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Faculty of Engineering

Civil Engineering Department

Chapter 4

Water Distribution Systems

1

Introduction

To deliver water to individual consumers with appropriate

quality, quantity, and pressure in a community setting requires

an extensive system of:

Pipes.

Storage reservoirs.

Pumps.

Other related accessories.

facilities used to supply water from its source to the point of

usage .

2

Methods of Supplying Water

between the source of supply and the consumer,

water can be transported by:

• Canals.

• Tunnels.

• Pipelines.

• Gravity supply

• Pumped supply

• Combined supply

3

Gravity Supply

above the distribution area (consumers).

so that the desired pressure can be maintained

HGL or EGL

Source

(Consumers)

(Reservoir)

Gravity-Supply System

4

Advantages of Gravity supply

HGL or EGL

Source

• No energy costs.

• Simple operation (fewer mechanical parts,

independence of power supply, ….)

• Low maintenance costs.

• No sudden pressure changes

5

Pumped Supply

Used whenever:

• The source of water is lower than the area to which we need to

distribute water to (consumers)

• The source cannot maintain minimum pressure required.

pumps are used to develop the necessary head (pressure) to

distribute water to the consumer and storage reservoirs.

HGL or EGL

(Consumers)

Source

(River/Reservoir)

Pumped-Supply System 6

Disadvantages of pumped supply

Complicated operation and maintenance.

Dependent on reliable power supply.

Precautions have to be taken in order to enable permanent supply:

• Stock with spare parts

• Alternative source of power supply ….

HGL or EGL

(Consumers)

Source

(River/Reservoir)

7

Combined Supply

(pumped-storage supply)

• Both pumps and storage reservoirs are used.

• This system is usually used in the following cases:

1) When two sources of water are used to supply water:

Pumping

Gravity Source (1)

HGL

HGL

Pumping station

City

Source (2)

8

Combined Supply (Continue)

2) In the pumped system sometimes a storage (elevated)

tank is connected to the system.

• When the water consumption is low, the residual water is

pumped to the tank.

• When the consumption is high the water flows back to

the consumer area by gravity.

Low consumption

High

Elevated

consumption

tank

Pumping station

Pipeline

City

Source

9

Combined Supply (Continue)

3) When the source is lower than the consumer area

• A tank is constructed above the highest point in the area,

• Then the water is pumped from the source to the storage

tank (reservoir).

• And the hence the water is distributed from the reservoir

by gravity.

Pumping

HGL

Gravity

HGL

Reservoir

Pumping Station

City

Source 10

Distribution Systems

(Network Configurations )

area, the following configuration can be

distinguished:

1. Branching system (Tree)

2. Grid system (Looped)

3. Combined system

11

Branching System (tree system)

Submain Dead End

Main

pipe

Source

Branching System

Advantages:

• Simple to design and build.

• Less expensive than other systems.

12

Disadvantages:

Dead End

Source

and bacterial growths.

• When repairs must be made to an individual line, service

connections beyond the point of repair will be without water

until the repairs are made.

• The pressure at the end of the line may become undesirably

low as additional extensions are made.

13

Grid System (Looped system)

Grid System

Advantages:

• The grid system overcomes all of the difficulties of

the branching system discussed before.

• No dead ends. (All of the pipes are interconnected).

• Water can reach a given point of withdrawal from

several directions.

14

Disadvantages:

system (Determination of the pipe sizes is somewhat

more complicated) .

• Expensive (consists of a large number of loops).

15

Combined System

Combined System

systems

• This type is widely used all over the world.

16

Design of Water Distribution

Systems

A properly designed water distribution system should

fulfill the following requirements:

Main requirements :

• Satisfied quality and quantity standards

Additional requirements :

• To enable reliable operation during irregular situations (power

failure, fires..)

• To be economically and financially viable, ensuring income

for operation, maintenance and extension.

• To be flexible with respect to the future extensions.

