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Toasty

creation

of waves

waves are causedbywindblowingover the sea which i cracks at thebaseof theheadlandwithin the

moves the water on the surface more than the


water underneath
intertidalzonebecomeexposedthroughhydraulicaction

Thiscausesbumpsto whichpressurisesairforcesthecracktowiden
appearwhich form the crests of 2 cracksare furtherwidenedbyweatheringprocessessuch

waves as salecrystallisation

3 overtime thecrackswidenanddevelopas wave cut
fetch notchesFurtherprocesses ofabrasionandhydraulicaction
waves getbiggeras the wiredeepen the notch to formcaves
fetch increases 4 As a resultofwaverefractiondestructive wavesconcentrate
i on.ae n m.es
2 longestfetch sooomiles
s na g
irweoneggye neeg sn aenepewniangenmeggge
n g
to formanarch Wavecut notcheswiden the baseof the
arch
6overtime thearchbecomesunstableandcollapsesunderits
prevailingwind is the most ownweightto form a stack
r common winddirection 7 Eventuallytheexposedstackwin collapsetoformastump

a SPITS
Whena wave enters
WAVEREFRACTION
Alongnarrow
accumulationofsand
shallowwater the withoneendjoinedto mainland

µ
frictionwith the seabed themainlandand the
causesthe wave to slow otherprojectingout to
dreofrnaietihncwanu.EE'iswwayen seesquoarryairossan n
wavesbend Longshore drift Directionor
Theresultof the wave resultsin deposition wna
snore.net
refractionis thatwaves ofsediments
tend tobreakmore water istrapped
parallel behindthespitand
beginsto
mudandmarshland
stagnate.tw pfrevaiuna
ron
waves begintodevelop
DESTRUCTIVE WAVES

fetch
Longer plungingenergy weakswash TOMBOLOS
forceddownwards
morecommon 7 Longshoredrift
inwinter transportssediment

E
µE
fanfedinseigingnaeannedaiggenegsnite

r
circular i
backwash wbrheearueitnhfnreeicsoaas
ti.me
motion
Somuchdownward µ firrevauna and a slightdropin
isperminute
winDDirectionmeansst
whifefthoen.IE
be energy longshore
t.oeae.ae io s.inen.mrom ina eaii s i.n ai ii
CONSTRUCTIVEWAVES

shortfetch
widebeachat a
ainiiiaf
strongswash
PROCESSOFLONGSHOREDRIFT

shallowangle dPirreekatistiffewwinadvet
owfsvheosrewei
Hmm
wavesapproach

I
otnheinbwh.eu
mainlyin summer t

L
caotfaEewti'he
shingle
wanteerargesthsorsenationweT
tguswasn.wwaeaE
weak backwashdue landwaresareable
backwash
sediment
backwashbuildingup
sdorranwensebdaiumebnyte.info
toenergylossby thebeaonwith tobreak
Ettimiressperminute t
aw ao
coastallandforms ftheprocessrepeats.netmovementis inthedirection theprevailingwind
CAVESARCHESstacks stumps

CONCORDANT DISCORDANT
DIRECTIONOF Theseoccurwhenthe
RETREAT layersofrock
parallelto Layerofgeologyis

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6

ftp.A
coastline Hammock
us perpendicularto the
re

IfEn
someare soft
ms es aan eie'it's
2 5 awayleavingthe
moreresistant
eafniiiii a jaggedcoastline
layers concordant
ABRASION ATTRITION
Destructivewavespickup whenbouldersrockparticles
particlesofsandand pebblesandsand are
pebblesandscrapeor continuallymovedaroundby
throwthemagainst waves Anyprojectingangular
a cliff thisabrades cornersareknockedoff
therock
ACTION
HYDRAULIC Corrosion
whenlargedestructive seawaterandsaltsprayfrom the
wavesbreakonthe wavesmayreact with rock
dietTheforceofthe mineralsand activelydissolve
waterexertspressure them Rockmineralsarethen
thispressureloosens carried away in solution
piecesof rock Air
may betrappedin the
circularshapeof the
waveand is
compressedintocracks
in the rockwhen
waterfallsaway
tie iii
weathering
FREEZETHAW OXIDATION
waterseepsintojoints oxygencombineswith iron based
andcracksin the mineralsin a rock causing a
rock whenitfreezes chemicalbreakdown of the
itexpands exerting minerals
pressure andforcing
the rockapart
SALTCRYSTALLISATION SEAWEEDACIDS
whenwavesbreak or someseaweedcellscontain
splashcliason coastal pocketsof sulfuricacid when
rocks the water cellsbreak in contact with
evaporates leaving rock the acid willdissolve
behindsodiumand somerockminerals
magnesiumsalt
compoundsinjoints
The crystalsgrow
and exertpressure
whichforces rocks
apart