Channel Configuration menu in Edit Mode
Figure 9: example of the Hardware Detection Results & Channel Configuration menu in Edit Mode

Figure 9: example of the Hardware Detection Results & Channel Configuration menu in Edit Mode

Chan.

A graphical symbol in the “Chan.” column identifies the channel’s status. In the cell right to the

symbol a logical channel number can be specified.

HW

Values in cells of this column indicate the hardware address of a channel in format xx.yy.z.

xx

indicates number of chassis as set by address selector switch at rear side of a chassis.

yy

indicates the address of an ASIP-2 board.

z indicates one of the two channels of an ASIP-2 board. z can be “a” or “b”.

Input device

For more information see section 7.5.

Pulser func.

The pulser function can be set to “None”, “Pulse-through” or “AST” (automatic sensor test). A “None” setting prohibits that a pulse is connected through to the preamplifier/sensor of the channel. Such a setting is useful in case preamplifiers are used that do not support pulsing function.

If an input device is selected that does not support “Pulse-through” or “AST” no changes can be made.

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DC The “DC” column shows the preamplifier supply voltage that will be initiated for the

DC

The “DC” column shows the preamplifier supply voltage that will be initiated for the channel. The

DC

setting can only be changed for input devices that the ASIP-2/A offers (for more information

see

section ).

All Vallen preamplifiers use 28V. However, different brand preamplifiers may require less supply voltage.

Preamp. ID and Sensor ID

Fields in this column are purely commentary fields. They have no effect on the acquisition. They can be used to keep track of the preamplifiers and sensors used during a test.

Whenever changes were made by the user in the configuration menu the hardware detection is repeated.

7.5 Defining ASIP-2 input devices

The Acquisition needs to be told what kind of preamplifier or sensor with integral preamplifier is connected to the ASIP-2 AE-channel. Based on the type of preamplifier or sensor with integral preamplifier it initiates the correct supply voltage, input impedance, gain setting and pulser function.

An

input device simplifies selection of a correct configuration for an AE-channel.

For

each Vallen preamplifier and sensor with integral preamplifier a dedicated input device

sensor with integral preamplifier a dedicated input device 04-2017 setting exists. Additionally 5 more generic input

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setting exists. Additionally 5 more generic input devices exist:

AC Input@100K (0dB/34dB): no DC voltage is supplied and the channel’s input impedance is set to 100kOhm. This channel configuration should be used if the channel is operated in parallel to another one.

+28V@50Ohm (34dB/40dB): 28V supply is provided; input impedance is set to 50Ohm. “Pulse-through” is disabled (“None”).

+8-28V@50Ohm: a variable supply voltage can be initiated. The input impedance is set to 50Ohm. This input device is only available with ASIP-2/A

+8-28V@200Ohm: a variable supply voltage can be initiated. The input impedance is set to 200Ohm. This input device is only available with ASIP-2/A

Input device settings and channel mapping is stored in a file called y5detect.vhw (stored to install root path/bin/). By deleting this file an initiation is forced at next start up leading to input device definition as described in section 7.4.1.

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Figure 10: example of selection of input devices for ASIP-2/A signal processor Clicking on a
Figure 10: example of selection of input devices for ASIP-2/A signal processor Clicking on a

Figure 10: example of selection of input devices for ASIP-2/A signal processor

Clicking on a cell in the column “Input Device” will activate the cell (see the “…” symbol). A list of input devices expands if the “…” symbol is clicked. An appropriate input device has to be selected out of the offered selection. For copying the same input device to the next channel, the user only needs to enter <+> into the target cell. By keeping the <+>-key pressed, all channels of same signal processor model get the same input device assigned quickly and conveniently.

If a preamplifier is not listed, one of the generic devices, like “28V@50Ohm” may be selected as input device. This results in a 28V DC supply at the BNC connector and input impedance of 50Ohm The assumed gain of an input devices is shown in parenthesis and can be modified in the AE channel setup dialog under “calculated gain” (see section 7.8.2).

For connecting devices that do not allow a DC voltage on the signal line, the generic device “AC-input@100K” can be selected. This is also the right selection for a signal processor that is paralleled to one that supplies a preamplifier. Any number of signal processors with “AC- input@100K” can be paralleled without disturbing the accuracy.

Choose “AC-input@100K” as input device for channels to which neither a preamplifier nor a sensor with integral preamplifier is connected. In this case no DC voltage is applied to the BNC connector. The input impedance is 100kOhm.

When the system configuration is properly initiated and displayed, the user may click on “Confirm” storing the configuration to a file.

7.5.1 Channel configuration for individual chassis

Many users own multiple systems, and individual staff members own their individual acquisition PC, so they move their PC from one system to another one, as the need arises.

In such cases it is convenient storing the hardware configuration of each chassis locally on his laptop. This can be done by use of the “Export configuration…“ function which can be found by clicking the “More…“ button. Specify a file name which identifies the chassis to which the

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configuration file applies (e.g. the Id-number of the chassis). The hardware configuration can be imported

configuration file applies (e.g. the Id-number of the chassis). The hardware configuration can be imported by use of the “Import configuration…” function.

by use of the “Import configuration…” function. Figure 11: configuration files can be imported via

Figure 11: configuration files can be imported via “More…” button and selecting “Import configuration…”

7.5.2 Finishing hardware detection

Once the hardware settings are initiated in a correct manner the settings need to be confirmed. By doing so the hardware configuration is stored to a file and used by default when the Acquisition is launched the next time. After confirming the settings the View Mode window opens and shows the current hardware configuration.

7.6 Acquisition Setup

Finishing hardware detection will open the Acquisition Setup screen. An operator can repeat hardware detection by clicking “Step 1” e.g. for changing channel mapping. An operator may continue by clicking “Step 2” and specifying an acquisition file (see chapter 7.7).

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7.7 Acquisition File Selecting “Step 2: File: setup file can be created or an already

7.7 Acquisition File

Selecting “Step 2: File:

setup file can be created or an already existing file can be selected. In the latter case the stored

acquisition parameters will be used and acquired data will be appended to already existing data files. Acquisition setup files are identified by .vac file extension.

The filename of a newly created acquisition setup file will also be used for all associated data files such as:

Primary data file (with extension .pridb)

Transient recorder data files (with extension .tradb)

Transient recorder feature files (with extension .trfdb)

VisualAE set-up files (with extension .vae)

VisualTR set-up files (with extension .vtr)

If a new acquisition file is created, a pop up dialog will appear requesting to choose an acquisition parameter setup. Acquisition parameters can be imported from a library, another acquisition setup file or from factory defaults for certain applications.