17

The design of water distribution systems must

undergo through different studies and steps:

Design Phases

Preliminary Studies

Network Layout

Hydraulic Analysis

18

Preliminary Studies:

Must be performed before starting the actual design:

1. Contour lines (or controlling elevations).

2. Digital maps showing present (and future) houses,

streets, lots, and so on..

3. Location of water sources so to help locating

distribution reservoirs.

19

Water Demand Studies:

Water consumption is ordinarily divided into the

following categories:

Domestic demand.

Agricultural demand.

Fire demand.

20

Domestic demand

• It is the amount of water used for Drinking, Cocking,

Gardening, Car Washing, Bathing, Laundry, Dish Washing,

and Toilet Flushing.

• The average water consumption is different from one

population to another. In Gaza strip the average

consumption is 70 L/capita/day which is very low compared

with other countries. For example, it is 250 L/c/day in

United States, and it is 180 L/c/day for population live in

Cairo (Egypt).

• The average consumption may increase with the increase in

standard of living.

• The water consumption varies hourly, daily, and monthly

21

The total amount of water for domestic use is a function of:

Population increase

Use Geometric-increase model

P P0 (1 r ) n P0 = recent population

r = rate of population growth

n = design period in years

P = population at the end of the design period.

Qdomestic = Qavg * P

22

Industrial and Commercial demand

and stores….

• Varies from one city to another and from one country

to another

• Hence should be studied for each case separately.

• However, it is sometimes taken as a percentage of the

domestic demand.

23

Agricultural demand

• It depends on the type of crops, soil, climate…

Fire demand

amount of water.

• Many formulas can be used to estimate the amount of

water needed for fire.

24

Fire demand Formulas

QF = fire demand l/s

QF 65 P (10.01 P ) P = population in thousands

QF 53 P P = population in thousands

QF 320 * C A A = areas of all stories of the building

under consideration (m2 )

C = constant depending on the type of

construction;

(Amounts of water needed for fire in these formulas are high).

25

Leakage and Losses

• It is attributable to:

Unauthorized connections

26

Design Criteria

efficient and economical water-distribution network

Pressure

Velocity

27

Velocity

sedimentation

• Not be more than 3 m/s to prevent erosion and

high head losses.

• Commonly used values are 1 - 1.5 m/sec.

28

Pressure

• Pressure in municipal distribution systems ranges from 150-

300 kPa in residential districts with structures of four stories

or less and 400-500 kPa in commercial districts.

• Also, for fire hydrants the pressure should not be less than

150 kPa (15 m of water).

not be less than 25 m of water.

of water 29

Pipe sizes

• Lines which provide only domestic flow may be as small as 100 mm

(4 in) but should not exceed 400 m in length (if dead-ended) or 600 m

if connected to the system at both ends.

communities with length not to exceed 100 m (if dead-ended) or 200

m if connected at both ends.

• The size of the small distribution mains is seldom less than 150 mm (6

in) with cross mains located at intervals not more than 180 m.

mains at the same maximum spacing. Major streets are provided with

lines not less than 305 mm (12 in) in diameter.

30

Head Losses

• Optimum range is 1-4 m/km.

• Maximum head loss should not exceed 10

m/km.

31

Design Period for Water supply Components

• The economic design period of the components of a

distribution system depends on

• Their life.

• First cost.

• And the ease of expandability.

32

Average Water Consumption

• From the water demand (preliminary) studies,

estimate the average and peak water

consumption for the area.

33

Network Layout

• Next step is to estimate pipe sizes on the basis

of water demand and local code requirements.

• The pipes are then drawn on a digital map

(using AutoCAD, for example) starting from

the water source.

• All the components (pipes, valves, fire

hydrants) of the water network should be

shown on the lines.

34

Pipe Networks

• A hydraulic model is useful for examining the impact

of design and operation decisions.

chapters can be solved using a hand calculator.

even for steady state conditions, but, as in simple

systems, the flow and pressure-head distribution

through a water distribution system must satisfy the

laws of conservation of mass and energy.

