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Guide for the Design and
Construction of Externally
Bonded FRP Systems for
Strengthening Concrete
Structures
ACI 440.2R-17

Reported by ACI Committee 440

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First Printing
May 2017
ISBN: 978-1-945487-59-0

Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for
Strengthening Concrete Structures
Copyright by the American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. All rights reserved. This material
may not be reproduced or copied, in whole or part, in any printed, mechanical, electronic, film, or other
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ACI 440.2R-17

Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally


Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete
Structures
Reported by ACI Committee 440

Carol K. Shield, Chair William J. Gold, Secretary

Tarek Alkhrdaji Amir Z. Fam Michael W. Lee Sami H. Rizkalla


Charles E. Bakis Russell Gentry Maria Lopez de Murphy Rajan Sen
Lawrence C. Bank Nabil F. Grace Ibrahim M. Mahfouz Rudolf Seracino
Abdeldjelil Belarbi Mark F. Green Amir Mirmiran Venkatesh Seshappa
Brahim Benmokrane Zareh B. Gregorian John J. Myers Pedro F. Silva
Luke A. Bisby Doug D. Gremel Antonio Nanni Samuel A. Steere, III
Gregg J. Blaszak Shawn P. Gross Ayman M. Okeil Jennifer E. Tanner
Hakim Bouadi H. R. Trey Hamilton III Carlos E. Ospina Jay Thomas
Timothy E. Bradberry Issam E. Harik Renato Parretti Houssam A. Toutanji
Vicki L. Brown Kent A. Harries* Maria A. Polak J. Gustavo Tumialan
John Busel Mark P. Henderson Max L. Porter Milan Vatovec
Raafat El-Hacha Ravindra Kanitkar Andrea Prota David White
Garth J. Fallis Yail Jimmy Kim Hayder A. Rasheed Sarah E. Witt*
*Co-chairs of the subcommittee that prepared this document.

Consulting Members
P. N. Balaguru Srinivasa L. Iyer Mark A. Postma Luc R. Taerwe
Craig A. Ballinger Koichi Kishitani Ferdinand S. Rostasy Ralejs Tepfers
Harald G. F. Budelmann Howard S. Kliger Mohsen Shahawy Taketo Uomoto
C. J. Burgoyne Kyuichi Maruyama Surendra P. Shah Paul Zia
Rami M. Elhassan Antoine E. Naaman Yasuhisa Sonobe
David M. Gale Hajime Okamura Minoru Sugita

Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) systems for strengthening concrete easy to install, and noncorroding. Due to the characteristics of
structures are an alternative to traditional strengthening techniques FRP materials as well as the behavior of members strengthened
such as steel plate bonding, section enlargement, and external ZLWK)53VSHFL¿FJXLGDQFHRQWKHXVHRIWKHVHV\VWHPVLVQHHGHG
post-tensioning. FRP strengthening systems use FRP composite This guide offers general information on the history and use of FRP
materials as supplemental externally-bonded or near-surface- strengthening systems; a description of the material properties of
mounted reinforcement. FRP systems offer advantages over tradi- FRP; and recommendations on the engineering, construction, and
tional strengthening techniques: they are lightweight, relatively inspection of FRP systems used to strengthen concrete structures.
This guide is based on the knowledge gained from experimental
UHVHDUFK DQDO\WLFDO ZRUN DQG ¿HOG DSSOLFDWLRQV RI )53 V\VWHPV
ACI Committee Reports, Guides, and Commentaries are used to strengthen concrete structures.
intended for guidance in planning, designing, executing, and
inspecting construction. This document is intended for the use Keywords: DUDPLG ¿EHUV EULGJHV EXLOGLQJV FDUERQ ¿EHUV FRUURVLRQ
RILQGLYLGXDOVZKRDUHFRPSHWHQWWRHYDOXDWHWKHVLJQL¿FDQFH FUDFNLQJGHYHORSPHQWOHQJWKHDUWKTXDNHUHVLVWDQFH¿EHUUHLQIRUFHGSRO\-
and limitations of its content and recommendations and who PHUVVWUXFWXUDOGHVLJQ
will accept responsibility for the application of the material it
contains. The American Concrete Institute disclaims any and
all responsibility for the stated principles. The Institute shall
not be liable for any loss or damage arising therefrom.
Reference to this document shall not be made in contract ACI 440.2R-17 supersedes ACI 440.2R-08 and was adopted and published May 2017.
Copyright © 2017, American Concrete Institute
documents. If items found in this document are desired by
All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by
the Architect/Engineer to be a part of the contract documents, any means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic
they shall be restated in mandatory language for incorporation or mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual
by the Architect/Engineer. reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless
permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

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2 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

CONTENTS ²6HOHFWLRQRI)53V\VWHPVS
²'HVLJQPDWHULDOSURSHUWLHVS
CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE, p. 3
1.1—Introduction, p. 3 CHAPTER 10—FLEXURAL STRENGTHENING, p. 24
1.2—Scope, p. 4 10.1—Nominal strength, p. 24
10.2—Reinforced concrete members, p. 24
CHAPTER 2—NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS, p. 6 ²3UHVWUHVVHGFRQFUHWHPHPEHUVS
2.1—Notation, p. 6 10.4—Moment redistribution, p. 31
²'H¿QLWLRQVS
CHAPTER 11—SHEAR STRENGTHENING, p. 31
CHAPTER 3—BACKGROUND INFORMATION, p. 10 11.1—General considerations, p. 32
3.1—Historical development, p. 10 11.2—Wrapping schemes, p. 32
3.2—Commercially available externally bonded FRP 11.3—Nominal shear strength, p. 32
systems, p. 10
CHAPTER 12—STRENGTHENING OF MEMBERS
CHAPTER 4—CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND SUBJECTED TO AXIAL FORCE OR COMBINED
PROPERTIES, p. 11 AXIAL AND BENDING FORCES, p. 34
4.1—Constituent materials, p. 11 12.1—Pure axial compression, p. 34
4.2—Physical properties, p. 12 12.2—Combined axial compression and bending, p. 36
4.3—Mechanical properties, p. 12 12.3—Ductility enhancement, p. 36
4.4—Time-dependent behavior, p. 13 12.4—Pure axial tension, p. 37
4.5—Durability, p. 14
²)53V\VWHPVTXDOL¿FDWLRQS CHAPTER 13—SEISMIC STRENGTHENING, p. 37
13.1—Background, p. 38
CHAPTER 5—SHIPPING, STORAGE, AND 13.2—FRP properties for seismic design, p. 38
HANDLING, p. 15 ²&RQ¿QHPHQWZLWK)53S
5.1—Shipping, p. 15 13.4—Flexural strengthening, p. 40
5.2—Storage, p. 15 13.5—Shear strengthening, p. 41
5.3—Handling, p. 15 13.6—Beam-column joints, p. 41
13.7—Strengthening reinforced concrete shear walls, p. 41
CHAPTER 6—INSTALLATION, p. 15
6.1—Contractor competency, p. 16 CHAPTER 14—FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER
6.2—Temperature, humidity, and moisture considerations, REINFORCEMENT DETAILS, p. 43
p. 16 14.1—Bond and delamination, p. 43
²(TXLSPHQWS 14.2—Detailing of laps and splices, p. 44
6.4—Substrate repair and surface preparation, p. 16 14.3—Bond of near-surface-mounted systems, p. 45
6.5—Mixing of resins, p. 17
6.6—Application of FRP systems, p. 17 CHAPTER 15—DRAWINGS, SPECIFICATIONS,
6.7—Alignment of FRP materials, p. 18 AND SUBMITTALS, p. 46
6.8—Multiple plies and lap splices, p. 18 ²(QJLQHHULQJUHTXLUHPHQWVS
²&XULQJRIUHVLQVS ²'UDZLQJVDQGVSHFL¿FDWLRQVS
²7HPSRUDU\SURWHFWLRQS 15.3—Submittals, p. 46

CHAPTER 7—INSPECTION, EVALUATION, AND CHAPTER 16—DESIGN EXAMPLES, p. 47


ACCEPTANCE, p. 19 16.1—Calculation of FRP system tensile properties, p. 47
²,QVSHFWLRQS 16.3—Flexural strengthening of an interior reinforced
²(YDOXDWLRQDQGDFFHSWDQFHS concrete beam with FRP laminates, p. 50
16.4—Flexural strengthening of an interior reinforced
CHAPTER 8—MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR, p. 20 concrete beam with near-surface-mounted FRP bars, p. 56
8.1—General, p. 20 16.5—Flexural strengthening of an interior prestressed
8.2—Inspection and assessment, p. 20 concrete beam with FRP laminates, p. 62
8.3—Repair of strengthening system, p. 21 16.6—Shear strengthening of an interior T-beam, p. 68
8.4—Repair of surface coating, p. 21 16.7—Shear strengthening of an exterior column, p. 71
16.8—Strengthening of a noncircular concrete column for
CHAPTER 9—GENERAL DESIGN axial load increase, p. 73
CONSIDERATIONS, p. 21 ²6WUHQJWKHQLQJRIDQRQFLUFXODUFRQFUHWHFROXPQIRU
²'HVLJQSKLORVRSK\S increase in axial and bending forces, p. 76
²6WUHQJWKHQLQJOLPLWVS

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 3

16.11—Lap-splice clamping for seismic strengthening, DQG UHVLQV FRPELQHG LQ D VSHFL¿F PDQQHU DQG LQVWDOOHG E\
p. 86 D VSHFL¿F PHWKRG 7KHVH V\VWHPV KDYH EHHQ GHYHORSHG
16.12—Seismic shear strengthening, p. 88 through material characterization and structural testing.
16.13—Flexural and shear seismic strengthening of shear 8QWHVWHG FRPELQDWLRQV RI ¿EHUV DQG UHVLQV FRXOG UHVXOW LQ
ZDOOVS an unexpected range of properties as well as potential mate-
rial incompatibilities. Any FRP system considered for use
CHAPTER 17—REFERENCES, p. 97 VKRXOG KDYH VXI¿FLHQW WHVW GDWD WR GHPRQVWUDWH DGHTXDWH
$XWKRUHGGRFXPHQWVS performance of the entire system in similar applications,
including its method of installation. ACI 440.8 provides a
APPENDIX A—MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF VSHFL¿FDWLRQIRUXQLGLUHFWLRQDOFDUERQDQGJODVV)53PDWH-
CARBON, GLASS, AND ARAMID FIBERS, p. 105 rials made using the wet layup process.
The use of FRP systems developed through material
APPENDIX B—SUMMARY OF STANDARD TEST characterization and structural testing, including well-
METHODS, p. 107 documented proprietary systems, is recommended. The
XVHRIXQWHVWHGFRPELQDWLRQVRI¿EHUVDQGUHVLQVVKRXOGEH
APPENDIX C—AREAS OF FUTURE RESEARCH, avoided. A comprehensive set of test standards and guides
p. 108 for FRP systems has been developed by several organiza-
tions, including ASTM, ACI, ICRI, and ICC.
APPENDIX D—METHODOLOGY FOR 1.1.2 Sustainability—Sustainability of FRP materials may
COMPUTATION OF SIMPLIFIED P-M INTERACTION be evaluated considering environmental, economic, and
DIAGRAM FOR NONCIRCULAR COLUMNS, p. 109 social goals. These should be considered not only throughout
the construction phase, but also through the service life
CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE of the structure in terms of maintenance and preservation,
and for the end-of-life phase. This represents the basis for
1.1—Introduction DOLIHF\FOHDSSURDFKWRVXVWDLQDELOLW\ Menna et al. 2013 
7KH VWUHQJWKHQLQJ RU UHWUR¿WWLQJ RI H[LVWLQJ FRQFUHWH /LIH F\FOH DVVHVVPHQW /&$  WDNHV LQWR DFFRXQW WKH HQYL-
structures to resist higher design loads, correct strength loss ronmental impact of a product, starting with raw material
GXHWRGHWHULRUDWLRQFRUUHFWGHVLJQRUFRQVWUXFWLRQGH¿FLHQ- extraction, followed by production, distribution, transporta-
cies, or increase ductility has historically been accomplished tion, installation, use, and end of life. LCA for FRP compos-
XVLQJ FRQYHQWLRQDO PDWHULDOV DQG FRQVWUXFWLRQ WHFKQLTXHV ites depends on the product and market application, and
Externally bonded steel plates, steel or concrete jackets, and results vary. FRP composite materials used to strengthen
external post-tensioning are some of the many traditional FRQFUHWHHOHPHQWVFDQXVHERWKFDUERQ¿EHUDQGJODVV¿EHU
WHFKQLTXHVDYDLODEOH which are derived from fossil fuels or minerals, respectively,
&RPSRVLWHPDWHULDOVPDGHRI¿EHUVLQDSRO\PHULFUHVLQ and therefore have impacts related to raw material extrac-
DOVR NQRZQ DV ¿EHUUHLQIRUFHG SRO\PHUV )53V  KDYH WLRQ$OWKRXJKFDUERQDQGJODVV¿EHUVKDYHKLJKHPERGLHG
emerged as a viable option for repair and rehabilitation. For energies associated with production, on the order of 86,000
WKHSXUSRVHVRIWKLVJXLGHDQ)53V\VWHPLVGH¿QHGDVWKH %WXOE DQG  %WXOE  DQG  P-NJ  UHVSHFWLYHO\
¿EHUVDQGUHVLQVXVHGWRFUHDWHWKHFRPSRVLWHODPLQDWHDOO +RZDUWKHWDO WKHRYHUDOOZHLJKWSURGXFHGDQGXVHG
applicable resins used to bond it to the concrete substrate, LV RUGHUV RI PDJQLWXGH ORZHU WKDQ VWHHO KDYLQJ HPERGLHG
and all applied coatings used to protect the constituent mate- HQHUJ\ RI  %WXOE > P-NJ@  FRQFUHWH  %WXOE
rials. Coatings used exclusively for aesthetic reasons are not > P-NJ@  DQG UHLQIRUFLQJ VWHHO  %WXOE > P-NJ@ 
considered part of an FRP system. *ULI¿QDQG+VX 7KHHPERGLHGHQHUJ\DQGSRWHQWLDO
FRP materials are lightweight, noncorroding, and exhibit environmental impact of resin and adhesive systems are less
high tensile strength. These materials are readily available in studied, although the volume used is also small in compar-
several forms, ranging from factory-produced pultruded lami- ison with conventional construction materials. In distribution
QDWHVWRGU\¿EHUVKHHWVWKDWFDQEHZUDSSHGWRFRQIRUPWRWKH and transportation, FRP composites’ lower weight leads to
geometry of a structure before adding the polymer resin. The less impact from transportation, and easier material handling
UHODWLYHO\WKLQSUR¿OHVRIFXUHG)53V\VWHPVDUHRIWHQGHVLU- DOORZV VPDOOHU HTXLSPHQW GXULQJ LQVWDOODWLRQ )RU LQVWDOOD-
able in applications where aesthetics or access is a concern. tion and use, FRP composites are characterized as having a
FRP systems can also be used in areas with limited access ORQJHUVHUYLFHOLIHEHFDXVHWKH\DUHPRUHGXUDEOHDQGUHTXLUH
ZKHUHWUDGLWLRQDOWHFKQLTXHVZRXOGEHGLI¿FXOWWRLPSOHPHQW less maintenance than conventional materials. The end-of-
The basis for this document is the knowledge gained from life options for FRP composites are more complex.
a comprehensive review of experimental research, analytical Although less than 1 percent of FRP composites are
ZRUNDQG¿HOGDSSOLFDWLRQVRI)53VWUHQJWKHQLQJV\VWHPV currently recycled, composites can be recycled in many
Areas where further research is needed are highlighted in ways, including mechanical grinding, incineration, and
this document and compiled in Appendix C. FKHPLFDO VHSDUDWLRQ Howarth et al. 2014  ,W LV GLI¿FXOW
1.1.1 Use of FRP systems—This document refers to KRZHYHUWRVHSDUDWHWKHPDWHULDOV¿EHUVDQGUHVLQVZLWKRXW
FRPPHUFLDOO\ DYDLODEOH )53 V\VWHPV FRQVLVWLQJ RI ¿EHUV some degradation of the resulting recycled materials. The

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4 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

market for recycled composite materials is small, although durability of the FRP system may also affect the tensile
aircraft manufacturers in particular are considering methods modulus of elasticity of the material used for design.
and programs to recycle and repurpose composite materials Many issues regarding bond of the FRP system to the
at the end of an aircraft’s life cycle. substrate remain the focus of a great deal of research.
Apart from the FRP materials and systems, their use in )RU ERWK ÀH[XUDO DQG VKHDU VWUHQJWKHQLQJ WKHUH DUH PDQ\
WKH UHSDLU DQG UHWUR¿W RI VWUXFWXUHV WKDW PD\ RWKHUZLVH EH different modes of debonding failure that can govern the
decommissioned or demolished is inherently sustainable. strength of an FRP-strengthened member. While most of
In many cases, FRP composites permit extending the life or WKH GHERQGLQJ PRGHV KDYH EHHQ LGHQWL¿HG E\ UHVHDUFKHUV
enhancing the safety or performance of existing infrastruc- more accurate methods of predicting debonding are still
ture at a monetary and environmental cost of only a frac- QHHGHG7KURXJKRXWWKHGHVLJQSURFHGXUHVVLJQL¿FDQWOLPL-
WLRQ RI UHSODFHPHQW$GGLWLRQDOO\ GXH WR WKH KLJK VSHFL¿F WDWLRQVRQWKHVWUDLQDFKLHYHGLQWKH)53PDWHULDO DQGWKXV
strength and stiffness of FRP composites, an FRP-based WKHVWUHVVDFKLHYHG DUHLPSRVHGWRFRQVHUYDWLYHO\DFFRXQW
repair of an existing concrete structure will often represent a for debonding failure modes. Future development of these
less energy-intensive option than a cementitious or metallic- design procedures should include more thorough methods of
based repair. predicting debonding.
:LWKLQ WKLV IUDPHZRUN RI VXVWDLQDELOLW\ )53 UHWUR¿W RI This document gives guidance on proper detailing
H[LVWLQJVWUXFWXUHVPD\OHDGWREHQH¿WVFRQWULEXWLQJWRWKH and installation of FRP systems to prevent many types of
ORQJHYLW\ DQG VDIHW\ RI UHWUR¿WWHG VWUXFWXUHV 7KXV )53 debonding failure modes. Steps related to the surface prepa-
UHWUR¿WFDQEHUHJDUGHGDVDYLDEOHPHWKRGIRUVXVWDLQDEOH ration and proper termination of the FRP system are vital
design for strengthening and rehabilitation of existing struc- in achieving the levels of strength predicted by the proce-
tures. The environmental advantages of FRP, as evaluated dures in this document. Research has been conducted on
by LCA investigations, have been enumerated by Napolano various methods of anchoring FRP strengthening systems,
HWDO  , 0ROLQHU6DQWLVWHYHHWDO  , Zhang et al. VXFK DV 8ZUDSV PHFKDQLFDO IDVWHQHUV ¿EHU DQFKRUV DQG
 , and 'DV  . U-anchors. Because no anchorage design guidelines are
currently available, the performance of any anchorage
1.2—Scope system should be substantiated through representative
This document provides guidance for the selection, SK\VLFDOWHVWLQJWKDWLQFOXGHVWKHVSHFL¿FDQFKRUDJHV\VWHP
design, and installation of FRP systems for externally installation procedure, surface preparation, and expected
strengthening concrete structures. Information on material environmental conditions.
SURSHUWLHV GHVLJQ LQVWDOODWLRQ TXDOLW\ FRQWURO DQG PDLQ- 7KHGHVLJQHTXDWLRQVJLYHQLQWKLVGRFXPHQWDUHWKHUHVXOW
tenance of FRP systems used as external reinforcement is of research primarily conducted on moderately sized and
presented. This information can be used to select an FRP proportioned members fabricated of normalweight concrete.
system for increasing the strength, stiffness, or both, of rein- Caution should be given to applications involving strength-
forced concrete beams or the ductility of columns and other ening of very large or lightweight concrete members or
applications. VWUHQJWKHQLQJLQGLVWXUEHGUHJLRQV 'UHJLRQV RIVWUXFWXUDO
$VLJQL¿FDQWERG\RIUHVHDUFKVHUYHVDVWKHEDVLVIRUWKLV members such as deep beams, corbels, and dapped beam
JXLGH 7KLV UHVHDUFK FRQGXFWHG VLQFH WKH V LQFOXGHV HQGV :KHQ ZDUUDQWHG VSHFL¿F OLPLWDWLRQV RQ WKH VL]H RI
DQDO\WLFDO VWXGLHV H[SHULPHQWDO ZRUN DQG PRQLWRUHG ¿HOG members and the state of stress are given herein.
applications of FRP strengthening systems. Based on the This guide applies only to FRP strengthening systems used
available research, the design procedures outlined herein are as additional tensile reinforcement. These systems should
considered conservative. not be used as compressive reinforcement. While FRP mate-
The durability and long-term performance of FRP mate- rials can support compressive stresses, there are numerous
ULDOV KDV EHHQ WKH VXEMHFW RI PXFK UHVHDUFK KRZHYHU WKLV issues surrounding the use of FRP for compression. Micro-
research remains ongoing. The design guidelines in this EXFNOLQJRI¿EHUVFDQRFFXULIDQ\UHVLQYRLGVDUHSUHVHQWLQ
guide account for environmental degradation and long-term the laminate. Laminates themselves can buckle if not prop-
durability by providing reduction factors for various envi- erly adhered or anchored to the substrate, and highly unre-
ronments. Long-term fatigue and creep are also addressed OLDEOHFRPSUHVVLYHVWUHQJWKVUHVXOWIURPPLVDOLJQLQJ¿EHUV
by stress limitations indicated in this document. These LQ WKH ¿HOG7KLV GRFXPHQW GRHV QRW DGGUHVV WKH FRQVWUXF-
factors and limitations are considered conservative. As more WLRQ TXDOLW\ FRQWURO DQG PDLQWHQDQFH LVVXHV WKDW ZRXOG
research becomes available, however, these factors may be be involved with the use of the material for this purpose,
PRGL¿HG DQG WKH VSHFL¿F HQYLURQPHQWDO FRQGLWLRQV DQG nor does it address the design concerns surrounding such
loading conditions to which they should apply will be better applications.
GH¿QHG$GGLWLRQDOO\WKHFRXSOLQJHIIHFWRIHQYLURQPHQWDO 7KLV GRFXPHQW GRHV QRW VSHFL¿FDOO\ DGGUHVV PDVRQU\
FRQGLWLRQV DQG ORDGLQJ FRQGLWLRQV UHTXLUHV IXUWKHU VWXG\ FRQFUHWH PDVRQU\ XQLWV EULFN RU FOD\ WLOH  FRQVWUXFWLRQ
Caution is advised in applications where the FRP system including masonry walls. Information on the repair of unre-
is subjected simultaneously to extreme environmental and inforced masonry using FRP can be found in ACI 440.7R.
stress conditions. The factors associated with the long-term 1.2.1 Applications and use—FRP systems can be used to
rehabilitate or restore the strength of a deteriorated structural

