Reducing field samples
ASTM C70298 (reapproved 2003)
Standard Practice for Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size
Method A: Mechanical splitter (samples must be dried to at least SSD condition)
Method B: Quartering
Method C: Miniature Stockpile (for damp fine aggregate only)
Sample splitters (riffles) for
coarse and fine aggregate
Quartering on a hard, clean level surface
Quartering on a canvas blanket
ACTIVITY 1: Reducing field sample
of aggregate to test sample
PURPOSE: To obtain laboratory samples from stockpiles
STANDARD/S: ASTM C702, D75 EQUIPMENT: shovel, scoop, broom
ACTIVITY 1 cont…
PROCEDURE:
places in the stockpile: from the top third, at the
midpoint, and from the bottom third of the volume of the pile.

2. Place the field sample on a hard, clean level surface.

3. Mix the material thoroughly by turning the entire sample three times.

4. Shovel the entire sample into a conical pile.
ACTIVITY 1 cont…
PROCEDURE:
with a shovel. (The diameter should be
approximately four to eight times the thickness).
with a shovel.
sample is reduced to the desired size.
ACTIVITY 2: Sieve analysis of coarse
aggregate (ASTM C136)
PURPOSE:
STANDARD/S:
EQUIPMENT:
SAMPLE:
To determine the particle size distribution and fineness modulus of coarse aggregate by sieving
ASTM C136
balance, sieves, mechanical shaker, oven Dry coarse aggregate
Maximum Aggregate Size [in. (mm)]

Weight of sample (kg)


1 ½ (37.5)

15


1

(25)

10

¾

(19) or less

5

Activity 2 cont …
FINENESS MODULUS is the sum of the total percentages of material in the sample that is coarser than (cumulative percentages retained) each of the
following sieves and divided by 100: No. 8, No. 4, 3/8
n., 1 ½ in. and larger, increasing in the ratio 2:1.
PROCEDURE:
1. Dry the sample to constant weight at a temperature of
110 ^{o} C if the sample is lightweight or is suspected of containing appreciable amount of material finer that
No. 4 sieve.
Activity 2 cont …
PROCEDURE:

2. Weigh the dry sample accurately.

3. Weigh each empty sieve and the pan.

4. Nest the suitable sieves in order of decreasing size of
opening from the top to bottom. Place the pan at the bottom of the set. Sieves: No. 8, No. 4, 3/8 in., ½ in., ¾ in., 1 in. and higher if needed.

5. Place the sample on the top sieve.

6. Place the lid, and agitate the sieves in the mechanical shaker for about 10 minutes.

7. Weigh the sieves with the material retained.
Activity 2 cont …
PROCEDURE:

8. Determine the weight in each sieve. The total weight of the material after sieving should check closely with the original weight of the sample. If the amount differs by more than 0.3 percent based on the original weight, the results should not be used.

9. Calculate the percentage coarser than and the
percentage passing.
10 Draw the particle distribution curve and calculate the fineness modulus of the average size of the sample.
Activity 2 cont …
REPORT:
Draw the particle size distribution. Indicate on the plot the applicable ASTM C33 gradation limits. Report the fineness modulus and calculate the effective size, coefficient of gradation, and uniformity coefficient.
ACTIVITY 3: Sieve analysis of fine
aggregate (ASTM C136)
PURPOSE:
STANDARD/S:
EQUIPMENT:
SAMPLE:
To determine the particle size distribution and fineness modulus of fine aggregate by sieving
ASTM C136
balance, sieves, mechanical shaker, oven
500 g of dry fine aggregate
Activity 3 cont …
PROCEDURE:

1. Dry the sample to constant weight at a temperature of 110 ^{O} C.

2. Weigh the dry sample, the empty sieves and the pan.

3. Nest the suitable sieves in order of decreasing size of opening from the top to bottom. Place the pan at the bottom of the set. Sieves: No. 100, No. 50, No. 30, No. 16. No. 8, and No. 4.

4. Place the sample on the top sieve.

5. Place the lid, and agitate the sieves in the mechanical
shaker for about 10 minutes.
Activity 3 cont …
PROCEDURE:
of the material after sieving should check closely with
the original weight of the sample. If the amount differs
by more than 0.3 percent based on the original weight,
the results should not be used.
Activity 3 cont …
REPORT:
Draw the particle size distribution. Indicate on the plot the ASTM C33 gradation limit. Report the fineness modulus and calculate the effective size, coefficient of gradation, and uniformity coefficient.
ASTM C33
Grading requirements for fine aggregates
Sieve No.