In addition to files listed above Acquisition reports internal actions and results in the file c:\vallen\log\acqui32.log. Whenever Acquisition is closed, this file is copied to the path of the VAC file and renamed to VACFILENAME.Y5ACQ32.LOG.

” (see section 7.6) calls up a file selection menu. A new acquisition

Whenever you need support with data acquisition, please send us the log file that was acquired while the problem occurred.7.6) calls up a file selection menu. A new acquisition 7.8 Acquisition Settings "Step 3: Acquisition

7.8 Acquisition Settings

"Step 3: Acquisition Parameter Setup" calls a dialog for programming the AE hardware settings. There are seven different settings pages that can be accessed by tabs at the top of the dialog:

General Settings: The acquisition parameters of digital waveforms (sample rate, size of page) are set here. Faster sample rates and larger samples per waveform increase the resolution of the waveforms, while slower sample rate and less samples per waveform minimize the needed disk space and TR-data transfer. The AE sample rate (for feature extraction) is specified here as well (General AE-Settings group).

AE-Channels: The traditional settings (threshold, gain, hit-timing, etc and waveform settings (pre-trigger, trigger mode) as well as filter and notch filter (ASIP-2/A only) settings can be made here.

Parametric: Definition of parameters for the recording of external parametric inputs is made in this tab.

Data: specifies which attributes are stored to hard disk drive and are available for analysis.

Make sure to check that all the attributes you need for data analysis. Data attributes that are not selected are not available to analysis.stored to hard disk drive and are available for analysis. • Frontend Filter: The front end

Frontend Filter: The front end filter can be activated and defined here.

Pulser: It contains the settings for the pulser for the sensor coupling test

Special: This setting dialog is used for changing between true energy and signal strength and others.

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• Comment: It provides an area which allows test notes to be stored with the
• Comment: It provides an area which allows test notes to be stored with the

Comment: It provides an area which allows test notes to be stored with the AE data.

When a new acquisition file is created all acquisition settings are already initiated either be default settings coming from the factory default setup or by user settings coming from a library or any other vac-file.

Online help file provides detailed information about dialogs and settings.

7.8.1 General Settings

General Settings contains settings that are applied globally to all AE-channels. This is for one thing the AE-data sample rate (group AE data) and the way transient data is recorded (group TR data).

The AE-data sample rate for feature extraction can be set if the AMSY-6 contains ASIP-2/A only. Otherwise (in case of a mixed ASIP-2/S and ASIP-2/A system) the AE-sample rate for feature extraction is by default 10MHz. This corresponds to an arrival time resolution of 100ns. The highest possible arrival time resolution is 25ns.

Transient data can be recorded in two different modes: duration adapted- or fixed page length recording mode. Fixed page length recording mode was the standard recording mode in the past. Fixed page length recording means that a specified number of samples is recorded per trigger. Only the beginning of a burst signal is recorded if the page length is shorter than the duration of it. On the other hand, a lot of noise and even more hits can be recorded if the page length is longer than the burst signal duration. In the first case one loses information about the transient. In the second case a lot of storage space is wasted by unnecessary recording of noise and the assignment of TR data to hit data becomes more difficult.

In duration adapted recording mode a burst signal is recorded starting from a defined number samples before the first threshold crossing (“PreTrg”) up to a defined number of samples after the last threshold crossing (“PostDur”). “PreTrg” is the number of pre trigger samples and “PostDur” the number of post duration samples. As a result a TR-page always contains one full hit. A short hit will occupy only a small storage space, a long hit will occupy a larger storage space. In the end data is stored more efficient and the load on the bus system is less, improving the data transfer performance of an AMSY-6 system. Even when hits of short and long durations occur in a high rate per second, each hit gets its own TR-page and its own TR-Index.

In case of duration adapted recording mode a maximum number of samples per set has to be specified. The maximum number of samples is 2,097,152 samples. A TR-sample rate less than 40MHz has to be chosen in order to make sure that the longest possible hit with a duration of 104.8576ms can be recorded to a TR-page.

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Figure 12: example of General Settings tab, with duration adapted TR enabled. 7.8.2 AE-Channels AE-channel
Figure 12: example of General Settings tab, with duration adapted TR enabled. 7.8.2 AE-Channels AE-channel

Figure 12: example of General Settings tab, with duration adapted TR enabled.

7.8.2

AE-Channels

AE-channel setup is most important acquisition parameter setup. It defines start and end criteria of hits, the filter settings, transient record trigger settings and gain setting of each channel individually. Double clicking on a channel will open the channel’s edit menu.

Main settings for most tests are:

Threshold

Rearm Time (RAT)

Duration Discrimination Time (DDT)

Application specific filters

These settings are usually adjusted to achieve the following goals:

Optimize sensitivity range while limiting false-hits from noise (governed by threshold)

Limit overlap of hits (governed by DDT)

Prevent reflections from effecting AE parameters (governed by RAT)

Increase signal to noise ratio (governed by application specific filters)

Initial settings for threshold, rearm time and duration discrimination time may be:

Material

Threshold

Rearm Time

Duration Discrimination Time

[dB AE ]

[ms]

[ms]

Metals

30

- 40

1,0 – 4,0

0,40 – 2,00

FRP

40

- 55

0,3 – 2,0

0,15 – 1,00

The settings, especially the threshold setting, can and should be determined experimentally.

The start of a hit is easily determined by the first threshold crossing. In order to detect a first threshold crossing it must be made sure that a previous hit has ended. A hit has ended when Duration Discrimination time (DDT) given in µs expired without any threshold crossing. After

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expiration of DDT the remaining burst signal features are determined: burst signal energy, burst signal

expiration of DDT the remaining burst signal features are determined: burst signal energy, burst signal duration and ring down counts.

An additional time criterion, Rearm time (RAT), governs whether a hit belongs to a hit cascade. A hit cascade should group together all hits that arise out of reflections of the propagating elastic wave that originates from a source. A first hit of a hit cascade is detected when the time difference between last end of hit and first threshold crossing is larger than RAT.

end of hit and first threshold crossing is larger than RAT. Figure 13: AE-channels tab with

Figure 13: AE-channels tab with summary of settings. Double click on a channel will open its edit menu

settings. Double click on a channel will open its edit menu Factory defaults such as Metallic

Factory defaults such as Metallic Pressure Vessel, Composite Pressure Vessel, Tank Floor Standard or Fatigue Test contain default settings for these applications. Nevertheless acquisition parameters must be fine-tuned for a specific test object.