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 5

PHPEHUUHWUR¿WRUVWUHQJWKHQDVRXQGVWUXFWXUDOPHPEHUWR member integrity after loss of the FRP system, is provided


resist increased loads due to changes in use of the structure, LQ&KDSWHU
or address design or construction errors. The licensed design 1.2.1.2 Fire and life safety—FRP-strengthened struc-
professional should determine if an FRP system is a suitable WXUHV VKRXOG FRPSO\ ZLWK DSSOLFDEOH EXLOGLQJ DQG ¿UH
VWUHQJWKHQLQJ WHFKQLTXH EHIRUH VHOHFWLQJ WKH W\SH RI )53 FRGHV6PRNHJHQHUDWLRQDQGÀDPHVSUHDGUDWLQJVLQDFFRU-
system. dance with ASTM E84VKRXOGEHVDWLV¿HGIRUWKHLQVWDOOD-
To assess the suitability of an FRP system for a partic- tion according to applicable building codes, depending on
ular application, the licensed design professional should WKH FODVVL¿FDWLRQ RI WKH EXLOGLQJ &RDWLQJV Apicella and
perform a condition assessment of the existing structure ,PEURJQR   DQG LQVXODWLRQ V\VWHPV Williams et al.
that includes establishing its existing load-carrying capacity, 2006 FDQEHXVHGWROLPLWVPRNHDQGÀDPHVSUHDG
LGHQWLI\LQJ GH¿FLHQFLHV DQG WKHLU FDXVHV DQG GHWHUPLQLQJ Because of the degradation of most FRP materials at
the condition of the concrete substrate. The overall evalua- high temperature, the strength of externally bonded FRP
WLRQVKRXOGLQFOXGHDWKRURXJK¿HOGLQVSHFWLRQDUHYLHZRI V\VWHPV LV DVVXPHG WR EH ORVW FRPSOHWHO\ LQ D ¿UH XQOHVV
existing design or as-built documents, and a structural anal- it can be demonstrated that the FRP will remain effective
ysis in accordance with ACI 364.1R. Existing construction IRU WKH UHTXLUHG GXUDWLRQ RI WKH ¿UH7KH ¿UH UHVLVWDQFH RI
documents for the structure should be reviewed, including FRP-strengthened concrete members may be improved
WKH GHVLJQ GUDZLQJV SURMHFW VSHFL¿FDWLRQV DVEXLOW LQIRU- through the use of certain resins, coatings, insulation
PDWLRQ ¿HOG WHVW UHSRUWV SDVW UHSDLU GRFXPHQWDWLRQ DQG V\VWHPV RU RWKHU PHWKRGV RI ¿UH SURWHFWLRQ Bisby et al.
maintenance history documentation. The licensed design 2005b 6SHFL¿FJXLGDQFHLQFOXGLQJORDGFRPELQDWLRQVDQG
SURIHVVLRQDO VKRXOG FRQGXFW D WKRURXJK ¿HOG LQYHVWLJDWLRQ DUDWLRQDODSSURDFKWRFDOFXODWLQJVWUXFWXUDO¿UHUHVLVWDQFH
of the existing structure in accordance with ACI 437R, ACI is given in .
562, $&, 5, and other applicable ACI documents. As 1.2.1.3 Maximum service temperature—The physical
D PLQLPXP WKH ¿HOG LQYHVWLJDWLRQ VKRXOG GHWHUPLQH WKH and mechanical properties of the resin components of FRP
following: V\VWHPVDUHLQÀXHQFHGE\WHPSHUDWXUHDQGGHJUDGHDWWHPSHU-
D ([LVWLQJGLPHQVLRQVRIWKHVWUXFWXUDOPHPEHUV atures close to or above their glass-transition temperature
E /RFDWLRQVL]HDQGFDXVHRIFUDFNVDQGVSDOOV Tg Bisby et al. 2005b 7KHTg for commercially available,
F 4XDQWLW\DQGORFDWLRQRIH[LVWLQJUHLQIRUFLQJVWHHO ambient temperature-cured FRP systems typically ranges
G /RFDWLRQDQGH[WHQWRIFRUURVLRQRIUHLQIRUFLQJVWHHO IURP  WR ƒ)  WR ƒ&  7KH Tg for a particular
H 3UHVHQFHRIDFWLYHFRUURVLRQ FRP system can be obtained from the system manufacturer
I ,QSODFHFRPSUHVVLYHVWUHQJWKRIFRQFUHWH RUWKURXJKWHVWLQJE\G\QDPLFPHFKDQLFDODQDO\VLV '0$ 
J  6RXQGQHVV RI WKH FRQFUHWH HVSHFLDOO\ WKH FRQFUHWH according to ASTM E1640. Reported Tg values should be
cover, in all areas where the FRP system is to be bonded to DFFRPSDQLHG E\ GHVFULSWLRQV RI WKH WHVW FRQ¿JXUDWLRQ
the concrete VDPSOH SUHSDUDWLRQ FXULQJ FRQGLWLRQV WLPH WHPSHUDWXUH
The tensile strength of the concrete on surfaces where DQG KXPLGLW\  DQG VL]H KHDWLQJ UDWH DQG IUHTXHQF\ XVHG
the FRP system may be installed should be determined The Tg GH¿QHG E\ WKLV PHWKRG UHSUHVHQWV WKH H[WUDSRODWHG
by conducting a pull-off adhesion test in accordance with onset temperature for the sigmoidal change in the storage
ASTM C1583/C1583M. The in-place compressive strength modulus observed in going from a hard and brittle state to a
of concrete should be determined using cores in accordance soft and rubbery state of the material under test. This transi-
ZLWK$&,  UHTXLUHPHQWV7KH ORDGFDUU\LQJ FDSDFLW\ RI tion occurs over a temperature range of approximately 54°F
the existing structure should be based on the information ƒ& FHQWHUHGRQWKHTg. This change in state will adversely
JDWKHUHG LQ WKH ¿HOG LQYHVWLJDWLRQ WKH UHYLHZ RI GHVLJQ affect the mechanical and bond properties of the cured lami-
calculations and drawings, and as determined by analytical nates. For a dry environment, it is generally recommended
methods. Load tests or other methods can be incorporated that the anticipated service temperature of an FRP system
into the overall evaluation process if deemed appropriate. not exceed Tg±ƒ) Tg±ƒ&  Xian and Karbhari 2007 
FRP systems used to increase the strength of an existing where Tg is taken as the lowest Tg of the components of the
member should be designed in accordance with &KDSWHUV system comprising the load path. This recommendation is
through 15, which include a comprehensive discussion of for elevated service temperatures such as those found in hot
load limitations, rational load paths, effects of temperature regions or certain industrial environments. In cases where
and environment on FRP systems, loading considerations, the FRP will be exposed to a moist environment, the wet
and effects of reinforcing steel corrosion on FRP system glass-transition temperature Tgw VKRXOG EH XVHG Luo and
integrity. Wong 2002 7HVWLQJPD\EHUHTXLUHGWRGHWHUPLQHWKHFULW-
1.2.1.1 Strengthening limits—In general, to prevent ical service temperature for FRP in other environments. The
sudden failure of the member in case the FRP system is VSHFL¿FFDVHRI¿UHLVGHVFULEHGLQPRUHGHWDLOLQ
damaged, strengthening limits are imposed such that the 1.2.1.4 Minimum concrete substrate strength—FRP
increase in the load-carrying capacity of a member strength- systems need to be bonded to a sound concrete substrate
ened with an FRP system is limited. The philosophy is that a and should not be considered for applications on struc-
loss of FRP reinforcement should not cause member failure. tural members containing corroded reinforcing steel or
6SHFL¿FJXLGDQFHLQFOXGLQJORDGFRPELQDWLRQVIRUDVVHVVLQJ deteriorated concrete unless the substrate is repaired using

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6 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

the recommendations in 6.4. Concrete distress, deteriora- Asw = area of longitudinal reinforcement in the central
tion, and corrosion of existing reinforcing steel should be area of the wall, in.2 PP2
evaluated and addressed before the application of the FRP a  GHSWK RI WKH HTXLYDOHQW FRQFUHWH FRPSUHVVLRQ
system. Concrete deterioration concerns include, but are not EORFNLQ PP
limited to, alkali-silica reactions, delayed ettringite forma- ab = smaller cross-sectional dimension for rectangular
tion, carbonation, longitudinal cracking around corroded )53EDUVLQ PP
reinforcing steel, and laminar cracking at the location of the b  ZLGWKRIFRPSUHVVLRQIDFHRIPHPEHULQ PP
steel reinforcement. = short side dimension of compression member of
The strength of the existing concrete substrate is an impor- SULVPDWLFFURVVVHFWLRQLQ PP
tant parameter for bond-critical applications, including bb = larger cross-sectional dimension for rectangular
ÀH[XUHRUVKHDUVWUHQJWKHQLQJ7KHVXEVWUDWHVKRXOGSRVVHVV )53EDUVLQ PP
the necessary strength to develop the design stresses of the bw  ZHEZLGWKRUGLDPHWHURIFLUFXODUVHFWLRQLQ PP
FRP system through bond. The substrate, including all bond CE = environmental reduction factor
surfaces between repaired areas and the original concrete, Csc = compressive force in AscOE 1
VKRXOG KDYH VXI¿FLHQW GLUHFW WHQVLOH DQG VKHDU VWUHQJWK WR c  GLVWDQFH IURP H[WUHPH FRPSUHVVLRQ ¿EHU WR WKH
transfer force to the FRP system. For bond-critical appli- QHXWUDOD[LVLQ PP
FDWLRQVWKHWHQVLOHVWUHQJWKVKRXOGEHDWOHDVWSVL  cy  GLVWDQFH IURP H[WUHPH FRPSUHVVLRQ ¿EHU WR WKH
03D GHWHUPLQHGE\XVLQJDSXOORIIW\SHDGKHVLRQWHVWSHU QHXWUDOD[LVDWVWHHO\LHOGLQJLQ PP
ICRI 210.3R or ASTM C1583/C1583M. FRP systems should D = diameter of compression member for circular cross
not be used when the concrete substrate has a compressive VHFWLRQVRUGLDJRQDOGLVWDQFHHTXDOWR b 2 + h 2 for
strength fcƍ OHVV WKDQ  SVL  03D  &RQWDFWFULWLFDO SULVPDWLF FURVV VHFWLRQ GLDPHWHU RI HTXLYDOHQW
DSSOLFDWLRQVVXFKDVFROXPQZUDSSLQJIRUFRQ¿QHPHQWWKDW FLUFXODUFROXPQ LQ PP
rely only on intimate contact between the FRP system and d  GLVWDQFHIURPH[WUHPHFRPSUHVVLRQ¿EHUWRFHQWURLG
the concrete, are not governed by these minimum values. RIWHQVLRQUHLQIRUFHPHQWLQ PP
Design stresses in the FRP system are developed by defor- dƍ  GLVWDQFHIURPWKHH[WUHPHFRPSUHVVLRQ¿EHUWRWKH
mation or dilation of the concrete section in contact-critical center of AscLQ PP
applications. dƍƍ  GLVWDQFHIURPWKHH[WUHPHWHQVLRQ¿EHUWRWKHFHQWHU
The application of FRP systems will not stop the ongoing of AstLQ PP
FRUURVLRQ RI H[LVWLQJ UHLQIRUFLQJ VWHHO El-Maaddawy et dEƐ  GLDPHWHU RI ORQJLWXGLQDO VWHHO LQ FRQ¿QHG SODVWLF
al. 2006  ,I VWHHO FRUURVLRQ LV HYLGHQW RU LV GHJUDGLQJ WKH KLQJHLQ PP
concrete substrate, placement of FRP reinforcement is not df  HIIHFWLYH GHSWK RI )53 ÀH[XUDO UHLQIRUFHPHQW LQ
recommended without arresting the ongoing corrosion and PP
repairing any degradation of the substrate. dfv = effective depth of FRP shear reinforcement, in.
PP
CHAPTER 2—NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS di = distance from centroid of i-th layer of longitudinal
steel reinforcement to geometric centroid of cross
2.1—Notation VHFWLRQLQ PP
Ac = cross-sectional area of concrete in compression dp  GLVWDQFHIURPH[WUHPHFRPSUHVVLRQ¿EHUWRFHQWURLG
member, in.2 PP2 RISUHVWUHVVHGUHLQIRUFHPHQWLQ PP
Acw = area of concrete section of individual vertical wall, E2 = slope of linear portion of stress-strain model for
in.2 PP2 )53FRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHSVL 03D
Ae  FURVVVHFWLRQDODUHDRIHIIHFWLYHO\FRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWH Ec  PRGXOXVRIHODVWLFLW\RIFRQFUHWHSVL 03D
section, in.2 PP2 Ef  WHQVLOHPRGXOXVRIHODVWLFLW\RI)53SVL 03D
Af = area of FRP external reinforcement, in.2 PP2 Eps = modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel, psi
Afanchor = area of transverse FRP U-wrap for anchorage of 03D
ÀH[XUDO)53UHLQIRUFHPHQWLQ2 PP2 Es  PRGXOXVRIHODVWLFLW\RIVWHHOSVL 03D
Afv = area of FRP shear reinforcement with spacing s, in.2 es = eccentricity of prestressing steel with respect to
PP2 FHQWURLGDOD[LVRIPHPEHUDWVXSSRUWLQ PP
Ag = gross area of concrete section, in.2 PP2 em = eccentricity of prestressing steel with respect to
Ap = area of prestressed reinforcement in tension zone, FHQWURLGDOD[LVRIPHPEHUDWPLGVSDQLQ PP
in.2 PP2 fc  FRPSUHVVLYHVWUHVVLQFRQFUHWHSVL 03D
As = area of nonprestressed steel reinforcement, in.2 fcƍ  VSHFL¿HGFRPSUHVVLYHVWUHQJWKRIFRQFUHWHSVL 03D
PP2 fccƍ  FRPSUHVVLYHVWUHQJWKRIFRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHSVL 03D
Asc = area of the longitudinal reinforcement within a fcoƍ  FRPSUHVVLYHVWUHQJWKRIXQFRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHDOVR
distance of wf in the compression region, in.2 PP2 HTXDOWRfcƍSVL 03D
Asi = area of i-th layer of longitudinal steel reinforce- fc,s = compressive stress in concrete at service condition,
ment, in.2 PP2 SVL 03D
Ast = total area of longitudinal reinforcement, in.2 PP2 ff  VWUHVVLQ)53UHLQIRUFHPHQWSVL 03D

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 7

ffd = design stress of externally bonded FRP reinforce- Ɛd,E = length over which the FRP anchorage wraps are
PHQWSVL 03D SURYLGHGLQ PP
ffe  HIIHFWLYHVWUHVVLQWKH)53VWUHVVDWWDLQHGDWVHFWLRQ Ɛdf  GHYHORSPHQWOHQJWKRI)53V\VWHPLQ PP
IDLOXUHSVL 03D Ɛo = length, measured along the member axis from the
ff,s = stress in FRP caused by a moment within elastic face of the joint, over which special transverse rein-
UDQJHRIPHPEHUSVL 03D IRUFHPHQWPXVWEHSURYLGHGLQ PP
ffu  GHVLJQXOWLPDWHWHQVLOHVWUHQJWKRI)53SVL 03D Ɛprov  OHQJWKRIVWHHOODSVSOLFHLQ PP
ffu* = ultimate tensile strength of the FRP material as Mcr  FUDFNLQJPRPHQWLQOE 1PP
UHSRUWHGE\WKHPDQXIDFWXUHUSVL 03D Mn  QRPLQDOÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKLQOE 1PP
fl  PD[LPXPFRQ¿QLQJSUHVVXUHGXHWR)53MDFNHWSVL Mnf  FRQWULEXWLRQRI)53UHLQIRUFHPHQWWRQRPLQDOÀH[-
03D XUDOVWUHQJWKOELQ 1PP
fps = stress in prestressed reinforcement at nominal Mnp = contribution of prestressing reinforcement to
VWUHQJWKSVL 03D QRPLQDOÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKOELQ 1PP
fps,s = stress in prestressed reinforcement at service load, Mns  FRQWULEXWLRQRIVWHHOUHLQIRUFHPHQWWRQRPLQDOÀH[-
SVL 03D XUDOVWUHQJWKOELQ 1PP
fpu  VSHFL¿HG WHQVLOH VWUHQJWK RI SUHVWUHVVLQJ WHQGRQV Ms  VHUYLFHPRPHQWDWVHFWLRQLQOE 1PP
SVL 03D Msnet= service moment at section beyond decompression,
fs = stress in nonprestressed steel reinforcement, psi LQOE 1PP
03D M u  IDFWRUHGPRPHQWDWDVHFWLRQLQOE 1PP
fsc = stress in the longitudinal reinforcement corre- N = number of plies of FRP reinforcement
sponding to AscSVL 03D nf = modular ratio of elasticity between FRP and
fsi = stress in the i-th layer of longitudinal steel rein- concrete = Ef/Ec
IRUFHPHQWSVL 03D ns = modular ratio of elasticity between steel and
fs,s = stress in nonprestressed steel reinforcement at concrete = Es/Ec
VHUYLFHORDGVSVL 03D Pe  HIIHFWLYHIRUFHLQSUHVWUHVVLQJUHLQIRUFHPHQW DIWHU
fst = stress in the longitudinal reinforcement corre- DOORZDQFHIRUDOOSUHVWUHVVORVVHV OE 1
sponding to AstSVL 03D Pn = nominal axial compressive strength of a concrete
fsw = stress in the longitudinal reinforcement corre- VHFWLRQOE 1
sponding to AswSVL 03D Pu  IDFWRUHGD[LDOORDGOE 1
fy  VSHFL¿HG \LHOG VWUHQJWK RI QRQSUHVWUHVVHG VWHHO p fu = mean tensile strength per unit width per ply of FRP
UHLQIRUFHPHQWSVL 03D UHLQIRUFHPHQWOELQ 1PP
g = clear gap between the FRP jacket and adjacent pfu* = ultimate tensile strength per unit width per ply of
PHPEHUVLQ PP )53UHLQIRUFHPHQWOELQ 1PP pfu* = ffu*tf
h  RYHUDOOWKLFNQHVVRUKHLJKWRIDPHPEHULQ PP Rn = nominal strength of a member
= long side cross-sectional dimension of rectangular Rnࢥ = nominal strength of a member subjected to elevated
FRPSUHVVLRQPHPEHULQ PP WHPSHUDWXUHVDVVRFLDWHGZLWKD¿UH
hf  PHPEHUÀDQJHWKLFNQHVVLQ PP R  UDGLXVRIJ\UDWLRQRIDVHFWLRQLQ PP
hw = height of entire wall from base to top, or clear rc  UDGLXVRIHGJHVRIDSULVPDWLFFURVVVHFWLRQFRQ¿QHG
height of wall segment or wall pier considered, in. ZLWK)53LQ PP
PP SDL = dead load effects
Icr = moment of inertia of cracked section transformed SLL = live load effects
to concrete, in.4 PP4 sf  FHQWHUWRFHQWHUVSDFLQJRI)53VWULSVLQ PP
Itr = moment of inertia of uncracked section transformed Tf  WHQVLOHIRUFHLQ)53OE 1
to concrete, in.4 PP4 T g  JODVVWUDQVLWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHƒ) ƒ&
K = ratio of depth of neutral axis to reinforcement depth Tgw  ZHWJODVVWUDQVLWLRQWHPSHUDWXUHƒ) ƒ&
PHDVXUHGIURPH[WUHPHFRPSUHVVLRQ¿EHU Tps  WHQVLOHIRUFHLQSUHVWUHVVLQJVWHHOOE 1
k1  PRGL¿FDWLRQ IDFWRU DSSOLHG WR țv to account for Tst = tensile force in AstOE 1
concrete strength Tsw = tensile force in AswOE 1
k2  PRGL¿FDWLRQ IDFWRU DSSOLHG WR țv to account for tf = nominal thickness of one ply of FRP reinforcement,
wrapping scheme LQ PP
kf = stiffness per unit width per ply of the FRP rein- tw = thickness of the existing concrete shear wall, in.
IRUFHPHQWOELQ 1PP kf = Eftf PP
Le  DFWLYHERQGOHQJWKRI)53ODPLQDWHLQ PP Vc = nominal shear strength provided by concrete with
Lp  SODVWLFKLQJHOHQJWKLQ PP VWHHOÀH[XUDOUHLQIRUFHPHQWOE 1
Lw  OHQJWKRIWKHVKHDUZDOOLQ PP Ve = design shear force for load combinations including
Ɛdb = development length of near-surface-mounted FRP HDUWKTXDNHHIIHFWVOE 1
EDULQ PP Vf = nominal shear strength provided by FRP stirrups,
OE 1