Percent passing



3/8 in (9.5 mm)


100

No. 4 (4.75 mm)

95

– 100

No. 8 (2.36 mm)

80

– 100

No. 16 (1.18 mm)

50

– 85

No. 30 (0.600 mm)
No. 100 (0.150 mm)

25

– 60

No. 50 (0.300 mm)

10 – 30 2 – 10

ACTIVITY 4: Specific gravity and
absorption of coarse aggregate
PURPOSE:
STANDARD/S:
EQUIPMENT:
SAMPLE:
To determine the specific gravity (bulk and apparent) and absorption capacity of coarse aggregate.
ASTM C127
balance, wire basket (of 3.35 mm or finer wire mesh), water tank, oven
Minimum of 4,000 g test sample for aggregate of maximum nominal size of 1 in. The sample
should not have particles of size less than 4.75
mm (No. 4)
ACTIVITY 4 cont …
PROCEDURE:

7. Dry the sample to constant weight at a temperature of 110 +/ 5 ^{o} C (approximately 24 h ), and weigh: D (g).

8. Calculate the specific gravity and absorption.
Bulk specific gravity, dry = A / (BC)
Bulk specific gravity, SSD = B / (BC)
Apparent specific gravity = D / (DC)
ACTIVITY 4 cont …
REPORT:
Report the specific gravity to the nearest 0.01 and absorption values to the nearest 0.1%.
ACTIVITY 5: Specific gravity and
absorption of fine aggregate
PURPOSE:
STANDARD:
EQUIPMENT:
SAMPLE:
To determine the specific gravity (bulk and apparent) and absorption capacity of fine
aggregate.
ASTM C128
balance, pycnometer (or a volumetric flask of 500 cm ^{3} capacity or a fruit jar fitted with a pycnometer top), oven
About 500 g of fine aggregate
ACTIVITY 5 cont …
PROCEDURE:

7. Fill with additional water to approximately 90% of its capacity

8. Roll, invert, and agitate the pycnometer to eliminate all air bubbles.

9. Bring the water level in the pycnometer to its calibrated capacity.
10. Determine the total weight of the pycnometer, specimen, and water: D (g).
11. Remove the sample from the pycnometer, dry to constant weight at a temperature of 110 +/ 5 ^{o} C (approximately 24 h ), cool and weigh: E (g).
ACTIVITY 5 cont …
PROCEDURE:
12. Calculate the specific gravity and absorption.
Bulk specific gravity, dry = A / (C+BD)
Bulk specific gravity, SSD = B / (C+BD)
Apparent specific gravity = E / (C+ED)
Absorption = 100 x (B –E) / E
ACTIVITY 5 cont …
REPORT:
Report the specific gravity to the nearest 0.01 and absorption values to the nearest 0.1%.
ACTIVITY 6: Unit weight and voids
in aggregate
PURPOSE:
STANDARDS:
EQUIPMENT:
To determine unit weights of and voids in a sample of fine, coarse, or mixed aggregates
ASTM C 29, 127, 128
balance,
5/8indiameter tamping rod (24 in.
long), cylindrical metal measure (minimum capacity of ½ ft3 for coarse aggregate of size not larger than 1 ½ in. and of 1/10 ft3 for fine aggregate)
SAMPLE:
Aggregate dried
to constant weight, preferably
in an oven at 110 +/ 5 ^{o} C
ACTIVITY 6 cont …

4. Fill the measure twothirds full, level and rod as in step 3.

5. Fill the measure overflowing and rod as in step 3.

6. Level the surface of the aggregate with a finger and tamping rod such that any slight projection of the larger pieces of coarse aggregate approximately balances the larger voids in the surface below the top of the measure.

7. Weigh the measure with the aggregate and find the net weight of the aggregate: A.

8. Calculate the unit weight: B.
Unit weight or bulk density, B = (A/V) lb/ft ^{3} or kg/m ^{3}
where V is the volume of the measure.
ACTIVITY 6 cont …
9. Calculate the void content or percent void
Void (%) = 100 x ( S x W
 B) / ( S x W )
where S is the bulk specific gravity (dry basis) from Activity 4 or 5 and W is the unit weight of water (62.4 pcf or 999 kg/m ^{3} ).
REPORT: Calculate unit weight and void for coarse aggregate and find aggregate samples. Comment on the results.
ACTIVITY 7: Total moisture content and surface moisture content of aggregate
PURPOSE:
STANDARD/S:
EQUIPMENT:
SAMPLE:
To determine the percentage of total moisture and surface moisture in a sample of aggregate.
ASTM C 566, 127, 128
balance, oven
A minimum of 4,000 g of coarse aggregate (1 in. maximum size) or 500 g of fine aggregate
ACTIVITY 7 cont …
PROCEDURE:

1. Weigh the sample: A (g).

2. Dry the sample to constant weight in an oven at 110 +/ 5 ^{o} C for approximately 24 h and cool.

3. Weigh the dried sample: B (g).

4. Calculate the moisture content.
Total moisture content = 100 x ( A – B) / B Surface moisture content = total moisture content – absorption Absorption is calculated in Activity 4 or 5
REPORT: Report the total moisture content and surface moisture content to
the nearest 0.1%.
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