Threshold

Determining the correct threshold setting is often defined in the test instruction. If a test instruction is not required for an AE-measurement, a detection threshold can be determined by following procedure:

A good practice determining an acquisition threshold is by acquiring data with a low threshold for 5 to 10 minutes. A low threshold setting would be 22dB AE to 24dB AE . Environmental conditions during this “noise” test have to be similar compared to the actual test (e.g. pump is running, etc.). The peak noise amplitude within this period has to be determined. Adding 6dB to this peak noise amplitude will result in a good threshold setting.

Rearm time

Rearm time is governed by the lifetime of a burst emitted by an AE-source. Rearm time should be in the order of burst lifetime. Lifetime determines when maximum amplitude of a burst falls below detection threshold. Hence lifetime is a function of the strength of an AE-source and attenuation of the material.

Calculating lifetime needs knowledge of

attenuation per unit distance (α),

expected maximum strength of a source (peak amplitude, A pk ),

detection threshold ( A det ) and

speed of sound ( c ) in the material.

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Lifetime of a burst can be calculated as follows t life = A pk −

Lifetime of a burst can be calculated as follows

t life

=

A

pk

A

det

α

c

Usually an artificial source, such as the Hsu Nielsen source can be used in determining burst lifetime. Rearm time should be chosen in range of burst lifetime.

Duration Discrimination time

The Duration Discrimination time should be a little bit less than the time difference between end of a hit and begin of the first reflection. However, determining this time period may not be possible because in small structures AE-signals may overlap and a discrimination time cannot be determined.

Suggested settings for Duration Discrimination time can be found in table above or in factory default settings provided with Acquisition program.

Application specific filter

Application specific filters limit the frequency range of the AE-signal and hence increase the signal to noise ratio. Application specific filter should match the AE-sensor and the application. The ASIP-2/S offers 8 application specific filters while the ASIP-2/A offers over 500.

For the different frequency regimes see section 5.1 about AE-sensors.

frequency regimes see section 5.1 about AE-sensors. Figure 14: example of AE-Channel setting TR-Acquisition

Figure 14: example of AE-Channel setting

TR-Acquisition Parameters

For more information, please see chapter 7.9.

Input Settings

This section summarizes input device settings. It is important to check “Calc. gain” setting, which must correspond to gain of the input device plus additional gain of Range setting. Otherwise amplitudes will be over- or underestimated.

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Range setting is only available with ASIP-2/A and lets one specify an additional gain of

Range setting is only available with ASIP-2/A and lets one specify an additional gain of 0dB, 6dB or 12dB. Input range of ASIP-2 in general is ±5V (10V pp ). Range selection adapts input range of ASIP-2. It can be to 10V pp (factory default, corresponds to 0dB extra gain), 5V pp (corresponds to 6dB extra gain) or 2.5V pp (corresponds to 12dB extra gain). In case of weak AE- signals an extra gain may be necessary to utilize the full bandwidth of ASIP-2 input range.

Digital Filter Settings

This section specifies application specific band pass filter settings. All filters are implemented digitally and can be chosen from a filter matrix.

Notch Filter Stages

A notch filter can be defined which rejects up to 4 frequencies. Each stage resembles a notch filter of 2 nd order. A notch filter is useful if one wants to reject a interfering ultra sound frequency as emitted by liquid fill-level meters.

7.8.3 Parametric Input Settings

Settings for parametric channels are governed on tab called “Parametric”.

channels are governed on tab called “Parametric”. Figure 15: example of AE-Channel setting Parametric Timing

Figure 15: example of AE-Channel setting

Parametric Timing

Interval specifies the time interval between stored parametric data sets during time periods in

which no hits are detected. The data sets generated in this time interval (0.2ms

called time driven parametric data. Parametric data sets are stored more often while hits are detected. (See “clock”). These data sets are called hit driven parametric data.

Clock defines the parametric sampling interval (0,2 to 10ms). Clock values less than 1ms should be avoided for large channel applications. Otherwise the bus gets overloaded with parametric data.

600s) are

PCTA-Trigger (PA0)

Level and Hysteresis settings are used for cycle counting. PCTA is a counter that an increase by one every time the voltage at the parametric input PA0 has passed through the hysteresis band from Level + Hysteresis to Level.

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PCTD is a digital counter accessible via specific pins in the "Externals" connector on the

PCTD is a digital counter accessible via specific pins in the "Externals" connector on the rear of the chassis (see AMSY-6 Getting Started Manual for a detailed description of the pin usage). If pin 14 of the "Externals" connector is high (or open), then PCTD is set to 0, if pin 14 is low PCTD stores the current value.

Record Control

Recording is disabled if the voltage at the parametric input specified by "PAx input" exceeds the upper limit. Also, recording is disabled if the voltage at the parametric input specified by "PAx input" is below the lower limit.

7.9 Transient Data recording modes

AMSY-6 supports two different transient recording modes. The standard mode of recording data was fixed page length recording in the past. Fixed page length recording means that the page length, i.e. the number of samples that are recorded, is set to a fixed value during acquisition parameter setup. The page length is valid for all channels. A consequence of fixed page length recording is that a page can be too short for a burst signal. In this case the page contains the first n samples of a hit. On the other hand a page can be too long for hits as well. In such a case a lot of noise is recorded wasting disk space; or a page could contain subsequent hits as well. This would exclude subsequent hits from any analysis in the FFT domain.

An alternative transient recording mode is duration adapted transient recording. In this recording mode a hit is recorded from the first threshold crossing to the last threshold crossing, irrespective of its length. This means a short hit will occupy only small memory, while a long hit will occupy more of memory. Additionally to hit samples a specified number pre-trigger- and post duration samples are also recorded.

7.9.1 Fixed page length recording

samples are also recorded. 7.9.1 Fixed page length recording Fixed page length recording is enabled when

Fixed page length recording is enabled when checkbox “Duration adapted TR” is not checked (see section 7.8.1, figure 12). Figure 16 shows the AE-channel settings tab when fixed page length recording is enabled.

Pretrigger samples define the number of samples which are recorded before trigger.

Data select is only available with ASIP-2/A and lets one select a data source for transient data. Available data sources are FIR, IIR4 or IIR5. Selecting FIR as data source results in recording of unfiltered transient data. IIR4 data source is after application specific filters (see Digital Filter Settings) while IIR5 data source is after notch filter.

Transient data source FIR is especially useful if one wants to record transients with wideband filter settings but narrow band hit-triggering.