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8 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Vn  QRPLQDOVKHDUVWUHQJWKOE 1 İpe = effective strain in prestressing steel after losses, in./
Vn*  VKHDUVWUHQJWKRIH[LVWLQJPHPEHUOE 1 LQ PPPP
Vs = nominal shear strength provided by steel stirrups, İpi = initial strain in prestressed steel reinforcement, in./
OE 1 LQ PPPP
wf  ZLGWKRI)53UHLQIRUFLQJSOLHVLQ PP İpnet  QHW VWUDLQ LQ ÀH[XUDO SUHVWUHVVLQJ VWHHO DW OLPLW
yb = distance from centroidal axis of gross section, VWDWHDIWHUSUHVWUHVVIRUFHLVGLVFRXQWHG H[FOXGLQJ
QHJOHFWLQJUHLQIRUFHPHQWWRH[WUHPHERWWRP¿EHU VWUDLQVGXHWRHIIHFWLYHSUHVWUHVVIRUFHDIWHUORVVHV 
LQLQ PPPP LQLQ PPPP
yt = vertical coordinate within compression region İpnet,s= net strain in prestressing steel beyond decompres-
measured from neutral axis position. It corresponds VLRQDWVHUYLFHLQLQ PPPP
WRWUDQVLWLRQVWUDLQİtƍLQ PP İps = strain in prestressed reinforcement at nominal
Į  DQJOHRIDSSOLFDWLRQRISULPDU\)53UHLQIRUFHPHQW VWUHQJWKLQLQ PPPP
direction relative to longitudinal axis of member İps,s = strain in prestressing steel at service load, in./in.
Į1 = multiplier on fcƍWRGHWHUPLQHLQWHQVLW\RIDQHTXLYD- PPPP
lent rectangular stress distribution for concrete İs = strain in nonprestessed steel reinforcement, in./in.
ĮL  ORQJLWXGLQDO FRHI¿FLHQW RI WKHUPDO H[SDQVLRQ LQ PPPP
LQƒ) PPPPƒ& İsy = strain corresponding to yield strength of nonpre-
ĮT  WUDQVYHUVH FRHI¿FLHQW RI WKHUPDO H[SDQVLRQ LQ VWUHVVHGVWHHOUHLQIRUFHPHQWLQLQ PPPP
LQƒ) PPPPƒ& İt = net tensile strain in extreme tension steel at nominal
ȕ1  UDWLRRIGHSWKRIHTXLYDOHQWUHFWDQJXODUVWUHVVEORFN VWUHQJWKLQLQ PPPP
to depth of the neutral axis İtƍ  WUDQVLWLRQ VWUDLQ LQ VWUHVVVWUDLQ FXUYH RI )53
İb = strain in concrete substrate developed by a given FRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHLQLQ PPPP
EHQGLQJPRPHQW WHQVLRQLVSRVLWLYH LQLQ PP ࢥ  VWUHQJWKUHGXFWLRQIDFWRU
PP ࢥ D  GHVLJQFXUYDWXUHIRUDFRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHVHFWLRQ
İbi = strain in concrete substrate at time of FRP installa- ࢥy,frp  FXUYDWXUH RI WKH )53 FRQ¿QHG VHFWLRQ DW VWHHO
WLRQ WHQVLRQLVSRVLWLYH LQLQ PPPP yielding
İc  VWUDLQLQFRQFUHWHLQLQ PPPP ța  HI¿FLHQF\IDFWRUIRU)53UHLQIRUFHPHQWLQGHWHUPL-
İcƍ  FRPSUHVVLYH VWUDLQ RI XQFRQ¿QHG FRQFUHWH FRUUH- nation of fccƍ EDVHGRQJHRPHWU\RIFURVVVHFWLRQ
sponding to fcƍLQLQ PPPP PD\EHWDNHQDV țb  HI¿FLHQF\IDFWRUIRU)53UHLQIRUFHPHQWLQGHWHUPL-
0.002 QDWLRQRIİccu EDVHGRQJHRPHWU\RIFURVVVHFWLRQ
İccu  XOWLPDWH D[LDO FRPSUHVVLYH VWUDLQ RI FRQ¿QHG țv  ERQGGHSHQGHQWFRHI¿FLHQWIRUVKHDU
concrete corresponding to 0.85fccƍ LQ D OLJKWO\ țİ  HI¿FLHQF\ IDFWRU HTXDO WR  IRU )53 VWUDLQ WR
FRQ¿QHG PHPEHU PHPEHU FRQ¿QHG WR UHVWRUH LWV account for the difference between observed rupture
FRQFUHWHGHVLJQFRPSUHVVLYHVWUHQJWK RUXOWLPDWH VWUDLQLQFRQ¿QHPHQWDQGUXSWXUHVWUDLQGHWHUPLQHG
D[LDOFRPSUHVVLYHVWUDLQRIFRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHFRUUH- from tensile tests
VSRQGLQJWRIDLOXUHLQDKHDYLO\FRQ¿QHGPHPEHU șp = plastic hinge rotation demand
İc,s  VWUDLQLQFRQFUHWHDWVHUYLFHLQLQ PPPP ȡf = FRP reinforcement ratio
İct = concrete tensile strain at level of tensile force resul- ȡg = ratio of area of longitudinal steel reinforcement to
WDQW LQ SRVWWHQVLRQHG ÀH[XUDO PHPEHUV LQLQ FURVVVHFWLRQDODUHDRIDFRPSUHVVLRQPHPEHU As/bh
PPPP ȡl = longitudinal reinforcement ratio
İcu  XOWLPDWHD[LDOVWUDLQRIXQFRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHFRUUH- ȡs = ratio of nonprestressed reinforcement
sponding to 0.85fcoƍ RU PD[LPXP XVDEOH VWUDLQ RI ı  VWDQGDUGGHYLDWLRQ
XQFRQ¿QHG FRQFUHWH LQLQ PPPP  ZKLFK FDQ IJb = average bond strength for near-surface-mounted
occur at fc = 0.85fcƍRUİc = 0.003, depending on the )53EDUVSVL 03D
obtained stress-strain curve ȥe = factor used to modify development length based on
İf  VWUDLQLQWKH)53UHLQIRUFHPHQWLQLQ PPPP reinforcement coating
İfd = debonding strain of externally bonded FRP rein- ȥf = FRP strength reduction factor
IRUFHPHQWLQLQ PPPP   IRUÀH[XUH FDOLEUDWHGEDVHGRQGHVLJQPDWH-
İfe = effective strain in FRP reinforcement attained at ULDOSURSHUWLHV
IDLOXUHLQLQ PPPP    IRU VKHDU EDVHG RQ UHOLDELOLW\ DQDO\VLV  IRU
İfu = design rupture strain of FRP reinforcement, in./in. three-sided FRP U-wrap or two sided strengthening
PPPP schemes
ε fu = mean rupture strain of FRP reinforcement based on   IRUVKHDUIXOO\ZUDSSHGVHFWLRQV
a population of 20 or more tensile tests per ASTM ȥs = factor used to modify development length based on
''0LQLQ PPPP reinforcement size
İfu* = ultimate rupture strain of FRP reinforcement, in./in. ȥt = factor used to modify development length based on
PPPP reinforcement location

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 9

2.2—Definitions initiator—chemical used to start the curing process for


$&,SURYLGHVDFRPSUHKHQVLYHOLVWRIGH¿QLWLRQVWKURXJK unsaturated polyester and vinyl ester resins.
an online resource, “ACI Concrete Terminology,” https:// interlaminar shear—force tending to produce a relative
www.concrete.org/store/productdetail.aspx?ItemID=CT13. displacement along the plane of the interface between two
'H¿QLWLRQVSURYLGHGKHUHLQFRPSOHPHQWWKDWVRXUFH laminae.
DUDPLG ¿EHU²¿EHU LQ ZKLFK FKDLQV RI DURPDWLF SRO\- LQWXPHVFHQW FRDWLQJ—covering that swells, increasing
DPLGHPROHFXOHVDUHRULHQWHGDORQJWKH¿EHUD[LVWRH[SORLW YROXPH DQG GHFUHDVLQJ GHQVLW\ ZKHQ H[SRVHG WR ¿UH
the strength of the chemical bond. LPSDUWLQJDGHJUHHRISDVVLYH¿UHSURWHFWLRQ
DUDPLG ¿EHUUHLQIRUFHG SRO\PHU—composite material lamina²VLQJOHOD\HURI¿EHUUHLQIRUFHPHQW
FRPSULVLQJ D SRO\PHU PDWUL[ UHLQIRUFHG ZLWK DUDPLG ¿EHU laminate—multiple plies or lamina molded together.
cloth, mat, or strands. OD\XS—process of placing reinforcing material and resin
FDUERQ¿EHU²¿EHUSURGXFHGE\KHDWLQJRUJDQLFSUHFXUVRU system in position for molding.
materials containing a substantial amount of carbon, such as monomer—organic molecule of low molecular weight
rayon, polyacrylonitrile, or pitch in an inert environment. that creates a solid polymer by reacting with itself or other
FDUERQ ¿EHUUHLQIRUFHG SRO\PHU—composite material compounds of low molecular weight.
FRPSULVLQJ D SRO\PHU PDWUL[ UHLQIRUFHG ZLWK FDUERQ ¿EHU SKHQROLF UHVLQ—thermosetting resin produced by the
cloth, mat, or strands. condensation reaction of an aromatic alcohol with an alde-
FDWDO\VW—substance that accelerates a chemical reac- K\GH XVXDOO\DSKHQROZLWKIRUPDOGHK\GH 
tion and enables it to proceed under conditions more mild SLWFK—viscid substance obtained as a residue of petro-
WKDQRWKHUZLVHUHTXLUHGDQGWKDWLVQRWLWVHOISHUPDQHQWO\ leum or coal tar for use as a precursor in the manufacture of
changed by the reaction. VRPHFDUERQ¿EHUV
FRQWDFWFULWLFDO DSSOLFDWLRQ—strengthening or repair SRO\DFU\ORQLWULOH²synthetic semi-chrystalline organic
system that relies on load transfer from the substrate to the SRO\PHUEDVHGPDWHULDOWKDWLVVSXQLQWRD¿EHUIRUPIRUXVH
system material achieved through contact or bearing at the DVDSUHFXUVRULQWKHPDQXIDFWXUHURIVRPHFDUERQ¿EHUV
interface. SRO\HVWHU—one of a large group of synthetic resins,
FUHHS UXSWXUH—breakage of a material under sustained mainly produced by reaction of dibasic acids with dihydroxy
loading at stresses less than the tensile strength. alcohols.
FURVVOLQNLQJ—formation of covalent bonds linking one SRVWFXULQJ—application of elevated temperature to mate-
polymer molecule to another. rial containing thermosetting resin to increase the degree of
(JODVV²IDPLO\ RI JODVV ¿EHUV XVHG LQ UHLQIRUFHG SRO\- SRO\PHUFURVVOLQNLQJDQGHQKDQFHWKH¿QDOPDWHULDOSURSHUWLHV
mers with a calcium alumina borosilicate composition and a SUHSUHJ—sheet of fabric or mat preimpregnated with
maximum alkali content of 2.0 percent. UHVLQ RU ELQGHU WKDW LV SDUWLDOO\ FXUHG DQG UHDG\ IRU ¿QDO
IDEULF—two-dimensional network of woven, nonwoven, forming and curing.
NQLWWHGRUVWLWFKHG¿EHUV\DUQVRUWRZV SXOWUXVLRQ²FRQWLQXRXVSURFHVVIRUPDQXIDFWXULQJ¿EHU
¿EHUFRQWHQW²WKHDPRXQWRI¿EHUSUHVHQWLQDFRPSRVLWH reinforced polymer composites in which resin-impregnated
expressed as a percentage volume fraction or mass fraction ¿EHU UHLQIRUFHPHQWV URYLQJ RU PDWV  DUH SXOOHG WKURXJK D
of the composite. shaping and curing die to produce composites with uniform
¿EHUÀ\²VKRUW¿ODPHQWVWKDWEUHDNRIIGU\¿EHUWRZVRU cross sections.
yarns during handling and become airborne. SXWW\—thickened polymer-based resin used to prepare the
¿UHUHWDUGDQW—additive to the resin or a surface coating concrete substrate.
used to reduce the tendency of a resin to burn. UHVLQ FRQWHQW²DPRXQW RI UHVLQ LQ D ¿EHUUHLQIRUFHG
¿EHU YROXPH IUDFWLRQ²UDWLR RI WKH YROXPH RI ¿EHUV WR polymer composite laminate, expressed as either a percentage
WKHYROXPHRIWKHFRPSRVLWHFRQWDLQLQJWKH¿EHUV of total mass or total volume.
IXOOFXUH—period at which components of a thermosetting URYLQJ—parallel bundle of continuous yarns, tows, or
UHVLQKDYHUHDFWHGVXI¿FLHQWO\IRUWKHUHVLQWRSURGXFHVSHFL- ¿EHUVZLWKOLWWOHRUQRWZLVW
¿HGSURSHUWLHV saturating resins (or saturants)—polymer-based resin
JODVV ¿EHU²¿ODPHQW GUDZQ IURP DQ LQRUJDQLF IXVLRQ XVHGWRLPSUHJQDWHWKHUHLQIRUFLQJ¿EHUV¿[WKHPLQSODFH
typically comprising silica-based material that has cooled DQGWUDQVIHUORDGEHWZHHQ¿EHUV
without crystallizing. VKHOI OLIH²length of time packaged materials can be
JODVV ¿EHUUHLQIRUFHG SRO\PHU—composite material VWRUHGXQGHUVSHFL¿HGFRQGLWLRQVDQGUHPDLQXVDEOH
FRPSULVLQJ D SRO\PHU PDWUL[ UHLQIRUFHG ZLWK JODVV ¿EHU sizing²VXUIDFH WUHDWPHQW DSSOLHG WR ¿ODPHQWV WR LPSDUW
cloth, mat, or strands. desired processing, durability, and bond attributes.
JODVVWUDQVLWLRQ WHPSHUDWXUH—representative tempera- storage modulus—measure of the stored energy in a
ture of the temperature range over which an amorphous viscoelastic material undergoing cyclic deformation during
PDWHULDO VXFKDVJODVVRUDKLJKSRO\PHU FKDQJHVIURP RU dynamic mechanical analysis.
WR DEULWWOHYLWUHRXVVWDWHWR RUIURP DSODVWLFVWDWH tow²XQWZLVWHGEXQGOHRIFRQWLQXRXV¿ODPHQWV
LPSUHJQDWH²WRVDWXUDWH¿EHUVZLWKUHVLQRUELQGHU YLQ\OHVWHUUHVLQ²thermosetting reaction product of epoxy
UHVLQZLWKDSRO\PHUL]DEOHXQVDWXUDWHGDFLG XVXDOO\PHWK-

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10 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

DFU\OLF DFLG  WKDW LV WKHQ GLOXWHG ZLWK D UHDFWLYH PRQRPHU Researchers in the United States have had a continuous
XVXDOO\VW\UHQH  LQWHUHVWLQ¿EHUEDVHGUHLQIRUFHPHQWIRUFRQFUHWHVWUXFWXUHV
YRODWLOH RUJDQLF FRPSRXQG—organic compound that VLQFHWKHV'HYHORSPHQWDQGUHVHDUFKLQWRWKHXVHRI
vaporizes under normal atmospheric conditions. WKHVHPDWHULDOVIRUUHWUR¿WWLQJFRQFUHWHVWUXFWXUHVKRZHYHU
ZHWOD\XS²PDQXIDFWXULQJSURFHVVZKHUHGU\IDEULF¿EHU VWDUWHG LQ WKH V WKURXJK WKH LQLWLDWLYHV RI WKH 1DWLRQDO
reinforcement is impregnated on site with a saturating resin 6FLHQFH )RXQGDWLRQ 16)  DQG WKH )HGHUDO +LJKZD\
matrix and then cured in place. $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ )+:$ 7KH UHVHDUFK DFWLYLWLHV OHG WR WKH
ZHWRXW—process of coating or impregnating roving, FRQVWUXFWLRQ RI PDQ\ ¿HOG SURMHFWV WKDW HQFRPSDVVHG D
\DUQRUIDEULFWR¿OOWKHYRLGVEHWZHHQWKHVWUDQGVDQG¿OD- wide variety of environmental conditions. Previous research
PHQWVZLWKUHVLQLWLVDOVRWKHFRQGLWLRQDWZKLFKWKLVVWDWH DQG ¿HOG DSSOLFDWLRQV IRU )53 UHKDELOLWDWLRQ DQG VWUHQJWK-
is achieved. ening are described in ACI 440R and conference proceed-
ZLWQHVV SDQHO—small mockup manufactured under ings, including those of the Fiber Reinforced Polymers for
FRQGLWLRQV UHSUHVHQWDWLYH RI ¿HOG DSSOLFDWLRQ WR FRQ¿UP 5HLQIRUFHG &RQFUHWH 6WUXFWXUHV )535&6  &RPSRVLWHV LQ
WKDWSUHVFULEHGSURFHGXUHVDQGPDWHULDOVZLOO\LHOGVSHFL¿HG &LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ &,&( DQG&RQIHUHQFHRQ'XUDELOLW\RI
mechanical and physical properties. &RPSRVLWHVIRU&RQVWUXFWLRQ &'&& VHULHV
yarn²WZLVWHGEXQGOHRIFRQWLQXRXV¿ODPHQWV The development of codes and standards for externally
bonded FRP systems is ongoing in Europe, Japan, Canada,
CHAPTER 3—BACKGROUND INFORMATION DQGWKH8QLWHG6WDWHV7KH¿UVWSXEOLVKHGFRGHVDQGVWDQGDUGV
([WHUQDOO\ ERQGHG ¿EHUUHLQIRUFHG SRO\PHU )53  DSSHDUHGLQ-DSDQ Japan Society of Civil Engineers 2001 
V\VWHPV KDYH EHHQ XVHG WR VWUHQJWKHQ DQG UHWUR¿W H[LVWLQJ DQG(XURSH International Federation for Structural Concrete
FRQFUHWH VWUXFWXUHV DURXQG WKH ZRUOG VLQFH WKH PLGV 2001  ,Q WKH 8QLWHG 6WDWHVACI 440.8, ICC AC125, and
The number of projects using FRP systems worldwide has 1&+535HSRUW Zureick et al. 2010 SURYLGHFULWHULDIRU
LQFUHDVHG GUDPDWLFDOO\ IURP D IHZ LQ WKH V WR PDQ\ evaluating FRP systems.
thousands today. Structural elements strengthened with
externally bonded FRP systems include beams, slabs, 3.2—Commercially available externally bonded
columns, walls, joints/connections, chimneys and smoke- FRP systems
stacks, vaults, domes, tunnels, silos, pipes, and trusses. FRP systems come in a variety of forms, including wet
Externally bonded FRP systems have also been used to layup systems and precured systems. FRP system forms
strengthen masonry, timber, steel, and cast-iron structures. can be categorized based on how they are delivered to the
Externally bonded FRP systems were developed as alterna- site and installed. The FRP system and its form should be
WLYHV WR WUDGLWLRQDO H[WHUQDO UHLQIRUFLQJ WHFKQLTXHV VXFK DV selected based on the acceptable transfer of structural loads
steel plate bonding and steel or concrete column jacketing. and the ease and simplicity of application. Common FRP
The initial development of externally bonded FRP systems system forms suitable for the strengthening of structural
IRUWKHUHWUR¿WRIFRQFUHWHVWUXFWXUHVRFFXUUHGLQWKHV members are listed in 3.2.1 through 3.2.4.
in Europe and Japan. 3.2.1 Wet layup systems—Wet layup FRP systems consist
RIGU\XQLGLUHFWLRQDORUPXOWLGLUHFWLRQDO¿EHUVKHHWVRUIDEULFV
3.1—Historical development impregnated with a saturating resin on site. The saturating
In Europe, FRP systems were developed as alternates to resin, along with the compatible primer and putty, bonds the
steel plate bonding. Bonding steel plates to the tension zones FRP sheets to the concrete surface. Wet layup systems are
of concrete members with adhesive resins was shown to be saturated on site and cured in place and, in this sense, are
DYLDEOHWHFKQLTXHIRULQFUHDVLQJÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWK Fleming analogous to cast-in-place concrete. Three common types of
DQG.LQJ 7KLVWHFKQLTXHKDVEHHQXVHGWRVWUHQJWKHQ wet layup systems are listed as follows:
many bridges and buildings around the world. Because steel  'U\ XQLGLUHFWLRQDO ¿EHU VKHHWV ZKHUH WKH ¿EHUV UXQ
plates can corrode, leading to a deterioration of the bond predominantly in one planar direction. ACI 440.8 provides
EHWZHHQWKHVWHHODQGFRQFUHWHDQGEHFDXVHWKH\DUHGLI¿FXOW VSHFL¿FDWLRQV IRU XQLGLUHFWLRQDO FDUERQ ¿EHUUHLQIRUFHG
WRLQVWDOOUHTXLULQJWKHXVHRIKHDY\HTXLSPHQWUHVHDUFKHUV SRO\PHU &)53 DQGJODVV¿EHUUHLQIRUFHGSRO\PHU *)53 
looked to FRP materials as an alternative to steel. Experi- wet layup systems.
PHQWDO ZRUN XVLQJ )53 PDWHULDOV IRU UHWUR¿WWLQJ FRQFUHWH  'U\ PXOWLGLUHFWLRQDO ¿EHU VKHHWV RU IDEULFV ZKHUH WKH
VWUXFWXUHVZDVUHSRUWHGDVHDUO\DVLQ*HUPDQ\ Wolf ¿EHUVDUHRULHQWHGLQDWOHDVWWZRSODQDUGLUHFWLRQV
DQG0LHVVOHU 5HVHDUFKLQ6ZLW]HUODQGOHGWRWKH¿UVW  'U\ ¿EHU WRZV WKDW DUH ZRXQG RU RWKHUZLVH PHFKDQL-
applications of externally bonded FRP systems to reinforced FDOO\DSSOLHGWRWKHFRQFUHWHVXUIDFH7KHGU\¿EHUWRZVDUH
FRQFUHWH EULGJHV IRU ÀH[XUDO VWUHQJWKHQLQJ 0HLHU  impregnated with resin on site during the winding operation.
5RVWDV\  3.2.2 Prepreg systems—Prepreg FRP systems consist of
)53V\VWHPVZHUH¿UVWDSSOLHGWRUHLQIRUFHGFRQFUHWHFROXPQV SDUWLDOO\FXUHGXQLGLUHFWLRQDORUPXOWLGLUHFWLRQDO¿EHUVKHHWV
IRU SURYLGLQJ DGGLWLRQDO FRQ¿QHPHQW LQ -DSDQ LQ WKH V or fabrics that are preimpregnated with a saturating resin
)DUGLV DQG .KDOLOL  .DWVXPDWD HW DO  $ VXGGHQ in the manufacturer’s facility. Prepreg systems are bonded
increase in the use of FRPs in Japan was observed following to the concrete surface with or without an additional resin
WKH+\RJRNHQ1DQEXHDUWKTXDNH 1DQQL  DSSOLFDWLRQ GHSHQGLQJ RQ VSHFL¿F V\VWHP UHTXLUHPHQWV