35

Pipe Networks

satisfy the following condition:

• The net flow into any junction must be zero

Q 0

• The net head loss a round any closed loop must

be zero. The HGL at each junction must have one

and only one elevation

• All head losses must satisfy the Moody and

minor-loss friction correlation

36

Node, Loop, and Pipes Pipe

Node

Loop

37

Hydraulic Analysis

After completing all preliminary studies and

layout drawing of the network, one of the

methods of hydraulic analysis is used to

• Size the pipes and

• Assign the pressures and velocities

required.

38

Hydraulic Analysis of Water Networks

basic hydraulic principles that govern simple and

compound pipes that were discussed previously.

• The following are the most common methods used to

analyze the Grid-system networks:

1. Hardy Cross method.

2. Sections method.

3. Circle method.

4. Computer programs (WaterCAD,Epanet, Loop, Alied...)

39

Hardy Cross Method

• This method is applicable to closed-loop pipe

networks (a complex set of pipes in parallel).

• Was originally devised by professor Hardy Cross.

40

Assumptions / Steps of this method:

directly from pipes.

2. The discharge, Q , entering the system will have (+) value,

and the discharge, Q , leaving the system will have (-) value.

3. Usually neglect minor losses since these will be small with

respect to those in long pipes, i.e.; Or could be included as

equivalent lengths in each pipe.

4. Assume flows for each individual pipe in the network.

5. At any junction (node), as done for pipes in parallel,

Qin Qout or Q 0

41

6. Around any loop in the grid, the sum of head losses must

equal to zero: hf 0

loop

produce positive head losses; counterclockwise flows are then (-) and

produce negative head losses.

– This fact is called the head balance of each loop, and this can be valid

only if the assumed Q for each pipe, within the loop, is correct.

• The probability of initially guessing all flow rates correctly is

virtually null.

• Therefore, to balance the head around each loop, a flow rate

correction () for each loop in the network should be

computed, and hence some iteration scheme is needed.

42

7. After finding the discharge correction, (one for each

loop) , the assumed discharges Q0 are adjusted and another

iteration is carried out until all corrections (values of )

become zero or negligible. At this point the condition of :

h f 0.0 is satisfied.

loop

Notes:

• The flows in pipes common to two loops are positive in

one loop and negative in the other.

• When calculated corrections are applied, with careful

attention to sign, pipes common to two loops receive both

corrections.

43

How to find the correction value ( )

hF kQn

(1)

n 2 Darcy, Manning Q Qo

(2)

n 1.85 Hazen William

from 1 & 2

n nn 1 n 2 2

hf kQ k Qo k Qo nQo

n 1

Qo ....

n n

2

hf kQn k Qon nQon1

For each loop

F 0

h

loop

kQ n

loop

44

kQon hF

o

nkQ n 1

n

hF

Qo

• Note that if Hazen Williams (which is generally used in this method) is

used to find the head losses, then

h f k Q1.85 (n = 1.85) , then

hf

hf

.

185

Q

• If Darcy-Wiesbach is used to find the head losses, then

h f k Q2 (n = 2) , then

h f

hf

2 45

Q

Example

Solve the following pipe network using Hazen William Method CHW =100

63 L/s 1

24

11.4

4

3 2

37.8 L/s

pipe L D

1 305m 150mm

2 305m 150mm 5

3 610m 200mm

4 457m 150mm 25.2 L/s

5 153m 200mm 46

10.7 L

hf 1.852 4.87

Q1.852

C HW 100, Q in L/s

C HW D 1

1.852

10.7 L Q

hf 4

1.852 4.87

C HW D 1000 3 2

L

h f 6.02 10 9 4.87 Q1.852

D 5

h f K Q1.852

hF 0.28 hF 0.45

for pipe 2 in loop 1

1 0.24 2 0.57

hF 1.850.64 hF 1.850.43 1 2

n n

Qo Qo

for pipe 2 in loop 2

47

2 1

1

3 4

2

1 0.15 1 0.09

hF 1.850.64 hF 1.850.42

n n 1 2

Qo Qo

for pipe 2 in loop 2

2 1 48

Example

network using Hazen William

Method CHW =120

49

Iteration 1

50

for Iteration 1

kQon hf

Δ

o

nkQ n 1

n

hf

Qo

1.01

Δ1 0.014

1.8538.86

0.84

Δ2 0.006

1.8579.41

4.1

Δ3 0.022

1.85101.71

1.53

Δ4 0.005

1.85154.75 51

Iteration 2

52

Iteration 3

53

Example

• The figure below represents a simplified pipe network.