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Figure 16: example of AE-Channel setting – fixed page length transient recording 7.9.2 Duration adapted
Figure 16: example of AE-Channel setting – fixed page length transient recording 7.9.2 Duration adapted

Figure 16: example of AE-Channel setting – fixed page length transient recording

7.9.2 Duration adapted transient recording

Duration adapted transient recording is enabled when checkbox “Duration adapted TR” is checked (see section 7.8.1, figure 12). Figure 17 shows the AE-channel settings tab when duration adapted transient recording is enabled.

tab when duration adapted transient recording is enabled. Figure 17: example of AE-Channel setting – duration

Figure 17: example of AE-Channel setting – duration adapted transient recording

Pre-trigger samples define the number of samples which are recorded before the trigger.

Post-duration samples define the number of samples which are recorded after the last threshold crossing

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• Data select is only available with ASIP-2/A and lets one select a data source

Data select is only available with ASIP-2/A and lets one select a data source for transient data. Available data sources are FIR, IIR4 or IIR5. Selecting FIR as data source results in recording of unfiltered transient data. IIR4 data source is after application specific filters (see Digital Filter Settings) while IIR5 data source is after notch filter.

7.9.3 Trigger groups and Trigger modes

A subset of channels, even across different chassis, can be assigned to a trigger group. Trigger

modes are applied per Trigger Group. The first hit channel of a Trigger Group triggers the other channels according to the selected modes. Each channel can be assigned to one Trigger

Group, only. A maximum of 256 trigger groups can be defined. Each trigger group is identified by a unique integer in the range from 0 to 255. By default each channel for which a trigger mode other than Normal is selected is assigned to the trigger group with ID=0. The ID can be changed

to the requirements of the measurement setup.

A Trigger mode defines the way transient recordings are triggered. In “Normal” and “Master”

mode transient recording is triggered when a first threshold crossing occurs. In “Slave” mode transient recording of a channel is triggered by a “Master” or “Pool” channel. A “Pool” channel

may act as “Master” if it is hit first or “Slave” in any other case.

7.10 Continuous Mode data acquisition

Section 7.8, Acquisition Settings, describes setting up Acquisition for a hit based measurement, where a threshold crossing starts the hit processing and it is stopped when the signal drops below threshold for a certain period of time. Contrary to hit based measurement the Continuous Mode recording acquires data independent of threshold crossing. Continuous Mode recording starts with a start trigger (i.e. switching record on) and ends with an end trigger (switching record off). In between these triggers data is continuously recorded.

Continuous Mode recording is also known as streaming mode. Both terms are always used in context with streaming of waveform data, i.e. continuously and seamlessly recording a sampled signal. With AMSY-6 this can be achieved:

Without time limitation if data generation rate is less than 35MB/s for one chassis (e.g.1 channel at sample rate of 10MHz)

Without time limitation if data generation rate is less than 35MB/s per chassis in multi chassis setup and data transfer limit of USB bus or hard disk drive controller is not exceeded

Time limited for up to 254 AE-channels in parallel. Length of streaming period depends on sample rate and transient recorder memory size.

Single chassis streaming performance of an MB6-V1

No of Chan.

Max sample rate per channel for streaming

3

5 MHz

6

2.5MHz

9

1.67MHz

12

1.25MHz

An AMSY distinguishes between AE-feature data and transient data. First and foremost Continuous Mode recording will acquire AE-feature data. Additionally transient data can be

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recorded as well. In practice setting up Continuous Mode recording is done the other way

recorded as well. In practice setting up Continuous Mode recording is done the other way around. First you setup transient recording, then AE-feature data recording.

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1)

Go to “Special” tab and check the box next to Continuous Mode. This enables continuous recording. As

a

result definition of threshold,

duration discrimination time and rearm time are no longer valid.

In Continuous Mode recording the time stream of data is divided into time slices of equal length.

For each time slice an AE-feature data set is generated. The start of each time slice triggers transient data recording.

2)

Start with setting up transient data recording. Large time slices (TR page lengths) reduce the data load on internal bus. A time slice length of approximately 1ms to 10ms is ok. In this example sample rate and samples per set were chosen

in

such a way that resulting page

length is 819.2µs. In order to record transient data seamlessly,

time slice length of AE-feature data extraction has to be set to same length.

3)

The length of a time slice for AE- feature extraction is defined in the field of parameter Duration Discrimination Time (DDT). Even though you use this field to specify length of time slice it has nothing to do with DDT.

specify length of time slice it has nothing to do with DDT. A threshold can be
specify length of time slice it has nothing to do with DDT. A threshold can be
specify length of time slice it has nothing to do with DDT. A threshold can be

A threshold can be selected, but

has no effect on data acquisition. Threshold has effect on AE-

feature data generation, e.g. counts feature.

Following AE-features can be used for analysis: peak amplitude, energy and counts.

Please note that before R2014.0414 the length of a time slice was specified in field Rearm Time (RAT)

Features like signal duration and rise time are extracted but have different meaning for analysis of data acquired in Continuous Mode.

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7.11 Data Recording This menu controls on-line communication between the user and both the data

7.11 Data Recording

This menu controls on-line communication between the user and both the data file and the AE-acquisition hardware. The "Record" button begins acquisition. “Pause” will halt acquisition while “Stop” returns to the Acquisition Setup (see section 7.6.

“Start Pulsing” and “Label” buttons will be available once software is in recording mode (i.e. “Record” button is pushed. “Start pulsing” initiates pulsing either for

is pushed. “Start pulsing” initiates pulsing either for • A single channel for indefinite time (i.e.

A single channel for indefinite time (i.e. until manually stopped by user),

All available channels in repeating succession for indefinite time,

All available channels in succession for one time.

“Label” allows inserting user text with a time stamp into acquired data stream. A label may indicate certain interesting occasions during a test or can be used to structure the test sequence. During analysis labels can be used as starting- or halt points.

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8 Introduction to data analysis Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming,

8 Introduction to data analysis

Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of highlighting useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making.

Data analysis is a process, within which several phases can be distinguished:

Data cleaning: Data cleaning is an important procedure during which the data are inspected, and erroneous data are—if necessary, preferable, and possible—corrected. During subsequent manipulations of the data, information should always be cumulatively retrievable. In other words, it should always be possible to undo any data set alterations. Therefore, it is important not to throw information away at any stage in the data cleaning phase.

Assessment of data quality: this phase is guided by the following questions: (1) how is the quality of data, (2) the quality of measurement and (3) are there any data distortions.

Main data analysis (answer the original research question) and reporting.

The Vallen AE-Suite software provides the tools for successful data analysis. Especially VisualAE™, VisualTR™ and VisualClass™ establish a powerful set of AE-analysis software.