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 11

Prepreg systems are saturated off site and, like wet layup this chapter are generic and do not apply to all commercially
V\VWHPV FXUHG LQ SODFH 3UHSUHJ V\VWHPV XVXDOO\ UHTXLUH available products. Standard test methods are available to
additional heating for curing. Prepreg system manufacturers FKDUDFWHUL]H FHUWDLQ )53 SURGXFWV UHIHU WR Appendix B 
should be consulted for storage and shelf-life recommenda- ACI 440.8SURYLGHVDVSHFL¿FDWLRQIRUXQLGLUHFWLRQDOFDUERQ
tions and curing procedures. Three common types of prepreg )53 &)53 DQGJODVV)53 *)53 PDWHULDOVPDGHXVLQJ
FRP systems are: the wet layup process. The licensed design professional
 3UHLPSUHJQDWHG XQLGLUHFWLRQDO ¿EHU VKHHWV ZKHUH WKH should consult with the FRP system manufacturer to obtain
¿EHUVUXQSUHGRPLQDQWO\LQRQHSODQDUGLUHFWLRQ WKH UHOHYDQW FKDUDFWHULVWLFV IRU D VSHFL¿F SURGXFW DQG WKH
3UHLPSUHJQDWHGPXOWLGLUHFWLRQDO¿EHUVKHHWVRUIDEULFV applicability of those characteristics.
ZKHUHWKH¿EHUVDUHRULHQWHGLQDWOHDVWWZRSODQDUGLUHFWLRQV
3UHLPSUHJQDWHG¿EHUWRZVWKDWDUHZRXQGRURWKHUZLVH 4.1—Constituent materials
mechanically applied to the concrete surface The constituent materials used in commercially available
3.2.3 Precured systems—Precured FRP systems consist of FRP repair systems, including all resins, primers, putties,
a wide variety of composite shapes manufactured off site. VDWXUDQWV DGKHVLYHV DQG ¿EHUV KDYH EHHQ GHYHORSHG IRU
Typically, an adhesive, along with the primer and putty, is the strengthening of structural concrete members based on
used to bond the precured shapes to the concrete surface. materials and structural testing.
The system manufacturer should be consulted for recom- 4.1.1 Resins—A wide range of polymeric resins, including
mended installation procedures. Precured systems are analo- SULPHUVSXWW\¿OOHUVVDWXUDQWVDQGDGKHVLYHVDUHXVHGZLWK
gous to precast concrete. Three common types of precured FRP systems. Commonly used resin types, including epoxy,
systems are: vinyl esters, and polyesters, have been formulated for use
1. Precured unidirectional laminate sheets typically deliv- in a wide range of environmental conditions. FRP system
HUHGWRWKHVLWHLQWKHIRUPRIODUJHÀDWVWRFNRUDVWKLQULEERQ manufacturers use resins that have:
strips coiled on a roll D  &RPSDWLELOLW\ ZLWK DQG DGKHVLRQ WR WKH FRQFUHWH
2. Precured multidirectional grids, typically delivered to substrate
the site coiled on a roll E &RPSDWLELOLW\ZLWKDQGDGKHVLRQWRWKH)53FRPSRVLWH
3. Precured shells, typically delivered to the site in system
the form of shell segments cut longitudinally so they can F &RPSDWLELOLW\ZLWKDQGDGKHVLRQWRWKHUHLQIRUFLQJ¿EHU
EH RSHQHG DQG ¿WWHG DURXQG FROXPQV RU RWKHU PHPEHUV G 5HVLVWDQFHWRHQYLURQPHQWDOHIIHFWVLQFOXGLQJEXWQRW
multiple shell layers are bonded to the concrete and to each limited to, moisture, salt water, temperature extremes, and
RWKHUWRSURYLGHFRQ¿QHPHQW chemicals normally associated with exposed concrete
3.2.4 Near-surface-mounted (NSM) systems—Surface- H )LOOLQJDELOLW\
embedded NSM FRP systems consist of circular or rectan- I :RUNDELOLW\
gular bars or plates installed and bonded into grooves made J 3RWOLIHFRQVLVWHQWZLWKWKHDSSOLFDWLRQ
on the concrete surface. A suitable adhesive is used to bond K 'HYHORSPHQWRIDSSURSULDWHPHFKDQLFDOSURSHUWLHVIRU
the FRP bar into the groove, and is cured in-place. The NSM the FRP composite
system manufacturer should be consulted for recommended 4.1.1.1 Primer—Primer is used to penetrate the surface of
adhesives. Two common FRP bar types used for NSM appli- the concrete, providing an improved adhesive bond for the
cations are: saturating resin or adhesive.
1. Round bars usually manufactured using pultrusion 4.1.1.2 3XWW\ ¿OOHUV²3XWW\ LV XVHG WR ¿OO VPDOO VXUIDFH
processes, typically delivered to the site in the form of single voids in the substrate, such as bug holes, and to provide a
bars or in a roll, depending on bar diameter smooth surface to which the FRP system can bond. Filled
2. Rectangular bars and plates usually manufactured using surface voids also prevent bubbles from forming during
pultrusion processes, typically delivered to the site in a roll curing of the saturating resin.
4.1.1.3 Saturating resin—Saturating resin is used to
CHAPTER 4—CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND LPSUHJQDWH WKH UHLQIRUFLQJ ¿EHUV ¿[ WKHP LQ SODFH DQG
PROPERTIES provide a shear load path to effectively transfer load between
7KHSK\VLFDODQGPHFKDQLFDOSURSHUWLHVRI¿EHUUHLQIRUFHG ¿EHUV7KH VDWXUDWLQJ UHVLQ DOVR VHUYHV DV WKH DGKHVLYH IRU
SRO\PHU )53  PDWHULDOV SUHVHQWHG LQ WKLV FKDSWHU H[SODLQ wet layup systems, providing a shear load path between the
the behavior and properties affecting their use in concrete previously primed concrete substrate and the FRP system.
structures. The effects of factors such as loading history and 4.1.1.4 Adhesives—Adhesives are used to bond precured
duration, temperature, and moisture on the properties of FRP )53ODPLQDWHDQGQHDUVXUIDFHPRXQWHG 160 V\VWHPVWR
are discussed. the concrete substrate. The adhesive provides a shear load
FRP strengthening systems come in a variety of forms path between the concrete substrate and the FRP reinforcing
ZHW OD\XS SUHSUHJ DQG SUHFXUHG  )DFWRUV VXFK DV ¿EHU system. Adhesives are also used to bond together multiple
YROXPH W\SH RI ¿EHU W\SH RI UHVLQ ¿EHU RULHQWDWLRQ layers of precured FRP laminates.
GLPHQVLRQDO HIIHFWV DQG TXDOLW\ FRQWURO GXULQJ PDQXIDF- 4.1.2 Fibers²&RQWLQXRXVJODVVDUDPLGDQGFDUERQ¿EHUV
turing all play a role in establishing the characteristics of DUHFRPPRQUHLQIRUFHPHQWVXVHGLQ)53V\VWHPV7KH¿EHUV
an FRP material. The material characteristics described in give the FRP system its strength and stiffness. Typical ranges

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12 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

RIWKHWHQVLOHSURSHUWLHVRI¿EHUVDUHJLYHQLQAppendix A. water may be used as a barrier between the FRP system and
$ PRUH GHWDLOHG GHVFULSWLRQ RI ¿EHU W\SHV LV JLYHQ LQACI the potable water supply.
440R.
4.1.3 Protective coatings—The protective coating protects 4.2—Physical properties
the bonded FRP reinforcement from potentially damaging 4.2.1 Density—FRP materials have densities ranging from
environmental and mechanical effects. Coatings are typi- 75 to 130 lb/ft3 WRJFP3 ZKLFKLVIRXUWRVL[WLPHV
cally applied to the exterior surface of the FRP system after ORZHUWKDQWKDWRIVWHHO 7DEOH 
some prescribed degree of adhesive or saturating resin cure.
The protection systems are available in a variety of forms. Table 4.2.1—Typical densities of FRP materials,
These include: lb/ft3 (g/cm3)
D 3RO\PHUFRDWLQJVWKDWDUHJHQHUDOO\HSR[\RUSRO\XUHWKDQHV Glass FRP Carbon FRP Aramid FRP
E  $FU\OLF FRDWLQJV WKDW FDQ EH HLWKHU VWUDLJKW DFU\OLF Steel (GFRP) (CFRP) (AFRP)
systems or acrylic cement-based systems. The acrylic  75 to 130 WR WR
systems can also come in different textures.  WR WR WR
F &HPHQWLWLRXVV\VWHPVWKDWPD\UHTXLUHURXJKHQLQJRI
WKH)53VXUIDFH VXFKDVEURDGFDVWLQJVDQGLQWRZHWUHVLQ  4.2.2 &RHI¿FLHQWRIWKHUPDOH[SDQVLRQ²7KHFRHI¿FLHQWV
and can be installed in the same manner as they would be of thermal expansion of unidirectional FRP materials differ in
installed on a concrete surface. the longitudinal and transverse directions, depending on the
G ,QWXPHVFHQWFRDWLQJVWKDWDUHSRO\PHUEDVHGFRDWLQJV W\SHVRI¿EHUUHVLQDQGYROXPHIUDFWLRQRI¿EHU7DEOH
XVHGWRSURYLGHDGHJUHHRISDVVLYH¿UHSURWHFWLRQDQGFRQWURO OLVWV WKH ORQJLWXGLQDO DQG WUDQVYHUVH FRHI¿FLHQWV RI WKHUPDO
ÀDPHVSUHDGDQGVPRNHJHQHUDWLRQSHUFRGHUHTXLUHPHQWV expansion for typical unidirectional FRP materials. Note that
There are several reasons why protection systems are used DQHJDWLYHFRHI¿FLHQWRIWKHUPDOH[SDQVLRQLQGLFDWHVWKDWWKH
to protect FRP systems that have been installed on concrete material contracts with increased temperature and expands
surfaces. These include: with decreased temperature. For reference, the isotropic
D  Ultraviolet light protection—The epoxy used as part YDOXHVRIFRHI¿FLHQWRIWKHUPDOH[SDQVLRQIRUFRQFUHWHDQG
of the FRP strengthening system will be affected over time steel are also provided in Table 4.2.2. Refer to  for
by exposure to ultraviolet light. There are many available design considerations regarding thermal expansion.
methods used to protect the system from ultraviolet light. 4.2.3 Effects of high temperatures—Above the glass tran-
These include acrylic coatings, cementitious surfacing, sition temperature Tg, the elastic modulus of a polymer is
aliphatic polyurethane coatings, and others. Certain types of VLJQL¿FDQWO\UHGXFHGGXHWRFKDQJHVLQLWVPROHFXODUVWUXF-
vinylester resins have higher ultraviolet light durability than ture. The value of Tg depends on the type of resin and is
epoxy resins. QRUPDOO\LQWKHUHJLRQRIWRƒ) WRƒ& ,QDQ
E Fire protection—Fire protection systems are discussed )53 FRPSRVLWH PDWHULDO WKH ¿EHUV ZKLFK H[KLELW EHWWHU
in 1.2.1.2 and . thermal properties than the resin, can continue to support
F  Vandalism—Protective systems that are to resist some load in the longitudinal direction until the temperature
vandalism should be hard and durable. There are different WKUHVKROGRIWKH¿EHUVLVUHDFKHG7KLVFDQRFFXUDWWHPSHUD-
levels of vandalism protection, ranging from polyurethane WXUHV H[FHHGLQJ ƒ) ƒ&  IRU FDUERQ ¿EHUV ƒ)
coatings that will resist cutting and scraping to cementitious ƒ&  IRU JODVV ¿EHUV DQG ƒ) ƒ&  IRU DUDPLG
overlays that provide greater protection. ¿EHUV 'XH WR D UHGXFWLRQ LQ IRUFH WUDQVIHU EHWZHHQ ¿EHUV
G  Impact, abrasion, and wear—Protection systems through bond to the resin, however, the tensile properties
for impact, abrasion, and wear are similar to those used of the overall composite are reduced. Test results have indi-
IRU YDQGDOLVP SURWHFWLRQ KRZHYHU DEUDVLRQ DQG ZHDU DUH FDWHG WKDW WHPSHUDWXUHV RI ƒ) ƒ& ²PXFK KLJKHU
different than vandalism in that they result from repeated than the resin Tg—will reduce the tensile strength of GFRP
exposure rather than a one-time event, and their protection DQG&)53PDWHULDOVH[FHHGLQJSHUFHQW Kumahara et al.
systems are usually chosen for their hardness and durability.  2WKHUSURSHUWLHVDIIHFWHGE\WKHVKHDUWUDQVIHUWKURXJK
H Aesthetics—Protective topcoats may be used to conceal WKHUHVLQVXFKDVEHQGLQJVWUHQJWKDUHUHGXFHGVLJQL¿FDQWO\
the FRP system. These may be acrylic latex coatings that are DWORZHUWHPSHUDWXUHV :DQJDQG(YDQV 
gray in color to match concrete, or they may be various other For bond-critical applications of FRP systems, the properties
colors and textures to match the existing structure. RI WKH SRO\PHU DW WKH ¿EHUFRQFUHWH LQWHUIDFH DUH HVVHQWLDO LQ
I  Chemical resistance—Exposure to harsh chemicals, maintaining the bond between FRP and concrete. At a tempera-
such as strong acids, may damage the FRP system. In such ture close to its Tg, the mechanical properties of the polymer are
environments, coatings with better chemical resistance, such VLJQL¿FDQWO\UHGXFHGDQGWKHSRO\PHUEHJLQVWRORVHLWVDELOLW\
as urethanes and novolac epoxies, may be used. WRWUDQVIHUVWUHVVHVIURPWKHFRQFUHWHWRWKH¿EHUV
J  Submersion in potable water—In applications where
the FRP system is to be submerged in potable water, the FRP 4.3—Mechanical properties
system may leach compounds into the water supply. Protec- 4.3.1 Tensile behavior—When loaded in direct tension,
tive coatings that do not leach harmful chemicals into the XQLGLUHFWLRQDO ¿EHUUHLQIRUFHG SRO\PHU )53  PDWHULDOV GR
QRW H[KLELW DQ\ SODVWLF EHKDYLRU \LHOGLQJ  EHIRUH UXSWXUH

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 13

Table 4.2.2—Typical coefficients of thermal expansion for FRP materials*


&RHI¿FLHQWRIWKHUPDOH[SDQVLRQî–6ƒ) î–6/°C)
'LUHFWLRQ &RQFUHWH Steel GFRP CFRP AFRP
/RQJLWXGLQDOĮL WR WR   WR WR ±WR ±WR ±WR± ±WR±
7UDQYHUVHĮT WR WR   WR WR WR WR WR WR
*
7\SLFDOYDOXHVIRU¿EHUYROXPHIUDFWLRQVUDQJLQJIURPWR

The tensile behavior of FRP materials consisting of a single The tensile properties of some commercially available
W\SHRI¿EHUPDWHULDOLVFKDUDFWHUL]HGE\DOLQHDUHODVWLFVWUHVV FRP strengthening systems are given in Appendix A. The
strain relationship until failure, which is sudden and brittle. tensile properties of a particular FRP system, however,
The tensile strength and stiffness of an FRP material is should be obtained from the FRP system manufacturer
GHSHQGHQWRQVHYHUDOIDFWRUV%HFDXVHWKH¿EHUVLQDQ)53 or using the appropriate test method described in ASTM
material are the main load-carrying constituents, the type ''0, D7205/D7205M, or D7565/D7565M.
RI¿EHUWKHRULHQWDWLRQRI¿EHUVWKHTXDQWLW\RI¿EHUVDQG Manufacturers should report an ultimate tensile strength,
method and conditions in which the composite is produced ZKLFKLVGH¿QHGDVWKHPHDQWHQVLOHVWUHQJWKRIDVDPSOHRI
affect the tensile properties of the FRP material. Due to the WHVWVSHFLPHQVPLQXVWKUHHWLPHVWKHVWDQGDUGGHYLDWLRQ ffu*
SULPDU\ UROH RI WKH ¿EHUV DQG PHWKRGV RI DSSOLFDWLRQ WKH = f fu ±ı DQGVLPLODUO\UHSRUWDQXOWLPDWHUXSWXUHVWUDLQ
properties of an FRP repair system are sometimes reported İfu* = ε fu – ı 7KLV DSSURDFK SURYLGHV D  SHUFHQW
EDVHG RQ WKH QHW¿EHU DUHD ,Q RWKHU LQVWDQFHV VXFK DV LQ probability that the actual ultimate tensile properties will
precured laminates, the reported properties are based on the exceed these statistically-based design values for a standard
gross-laminate area. VDPSOH GLVWULEXWLRQ 0XWVX\RVKL HW DO   7KH HODVWLF
The gross-laminate area of an FRP system is calculated modulus should be calculated in accordance with ASTM
using the total cross-sectional area of the cured FRP system, ''0 ''0 RU ''0 $
LQFOXGLQJDOO¿EHUVDQGUHVLQ7KHJURVVODPLQDWHDUHDLVW\SL- minimum number of 20 replicate test specimens should be
cally used for reporting precured laminate properties where used to determine the ultimate tensile properties. The manu-
the cured thickness is constant and the relative proportion of facturer should provide a description of the method used to
¿EHUDQGUHVLQLVFRQWUROOHG obtain the reported tensile properties, including the number
7KH QHW¿EHU DUHD RI DQ )53 V\VWHP LV FDOFXODWHG XVLQJ of tests, mean values, and standard deviations.
WKHNQRZQDUHDRI¿EHUQHJOHFWLQJWKHWRWDOZLGWKDQGWKLFN- 4.3.2 Compressive behavior—Externally bonded FRP
QHVVRIWKHFXUHGV\VWHPWKXVUHVLQLVH[FOXGHG7KHQHW systems should not be used as compression reinforcement
¿EHU DUHD LV W\SLFDOO\ XVHG IRU UHSRUWLQJ SURSHUWLHV RI ZHW GXHWRLQVXI¿FLHQWWHVWLQJWRYDOLGDWHLWVXVHLQWKLVW\SHRI
OD\XSV\VWHPVWKDWXVHPDQXIDFWXUHG¿EHUVKHHWVDQG¿HOG application. The mode of failure for FRP laminates subjected
installed resins. The wet layup installation process leads to to longitudinal compression can include transverse tensile
FRQWUROOHG¿EHUFRQWHQWDQGYDULDEOHUHVLQFRQWHQW$PHWKRG IDLOXUH ¿EHU PLFUREXFNOLQJ RU VKHDU IDLOXUH7KH PRGH RI
VLPLODUWRQHW¿EHUDUHDUHSRUWLQJLVWRUHSRUWWKHWHQVLOHIRUFH IDLOXUHGHSHQGVRQWKHW\SHRI¿EHUWKH¿EHUYROXPHIUDF-
RUVWLIIQHVVSHUXQLWZLGWKRIWKH)53V\VWHPDVUHTXLUHGE\ tion, and the type of resin. In general, compressive strengths
ASTM D7565/D7565M. are higher for materials with higher tensile strengths, except
System properties reported using the gross laminate area LQWKHFDVHRIDUDPLG)53 $)53 ZKHUHWKH¿EHUVH[KLELW
have higher relative thickness dimensions and lower rela- nonlinear behavior in compression at a relatively low level
tive strength and modulus values, whereas system properties RIVWUHVV :X 7KHFRPSUHVVLYHPRGXOXVRIHODVWLFLW\
UHSRUWHGXVLQJWKHQHW¿EHUDUHDKDYHORZHUUHODWLYHWKLFN- is usually smaller than the tensile modulus of elasticity of
ness dimensions and higher relative strength and modulus )53PDWHULDOV (KVDQL 
values. Regardless of the basis for the reported values, the
ORDGFDUU\LQJVWUHQJWK ffuAf DQGD[LDOVWLIIQHVV AfEf RIWKH 4.4—Time-dependent behavior
composite remain constant. Properties reported based on the 4.4.1 Creep rupture—FRP materials subjected to a
QHW¿EHUDUHDDUHQRWWKHSURSHUWLHVRIWKHEDUH¿EHUV:KHQ sustained load can suddenly fail after a time period referred
tested as a part of a cured composite, the measured tensile to as the endurance time. This type of failure is known as
VWUHQJWKDQGXOWLPDWHUXSWXUHVWUDLQRIWKHQHW¿EHUDUHW\SL- creep rupture. As the ratio of the sustained tensile stress to
FDOO\ ORZHU WKDQ WKRVH PHDVXUHG EDVHG RQ D GU\ ¿EHU WHVW the short-term strength of the FRP laminate increases, endur-
The properties of an FRP system should be characterized ance time decreases. The endurance time also decreases
as a composite, recognizing not just the material properties under adverse environmental conditions, such as high
RIWKHLQGLYLGXDO¿EHUVEXWDOVRWKHHI¿FLHQF\RIWKH¿EHU temperature, ultraviolet-radiation exposure, high alkalinity,
resin system, the fabric architecture, and the method used to wet and dry cycles, or freezing-and-thawing cycles.
create the composite. The mechanical properties of all FRP ,QJHQHUDOFDUERQ¿EHUVDUHWKHOHDVWVXVFHSWLEOHWRFUHHS
systems, regardless of form, should be based on the testing UXSWXUHDUDPLG¿EHUVDUHPRGHUDWHO\VXVFHSWLEOHDQGJODVV
RIODPLQDWHVDPSOHVZLWKNQRZQ¿EHUFRQWHQW ¿EHUV DUH PRVW VXVFHSWLEOH &UHHS UXSWXUH WHVWV KDYH EHHQ
FRQGXFWHGRQLQ PP GLDPHWHU)53EDUVUHLQIRUFHG