• Flows for the area have been disaggregated to the nodes,

and a major fire flow has been added at node G.

• The water enters the system at node A.

• Pipe diameters and lengths are shown on the figure.

• Find the flow rate of water in each pipe using the Hazen-

Williams equation with CHW = 100.

• Carry out calculations until the corrections are less then

0.2 m3/min.

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

General Notes

• Occasionally the assumed direction of flow will be incorrect. In such

cases the method will produce corrections larger than the original

flow and in subsequent calculations the direction will be reversed.

• Even when the initial flow assumptions are poor, the convergence

will usually be rapid. Only in unusual cases will more than three

iterations be necessary.

• The method is applicable to the design of new system or to evaluate

the proposed changes in an existing system.

• The pressure calculation in the above example assumes points are at

equal elevations. If they are not, the elevation difference must be

includes in the calculation.

• The balanced network must then be reviewed to assure that the

velocity and pressure criteria are satisfied. If some lines do not meet

the suggested criteria, it would be necessary to increase the 64

diameters of these pipes and repeat the calculations.

Summary

• Assigning clockwise flows and their associated head

losses are positive, the procedure is as follows:

Assume values of Q to satisfy Q = 0.

Calculate HL from Q using hf = K1Q2 .

If hf = 0, then the solution is correct.

If hf 0, then apply a correction factor, Q, to all

Q and repeat from step (2).

For practical purposes, the calculation is usually

terminated when hf < 0.01 m or Q < 1 L/s.

A reasonably efficient value of Q for rapid

convergence is given by;

Q

H L

2

H

L

Q

65

Example

• The following example contains nodes with different

elevations and pressure heads.

• Neglecting minor loses in the pipes, determine:

• The flows in the pipes.

• The pressure heads at the nodes.

66

Assume T= 150C

67

Assume flows magnitude and direction

68

First Iteration

• Loop (1)

L D Q hf hf/Q

Pipe f

(m) (m) (m3/s) (m) (m/m3/s)

AB 600 0.25 0.12 0.0157 11.48 95.64

BE 200 0.10 0.01 0.0205 3.38 338.06

EF 600 0.15 -0.06 0.0171 -40.25 670.77

FA 200 0.20 -0.10 0.0162 -8.34 83.42

S -33.73 1187.89

33.73

0.01419 m3 /s 14.20 L/s

2(1187.89) 69

First Iteration

• Loop (2)

L D Q hf hf/Q

Pipe f

(m) (m) (m3/s) (m) (m/m3/s)

BC 600 0.15 0.05 0.0173 28.29 565.81

CD 200 0.10 0.01 0.0205 3.38 338.05

DE 600 0.15 -0.02 0.0189 -4.94 246.78

EB 200 0.10 -0.01 0.0205 -3.38 338.05

S 23.35 1488.7

23.35

0.00784 m3 /s 7.842 L/s

2(1488.7) 70

14.20

Second Iteration

14.20 14.20 7.84

• Loop (1)

14.20

L D Q hf hf/Q

Pipe f

(m) (m) (m3/s) (m) (m/m3/s)

AB 600 0.25 0.1342 0.0156 14.27 106.08

BE 200 0.10 0.03204 0.0186 31.48 982.60

EF 600 0.15 -0.0458 0.0174 -23.89 521.61

FA 200 0.20 -0.0858 0.0163 -6.21 72.33

S 15.65 1682.62

15.65

0.00465 m3 /s 4.65 L/s

2(1682.62) 71

7.84

Second Iteration

14.20 7.84 7.84

• Loop (2)