VisualAE™ supports an unlimited number of 2D and 3D graphs on multiple pages, any combination of results, in-line filtering, many location algorithms, clustering, and more.

VisualTR™ is the ideal tool for a closer look at waveform data, with digital filtering, mode- selection using Gaussian cross-correlations, digital filtering, and includes a set of tools to manage learning data for signal classification.

VisualClass™ is a powerful tool for the development of a waveform classifier. The classification process assigns a class number and class-distance to each hit which are then stored on a so- called feature file. VisualAE™ can read that feature file and correlate the classification results with AE-parameters, external parameters, location results etc.

In addition, ActiveX-routines are now available through which a user-written program can read waveform data and write feature data that can be processed by VisualAE. This helps the user to concentrate on the feature extraction development using the programming language he likes, because ActiveX-routines can be used with any 32-bit Windows programming environment.

8.1 VisualAE Overview

VisualAE is a framework for all data analysis tasks. It represents data in Visuals, processes data by use of Processors and unifies analysis of AE-feature data, transient recorder data and frequency domain feature data.

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04-2017 While VisualAE or any other analysis tool of the AE-Suite software is able to
04-2017 While VisualAE or any other analysis tool of the AE-Suite software is able to
04-2017 While VisualAE or any other analysis tool of the AE-Suite software is able to
04-2017 While VisualAE or any other analysis tool of the AE-Suite software is able to
04-2017 While VisualAE or any other analysis tool of the AE-Suite software is able to

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While VisualAE or any other analysis tool of the AE-Suite software is able to process acquired raw data, it cannot make modifications to raw data (i.e. it cannot modify primary or transient data files).

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8.1.1 Relation of VisualAE to Acquisition The program "Acquisition" performs high-speed data acquisition at very

8.1.1 Relation of VisualAE to Acquisition

The program "Acquisition" performs high-speed data acquisition at very high reliability. Data is stored to hard disk in a very efficient format. Any single data set which is written to disk can be read by the analysis software VisualAE or VisualTR immediately. Acquisition and VisualAE or VisualTR are separate applications and can run independently from each other. As data is time sorted before it is stored to disk, location calculation is possible online and without any restrictions. A special communication module, the Scheduler, takes care that each analysis program is aware of data sets which have just been acquired. Of course offline analysis can be performed as well, even during the acquisition of another data file.

8.1.2 Analysis using VisualAE

During analysis data is read by VisualAE from the HDD (hard disk drive) and then processed in a processing tree. Analysis with VisualAE may contain 3 types of elements:

Data Source: the file containing the raw data. It contains the binary AE-feature data with references to transients stored in the transient data file, plus the transient data file

Data Processing (by use of processors) performs operations on data, such as location calculation, filtering, clustering and the evaluation of user-defined results

Data Presentation (by use of Visuals) visualizes selected results in graphical or numerical form.

8.1.3 Data Processing

Data processing is done by use of processors. Each processor acts as a node and will add a branch to the data stream. Processors such as the location processor will add results to the data stream of the branch they introduce. The Filter processor, as an exception, will reject data, i.e. remove data from subsequent data stream. Even though processors manipulate data, they are not allowed to make modifications to the raw data file, the root element of the data stream.

The data stream can be directed through several parallel or subsequent processor nodes for calculations and/or filtering. There is no limit (apart from the PC resources) to the number and nesting of processors in use.

The results of the processors (or the raw data source) are presented in Visuals, which can be diagrams or listings. The Visuals will act as a data sink. Any number of Visuals can be attached to a processor node.

Figure 18 shows an example of a Data Processing Structure: A tree-structure can be created, starting from the data source (the “root” on top) and splitting up into several branches if required. The sequence of the processors is not fixed, but depends on the requirements of the analysis. To make the results accessible each “branch” requires a Visual. This structure allows one to easily perform complex and powerful data processing.

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Figure 18: example of a Data Processing Structure 8.2 Event Builder The term “acoustic emission
Figure 18: example of a Data Processing Structure 8.2 Event Builder The term “acoustic emission

Figure 18: example of a Data Processing Structure

8.2 Event Builder

The term “acoustic emission event” refers to the process of an AE-source emitting an elastic wave. The propagating elastic wave can be picked up by more than one AE-sensor creating a characteristic sequence of hits in the data stream.

The Event Builder is part of the location processor. Its task is to group hits into a so called event data set. Ideally an event data set contains only hits of one AE-event. In this case the event data set contains the time representation of the propagating elastic wave front. The results of the Event Builder can be used for zonal location or as input to a location algorithm (see section

8.3).

The Event Builder requires 3 set-up parameters abbreviated FHCDT, DT1X-Max and DTNX-Max, next to a list of channels of which hits may contribute to an event data set.

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The set-up parameters are found in the Event Builder tab of the Location Processor setup.

The set-up parameters are found in the Event Builder tab of the Location Processor setup. The "Channels" group of the dialog specifies channels of which hits can contribute to an event data set. Furthermore, each channel can be assigned a special function, describing the behavior of which during event data set building. Function of a channel can be "normal", "guard", "combined" or “unused”.

The “Event assembling time criteria” group contains the setup parameters FHCDT, DT1X-Max, DTNX-Max.

contains the setup parameters FHCDT, DT1X-Max, DTNX-Max. Figure 19: example of Event Builder set up 8.2.1

Figure 19: example of Event Builder set up

8.2.1 Assembling individual hits into an event data set (FHCDT condition)

The main task of the Event Builder is identifying a first hit of a hit sequence caused by an acoustic emission event. Subsequent hits of the sequence will contribute to an event data set. When acoustic emission events are well separated in time then their hit sequences are also well separated in time. This separation in time, when no hits occur, is used to determine a first hit caused by an acoustic emission event.

Identifying a first hit is achieved by a data processing condition based on the First Hit Channel Discrimination Time (FHCDT) parameter. This condition determines the arrival time difference to the latest hit occurred before. Evaluation of this condition yields two results:

Arrival time difference is larger than FHCDT: the currently processed hit is a first hit caused by an acoustic emission event. An active assembling process is closed if a first hit is detected. A new event assembling process is started.

Arrival time difference is less than FHCDT: If an event assembling process is active the currently processed hit is considered to be a sub-hit of an active event data set.

An example of two hit sequences is shown in figure 20. The graph shows time axes (x-axis) of 4 different AE-channels labeled channel 1 to channel 4. Deltoid shaped objects indicate hits that occur in these channels. The deltoid shape shall represent the characteristic of hits having a short rise time and longer ring down. The left corner of the deltoid shaped object indicates the arrival time, i.e. the first threshold crossing. The first hit sequence, hits marked 1 to 4, is separated by a period of t 54 from a second hit sequence, consisting of hits marked 5 to 7.