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14 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

ZLWK JODVV DUDPLG DQG FDUERQ ¿EHUV 7KH )53 EDUV ZHUH JODVV¿EHUVGXHWRWKHLUVXVFHSWLELOLW\WRPRLVWXUHDONDOLQH
tested at different load levels at room temperature. Results or acidic solutions.
indicated that a linear relationship exists between creep $UDPLG¿EHUVIRUZKLFKVXEVWDQWLDOGXUDELOLW\GDWDDUHDYDLO-
rupture strength and the logarithm of time for all load levels. able, appear to behave reasonably well in fatigue. Neglecting
The ratios of stress to cause creep rupture after 500,000 LQWKLVFRQWH[WWKHUDWKHUSRRUGXUDELOLW\RIDOODUDPLG¿EHUV
KRXUV DSSUR[LPDWHO\  \HDUV  WR WKH VKRUWWHUP XOWLPDWH in compression, the tension-tension fatigue behavior of an
strength of the GFRP, AFRP, and CFRP bars were extrap- LPSUHJQDWHGDUDPLG¿EHUVWUDQGLVH[FHOOHQW6WUHQJWKGHJUD-
RODWHG WR EH DSSUR[LPDWHO\   DQG  UHVSHFWLYHO\ dation per decade of logarithmic lifetime is approximately 5
<DPDJXFKL HW DO  0DOYDU   5HFRPPHQGDWLRQV WRSHUFHQW 5R\ODQFHDQG5R\ODQFH :KLOHQRGLVWLQFW
on sustained stress limits imposed to avoid creep rupture endurance limit is known for AFRP, 2-million-cycle endur-
are given &KDSWHU  through 15. As long as the sustained ance limits of commercial AFRP tendons for concrete appli-
stress in the FRP is below the creep rupture stress limits, the cations have been reported in the range of 54 to 73 percent
strength of the FRP is available for nonsustained loads. RIWKHXOWLPDWHWHQVLOHVWUHQJWK 2GDJLULHWDO %HFDXVH
4.4.2 Fatigue—A substantial amount of data for fatigue the slope of the applied stress versus logarithmic endurance
behavior and life prediction of stand-alone FRP materials is time of AFRP is similar to the slope of the stress versus loga-
DYDLODEOH 1DWLRQDO 5HVHDUFK &RXQFLO   0RVW RI WKHVH ULWKPLF F\FOLF OLIHWLPH GDWD WKH LQGLYLGXDO ¿EHUV DSSHDU WR
data were generated from materials typically used by the fail by a strain-limited creep rupture process. This lifetime-
DHURVSDFH LQGXVWU\ 'HVSLWH WKH GLIIHUHQFHV LQ TXDOLW\ DQG limiting mechanism in commercial AFRP bars is accelerated
consistency between aerospace and commercial-grade FRP E\H[SRVXUHWRPRLVWXUHDQGHOHYDWHGWHPSHUDWXUH 5R\ODQFH
materials, some general observations on the fatigue behavior DQG5R\ODQFH5RVWDV\ 
RI )53 PDWHULDOV FDQ EH PDGH 8QOHVV VSHFL¿FDOO\ VWDWHG
otherwise, the following cases are based on a unidirectional 4.5—Durability
PDWHULDOZLWKDSSUR[LPDWHO\SHUFHQW¿EHUYROXPHIUDFWLRQ Many FRP systems exhibit reduced mechanical properties
and subjected to tension-tension sinusoidal cyclic loading at: after exposure to certain environmental factors, including
D $IUHTXHQF\ORZHQRXJKWRQRWFDXVHVHOIKHDWLQJ high temperature, humidity, and chemical exposure. The
E $PELHQWODERUDWRU\HQYLURQPHQWV exposure environment, duration of exposure, resin type
F  $ VWUHVV UDWLR UDWLR RI PLQLPXP DSSOLHG VWUHVV WR DQG IRUPXODWLRQ ¿EHU W\SH DQG UHVLQFXULQJ PHWKRG DUH
PD[LPXPDSSOLHGVWUHVV RI VRPH RI WKH IDFWRUV WKDW LQÀXHQFH WKH H[WHQW RI WKH UHGXF-
G $GLUHFWLRQSDUDOOHOWRWKHSULQFLSDO¿EHUDOLJQPHQW tion in mechanical properties. These factors are discussed
Test conditions that raise the temperature and moisture in more detail in . The tensile properties reported by the
content of FRP materials generally degrade the ambient manufacturer are based on testing conducted in a laboratory
environment fatigue behavior. HQYLURQPHQWDQGGRQRWUHÀHFWWKHHIIHFWVRIHQYLURQPHQWDO
Of all types of FRP composites for infrastructure applica- exposure. These properties should be adjusted in accordance
tions, CFRP is the least prone to fatigue failure. An endurance with the recommendations in  to account for the antici-
limit of 60 to 70 percent of the initial static ultimate strength pated service environment to which the FRP system may be
of CFRP is typical. On a plot of stress versus the logarithm exposed during its service life.
RI WKH QXPEHU RI F\FOHV DW IDLOXUH 61 FXUYH  WKH GRZQ-
ward slope for CFRP is usually approximately 5 percent of 4.6—FRP systems qualification
the initial static ultimate strength per decade of logarithmic )53V\VWHPVVKRXOGEHTXDOL¿HGIRUXVHRQDSURMHFWEDVHG
OLIH &XUWLV $WPLOOLRQF\FOHVWKHIDWLJXHVWUHQJWK on independent laboratory test data of the FRP-constituent
is generally between 60 and 70 percent of the initial static materials and the laminates made with them, structural test
ultimate strength and is relatively unaffected by the moisture data for the type of application being considered, and dura-
and temperature exposures of concrete structures unless the bility data representative of the anticipated environment.
UHVLQRU¿EHUUHVLQLQWHUIDFHLVVXEVWDQWLDOO\GHJUDGHGE\WKH Test data provided by the FRP system manufacturer demon-
environment. strating the proposed FRP system should meet all mechan-
,Q DPELHQWHQYLURQPHQW ODERUDWRU\ WHVWV Mandell and LFDO DQG SK\VLFDO GHVLJQ UHTXLUHPHQWV LQFOXGLQJ WHQVLOH
0HLHU   LQGLYLGXDO JODVV ¿EHUV GHPRQVWUDWHG GHOD\HG strength, durability, resistance to creep, bond to substrate,
rupture caused by stress corrosion, which had been induced and Tg, should be considered. ACI 440.8 provides a speci-
E\ WKH JURZWK RI VXUIDFH ÀDZV LQ WKH SUHVHQFH RI HYHQ ¿FDWLRQ IRU XQLGLUHFWLRQDO FDUERQ DQG JODVV )53 PDWHULDOV
PLQXWHTXDQWLWLHVRIPRLVWXUH:KHQPDQ\JODVV¿EHUVZHUH made using the wet layup process.
embedded into a matrix to form an FRP composite, a cyclic FRP composite systems that have not been fully tested
tensile fatigue effect of approximately 10 percent loss in the should not be considered for use. Mechanical properties of
initial static strength per decade of logarithmic lifetime was FRP systems should be determined from tests on laminates
REVHUYHG 0DQGHOO  7KLV IDWLJXH HIIHFW LV WKRXJKW WR PDQXIDFWXUHGLQDSURFHVVUHSUHVHQWDWLYHRIWKHLU¿HOGLQVWDO-
EHGXHWR¿EHU¿EHULQWHUDFWLRQVDQGLVQRWGHSHQGHQWRQWKH lation. Mechanical properties should be tested in general
VWUHVVFRUURVLRQPHFKDQLVPGHVFULEHGIRULQGLYLGXDO¿EHUV conformance with the procedures listed in Appendix B. Modi-
8VXDOO\QRFOHDUIDWLJXHOLPLWFDQEHGH¿QHG(QYLURQPHQWDO ¿FDWLRQVRIVWDQGDUGWHVWLQJSURFHGXUHVPD\EHSHUPLWWHGWR
factors can play an important role in the fatigue behavior of HPXODWH¿HOGDVVHPEOLHV

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 15

7KH VSHFL¿HG PDWHULDOTXDOL¿FDWLRQ SURJUDPV VKRXOG encountered when handling thermosetting resins are listed as
UHTXLUH VXI¿FLHQW ODERUDWRU\ WHVWLQJ WR PHDVXUH WKH UHSHDW- follows:
ability and reliability of critical properties. Testing of D 6NLQLUULWDWLRQVXFKDVEXUQVUDVKHVDQGLWFKLQJ
multiple batches of FRP materials is recommended. Inde- E 6NLQVHQVLWL]DWLRQZKLFKLVDQDOOHUJLFUHDFWLRQVLPLODUWR
pendent structural testing can be used to evaluate a system’s that caused by poison ivy, building insulation, or other allergens
SHUIRUPDQFHIRUWKHVSHFL¿FDSSOLFDWLRQ F  %UHDWKLQJ RUJDQLF YDSRUV IURP FOHDQLQJ VROYHQWV
monomers, and dilutents
CHAPTER 5—SHIPPING, STORAGE, AND G :LWKDVXI¿FLHQWFRQFHQWUDWLRQLQDLUH[SORVLRQRU¿UH
HANDLING RIÀDPPDEOHPDWHULDOVZKHQH[SRVHGWRKHDWÀDPHVSLORW
lights, sparks, static electricity, cigarettes, or other sources
5.1—Shipping of ignition
)LEHUUHLQIRUFHGSRO\PHU )53 V\VWHPFRQVWLWXHQWPDWH- H ([RWKHUPLFUHDFWLRQVRIPL[WXUHVRIPDWHULDOVFDXVLQJ
rials should be packaged and shipped in a manner that ¿UHVRUSHUVRQDOLQMXU\
conforms to all applicable federal and state packaging and I  1XLVDQFH GXVW FDXVHG E\ JULQGLQJ RU KDQGOLQJ RI WKH
shipping codes and regulations. Packaging, labeling, and FXUHG )53 PDWHULDOV PDQXIDFWXUHU¶V OLWHUDWXUH VKRXOG EH
shipping for thermosetting resin materials are controlled by FRQVXOWHGIRUVSHFL¿FKD]DUGV
&)5. The complexity of thermosetting resins and associated
materials makes it essential that labels and the SDS are read
5.2—Storage and understood by those working with these products. CFR
5.2.1 Storage conditions—To preserve the properties and 16 Part 1500 regulates the labeling of hazardous substances
maintain safety in the storage of FRP system constituent and includes thermosetting-resin materials. ANSI Z400.1/
materials, the materials should be stored in accordance with =SURYLGHVIXUWKHUJXLGDQFHUHJDUGLQJFODVVL¿FD-
the manufacturer’s recommendations. Certain constituent tion and precautions.
materials, such as reactive curing agents, hardeners, initia- 5.3.4 Personnel safe handling and clothing—Disposable
tors, catalysts, and cleaning solvents, have safety-related VXLWV DQG JORYHV DUH VXLWDEOH IRU KDQGOLQJ ¿EHU DQG UHVLQ
UHTXLUHPHQWV DQG VKRXOG EH VWRUHG LQ D PDQQHU DV UHFRP- materials. Disposable rubber or plastic gloves are recom-
mended by the manufacturer and OSHA. Catalysts and initi- mended and should be discarded after each use. Gloves
DWRUV XVXDOO\SHUR[LGHV VKRXOGEHVWRUHGVHSDUDWHO\ should be resistant to resins and solvents. Safety glasses or
5.2.2 Shelf life—The properties of the uncured resin goggles should be used when handling resin components
components can change with time, temperature, or humidity. and solvents. Respiratory protection, such as dust masks or
Such conditions can affect the reactivity of the mixed system UHVSLUDWRUVVKRXOGEHXVHGZKHQ¿EHUÀ\GXVWRURUJDQLF
and the uncured and cured properties. The manufacturer sets vapors are present, or during mixing and placing of resins if
a recommended shelf life within which the properties of the UHTXLUHGE\WKH)53V\VWHPPDQXIDFWXUHU
resin-based materials should continue to meet or exceed 5.3.5 Workplace safe handling—The workplace should
stated performance criteria. Any component material that be well ventilated. Surfaces should be covered as needed
has exceeded its shelf life, has deteriorated, or has been to protect against contamination and resin spills. Each
contaminated should not be used. FRP materials deemed FRP system constituent material has different handling
XQXVDEOHVKRXOGEHGLVSRVHGRILQDPDQQHUVSHFL¿HGE\WKH DQG VWRUDJH UHTXLUHPHQWV WR SUHYHQW GDPDJH 7KH PDWH-
manufacturer and acceptable to state and federal environ- rial manufacturer should be consulted for guidance. Some
mental control regulations. resin systems are potentially dangerous during mixing of
the components. The manufacturer’s literature should be
5.3—Handling consulted for proper mixing procedures, and the SDS for
5.3.1 Safety data sheet—6DIHW\ GDWD VKHHWV 6'6V  IRU VSHFL¿F KDQGOLQJ KD]DUGV $PELHQW FXUH UHVLQ IRUPXOD-
all FRP-constituent materials and components should be tions produce heat when curing, which in turn accelerates
obtained from the manufacturers, and should be accessible WKHUHDFWLRQ8QFRQWUROOHGUHDFWLRQVLQFOXGLQJIXPLQJ¿UH
at the job site. or violent boiling, may occur in containers holding a mixed
5.3.2 Information sources—Detailed information on the PDVVRIUHVLQWKHUHIRUHFRQWDLQHUVVKRXOGEHPRQLWRUHG
handling and potential hazards of FRP-constituent mate- 5.3.6 Cleanup and disposal—Cleanup can involve use
rials can be found in company literature and guides, OSHA RI ÀDPPDEOH VROYHQWV DQG DSSURSULDWH SUHFDXWLRQV VKRXOG
guidelines, and other government informational documents. be observed. Cleanup solvents are available that do not
5.3.3 General handling hazards—Thermosetting resins SUHVHQW ÀDPPDELOLW\ FRQFHUQV$OO ZDVWH PDWHULDOV VKRXOG
describe a generic family of products that includes unsatu- be contained and disposed of as prescribed by the prevailing
rated polyesters, vinyl esters, epoxy, and polyurethane resins. environmental authority.
The materials used with them are generally described as
hardeners, curing agents, peroxide initiators, isocyanates, CHAPTER 6—INSTALLATION
¿OOHUV DQG ÀH[LELOL]HUV 7KHUH DUH SUHFDXWLRQV WKDW VKRXOG 3URFHGXUHVIRULQVWDOOLQJ¿EHUUHLQIRUFHGSRO\PHU )53 
be observed when handling thermosetting resins and their systems have been developed by the system manufacturers
component materials. Some general hazards that may be and often differ between systems. In addition, installation

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16 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

procedures can vary within a system, depending on the type IRU HDFK HPSOR\HH¶V IXQFWLRQ $OO VXSSOLHV DQG HTXLSPHQW
and condition of the structure. This chapter presents general VKRXOGEHDYDLODEOHLQVXI¿FLHQWTXDQWLWLHVWRDOORZFRQWLQXLW\
guidelines for the installation of FRP systems. Contrac- LQWKHLQVWDOODWLRQSURMHFWDQGTXDOLW\DVVXUDQFH
tors trained in accordance with the installation procedures
developed by the system manufacturer should install FRP 6.4—Substrate repair and surface preparation
systems. Deviations from the procedures developed by the The behavior of concrete members strengthened or retro-
FRP system manufacturer should not be allowed without ¿WWHG ZLWK )53 V\VWHPV LV KLJKO\ GHSHQGHQW RQ D VRXQG
consulting with the manufacturer. FRQFUHWH VXEVWUDWH DQG SURSHU SUHSDUDWLRQ DQG SUR¿OLQJ RI
the concrete surface. An improperly prepared surface can
6.1—Contractor competency result in debonding or delamination of the FRP system
The FRP system installation contractor should demonstrate before achieving the design load transfer. The general
competency for surface preparation and application of the FRP guidelines presented in this chapter should be applicable to
system to be installed. Contractor competency can be demon- DOOH[WHUQDOO\ERQGHG)53V\VWHPV6SHFL¿FJXLGHOLQHVIRU
strated by providing evidence of training and documentation a particular FRP system should be obtained from the FRP
of related work previously completed by the contractor or by system manufacturer.
actual surface preparation and installation of the FRP system 6.4.1 Substrate repair—All problems associated with the
on portions of the structure. The FRP system manufacturer condition of the original concrete and the concrete substrate
or its authorized agent should train the contractor’s applica- that can compromise the integrity of the FRP system should
tion personnel in the installation procedures of its system and be addressed before surface preparation begins. ACI 546R
ensure they are competent to install the system. and ICRI 310.2R detail methods for the repair and surface
preparation of concrete. All concrete repairs should meet the
6.2—Temperature, humidity, and moisture UHTXLUHPHQWVRIWKHGHVLJQGUDZLQJVDQGSURMHFWVSHFL¿FD-
considerations tions. The FRP system manufacturer should be consulted on
Temperature, relative humidity, and surface moisture at the compatibility of the FRP system with materials used for
the time of installation can affect the performance of the repairing the substrate.
FRP system. Conditions to be observed before and during 6.4.1.1 Corrosion-related deterioration—Externally
installation include surface temperature and moisture condi- bonded FRP systems should not be applied to concrete
tion of the concrete, air temperature, relative humidity, and substrates suspected of containing actively corroding rein-
corresponding dew point. forcing steel. The expansive forces associated with the corro-
Primers, saturating resins, and adhesives should generally VLRQSURFHVVDUHGLI¿FXOWWRGHWHUPLQHDQGFRXOGFRPSURPLVH
not be applied to cold or frozen surfaces. When the surface the structural integrity of the externally applied FRP system.
temperature of the concrete surface falls below a minimum 7KHFDXVH V RIWKHFRUURVLRQVKRXOGEHDGGUHVVHGDQGWKH
OHYHODVVSHFL¿HGE\WKH)53V\VWHPPDQXIDFWXUHULPSURSHU corrosion-related deterioration should be repaired before the
VDWXUDWLRQ RI WKH ¿EHUV DQG LPSURSHU FXULQJ RI WKH UHVLQ application of any externally bonded FRP system.
constituent materials can occur, compromising the integrity 6.4.1.2 Injection of cracks—Cracks that are 0.010 in.
of the FRP system. An auxiliary heat source can be used to  PP  DQG ZLGHU FDQ DIIHFW WKH SHUIRUPDQFH RI WKH
raise the ambient and surface temperature during installation H[WHUQDOO\ ERQGHG )53 V\VWHPV &RQVHTXHQWO\ FUDFNV
and maintain proper temperatures during curing. The heat ZLGHU WKDQ  LQ  PP  VKRXOG EH SUHVVXUHLQMHFWHG
source should be clean and not contaminate the surface or with epoxy before FRP installation in accordance with ACI
the uncured FRP system. 224.1R. Smaller cracks exposed to aggressive environments
Resins and adhesives should generally not be applied to PD\UHTXLUHUHVLQLQMHFWLRQRUVHDOLQJWRSUHYHQWFRUURVLRQRI
damp or wet surfaces unless they have been formulated for existing steel reinforcement. Crack-width criteria for various
such applications. FRP systems should not be applied to exposure conditions are given in ACI 224.1R.
concrete surfaces that are subject to moisture vapor trans- 6.4.2 Surface preparation—6XUIDFH SUHSDUDWLRQ UHTXLUH-
mission. The transmission of moisture vapor from a concrete ments should be based on the intended application of the FRP
surface through the uncured resin materials typically appears system. Applications can be categorized as bond-critical or
as surface bubbles and can compromise the bond between FRQWDFWFULWLFDO%RQGFULWLFDODSSOLFDWLRQVVXFKDVÀH[XUDO
the FRP system and the substrate. or shear strengthening of beams, slabs, columns, or walls,
UHTXLUHDQDGKHVLYHERQGEHWZHHQWKH)53V\VWHPDQGWKH
6.3—Equipment FRQFUHWH&RQWDFWFULWLFDODSSOLFDWLRQVVXFKDVFRQ¿QHPHQW
6RPH )53 V\VWHPV KDYH XQLTXH RIWHQ V\VWHPVSHFL¿F RIFROXPQVRQO\UHTXLUHLQWLPDWHFRQWDFWEHWZHHQWKH)53
HTXLSPHQW GHVLJQHG VSHFL¿FDOO\ IRU WKHLU DSSOLFDWLRQ 7KLV system and the concrete. Contact-critical applications do
HTXLSPHQW FDQ LQFOXGH UHVLQ LPSUHJQDWRUV VSUD\HUV OLIWLQJ QRWUHTXLUHDQDGKHVLYHERQGEHWZHHQWKH)53V\VWHPDQG
SRVLWLRQLQJ GHYLFHV DQG ZLQGLQJ PDFKLQHV $OO HTXLS- the concrete substrate, although one is typically provided to
ment should be clean and in good operating condition. The facilitate installation.
contractor should have personnel trained in the operation of 6.4.2.1 Bond-critical applications—Surface prepara-
DOOHTXLSPHQW3HUVRQDOSURWHFWLYHHTXLSPHQWVXFKDVJORYHV tion for bond-critical applications should be in accordance
masks, eye guards, and coveralls, should be chosen and worn with recommendations of ACI 546R and ICRI 310.2R. The