7.84

L D Q hf hf/Q

Pipe f

(m) (m) (m3/s) (m) (m/m3/s)

BC 600 0.15 0.04216 0.0176 20.37 483.24

CD 200 0.10 0.00216 0.0261 0.20 93.23

DE 600 0.15 -0.02784 0.0182 -9.22 331.23

EB 200 0.10 -0.03204 0.0186 -31.48 982.60

S -20.13 1890.60

20.13

0.00532 m3 /s 5.32 L/s

2(1890.3) 72

Third Iteration

• Loop (1)

L D Q hf hf/Q

Pipe f

(m) (m) (m3/s) (m) (m/m3/s)

AB 600 0.25 0.1296 0.0156 13.30 102.67

BE 200 0.10 0.02207 0.0190 15.30 693.08

EF 600 0.15 -0.05045 0.0173 -28.78 570.54

FA 200 0.20 -0.09045 0.0163 -6.87 75.97

S -7.05 1442.26

7.05

0.00244 m3 /s 2.44 L/s

2(1442.26) 73

Third Iteration

• Loop (2)

L D Q hf hf/Q

Pipe f

(m) (m) (m3/s) (m) (m/m3/s)

BC 600 0.15 0.04748 0.0174 25.61 539.30

CD 200 0.10 0.00748 0.0212 1.96 262.11

DE 600 0.15 -0.02252 0.0186 -6.17 274.07

EB 200 0.10 -0.02207 0.0190 -15.30 693.08

S 6.1 1768.56

6.1

0.00172 m3 /s 1.72 L/s

2(1768.56) 74

After applying Third correction

75

Velocity and Pressure Heads:

Q V hf

pipe

(l/s) (m/s) (m)

13.79 23.85

AB 131.99 2.689 13.79

6.52 21.35 1.21

76

Velocity and Pressure Heads:

p/g+Z Z P/g

Node

(m) (m) (m)

13.79 23.85

A 70 30 40

B 56.21 25 31.21

6.52

D 31.15 20 11.15

F 63.48 25 38.48

77

Example

For the square loop shown, find the discharge in all the pipes.

All pipes are 1 km long and 300 mm in diameter, with a friction

factor of 0.0163. Assume that minor losses can be neglected.

78

•Solution:

Assume values of Q to satisfy continuity equations all

at nodes.

The head loss is calculated using; HL = K1Q2

HL = hf + hLm

But minor losses can be neglected: hLm = 0

Thus HL = hf

Head loss can be calculated using the Darcy-Weisbach

equation

L V2

hf

D 2g

79

L V2

HL hf

D 2g

1000 V2

H L 0.0163 x x

0.3 2 x 9.81

Q2 Q2

H L 2.77 2.77 x

2 2

A 2

x 0.3

4

H L 554Q 2

H L K' Q 2

K ' 554

First trial

AB 60 2.0 0.033

BC 40 0.886 0.0222

CD 0 0 0

AD -40 -0.886 0.0222

S 2.00 0.0774

Since HL > 0.01 m, then correction has to be applied.

80

HL 2

Q 12.92 L / s

HL 2 x 0.0774

2

Q

Second trial

AB 47.08 1.23 0.0261

BC 27.08 0.407 0.015

CD -12.92 -0.092 0.007

AD -52.92 -1.555 0.0294

S -0.0107 0.07775

Thus, the discharge in each pipe is as follows (to the nearest integer).

Pipe Discharge

(L/s)

AB 47

BC 27

CD -13

AD -53

81

قال اهلل تعالى:

اهلل

82

حب الدنيا

أن

اعمم ّ

جمود العين من قسوة القمب،

وقسوة القمب من كثرة الذنوب،

وكثرة الذنوب من نسيان الموت،

ونسيان الموت من طول األمل،

وطول األمل من شدة الحرص،

وشدة الحرص من حب الدنيا،

وحب الدنيا رأس كل خطيئة.

83

تهادوا تحابوا

84

تقوى هللا مفتاح كل نجاح

85

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