FHCDT has to be smaller than t 54 in order that the Event Builder is able to identify hit marked 5 as a first hit. On the other hand FHCDT has to be larger than the largest time difference between two consecutive hits of an event data set in order that hits 1 to 4 or similarly hits 5 to 7 are grouped into an event data set.

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Figure 20: two hit sequences separated in time. Their arrival time differences are indicated. It
Figure 20: two hit sequences separated in time. Their arrival time differences are indicated. It

Figure 20: two hit sequences separated in time. Their arrival time differences are indicated. It is assumed that t 10 is larger than FHCDT.

A propagating elastic wave can be picked up by an AE-sensor more than once for two reasons:

An elastic wave can be reflected off an interface. The returning elastic wave is picked up by AE-sensors again if it has still enough energy that its AE-signal causes a crossing of detection threshold.

An elastic wave is propagating around a closed surface, as in the case of a cylindrical- or spherical hull. After it circulated the hull it causes detection of hit(s) if it has still enough energy that its AE-signal causes a crossing of detection threshold.

Ideally second-, third-, etc. hits should be assigned to a hit-cascade based on the Rearm Time condition as a function of the AE signal processor. A hit of a hit-cascade cannot be a first hit of an event data set. In cases the Rearm Time was chosen too small, FHCDT condition shall prohibit that a reflected- or circulating elastic wave causes a first hit. The FHCDT should be slightly larger than the time it takes for the reflected- or circulating elastic wave to reach an AE- sensor again. Setting FHCDT to the order of the lifetime of an elastic wave is a conservative way of estimating it. The lifetime is the time it takes for an elastic wave to be attenuated low enough that an AE-sensor’s response to it does not cause a crossing of detection threshold. Furthermore, the time window for assembling hits into an event data set should not exceed the lifetime of an elastic wave. All hits within such a time window are likely to have originated from the same AE-event and therefore should form an event data set.

Similarly to Rearm Time (see section 7.8.2) the lifetime on an elastic wave is calculated as follows. Let α and c be the attenuation and speed of sound, respectively. Both parameters have been measured. Let A pk be the maximum peak amplitude of an AE-event and A det the detection threshold. The lifetime, t life , of an elastic wave is

=

The FHCDT should have some safety margin in it so it is recommended to set it as follows:

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= 1.5 ×

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8.2.2 Additional conditions for terminating an event data set assembling process (DT1X-Max and DTNX-Max) The

8.2.2 Additional conditions for terminating an event data set assembling process (DT1X-Max and DTNX-Max)

The data processing criterion based on FHCDT determines a first hit of an event data set and what hits belong to it. An active event data set is automatically closed when a first hit is detected. There are three more conditions to close an event data set before a new first hit is detected:

1. DT1X-Max condition: an event data set is closed when a time period of DT1X-Max has elapsed after the first hit of an event data set. DT1X-Max condition is evaluated with every timestamp, whether it comes from a hit-, parametric- or status data set.

2. DTNX-Max condition: an event data set is closed when a time period of DTNX-Max has elapsed after the previous hit of an active event data set. DTNX-Max condition is evaluated with every timestamp, whether it comes from a hit-, parametric- or status data set.

3. A channel that contributed already a hit to an event data set receives a second hit while the event data set is still active. Checking the “Allow multiple hits per channel” checkbox of the Event builder tab (see figure 19) disables this condition.

DT1X-Max can be related to the AE-sensor layout. A distance d ij can be assigned to each AE- sensor pair ( i,j) mounted to the test object. A parameter d max is defined:

= max( )

In case of large objects following situations may occur:

The maximum distance d ij between a pair of sensors is larger than the distance d max - att . The distance d max - att is the distance an elastic wave can propagate before it is attenuated below the detection threshold. In such a case following relation should be used instead:

= .

One may want to exclude hits from far away AE-sensors from contributing to an event data set. A maximum neighborhood distance, d max - neihgbor can be defined by an operator which discriminates hits of AE-sensors in close vicinity from hits detected by far away AE-sensors. In such a case following relation should be used instead:

= −ℎℎ

The time window of an event data set must be at least of the length it takes an elastic wave to propagate the maximum distance, d max . When c is the speed of sound of the elastic wave, the result is:

DT1X-Max = 1.5 ×

Please note that for a safety margin a factor 1.5 has been accounted for.

8.2.3 Some practical remarks about FHCDT, DT1X-Max and DTNX-Max

Some practical remarks about FHCDT, DT1X-Max and DTNX-Max 04-2017 In most applications it is sufficient if

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In most applications it is sufficient if event data set building is based on FHCDT condition only (see section 8.2.1). This requires disabling conditions for closing an active event data set, namely DT1X-Max and DTNX-Max condition.

In order to disable event data set closing condition based on DT1X-Max and DTNX-Max it is recommended to set both parameters to the same value as FHCDT parameter.

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Then only two event data set closing conditions remain: • An event data set is

Then only two event data set closing conditions remain:

An event data set is closed if a first hit is detected

An event data set is closed if a second hit is detected in a channel that already contributed a hit to an event data set. This event data set closing condition can be disabled. Checking the “Allow multiple hits per channel” checkbox of the Event builder tab (see figure 19) disables this condition.

8.2.4 Channel functions

Channel functions govern how hits influence identification of first hits. Four channel functions are defined:

Normal: Only a hit of a channel with function “normal” can be a first hit. Hits of these channels will contribute to an event data set if it is active.

Guard: The task of channels with function “guard” is to prevent that a subsequent hit of a channel with function “normal” becomes a first hit. Additionally hits of guard channels do not contribute to event data sets.

Combined: hits in channels defined as “combined” will act as “guard” unless an event data set is active. In such a case they will act as “normal”.

Unused: hits of channels defined as “unused” will neither contribute to event data sets nor to their discrimination.

8.3 Location Processor

The determination of the AE-source location is an essential element of AE testing. It means that an elastic wave that was emitted by a source is picked up by more than one AE-sensor in a specific arrival time pattern. This arrival time pattern corresponds to the location of the AE- source with respect to the position of AE-sensors.

AE-source location can only be done if the burst of an AE-source is detected by more than one AE-channel. If the AE-source is detected by more than one (in 1D-case) / two (in 2D-case) / three (in 3D case) channel(s) a location can be calculated based on the arrival time differences of the individual hits grouped into an event data set. This assumes that hits from an AE-source can be grouped into an event data set. Hence, the location processor consists of Event Builder and the location algorithms.