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 17

concrete or repaired surfaces to which the FRP system is to bonding properties of the adhesive. The grooves should be
be applied should be freshly exposed and free of loose or FRPSOHWHO\¿OOHGZLWKWKHDGKHVLYH7KHDGKHVLYHVKRXOGEH
XQVRXQG PDWHULDOV :KHUH ¿EHUV ZUDS DURXQG FRUQHUV WKH VSHFL¿HGE\WKH160V\VWHPPDQXIDFWXUHU
FRUQHUV VKRXOG EH URXQGHG WR D PLQLPXP  LQ  PP 
radius to reduce stress concentrations in the FRP system and 6.5—Mixing of resins
voids between the FRP system and the concrete. Rough- Mixing of resins should be done in accordance with
ened corners should be smoothed with putty. Obstructions, the FRP system manufacturer’s recommended procedure.
inside corners, concave surfaces, and embedded objects can All resin components should be at the proper temperature
affect the performance of the FRP system and should be and mixed in the correct ratio until there is a uniform and
addressed. Obstructions and embedded objects may need to complete mixing of components. Resin components are
be removed before installing the FRP system. Inside corners often contrasting colors, so full mixing is achieved when
DQGFRQFDYHVXUIDFHVPD\UHTXLUHVSHFLDOGHWDLOLQJWRHQVXUH color streaks are eliminated. Resins should be mixed for the
that the bond of the FRP system to the substrate is main- prescribed mixing time and visually inspected for unifor-
tained. Surface preparation can be accomplished using abra- mity of color. The material manufacturer should supply
VLYHRUZDWHUEODVWLQJWHFKQLTXHV$OOODLWDQFHGXVWGLUWRLO recommended batch sizes, mixture ratios, mixing methods,
curing compound, existing coatings, and any other matter and mixing times.
that could interfere with the bond of the FRP system to the 0L[LQJHTXLSPHQWFDQLQFOXGHVPDOOHOHFWULFDOO\SRZHUHG
concrete should be removed. Bug holes and other small mixing blades or specialty units, or resins can be mixed by
surface voids should be completely exposed during surface KDQGVWLUULQJLIQHHGHG5HVLQPL[LQJVKRXOGEHLQTXDQWLWLHV
SUR¿OLQJ $IWHU WKH SUR¿OLQJ RSHUDWLRQV DUH FRPSOHWH WKH VXI¿FLHQWO\VPDOOWRHQVXUHWKDWDOOPL[HGUHVLQFDQEHXVHG
surface should be cleaned and protected before FRP instal- within the resin’s pot life. Mixed resin that exceeds its pot
lation so that no materials that can interfere with bond are life should not be used because the viscosity will continue
redeposited on the surface. to increase and will adversely affect the resin’s ability to
The concrete surface should be prepared to a surface SHQHWUDWHWKHVXUIDFHRUVDWXUDWHWKH¿EHUVKHHW
SUR¿OH QRW OHVV WKDQ &63  DV GH¿QHG E\ ICRI 310.2R or
to the tolerances recommended by the FRP system manu- 6.6—Application of FRP systems
facturer. Localized out-of-plane variations, including form Fumes can accompany the application of some FRP resins.
OLQHV VKRXOG QRW H[FHHG LQ  PP  RU WKH WROHUDQFHV FRP systems should be selected with consideration for their
recommended by the FRP system manufacturer. Localized impact on the environment, including emission of volatile
out-of-plane variations can be removed by grinding, before organic compounds and toxicology.
abrasive or water blasting, or can be smoothed over using 6.6.1 Primer and putty²:KHUH UHTXLUHG SULPHU VKRXOG
resin-based putty if the variations are very small. Bug holes be applied to all areas on the concrete surface where the FRP
DQGYRLGVVKRXOGEH¿OOHGZLWKUHVLQEDVHGSXWW\ system is to be placed. The primer should be placed uniformly
All surfaces to receive the strengthening system should RQWKHSUHSDUHGVXUIDFHDWWKHPDQXIDFWXUHU¶VVSHFL¿HGUDWH
be as dry as recommended by the FRP system manufacturer. of coverage. The applied primer should be protected from
Water in the pores can inhibit resin penetration and reduce dust, moisture, and other contaminants before applying the
mechanical interlock. Moisture content should be evaluated FRP system.
LQDFFRUGDQFHZLWKWKHUHTXLUHPHQWVRIACI 503.4. Putty should be used in an appropriate thickness and
6.4.2.2 Contact-critical applications—In applications VHTXHQFHZLWKWKHSULPHUDVUHFRPPHQGHGE\WKH)53PDQX-
LQYROYLQJ FRQ¿QHPHQW RI VWUXFWXUDO FRQFUHWH PHPEHUV facturer. The system-compatible putty, which is typically a
surface preparation should promote continuous intimate WKLFNHQHGUHVLQEDVHGSDVWHVKRXOGEHXVHGRQO\WR¿OOYRLGV
contact between the concrete surface and the FRP system. and smooth surface discontinuities before the application of
6XUIDFHV WR EH ZUDSSHG VKRXOG DW D PLQLPXP EH ÀDW RU other materials. Rough edges or trowel lines of cured putty
convex to promote proper loading of the FRP system. Large should be ground smooth before continuing the installation.
voids in the surface should be patched with a repair material Before applying the saturating resin or adhesive, the
compatible with the existing concrete. Materials with low SULPHUDQGSXWW\VKRXOGEHDOORZHGWRFXUHDVVSHFL¿HGE\
compressive strength and elastic modulus, such as plaster, the FRP system manufacturer. If the putty and primer are
can reduce the effectiveness of the FRP system and should IXOO\FXUHGDGGLWLRQDOVXUIDFHSUHSDUDWLRQPD\EHUHTXLUHG
be removed. before the application of the saturating resin or adhesive.
6.4.3 Near-surface mounted (NSM) systems—NSM systems 6XUIDFH SUHSDUDWLRQ UHTXLUHPHQWV VKRXOG EH REWDLQHG IURP
are typically installed in grooves cut onto the concrete surface. the FRP system manufacturer.
The existing steel reinforcement should not be damaged while 6.6.2 Wet layup systems—Wet layup FRP systems are
cutting the groove. The soundness of the concrete surface W\SLFDOO\LQVWDOOHGE\KDQGXVLQJGU\¿EHUVKHHWVDQGDVDWX-
should be checked before installing the bar. The inside faces rating resin, typically per the manufacturer’s recommenda-
RIWKHJURRYHVKRXOGEHFOHDQHGWRHQVXUHDGHTXDWHERQGZLWK tions. The saturating resin should be applied uniformly to
concrete. The resulting groove should be free of laitance or all prepared surfaces where the system is to be placed. The
other compounds that may interfere with bond. The moisture ¿EHUV FDQ DOVR EH LPSUHJQDWHG LQ D VHSDUDWH SURFHVV XVLQJ
content of the parent concrete should be controlled to suit the

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18 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

a resin-impregnating machine before placement on the 6.6.6 Protective coatings—Coatings should be compatible
concrete surface. with the FRP strengthening system and applied in accor-
7KH UHLQIRUFLQJ ¿EHUV VKRXOG EH JHQWO\ SUHVVHG LQWR WKH dance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Typically,
uncured saturating resin in a manner recommended by the the use of solvents to clean the FRP surface before installing
FRP system manufacturer. Entrapped air between layers coatings is not recommended due to the deleterious effects
VKRXOGEHUHOHDVHGRUUROOHGRXWEHIRUHWKHUHVLQVHWV6XI¿- that solvents can have on the polymer resins. The FRP system
cient saturating resin should be applied to achieve full satu- manufacturer should approve any use of solvent wipe prepa-
UDWLRQRIWKH¿EHUV ration of FRP surfaces before the application of protective
6XFFHVVLYH OD\HUV RI VDWXUDWLQJ UHVLQ DQG ¿EHU PDWHULDOV coatings. The coatings should be periodically inspected and
should be placed before the complete cure of the previous maintenance should be provided to ensure the effectiveness
layer of resin. If previous layers are cured, interlayer surface of the coatings.
preparation, such as light sanding or solvent application as
UHFRPPHQGHGE\WKHV\VWHPPDQXIDFWXUHUPD\EHUHTXLUHG 6.7—Alignment of FRP materials
6.6.3 Machine-applied systems—Machine-applied systems 7KH)53SO\RULHQWDWLRQDQGSO\VWDFNLQJVHTXHQFHVKRXOG
FDQXVHUHVLQSUHLPSUHJQDWHGWRZVRUGU\¿EHUWRZV3UHSUHJ EHVSHFL¿HG6PDOOYDULDWLRQVLQDQJOHDVOLWWOHDVGHJUHHV
tows are impregnated with saturating resin off site and deliv- IURPWKHLQWHQGHGGLUHFWLRQRI¿EHUDOLJQPHQWFDQFDXVHD
HUHGWRWKHMREVLWHDVVSRROVRISUHSUHJWRZPDWHULDO'U\¿EHUV substantial reduction in strength and modulus. Deviations
are impregnated at the jobsite during the winding process. in ply orientation should only be made if approved by the
Wrapping machines are primarily used for the automated licensed design professional.
wrapping of concrete columns. The tows can be wound either Sheet and fabric materials should be handled in a manner
KRUL]RQWDOO\RUDWDVSHFL¿HGDQJOH7KHZUDSSLQJPDFKLQHLV WR PDLQWDLQ WKH ¿EHU VWUDLJKWQHVV DQG RULHQWDWLRQ )DEULF
placed around the column and automatically wraps the tow kinks, folds, or other forms of waviness should be reported
material around the perimeter of the column while moving to the licensed design professional.
up and down the column.
After wrapping, prepreg systems should be cured at 6.8—Multiple plies and lap splices
an elevated temperature. Usually, a heat source is placed Multiple plies can be used, provided that all plies are fully
around the column for a predetermined temperature and time impregnated with the resin system, the resin shear strength
schedule in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommen- LVVXI¿FLHQWWRWUDQVIHUWKHVKHDULQJORDGEHWZHHQSOLHVDQG
dations. Temperatures are controlled to ensure consistent the bond strength between the concrete and FRP system is
TXDOLW\7KHUHVXOWLQJ)53MDFNHWVGRQRWKDYHDQ\VHDPVRU VXI¿FLHQW)RUORQJVSDQVPXOWLSOHOHQJWKVRI¿EHUPDWHULDO
welds because the tows are continuous. In all the previous or precured stock can be used to continuously transfer the
application steps, the FRP system manufacturer’s recom- ORDGE\SURYLGLQJDGHTXDWHODSVSOLFHV/DSVSOLFHVVKRXOG
mendations should be followed. be staggered unless noted otherwise by the licensed design
6.6.4 Precured systems—Precured systems include shells, professional. Lap splice details, including lap length, should
strips, and open grid forms that are typically installed with be based on testing and installed in accordance with the
an adhesive. Adhesives should be uniformly applied to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Due to the characteristics
prepared surfaces where precured systems are to be placed, of some FRP systems, multiple plies and lap splices are not
H[FHSW LQ FHUWDLQ LQVWDQFHV RI FRQFUHWH FRQ¿QHPHQW ZKHUH DOZD\VSRVVLEOH6SHFL¿FJXLGHOLQHVRQODSVSOLFHVDUHJLYHQ
adhesion of the FRP system to the concrete substrate may in Chapter 14.
QRWEHUHTXLUHG
Precured laminate surfaces to be bonded should be clean 6.9—Curing of resins
and prepared in accordance with the manufacturer’s recom- Curing of resins is a time-temperature-dependent phenom-
mendation. The precured sheets or curved shells should enon. Ambient-cure resins can take several days to reach
be placed on or into the wet adhesive in a manner recom- IXOO FXUH 7HPSHUDWXUH H[WUHPHV RU ÀXFWXDWLRQV FDQ UHWDUG
mended by the FRP manufacturer. Entrapped air between or accelerate the resin curing time. The FRP system manu-
layers should be released or rolled out before the adhesive IDFWXUHU PD\ RIIHU VHYHUDO SUHTXDOL¿HG JUDGHV RI UHVLQ WR
sets. The adhesive should be applied at a rate recommended accommodate these situations.
by the FRP manufacturer. (OHYDWHG FXUH V\VWHPV UHTXLUH WKH UHVLQ WR EH KHDWHG WR
6.6.5 Near-surface mounted (NSM) systems—NSM DVSHFL¿FWHPSHUDWXUHIRUDVSHFL¿HGWLPH9DULRXVFRPEL-
systems consist of installing rectangular or circular FRP QDWLRQVRIWLPHDQGWHPSHUDWXUHZLWKLQDGH¿QHGHQYHORSH
bars in grooves cut onto the concrete surface and bonded in should provide full cure of the system.
place using an adhesive. Grooves should be dimensioned to All resins should be cured according to the manufac-
HQVXUH DGHTXDWH DGKHVLYH DURXQG WKH EDUV 7\SLFDO JURRYH WXUHU¶VUHFRPPHQGDWLRQ)LHOGPRGL¿FDWLRQRIUHVLQFKHP-
dimensions for NSM FRP rods and plates are found in istry should not be permitted. Cure of installed plies should
14.3. NSM systems can be used on the topside of structural EH PRQLWRUHG EHIRUH SODFLQJ VXEVHTXHQW SOLHV ,QVWDOODWLRQ
members and for overhead applications. Adhesive type and of successive layers should be halted if there is a curing
LQVWDOODWLRQPHWKRGVKRXOGEHVSHFL¿HGE\WKH160V\VWHP anomaly.
manufacturer.

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 19

6.10—Temporary protection L )LEHURUSUHFXUHGODPLQDWHEDWFKQXPEHU V DQGDSSUR[-


$GYHUVHWHPSHUDWXUHVGLUHFWFRQWDFWE\UDLQGXVWRUGLUW imate location in structure
H[FHVVLYHVXQOLJKWKLJKKXPLGLW\RUYDQGDOLVPFDQGDPDJH M %DWFKQXPEHUVPL[WXUHUDWLRVPL[LQJWLPHDQGTXDOL-
an FRP system during installation and cause improper cure tative descriptions of the appearance of all mixed resins
of the resins. Temporary protection, such as tents and plastic including primers, putties, saturants, adhesives, and coatings
VFUHHQV PD\ EH UHTXLUHG GXULQJ LQVWDOODWLRQ DQG XQWLO WKH mixed for the day
UHVLQVKDYHFXUHG,IWHPSRUDU\VKRULQJLVUHTXLUHGWKH)53 N 2EVHUYDWLRQVRISURJUHVVRIFXUHRIUHVLQV
system should be fully cured before removing the shoring O &RQIRUPDQFHZLWKLQVWDOODWLRQSURFHGXUHV
and allowing the structural member to carry the design P 3XOORIIWHVWUHVXOWVERQGVWUHQJWKIDLOXUHPRGHDQG
loads. In the event of suspected damage to the FRP system location
during installation, the licensed design professional should Q  )53 SURSHUWLHV IURP WHVWV RI ¿HOG VDPSOH SDQHOV RU
EHQRWL¿HGDQGWKH)53V\VWHPPDQXIDFWXUHUFRQVXOWHG ZLWQHVVSDQHOVLIUHTXLUHG
R /RFDWLRQDQGVL]HRIDQ\GHODPLQDWLRQVRUDLUYRLGV
CHAPTER 7—INSPECTION, EVALUATION, AND S *HQHUDOSURJUHVVRIZRUN
ACCEPTANCE The inspector should provide the licensed design profes-
4XDOLW\DVVXUDQFHDQGTXDOLW\FRQWURO 4$4& SURJUDPV sional or owner with the inspection records and witness
DQG FULWHULD DUH WR EH PDLQWDLQHG E\ WKH ¿EHUUHLQIRUFHG panels. Records and witness panels should be retained for
SRO\PHU )53  V\VWHP PDQXIDFWXUHUV WKH LQVWDOODWLRQ DPLQLPXPRI\HDUVRUDSHULRGVSHFL¿HGE\WKHOLFHQVHG
FRQWUDFWRUV DQG RWKHUV DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH SURMHFW 4$ design professional. The installation contractor should retain
is typically an owner or a licensed professional activity sample cups of mixed resin and maintain a record of the
ZKHUHDV 4& LV D FRQWUDFWRU RU VXSSOLHU DFWLYLW\ 7KH 4& placement of each batch.
program should be comprehensive and cover all aspects
of the strengthening project, and should be detailed in the 7.2—Evaluation and acceptance
SURMHFWVSHFL¿FDWLRQVE\DOLFHQVHGSURIHVVLRQDO7KHGHJUHH FRP systems should be evaluated and accepted or rejected
RI 4& DQG WKH VFRSH RI WHVWLQJ LQVSHFWLRQ DQG UHFRUG based on conformance or nonconformance with the design
keeping depends on the size and complexity of the project. GUDZLQJV DQG VSHFL¿FDWLRQV )53 V\VWHP PDWHULDO SURS-
4XDOLW\DVVXUDQFHLVDFKLHYHGWKURXJKDVHWRILQVSHFWLRQV HUWLHV LQVWDOODWLRQ ZLWKLQ VSHFL¿HG SODFHPHQW WROHUDQFHV
and applicable tests to document the acceptability of the presence of delaminations, cure of resins, and adhesion to
LQVWDOODWLRQ3URMHFWVSHFL¿FDWLRQVVKRXOGLQFOXGHDUHTXLUH- substrate should be included in the evaluation. Placement
PHQWWRSURYLGHD4$SODQIRUWKHLQVWDOODWLRQDQGFXULQJRI WROHUDQFHVLQFOXGLQJ¿EHURULHQWDWLRQFXUHGWKLFNQHVVSO\
all FRP materials. The plan should include personnel safety orientation, width and spacing, corner radii, and lap splice
issues, application and inspection of the FRP system, loca- lengths, should be evaluated.
tion and placement of splices, curing provisions, means to Witness panel and pull-off tests are used to evaluate the
HQVXUHGU\VXUIDFHV4$VDPSOHVFOHDQXSDQGWKHVXJJHVWHG installed FRP system. In-place load testing can also be used
submittals listed in 15.3. WR FRQ¿UP WKH LQVWDOOHG EHKDYLRU RI WKH )53VWUHQJWKHQHG
PHPEHU 1DQQLDQG*ROG 
7.1—Inspection 7.2.1 Materials—Before starting the project, the FRP
FRP systems and all associated work should be inspected V\VWHPPDQXIDFWXUHUVKRXOGVXEPLWFHUWL¿FDWLRQRIVSHFL¿HG
DVUHTXLUHGE\WKHDSSOLFDEOHFRGHV,QWKHDEVHQFHRIVXFK PDWHULDOSURSHUWLHVDQGLGHQWL¿FDWLRQRIDOOPDWHULDOVWREH
UHTXLUHPHQWV WKH LQVSHFWLRQ VKRXOG EH FRQGXFWHG E\ RU used. Additional material testing can be conducted if deemed
under the supervision of a licensed design professional or necessary based on the size and complexity of the project
D TXDOL¿HG LQVSHFWRU ,QVSHFWRUV VKRXOG EH NQRZOHGJHDEOH or other factors. Evaluation of delivered FRP materials can
of FRP systems and be trained in the installation of FRP include tests for tensile strength, Tg, gel time, pot life, and
V\VWHPV7KHTXDOL¿HGLQVSHFWRUVKRXOGUHTXLUHFRPSOLDQFH adhesive shear strength. These tests are usually performed
ZLWKWKHGHVLJQGUDZLQJVDQGSURMHFWVSHFL¿FDWLRQV'XULQJ on material samples sent to a laboratory according to the
the installation of the FRP system, daily inspection should 4&WHVWSODQ7HVWVIRUSRWOLIHRIUHVLQVDQGFXULQJKDUGQHVV
be conducted and should include: are usually conducted on site. Materials that do not meet the
D 'DWHDQGWLPHRILQVWDOODWLRQ PLQLPXPUHTXLUHPHQWVDVVSHFL¿HGE\WKHOLFHQVHGGHVLJQ
E  $PELHQW WHPSHUDWXUH UHODWLYH KXPLGLW\ DQG JHQHUDO professional should be rejected.
weather observations Witness panels can be used to evaluate the tensile strength
F 6XUIDFHWHPSHUDWXUHRIFRQFUHWH and modulus, lap splice strength, hardness, and Tg of the FRP
G 6XUIDFHPRLVWXUH system installed and cured on site using installation proce-
H 6XUIDFHSUHSDUDWLRQPHWKRGVDQGUHVXOWLQJSUR¿OHXVLQJ dures similar to those used to install and cure the FRP system.
WKH,&5,VXUIDFHSUR¿OHFKLSV 'XULQJLQVWDOODWLRQÀDWSDQHOVRISUHGHWHUPLQHGGLPHQVLRQV
I 4XDOLWDWLYHGHVFULSWLRQRIVXUIDFHFOHDQOLQHVV and thickness can be fabricated on site according to a prede-
J 7\SHRIDX[LOLDU\KHDWVRXUFHLIDSSOLFDEOH termined sampling plan. After curing on site, the panels can
K :LGWKVRIFUDFNVQRWLQMHFWHGZLWKHSR[\ then be sent to a laboratory for testing. Witness panels can be
retained or submitted to an approved laboratory in a timely