The location processor calculates the location of the source, and adds results, such as X, Y, LUCY (location uncertainty), time-differences, number of hits of the event, and more, to the event's data for further processing by subsequent processors or Visuals. Behind a location processor, AE parameters, such as amplitude, counts, etc., are taken from the first-hit of the event. The calculated kind of location results depends on the kind of location algorithm and can be x-, x-y-, x-y-z-coordinates or latitude and longitude, for example. The set-up for the location processor can be made according to the requirements of the application.

Channel group

There may be one or more channel groups inside a location processor. With multiple channel groups more complex structures can be covered. An AE-channel can belong to more than one channel group. A location algorithm has to be assigned to each channel group. However each channel group can have a different location algorithm.

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If sensors are located around a cylindrical vessel, the cylindrical part and the end caps
If sensors are located around a cylindrical vessel, the cylindrical part and the end caps

If sensors are located around a cylindrical vessel, the cylindrical part and the end caps can be combined in one location set by using multiple groups.

Location and Location Set

To calculate the location of a source from measured data, an algorithm can be assigned to each channel group individually. The kind of algorithm is based on a structure's geometry and how sensors are arranged on the structure. Location algorithms are options in the software and only the purchased algorithms can be used. The algorithms usually place some restrictions on number and position of sensors. For instance the algorithm “Solid 3D” requires at least 4 sensors which must not be positioned on one geometric plane.

Sensor and source locations are relative to a co-ordinate system defined by the user. If the sensors are not exactly at the position as entered in the software, this will influence the location accuracy.

Location errors

Location accuracy can be adversely influenced by

A different wave mode than the assumed one determines the arrival time.

A wave takes a different propagation path than assumed by the algorithm

Burst of two or more sources overlap at the sensor

Sources emit bursts in such a quick succession, that there is not enough time for the burst in the structure to decay, therefore they do not represent a “new” event.

8.4 Cluster Processor

While data passes through a cluster processor, density levels are added and provide additional statistics about these regions. In the past, clustering has been performed on location results (indicating the location density). In VisualAE the process has been generalized and clustering can be performed on any number and kind of results, such as location results, AE parameters, time, external parameters, and user-defined results.

The user specifies the results to be used for clustering (any number), size, shape (circle/rectangle) and minimum number of elements that shall establish a valid cluster. Graphs linked to the cluster processor and showing the cluster results will display color coded clusters along with a cluster-legend explaining the color's meaning.

8.5 Filter Processor

A filter processor rejects AE-data sets based on user specified criteria. The filter processor

considers AE-data and external parameters, if it is linked directly to the data file. Behind a location processor, it also considers location results. Behind a user-processor, it also considers the user-defined results. If the filter processor is placed behind a location set, it considers only hit-data of the first-hit per event.

8.6 User Processor

User processors can extend the range of results by performing mathematical operations on all kind of incoming data. The user can choose from a list of predefined mathematical operations, supply one or more parameters or constants (depending on the operation) and give the new

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parameter both, name and units. User-defined results are available to any process and visual behind

parameter both, name and units. User-defined results are available to any process and visual behind the user processor. For example to produce a plot "Cumulative Hits vs. Load", one can define a user-processor which gives the sum of hits (the value of "Hits" is always one for a hit) give it the name CumHITS, and then create a X/Y-history showing CumHits at the vertical axis and the parametric input for the load at the horizontal axis. In addition, combination of AE- parameters can easily be defined with user-processors, e.g. Risetime/Amplitude or Counts/Duration.

8.7 Polygon Processor

This processor is a kind of graphic filter: it allows the user to define arbitrary polygons on any kind of diagram. Each hit data set will be either inside or outside the defined area and can be filtered accordingly. Example: only data inside the polygon may pass for further analysis/display.

8.8 Grading Processor

It provides formulae for Historic Index and Severity Index published by Professor Tim Fowler. These results can then be displayed graphically and also the maximum numerical values per channel can be obtained.

8.9 ECP Embedded Code Processor

It allows the user to write his own code to be executed inside VisualAE online as well as offline. With this advanced tool one can take any available result(s) and process them according to the specific needs. This is very powerful to support routine testing according to a well-defined procedure.

8.10 Alarm Processor

Within the alarm processor the user can define a warning and an alarm level for any result. As soon as this level is reached or exceeded the software fires a signal to the Alarm Manager which in turn alerts the user: either by sound, blinking LED, sending a network message or even an email. Perfect to support monitoring of safety related tests where various criteria may trigger to halt or even abort the test.

8.11 Visuals in VisualAE

For data presentation, VisualAE offers so-called AE-Visuals, which can be diagrams (AE and TR) and listings. Any number of visuals can be placed at any point in the Data Processing Structure. The Visual can display any data that is available on its branch.

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Diagrams

Several different types of diagrams are available: 2D-, 3D-graphs, TR-diagrams. TR-diagrams show waveforms (transient data) in time and/or frequency domain. Many properties of those graphs can be adjusted by the operator: the results (attributes) to be shown (e.g. Amplitude vs.

time, or Duration vs. Energy

Legends can be edited or made invisible and/or not printable. Diagrams can show distributions,

correlations (point plots), histories, etc., depending on the selected kind of results. Each diagram can show several planes. Data represented on a plane can be filtered, the color and shape of symbols can be selected and more.

),

left + right axis legend, caption (top) and comment text (bottom).

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Background image A background image (i.e. an image of the test object) can be used

Background image

A background image (i.e. an image of the test object) can be used in diagrams onto which all graphs are drawn. Such a background image can be used in location plots to show the actual test object geometry.

Working through the “introductory exercise” in the online-help of VisualAE will bring you along the most important features of diagrams.

Listing

A listing presents data in a table format. The attributes which are listed and their ordering can be user selected.

Still Image

Still images can be inserted and displayed on different pages of the VisualAE setup. This kind of visual can be used to place a company logo on an analysis page.

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9 How to setup visuals in VisualAE This section provides a Step-by-Step Guide to diagrams

9 How to setup visuals in VisualAE

This section provides a Step-by-Step Guide to diagrams frequently used in AE. It describes the diagram itself, where it can be found in the VisualAE Library, how to create it from scratch, options which can be modified, and last but not least: how, when and where it is mainly used. Finally an example is presented and explained.

9.1 Formatting Conventions

These special text formats are used (see also figure):

[[Buttons]]: Text which is bold and offset within double square brackets indicates that the user should select the specified button within the current dialog window.

//Tabs\\: Text which is bold and offset with double forward/backward slashes indicates that the user should select the tab at the top of the current dialog window.

'Menu/Item': Items out of menus are sometimes referred to in this shorthand.

out of menus are sometimes referred to in this shorthand. 9.2 Diagram Example 1: Superposition of

9.2 Diagram Example 1: Superposition of AE and Load

This diagram can be used in cases where parametric data has been acquired. The following procedures assume that data has been collected on the first parametric (parametric zero, PA0).

collected on the first parametric (parametric zero, PA0). VisualAE Library Reference A graph similar to this

VisualAE Library Reference

A graph similar to this example can be found in the VisualAE Library.

Section 2D-Diagrams

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Diagram Hits vs Time, Chan 1-6, Load vs. Time Creating parametric conversion 1) It is

Diagram

Hits vs Time, Chan 1-6, Load vs. Time

Creating parametric conversion

1)

It is recommended (but not necessary) that you start with a new page. To do this, under the page menu select the item "New Page."

Parametric Conversion - to obtain results in physical units instead of millivolts

2)

Under the "Edit" menu select the "Parametric Conversion" Item

2) Under the "Edit" menu select the "Parametric Conversion" Item

3)

In the Parametric Channel Dialog, select parametric input 0 (PA0) and click on [[edit]]

4)

In the Parametric Channel Settings (Channel 0) Dialog, Enter the Offset and factor, plus descriptors that correspond to the signal scaling.

5)

For instance, if a +/- 10 Volt signal corresponds to a -10 to 10 kN load with positive voltage corresponding to tension, the following text should be entered:

 

Name

Load

Unit

[kN] (or [N])

Offset

0 mV

Factor

0.001 kN/mV (or 1 N/mV)

Long Name

Tensile Load

Description

Load signal from a uniaxial testing machine

6)

Click on [[OK]] in both the Parametric Channel Settings and the Parametric Conversion Dialog Boxes.

Creating diagram from scratch

7)

Under the "Insert" menu, select the "AE-Diagram" Item

8)

A data server dialog box will appear if one or more processors (location, filter, cluster, etc.) have been defined within this .VAE file. If this dialog appears, select the root data server (which will be the same as the .pri file name). Then select [[Next]]. Note: the position of a diagram within the data processing structure can always be changed later on by drag&drop under 'Edit/Structure').

9)

1 st Diagram Wizard Dialog Box (Number of Axis) Click [[Next]] (the default is wanted here: 2 axis and Hits vs. Time)

10)

2 nd Diagram Wizard Dialog Box (Diagram type) Click [[Next]] (the default is wanted here: Bars differential)

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11) 3 r d Diagram Wizard Dialog Box (Target page) Choose a page from the

11)

3 rd Diagram Wizard Dialog Box (Target page) Choose a page from the page list and click on [[Finish]] (the default page is the current page and is probably the best choice here)

Properties Menu

12)

13)

14)

15)

16)

17)

18)

Call up the diagram's property dialog

Right click on the diagram to get the pop-up menu, choose the properties item

Set up a right axis

In the attribute menu of the diagram dialog, check the box by the right vertical axis attribute

By the right attribute arrow, change the right vertical axis attribute to a parametric Select the right arrow to get the attribute menu: a dialog will appear with a note describing which steps must be used to get a right axis. These steps are repeated and fulfilled by following the next steps.

Under the Parametric Results, choose the PA0U item (Note: if no parametric scaling was implemented in step 1, choose the PA0 item and this result will appear in millivolts).

Add a right axis distribution plane to the diagram

Go to the distribution menu (select the //distribution\\ tab at the top of the dialog)

Click on the right vertical axis (PA0U vs. Time[s]) inside the center of the box.

Click on the [[Add]] button immediately below the dialog's center region

In the Plane Settings Dialog under //plane style\\ tab: change the plane type to line history and change the plane's color to a color other than green.

Change the plane's legend

Change the menu by selecting the //plane legend\\ tab at the top of the plane settings dialog

Replace the default macro (=[filter]) with a description of the parametric as in step Creating parametric conversion either appropriate text (Load) or better yet the following macro can be used: =[YR-ATTRUnitLong]

Select [[OK]] at the bottom of the plane settings dialog.

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19) Adjust plane legend for the left axis Select the left axis plane by double

19)

Adjust plane legend for the left axis

Select the left axis plane by double clicking on the distribution icon under the left vertical axis.

Select the legend tab at the top of the menu and replace the default macro (=[filter]) with "AE activity (=[Y-AttrUnitLong]), all channels"

Select Okay at the bottom of the plane settings dialog.

20)

Adjust Legend, Legend Tabs

plane settings dialog. 20) Adjust Legend, Legend Tabs Select the Legend tab at the top of

Select the Legend tab at the top of the Diagram Properties dialog

Check the visible box in the right header

Add planes representing separate channels

21)

Go to the distribution tab

22)

Similar to step 10) go the distribution tab, select the left vertical axis, click on add

23)

Similar to step 11), change to the plane style to stairs differential and choose a new color

24)

Under the plane filter menu, click on the [[and]] button. On the setup filter menu, click on the arrow and choose the channel item under the hit results menu. The condition is now Chan = 1, which is okay so click on [[OK]].

25)

Similar to step 12), change the planes legend to "AE activity, Channel 1"

26)

More planes for other channels can be created by repeating these steps.

27

Select [[OK]] at the bottom of the diagram properties dialog.

How, When and Where is this Diagram Mainly Used?

This graph is most effective for time based correlation between AE and externally measured parameters. AE activity is measured against an AE instruments global clock to very high precision. This same clock can measure both external parameters which stimulated the AE activity (such as a load program) and physical parameters which have occurred as a result of this stimulation simultaneously with the AE activity (for instance, strain). Establishing a time- based correlation between the AE activity and either applied stimulus or other resulting effect can provide very powerful insight into many processes.

There are numerous uses for time based correlation that can be listed. They can be used to find exact time determinations of distinct events, for determining when the AE activity shows a distinct initiation point (Kaiser Effect, Temperature Transition, etc.), for determining when multiple AE sources occur and where a transition between AE sources has occurred, for determining when a parametric transition has occurred (for instance a knee point) and how the AE behavior can be correlated to this, and for establishing the basis of test evaluation criteria. In many cases, the information obtained from these diagrams are exact quantities.

AE excels at exact time determinations. Since the AMSY4 is automatically tracking the exact time of AE, when a singular distinct event occurs, it is easy to determine the value of any load, strain, etc. at that point in time. Some distinct events which occur are:

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