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20 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

manner for testing of strength and Tg. Strength and elastic PDQXIDFWXUHUVKRXOGEHFRQVXOWHGWRGHWHUPLQHWKHVSHFL¿F
modulus of FRP materials can be determined in accordance UHVLQFXUHYHUL¿FDWLRQUHTXLUHPHQWV)RUSUHFXUHGV\VWHPV
ZLWK WKH UHTXLUHPHQWV RI$670 ''0, D7205/ adhesive hardness measurements should be made in accor-
D7205M, or D7565/D7565M. The properties to be evalu- dance with the manufacturer’s recommendation.
DWHG E\ WHVWLQJ VKRXOG EH VSHFL¿HG 7KH OLFHQVHG GHVLJQ 7.2.5 Adhesion strength—For bond-critical applica-
SURIHVVLRQDOPD\ZDLYHRUDOWHUWKHIUHTXHQF\RIWHVWLQJ tions, tension adhesion testing of cored samples should be
Some FRP systems, including precured and machine- FRQGXFWHG LQ DFFRUGDQFH ZLWK WKH UHTXLUHPHQWV RIASTM
wound systems, do not lend themselves to the fabrication D7522/D7522. Such tests cannot be performed when
RIVPDOOÀDWZLWQHVVSDQHOV)RUWKHVHFDVHVWKHOLFHQVHG XVLQJQHDUVXUIDFHPRXQWHG 160 V\VWHPV7KHVDPSOLQJ
GHVLJQSURIHVVLRQDOFDQPRGLI\WKHUHTXLUHPHQWVWRLQFOXGH IUHTXHQF\ VKRXOG EH VSHFL¿HG 7HQVLRQ DGKHVLRQ VWUHQJWKV
test panels or samples provided by the manufacturer. During VKRXOGH[FHHGSVL 03D DQGVKRXOGH[KLELWIDLOXUH
installation, sample cups of mixed resin should be prepared of the concrete substrate. Lower strengths or failure between
according to a predetermined sampling plan and retained for the FRP system and the concrete or between plies should be
WHVWLQJWRGHWHUPLQHWKHGHJUHHRIFXUH   reported to the licensed design professional for evaluation
7.2.2 Fiber orientation—Fiber or precured-laminate and acceptance. For NSM strengthening, sample cores may
orientation should be evaluated by visual inspection. Fiber be extracted to visually verify the consolidation of the resin
ZDYLQHVV²D ORFDOL]HG DSSHDUDQFH RI ¿EHUV WKDW GHYLDWH adhesive around the FRP bar. The location of this core should
IURPWKHJHQHUDOVWUDLJKW¿EHUOLQHLQWKHIRUPRINLQNVRU be chosen such that the continuity of the FRP reinforcement
waves—should be evaluated for wet layup systems. Fiber LVPDLQWDLQHG WKDWLVDWWKHHQGVRIWKH160EDUV 
or precured laminate misalignment of more than 5 degrees 7.2.6 Cured thickness—Small core samples, typically 0.5 in.
IURPWKDWVSHFL¿HGRQWKHGHVLJQGUDZLQJV DSSUR[LPDWHO\  PP  LQ GLDPHWHU PD\ EH WDNHQ WR YLVXDOO\ DVFHUWDLQ WKH
LQIW>PPP@ VKRXOGEHUHSRUWHGWRWKHOLFHQVHGGHVLJQ cured laminate thickness or number of plies. Cored samples
professional for evaluation and acceptance. UHTXLUHG IRU DGKHVLRQ WHVWLQJ DOVR FDQ EH XVHG WR DVFHUWDLQ
7.2.3 Delaminations—The cured FRP system should be the laminate thickness or number of plies. The sampling
evaluated for delaminations or air voids between multiple IUHTXHQF\ VKRXOG EH VSHFL¿HG7DNLQJ VDPSOHV IURP KLJK
plies or between the FRP system and the concrete. Inspec- stress areas or splice areas should be avoided. For aesthetic
tion methods should be capable of detecting delaminations UHDVRQV WKH FRUHG KROH FDQ EH ¿OOHG DQG VPRRWKHG ZLWK D
of 2 in.2  PP2  RU JUHDWHU 0HWKRGV VXFK DV DFRXVWLF UHSDLUPRUWDURUWKH)53V\VWHPSXWW\,IUHTXLUHGDWRLQ
VRXQGLQJ KDPPHU VRXQGLQJ  XOWUDVRQLFV DQG WKHUPRJ- WRPP RYHUODSSLQJ)53VKHHWSDWFKRIHTXLYDOHQW
raphy can be used to detect delaminations. SOLHVPD\EHDSSOLHGRYHUWKH¿OOHGDQGVPRRWKHGFRUHKROH
The effect of delaminations or other anomalies on the immediately after taking the core sample. The FRP sheet
structural integrity and durability of the FRP system should patch should be installed in accordance with the manufac-
EHHYDOXDWHG'HODPLQDWLRQVL]HORFDWLRQDQGTXDQWLW\UHOD- turer’s installation procedures.
tive to the overall application area should be considered in
the evaluation. CHAPTER 8—MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR
General acceptance guidelines for wet layup systems are:
D 6PDOOGHODPLQDWLRQVOHVVWKDQLQ2 PP2 HDFK 8.1—General
are permissible as long as the delaminated area is less than 5 $V ZLWK DQ\ VWUHQJWKHQLQJ RU UHWUR¿W UHSDLU WKH RZQHU
percent of the total laminate area and there are no more than should periodically inspect and assess the performance of
10 such delaminations per 10 ft2 P2  WKH¿EHUUHLQIRUFHGSRO\PHU )53 V\VWHPXVHGIRUVWUHQJWK-
E /DUJHGHODPLQDWLRQVJUHDWHUWKDQLQ2 PP2  HQLQJRUUHWUR¿WUHSDLURIFRQFUHWHPHPEHUV
can affect the performance of the installed FRP and should
be repaired by selectively cutting away the affected sheet 8.2—Inspection and assessment
DQGDSSO\LQJDQRYHUODSSLQJVKHHWSDWFKRIHTXLYDOHQWSOLHV 8.2.1 General inspection—A visual inspection looks for
F 'HODPLQDWLRQVOHVVWKDQLQ2 PP2 PD\EH changes in color, debonding, peeling, blistering, cracking,
repaired by resin injection or ply replacement, depending on FUD]LQJ GHÀHFWLRQV LQGLFDWLRQV RI UHLQIRUFLQJ EDU FRUUR-
the size and number of delaminations and their locations. sion, and other anomalies. In addition, ultrasonic, acoustic
For precured FRP systems, each delamination should VRXQGLQJ KDPPHUWDS RUWKHUPRJUDSKLFWHVWVPD\LQGLFDWH
be evaluated and repaired in accordance with the licensed signs of progressive delamination.
design professional’s direction. Upon completion of the 8.2.2 Testing—Testing can include pull-off tension tests
repairs, the laminate should be reinspected to verify that the 7.2.5 RUFRQYHQWLRQDOVWUXFWXUDOORDGLQJWHVWV ACI 437R 
repair was properly accomplished. 8.2.3 Assessment—Test data and observations are used
7.2.4 Cure of resins—The relative cure of FRP systems to assess any damage and the structural integrity of the
can be evaluated by laboratory testing of witness panels or strengthening system. The assessment can include a recom-
resin cup samples using ASTM D3418. The relative cure of PHQGDWLRQ IRU UHSDLULQJ DQ\ GH¿FLHQFLHV DQG SUHYHQWLQJ
the resin can also be evaluated on the project site by physical recurrence of degradation.
observation of resin tackiness and hardness of work surfaces
or hardness of retained resin samples. The FRP system

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8.3—Repair of strengthening system uncertainties inherent in FRP systems different from steel-
The method of repair for the strengthening system depends reinforced and prestressed concrete. These reduction factors
on the causes of the damage, the type of material, the form of were determined based on statistical evaluation of variability
GHJUDGDWLRQDQGWKHOHYHORIGDPDJH5HSDLUVWRWKH¿EHUUHLQ- in mechanical properties, predicted versus full-scale test
IRUFHGSRO\PHU )53 V\VWHPVKRXOGQRWEHXQGHUWDNHQZLWKRXW UHVXOWVDQG¿HOGDSSOLFDWLRQV)53UHODWHGUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUV
¿UVWLGHQWLI\LQJDQGDGGUHVVLQJWKHFDXVHVRIWKHGDPDJH were calibrated to produce reliability indexes typically above
Minor damage should be repaired, including localized 3.5. Reliability indexes between 3.0 and 3.5 can be encoun-
FRP laminate cracking or abrasions that affect the structural tered in cases where relatively low ratios of steel reinforce-
integrity of the laminate. Minor damage can be repaired ment combined with high ratios of FRP reinforcement are
by bonding FRP patches over the damaged area. The FRP used. Such cases are less likely to be encountered in design
patches should possess the same characteristics, such as because they violate the recommended strengthening limits
thickness or ply orientation, as the original laminate. The RI5HOLDELOLW\LQGH[HVIRU)53VWUHQJWKHQHGPHPEHUVDUH
FRP patches should be installed in accordance with the mate- determined based on the approach used for reinforced concrete
rial manufacturer’s recommendation. Minor delaminations EXLOGLQJV Nowak and Szerszen 2003Szerszen and Nowak
can be repaired by resin injection. Major damage, including 2003  ,Q JHQHUDO ORZHU UHOLDELOLW\ LV H[SHFWHG LQ UHWUR¿WWHG
SHHOLQJDQGGHERQGLQJRIODUJHDUHDVPD\UHTXLUHUHPRYDO and repaired structures than in new structures.
of the affected area, reconditioning of the cover concrete,
and replacement of the FRP laminate. 9.2—Strengthening limits
Careful consideration should be given to determine reason-
8.4—Repair of surface coating able strengthening limits. These limits are imposed to guard
In the event that the surface-protective coating should be against collapse of the structure should bond or other failure
replaced, the FRP laminate should be inspected for structural of the FRP system occur due to damage, vandalism, or other
damage or deterioration. The surface coating may be replaced causes. The unstrengthened structural member, without FRP
using a process approved by the system manufacturer. UHLQIRUFHPHQWVKRXOGKDYHVXI¿FLHQWVWUHQJWKWRUHVLVWDFHUWDLQ
level of load. The existing strength of the structure should be
CHAPTER 9—GENERAL DESIGN VXI¿FLHQWWRUHVLVWDOHYHORIORDGDVGHVFULEHGE\(T 
CONSIDERATIONS
General design recommendations are presented in this ࢥRn existing• SDL + 0.75SLL new 
chapter. The recommendations presented are based on the
traditional reinforced concrete design principles stated in A dead load factor of 1.1 is used because a relatively
WKHUHTXLUHPHQWVRIACI 318DQGNQRZOHGJHRIWKHVSHFL¿F accurate assessment of the dead loads of the structure can
PHFKDQLFDO EHKDYLRU RI ¿EHUUHLQIRUFHG SRO\PHU )53  be determined. A live load factor of 0.75 is used to exceed
reinforcement. the statistical mean of the yearly maximum live load factor
FRP strengthening systems should be designed to resist of 0.5, as given in ASCE 7. The strengthening limit resulting
tensile forces while maintaining strain compatibility IURPFRPSOLDQFHZLWK(T  ZLOODOORZWKHVWUHQJWKHQHG
between the FRP and the concrete substrate. FRP reinforce- PHPEHU WR PDLQWDLQ VXI¿FLHQW VWUXFWXUDO FDSDFLW\ XQWLO WKH
ment should not be relied on to resist compressive forces. damaged FRP is repaired.
It is acceptable, however, for FRP tension reinforcement to In cases where the design live load acting on the member
experience compression due to moment reversals or changes to be strengthened has a high likelihood of being present for
in load pattern. The compressive strength of the FRP rein- a sustained period of time, a live load factor of 1.0 should
forcement, however, should be neglected. EHXVHGLQVWHDGRILQ(T  ([DPSOHVLQFOXGHOLEUDU\
stack areas, heavy storage areas, warehouses, and other occu-
9.1—Design philosophy pancies with a live load exceeding 150 lb/ft2  NJP2 
These design recommendations are based on limit-states- 0RUHVSHFL¿FOLPLWVIRUVWUXFWXUHVUHTXLULQJD¿UHUHVLVWDQFH
design principles. This approach sets acceptable levels of UDWLQJDUHJLYHQLQ
safety for the occurrence of both serviceability limit states 9.2.1 6WUXFWXUDO¿UHUHVLVWDQFH—The level of strengthening
H[FHVVLYH GHÀHFWLRQV DQG FUDFNLQJ  DQG XOWLPDWH OLPLW that can be achieved through the use of externally bonded
VWDWHV IDLOXUHVWUHVVUXSWXUHDQGIDWLJXH ,QDVVHVVLQJWKH )53UHLQIRUFHPHQWFDQEHOLPLWHGE\WKHFRGHUHTXLUHG¿UH
nominal strength of a member, the possible failure modes resistance rating of a structure. The polymer resins typically
DQGVXEVHTXHQWVWUDLQVDQGVWUHVVHVLQHDFKPDWHULDOVKRXOG used in wet layup and prepreg FRP systems and the polymer
be assessed. For evaluating the serviceability of a member, adhesives used in precured FRP systems suffer deterioration
engineering principles, such as transformed section calcula- of mechanical and bond properties at temperatures close to
tions using modular ratios, can be used. or exceeding the Tg of the polymer, as described in 1.2.1.3.
FRP strengthening systems should be designed in accor- $OWKRXJKWKH)53V\VWHPLWVHOILVVLJQL¿FDQWO\DIIHFWHGE\
GDQFHZLWK$&,VWUHQJWKDQGVHUYLFHDELOLW\UHTXLUHPHQWV exposure to elevated temperature, a combination of the FRP
using the strength and load factors stated in ACI 318. Addi- system with an existing concrete structure may still have an
tional reduction factors applied to the contribution of the DGHTXDWH¿UHUHVLVWDQFH:KHQFRQVLGHULQJWKH¿UHUHVLVWDQFH
)53UHLQIRUFHPHQWDUHUHFRPPHQGHGE\WKLVJXLGHWRUHÀHFW of an FRP-strengthened concrete element, it is important to

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22 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

recognize that the strength of a reinforced concrete element PD\ EH RQO\ PDUJLQDOO\ DIIHFWHG E\ )53 V\VWHPV Sharaf
LV UHGXFHG GXULQJ ¿UH H[SRVXUH GXH WR KHDWLQJ RI ERWK WKH et al. 2006 $OOPHPEHUVRIDVWUXFWXUHVKRXOGEHFDSDEOH
UHLQIRUFLQJ VWHHO DQG WKH FRQFUHWH 3HUIRUPDQFH LQ ¿UH RI of withstanding the anticipated increase in loads associated
the existing concrete member can be enhanced by installing with the strengthened members.
an insulation system, which will provide thermal protec- Additionally, analysis should be performed on the member
tion to existing concrete and internal reinforcing steel, thus strengthened by the FRP system to check that, under over-
LPSURYLQJWKHRYHUDOO¿UHUDWLQJDOWKRXJKWKH)53V\VWHP ORDGFRQGLWLRQVWKHVWUHQJWKHQHGPHPEHUZLOOIDLOLQDÀH[-
FRQWULEXWLRQPD\EHUHGXFHG Bisby et al. 2005aWilliams et ural mode rather than in a shear mode.
al. 2006Palmieri et al. 2011Firmo et al. 2012  9.2.3 Seismic applications—5HTXLUHPHQWV IRU VHLVPLF
By extending the methods in ACI 216.1 to FRP-strength- strengthening using FRP are addressed in Chapter 13.
ened reinforced concrete, limits on strengthening can be
used to ensure a strengthened structure will not collapse 9.3—Selection of FRP systems
LQD¿UHHYHQW$PHPEHU¶VUHVLVWDQFHWRORDGHIIHFWVZLWK 9.3.1 Environmental considerations—Environmental
reduced steel and concrete strengths and without the contri- FRQGLWLRQVXQLTXHO\DIIHFWUHVLQVDQG¿EHUVRIYDULRXV)53
bution of the FRP reinforcement, can be compared with the V\VWHPV 7KH PHFKDQLFDO SURSHUWLHV IRU H[DPSOH WHQVLOH
ORDGGHPDQGRQWKHPHPEHUGXULQJWKH¿UHHYHQWWRHQVXUH VWUHQJWK XOWLPDWH WHQVLOH VWUDLQ DQG HODVWLF PRGXOXV  RI
the strengthened member can support these loads for the some FRP systems degrade under exposure to certain envi-
UHTXLUHG¿UHGXUDWLRQ RU¿UHUDWLQJWLPH ZLWKRXWIDLOXUH ronments such as alkalinity, salt water, chemicals, ultravi-
olet light, high temperatures, high humidity, and freezing-
Rnș•SDL + 1.0SLL D and-thawing cycles. The material properties used in design
VKRXOGDFFRXQWIRUWKLVGHJUDGDWLRQLQDFFRUGDQFHZLWK
Alternately, ACI 562VSHFL¿HVWKHIROORZLQJ The licensed design professional should select an FRP
system based on the known behavior of that system in the
Rnș•SDL + 0.5SLL + 0.2SSL+ 1.0Ak E anticipated service conditions. Some important environ-
PHQWDO FRQVLGHUDWLRQV WKDW UHODWH WR WKH QDWXUH RI VSHFL¿F
where Rnș is the nominal resistance of the member at an V\VWHPV DUH JLYHQ DV IROORZV 6SHFL¿F LQIRUPDWLRQ FDQ EH
elevated temperature, and SDL, SLL, and SSLDUHWKHVSHFL¿HG obtained from the FRP system manufacturer.
dead, live, and snow loads, respectively, calculated for the D Alkalinity/acidity—The performance of an FRP system
strengthened structure. For cases where the design live load over time in an alkaline or acidic environment depends on
has a high likelihood of being present for a sustained period WKH PDWUL[ PDWHULDO DQG WKH UHLQIRUFLQJ ¿EHU 'U\ XQVDWX-
of time, a live load factor of 1.0 should be used in place of UDWHG EDUH RU XQSURWHFWHG FDUERQ ¿EHU LV UHVLVWDQW WR ERWK
LQ(T E 'XHWRWKHODFNRIJXLGDQFHIRUWKHFDOFX- DONDOLQH DQG DFLGLF HQYLURQPHQWV ZKHUHDV EDUH JODVV ¿EHU
lation of Ak WKH ORDG RU ORDG HIIHFW UHVXOWLQJ IURP WKH ¿UH can degrade over time in these environments. A properly
HYHQWXVHRI(T D LVUHFRPPHQGHG selected and applied resin matrix, however, should isolate
If the FRP system is meant to allow greater load-carrying DQG SURWHFW WKH ¿EHU IURP WKH DONDOLQHDFLGLF HQYLURQPHQW
capacity, such as an increase in live load, the load effects and resist deterioration. Sites with high alkalinity and high
should be computed using these greater loads. If the FRP moisture or relative humidity favor the selection of carbon-
system is meant to address a loss in strength, such as dete- ¿EHUV\VWHPVRYHUJODVV¿EHUV\VWHPV
ULRUDWLRQWKHUHVLVWDQFHVKRXOGUHÀHFWWKLVORVV E  Thermal expansion—FRP systems may have thermal
The nominal resistance of the member at an elevated expansion properties that are different from those of concrete.
temperature Rnș may be determined using the procedure ,QDGGLWLRQWKHWKHUPDOH[SDQVLRQSURSHUWLHVRIWKH¿EHUDQG
outlined in ACI 216.1 or through testing. The nominal resis- SRO\PHUFRQVWLWXHQWVRIDQ)53V\VWHPFDQYDU\&DUERQ¿EHUV
tance Rnș should be calculated based on the reduced mate- KDYH D FRHI¿FLHQW RI WKHUPDO H[SDQVLRQ QHDU ]HUR ZKHUHDV
rial properties of the existing member. The resistance should JODVV ¿EHUV KDYH D FRHI¿FLHQW RI WKHUPDO H[SDQVLRQ VLPLODU
EH FRPSXWHG IRU WKH WLPH UHTXLUHG E\ WKH PHPEHU¶V ¿UH to concrete. The polymers used in FRP strengthening systems
UHVLVWDQFH UDWLQJ²IRU H[DPSOH D KRXU ¿UH UDWLQJ²DQG W\SLFDOO\KDYHFRHI¿FLHQWVRIWKHUPDOH[SDQVLRQURXJKO\¿YH
should not account for the contribution of the FRP system times that of concrete. Calculation of thermally-induced strain
unless the continued effectiveness of the FRP can be proven GLIIHUHQWLDOVDUHFRPSOLFDWHGE\YDULDWLRQVLQ¿EHURULHQWDWLRQ
through testing. More research is needed to accurately iden- ¿EHUYROXPHIUDFWLRQDQGWKLFNQHVVRIDGKHVLYHOD\HUV([SH-
tify temperatures at which effectiveness is lost for different rience indicates, however, that thermal expansion differences
types of FRP. Until better information on the properties of do not affect bond for small ranges of temperature change,
FRP at high temperature is available, the critical tempera- VXFK DV “ƒ) “ƒ&  0RWDYDOOL HW DO  Soudki and
ture can be taken as the lowest Tg of the components of the *UHHQ*UHHQHWDO 
system comprising the load path. F  Electrical conductivity²*ODVV )53 *)53  DQG
9.2.2 Overall structural strength—While FRP systems are DUDPLG )53 $)53  DUH HIIHFWLYH HOHFWULFDO LQVXODWRUV
HIIHFWLYHLQVWUHQJWKHQLQJPHPEHUVIRUÀH[XUHDQGVKHDUDQG ZKHUHDVFDUERQ)53 &)53 LVFRQGXFWLYH7RDYRLGSRWHQ-
SURYLGLQJ DGGLWLRQDO FRQ¿QHPHQW RWKHU PRGHV RI IDLOXUH tial galvanic corrosion of steel elements, carbon-based FRP
such as punching shear and bearing capacity of footings, materials should not come in direct contact with steel.

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 23

9.3.2 Loading considerations—Loading conditions Because long-term exposure to various types of environ-
XQLTXHO\DIIHFWGLIIHUHQW¿EHUVRI)53V\VWHPV7KHOLFHQVHG ments can reduce the tensile properties and creep-rupture
design professional should select an FRP system based on and fatigue endurance of FRP laminates, the material prop-
the known behavior of that system in the anticipated service HUWLHVXVHGLQGHVLJQHTXDWLRQVVKRXOGEHUHGXFHGEDVHGRQ
conditions. Some important loading considerations that the environmental exposure condition.
UHODWHWRWKHQDWXUHRIWKHVSHFL¿FV\VWHPVDUHJLYHQLQWKH (TXDWLRQV D WKURXJK F JLYHWKHWHQVLOHSURSHUWLHV
IROORZLQJ 6SHFL¿F LQIRUPDWLRQ VKRXOG EH REWDLQHG IURP WKDWVKRXOGEHXVHGLQDOOGHVLJQHTXDWLRQV7KHGHVLJQXOWL-
material manufacturers. mate tensile strength should be determined using the envi-
D  Impact tolerance—AFRP and GFRP systems demon- URQPHQWDOUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUJLYHQLQ7DEOHIRUWKHDSSUR-
strate better tolerance to impact than CFRP systems. SULDWH¿EHUW\SHDQGH[SRVXUHFRQGLWLRQ
E Creep rupture and fatigue—CFRP systems are highly
resistive to creep rupture under sustained loading and fatigue ffu = CEffu* D
failure under cyclic loading. GFRP systems are more sensi- Similarly, the design rupture strain should also be reduced
tive to both loading conditions. for environmental exposure conditions
9.3.3 Durability considerations—Durability of FRP
systems is the subject of considerable ongoing research İfu = CEİfu* E
Dolan et al. 2008 Karbhari 2007  7KH OLFHQVHG GHVLJQ
professional should select an FRP system that has undergone Because FRP materials are linear elastic until failure,
durability testing consistent with the application environ- the design modulus of elasticity for unidirectional FRP can
ment. Durability testing may include hot-wet cycling, alka- be determined from Hooke’s law. The expression for the
line immersion, freezing-and-thawing cycling, ultraviolet PRGXOXV RI HODVWLFLW\ JLYHQ LQ (T F  UHFRJQL]HV WKDW
H[SRVXUHGU\KHDWDQGVDOWZDWHU Cromwell et al. 2011  the modulus is typically unaffected by environmental condi-
Any FRP system that completely encases or covers a WLRQV7KHPRGXOXVJLYHQLQWKLVHTXDWLRQZLOOEHWKHVDPHDV
concrete section should be investigated for the effects of the initial value reported by the manufacturer
a variety of environmental conditions including those of
freezing and thawing, steel corrosion, alkali and silica aggre- Ef = ffuİfu F
gate reactions, water entrapment, vapor pressures, and mois-
WXUHYDSRUWUDQVPLVVLRQ Masoud and Soudki 2006Soudki 7KH FRQVWLWXHQW PDWHULDOV ¿EHUV DQG UHVLQV RI DQ )53
DQG*UHHQ3RUWHUHWDO&KULVWHQVHQHWDO system affect its durability and resistance to environmental
7RXWDQML 0DQ\)53V\VWHPVFUHDWHDPRLVWXUHLPSHU- exposure. The environmental reduction factors given in
meable layer on the surface of the concrete. In areas where 7DEOH  DUH FRQVHUYDWLYH HVWLPDWHV EDVHG RQ WKH UHODWLYH
PRLVWXUH YDSRU WUDQVPLVVLRQ LV H[SHFWHG DGHTXDWH PHDQV GXUDELOLW\RIHDFK¿EHUW\SH
should be provided to allow moisture to escape from the $V7DEOHLOOXVWUDWHVLIWKH)53V\VWHPLVORFDWHGLQD
concrete structure. relatively benign environment, such as indoors, the reduc-
9.3.4 Protective-coating selection considerations—A tion factor is closer to unity. If the FRP system is located
coating or insulation system can be applied to the installed in an aggressive environment where prolonged exposure to
FRP system to protect it from exposure to certain environ- high humidity, freezing-and-thawing cycles, salt water, or
PHQWDOFRQGLWLRQV Bisby et al. 2005aWilliams et al. 2006  alkalinity is expected, a lower reduction factor should be
The thickness and type of coating should be selected based on XVHG7KHUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUFDQEHPRGL¿HGWRUHÀHFWWKHXVH
WKHUHTXLUHPHQWVRIWKHFRPSRVLWHUHSDLUUHVLVWDQFHWRHQYL- of a protective coating if the coating has been shown through
ronmental effects such as moisture, salt water, temperature testing to lessen the effects of environmental exposure and
H[WUHPHV¿UHLPSDFWDQGXOWUDYLROHWH[SRVXUHUHVLVWDQFHWR the coating is maintained for the life of the FRP system.
VLWHVSHFL¿FHIIHFWVDQGUHVLVWDQFHWRYDQGDOLVP&RDWLQJVDUH
relied on to retard the degradation of the mechanical proper- Table 9.4—Environmental reduction factor for
ties of the FRP systems. The coatings should be periodically various FRP systems and exposure conditions
inspected and maintained to ensure continued effectiveness.
Fiber (QYLURQPHQWDO
([WHUQDO FRDWLQJV RU WKLFNHQHG FRDWV RI UHVLQ RYHU ¿EHUV ([SRVXUHFRQGLWLRQV W\SH UHGXFWLRQIDFWRUCE
can protect them from damage due to impact or abrasion.
Carbon 
,Q KLJKLPSDFW RU WUDI¿F DUHDV DGGLWLRQDO OHYHOV RI SURWHF-
Interior exposure Glass 0.75
tion may be necessary. Portland cement plaster and polymer
coatings are commonly used for protection where minor Aramid 0.85
impact or abrasion is anticipated. Carbon 0.85
([WHULRUH[SRVXUH EULGJHVSLHUV
Glass 0.65
DQGXQHQFORVHGSDUNLQJJDUDJHV
9.4—Design material properties Aramid 0.75
Unless otherwise stated, the material properties reported Carbon 0.85
$JJUHVVLYHHQYLURQPHQW FKHPLFDO
by manufacturers, such as the ultimate tensile strength, typi- plants and wastewater treatment Glass 0.50
cally do not consider long-term exposure to environmental SODQWV Aramid 0.70
conditions and should be considered as initial properties.

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24 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

CHAPTER 10—FLEXURAL STRENGTHENING Concrete crushing is assumed to occur if the compres-


%RQGLQJ¿EHUUHLQIRUFHGSRO\PHU )53 UHLQIRUFHPHQWWR sive strain in the concrete reaches its maximum usable
WKH WHQVLRQ IDFH RI D FRQFUHWH ÀH[XUDO PHPEHU ZLWK ¿EHUV VWUDLQ İc  İcu    5XSWXUH RI WKH H[WHUQDOO\ ERQGHG
oriented along the length of the member will provide an FRP is assumed to occur if the strain in the FRP reaches its
LQFUHDVH LQ ÀH[XUDO VWUHQJWK ,QFUHDVHV LQ RYHUDOO ÀH[XUDO GHVLJQUXSWXUHVWUDLQ İf İfu EHIRUHWKHFRQFUHWHUHDFKHVLWV
strength from 10 to 160 percent have been documented maximum usable strain.
0HLHU DQG .DLVHU  5LWFKLH HW DO  Sharif et al. Cover delamination or FRP debonding can occur if the
 :KHQWDNLQJLQWRDFFRXQWWKHVWUHQJWKHQLQJOLPLWVRI IRUFHLQWKH)53FDQQRWEHVXVWDLQHGE\WKHVXEVWUDWH )LJ
 and ductility and serviceability limits, however, strength D 6XFKEHKDYLRULVJHQHUDOO\UHIHUUHGWRDVGHERQGLQJ
increases of up to 40 percent are more reasonable. regardless of where the failure plane propagates within the
This chapter does not apply to FRP systems used to FRP-adhesive-substrate region. Guidance to avoid the cover
HQKDQFH WKH ÀH[XUDO VWUHQJWK RI PHPEHUV LQ WKH H[SHFWHG delamination failure mode is given in Chapter 13.
plastic hinge regions of ductile moment frames resisting Away from the section where externally bonded FRP
VHLVPLFORDGVWKHVHDUHDGGUHVVHGLQChapter 13. terminates, a failure controlled by FRP debonding may
JRYHUQ )LJ D E  7R SUHYHQW VXFK DQ LQWHUPHGLDWH
10.1—Nominal strength crack-induced debonding failure mode, the effective strain
7KH VWUHQJWK GHVLJQ DSSURDFK UHTXLUHV WKDW WKH GHVLJQ in FRP reinforcement should be limited to the strain at which
ÀH[XUDO VWUHQJWK RI D PHPEHU H[FHHG LWV UHTXLUHG IDFWRUHG GHERQGLQJPD\RFFXUİfdDVGH¿QHGLQ(T 
PRPHQW DV LQGLFDWHG E\ (T   7KH GHVLJQ ÀH[XUDO
VWUHQJWKࢥMn refers to the nominal strength of the member f c′
ε fd = 0.083 ≤ 0.9ε fu (in.-lb)
multiplied by a strength reduction factor, and the factored nE f t f
moment Mu refers to the moment calculated from factored 
ORDGV IRUH[DPSOHĮDLMDLĮLLMLL f c′
ε fd = 0.41 ≤ 0.9ε fu (SI)
nE f t f
ࢥMn•Mu 
(TXDWLRQ  WDNHVDPRGL¿HGIRUPRIWKHGHERQGLQJ
This guide recommends that the factored moment Mu of VWUDLQHTXDWLRQSURSRVHGE\7HQJHWDO  that was
D VHFWLRQ EH FDOFXODWHG E\ XVH RI ORDG IDFWRUV DV UHTXLUHG EDVHGRQFRPPLWWHHHYDOXDWLRQRIDVLJQL¿FDQWGDWDEDVHIRU
by ACI 318. An additional strength reduction factor for ÀH[XUDO EHDP WHVWV H[KLELWLQJ )53 GHERQGLQJ IDLOXUH 7KH
)53ȥfVKRXOGEHDSSOLHGWRWKHÀH[XUDOFRQWULEXWLRQRIWKH SURSRVHG HTXDWLRQ ZDV FDOLEUDWHG XVLQJ DYHUDJH PHDVXUHG
FRP reinforcement alone, Mnf, as described in 10.2.10. The YDOXHVRI)53VWUDLQVDWGHERQGLQJIRUÀH[XUDOWHVWVH[SHUL-
DGGLWLRQDOVWUHQJWKUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUȥf, is used to improve encing intermediate crack-induced debonding to determine
the reliability of strength prediction and accounts for the WKHEHVW¿WFRHI¿FLHQWRI LQ6, 5HOLDELOLW\RIWKH
different failure modes observed for FRP-strengthened )53FRQWULEXWLRQWRÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKLVDGGUHVVHGE\LQFRU-
PHPEHUV GHODPLQDWLRQRI)53UHLQIRUFHPHQW  SRUDWLQJDQDGGLWLRQDOVWUHQJWKUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUIRU)53ȥf
7KH QRPLQDO ÀH[XUDO VWUHQJWK RI )53VWUHQJWKHQHG LQDGGLWLRQWRWKHVWUHQJWKUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUࢥSHU$&,
concrete members with mild steel reinforcement and with for structural concrete. Anchorage systems such as U-wraps,
bonded prestressing steel can be determined based on strain PHFKDQLFDOIDVWHQHUV¿EHUDQFKRUVDQG8DQFKRUV H[DP-
FRPSDWLELOLW\LQWHUQDOIRUFHHTXLOLEULXPDQGWKHFRQWUROOLQJ SOHV DUH VKRZQ VFKHPDWLFDOO\ LQ )LJ E  KDYH EHHQ
mode of failure. For members with unbonded prestressed proven successful at delaying, and sometimes preventing,
steel, strain compatibility does not apply and the stress in the GHERQGLQJ IDLOXUH RI WKH ORQJLWXGLQDO )53 Kalfat et al.
unbonded tendons at failure depends on the overall deforma- 2013 Grelle and Sneed 2013  ([SHULPHQWDO VWXGLHV KDYH
tion of the member and is assumed to be approximately the shown that these anchorage systems can increase the effec-
same at all sections. WLYHVWUDLQLQWKHÀH[XUDO)53WRYDOXHVXSWRWHQVLOHUXSWXUH
 Failure modes²7KHÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKRIDVHFWLRQ Lee et al. 2010Orton et al. 2008 
depends on the controlling failure mode. The following )RU QHDUVXUIDFHPRXQWHG 160  )53 DSSOLFDWLRQV WKH
ÀH[XUDO IDLOXUH PRGHV VKRXOG EH LQYHVWLJDWHG IRU DQ )53 YDOXH RI İfd PD\ YDU\ IURP İfu WR İfu, depending on
VWUHQJWKHQHGVHFWLRQ *DQJD5DRDQG9LMD\  many factors such as member dimensions, steel and FRP
D &UXVKLQJRIWKHFRQFUHWHLQFRPSUHVVLRQEHIRUH\LHOGLQJ reinforcement ratios, and surface roughness of the FRP bar.
of the reinforcing steel %DVHGRQDQDO\VLVRIDGDWDEDVHRIH[LVWLQJVWXGLHV Bianco
E <LHOGLQJRIWKHVWHHOLQWHQVLRQIROORZHGE\UXSWXUHRI et al. 2014  WKH FRPPLWWHH UHFRPPHQGV WKH XVH RI İfd =
the FRP laminate İfu. To achieve the debonding design strain of NSM FRP
F <LHOGLQJ RI WKH VWHHO LQ WHQVLRQ IROORZHG E\ FRQFUHWH EDUVİfd, the bonded length should be greater than the devel-
crushing opment length given in Chapter 13.
G 6KHDUWHQVLRQGHODPLQDWLRQRIWKHFRQFUHWHFRYHU FRYHU
GHODPLQDWLRQ 10.2—Reinforced concrete members
H 'HERQGLQJRIWKH)53IURPWKHFRQFUHWHVXEVWUDWH )53 This section presents guidance on the calculation of the
GHERQGLQJ ÀH[XUDO VWUHQJWKHQLQJ HIIHFW RI DGGLQJ ORQJLWXGLQDO )53

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 25

Fig. 10.1.1a—Debonding and delamination of externally bonded FRP systems.

Fig. 10.1.1b—FRP anchorage systems.


reinforcement to the tension face of a reinforced concrete  Assumptions—The following assumptions are
PHPEHU $ VSHFL¿F LOOXVWUDWLRQ RI WKH FRQFHSWV LQ WKLV PDGH LQ FDOFXODWLQJ WKH ÀH[XUDO UHVLVWDQFH RI D VHFWLRQ
section applied to strengthening of existing rectangular strengthened with an externally applied FRP system:
sections reinforced in the tension zone with nonprestressed D  'HVLJQ FDOFXODWLRQV DUH EDVHG RQ WKH GLPHQVLRQV
steel is given. The general concepts outlined herein can, internal reinforcing steel arrangement, and material proper-
KRZHYHUEHH[WHQGHGWRQRQUHFWDQJXODUVKDSHV 7VHFWLRQV ties of the existing member being strengthened.
DQG ,VHFWLRQV  DQG WR PHPEHUV ZLWK VWHHO FRPSUHVVLRQ E 7KHVWUDLQVLQWKHVWHHOUHLQIRUFHPHQWDQGFRQFUHWHDUH
reinforcement. directly proportional to their distance from the neutral axis.

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26 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

That is, a plane section before loading remains plane after


loading.
F  7KHUH LV QR UHODWLYH VOLS EHWZHHQ H[WHUQDO )53 UHLQ-
forcement and the concrete.
G  7KH VKHDU GHIRUPDWLRQ ZLWKLQ WKH DGKHVLYH OD\HU LV
neglected because the adhesive layer is very thin with only
slight variations in its thickness.
H 7KHPD[LPXPXVDEOHFRPSUHVVLYHVWUDLQLQWKHFRQFUHWH
is 0.003.
I 7KHWHQVLOHVWUHQJWKRIFRQFUHWHLVQHJOHFWHG
J 7KH)53UHLQIRUFHPHQWKDVDOLQHDUHODVWLFVWUHVVVWUDLQ
relationship to failure.
Fig. 10.2.5—Effective depth of FRP systems.
While some of these assumptions are necessary for the
sake of computational ease, the assumptions do not accu-  Strain in FRP reinforcement—It is important to
UDWHO\UHÀHFWWKHWUXHIXQGDPHQWDOEHKDYLRURI)53ÀH[XUDO determine the strain in the FRP reinforcement at the ultimate
reinforcement. For example, there will be shear deforma- limit state. Because FRP materials are linear elastic until
tion in the adhesive layer, causing relative slip between the failure, the strain in the FRP will dictate the stress developed
FRP and the substrate. The inaccuracy of the assumptions in the FRP. The maximum strain that can be achieved in
ZLOOQRWKRZHYHUVLJQL¿FDQWO\DIIHFWWKHFRPSXWHGÀH[XUDO the FRP reinforcement will be governed by either the strain
strength of an FRP-strengthened member. An additional developed in the FRP at the point at which concrete crushes,
VWUHQJWKUHGXFWLRQIDFWRU SUHVHQWHGLQ ZLOOFRQVHU- the point at which the FRP ruptures, or the point at which the
vatively compensate for any such discrepancies. FRP debonds from the substrate. The effective strain in the
 Shear strength—When FRP reinforcement is being FRP reinforcement at the ultimate limit state can be found
XVHGWRLQFUHDVHWKHÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKRIDPHPEHUWKHPHPEHU IURP(T 
should be capable of resisting the shear forces associated
ZLWKWKHLQFUHDVHGÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWK7KHSRWHQWLDOIRUVKHDU
⎛ d f − c⎞
failure of the section should be considered by comparing ε fe = ε cu ⎜ − ε bi ≤ ε fd  
WKHGHVLJQVKHDUVWUHQJWKRIWKHVHFWLRQWRWKHUHTXLUHGVKHDU ⎝ c ⎟⎠
VWUHQJWK,IDGGLWLRQDOVKHDUVWUHQJWKLVUHTXLUHG)53ODPL-
nates oriented transverse to the beam longitudinal axis can ZKHUHİbi is the initial substrate strain as described in 10.2.3,
be used to resist shear forces, as described in Chapter 11. and df is the effective depth of FRP reinforcement, as indi-
 Existing substrate strain—Unless all loads on a cated in Fig. 10.2.5.
member, including self-weight and any prestressing forces,  Stress in the FRP reinforcement—The effective stress
are removed before installation of FRP reinforcement, the in the FRP reinforcement is the maximum level of stress that
substrate to which the FRP is applied will be strained. These FDQ EH GHYHORSHG LQ WKH )53 UHLQIRUFHPHQW EHIRUH ÀH[XUDO
strains should be considered initial strains and should be failure of the section. This effective stress can be found from
H[FOXGHG IURP WKH VWUDLQ LQ WKH )53 Arduini and Nanni the strain in the FRP, assuming perfectly elastic behavior
1DQQLDQG*ROG 7KHLQLWLDOVWUDLQRQWKHERQGHG
VXEVWUDWHİbi, can be determined from an elastic analysis of ffe = Efİfe 
the existing member, considering all loads that will be on
the member during the installation of the FRP system. The  Strength reduction factor—The use of externally
elastic analysis of the existing member should be based on ERQGHG )53 UHLQIRUFHPHQW IRU ÀH[XUDO VWUHQJWKHQLQJ ZLOO
cracked section properties. reduce the ductility of the original member. In some cases,
 )OH[XUDO VWUHQJWKHQLQJ RI FRQFDYH VRI¿WV—The the loss of ductility is negligible. Sections that experience a
SUHVHQFH RI FXUYDWXUH LQ WKH VRI¿W RI D FRQFUHWH PHPEHU VLJQL¿FDQWORVVLQGXFWLOLW\KRZHYHUVKRXOGEHDGGUHVVHG7R
may lead to the development of tensile stresses normal to PDLQWDLQDVXI¿FLHQWGHJUHHRIGXFWLOLW\WKHVWUDLQLQWKHVWHHO
the adhesive and surface to which the FRP is bonded. Such at the ultimate limit state should be checked. For reinforced
tensile stresses result when the FRP tends to straighten under concrete members with nonprestressed steel reinforcement,
load, and can promote the initiation of FRP debonding or DGHTXDWHGXFWLOLW\LVDFKLHYHGLIWKHVWUDLQLQWKHVWHHODWWKH
interlaminar failures that reduce the effectiveness of the point of concrete crushing or failure of the FRP, including
)53ÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKHQLQJ Aiello et al. 2001Eshwar et al. delamination or debonding, is at least 0.005, according to the
2003 ,IWKHH[WHQWRIWKHFXUYHGSRUWLRQRIWKHVRI¿WH[FHHGV GH¿QLWLRQRIDWHQVLRQFRQWUROOHGVHFWLRQDVJLYHQLQACI 318.
DOHQJWKRILQ P ZLWKDULVHRILQ PP WKH The approach taken by this guide follows the philosophy
VXUIDFHVKRXOGEHPDGHÀDWEHIRUHVWUHQJWKHQLQJ$OWHUQDWHO\ RI$&,$VWUHQJWKUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUJLYHQE\(T  
anchorage systems such as U-wraps, mechanical fasteners, VKRXOGEHXVHGZKHUHİt is the net tensile strain in extreme
¿EHUDQFKRUVRU160DQFKRUVVKRXOGEHLQVWDOOHGWRPLWL- WHQVLRQVWHHODWQRPLQDOVWUHQJWKDVGH¿QHGLQ$&,
JDWHGHODPLQDWLRQ Eshwar et al. 2005 

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 27

⎧0.90 for ε t ≥ 0.005



⎪ 0.25(ε t − ε sy )
φ = ⎨0.65 + for ε sy < ε t < 0.005 
⎪ 0.005 − ε sy
⎪0.65 for ε ≤ ε
⎩ t sy

7KLVHTXDWLRQVHWVWKHUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUDWIRUGXFWLOH
sections and 0.65 for brittle sections where the steel does
not yield, and provides a linear transition for the reduction
IDFWRUEHWZHHQWKHVHWZRH[WUHPHV7KHXVHRI(T  
is limited to steel having a yield strength fy less than 80 ksi Fig. 10.2.9—Illustration of the level of applied moment to
03D  ACI 318  be used to check the stress limits in the FRP reinforcement.
 Serviceability—The serviceability of a member
GHÀHFWLRQV DQG FUDFN ZLGWKV  XQGHU VHUYLFH ORDGV VKRXOG VXVWDLQHGSOXVF\FOLFVWUHVVDUHJLYHQLQ7DEOH7KHVH
satisfy applicable provisions of ACI 318. The effect of the values are based approximately on the stress limits previ-
FRP external reinforcement on the serviceability can be ously stated in 4.4.1 with an imposed safety factor of 1/0.6
assessed using the transformed-section analysis.
To avoid inelastic deformations of reinforced concrete ff,s”VXVWDLQHGSOXVF\FOLFVWUHVVOLPLW 
members with nonprestressed steel reinforcement strength-
ened with external FRP reinforcement, the existing internal Table 10.2.9—Sustained plus cyclic service load
steel reinforcement should be prevented from yielding under stress limits in FRP reinforcement
service load levels, especially for members subjected to )LEHUW\SH
F\FOLF ORDGV El-Tawil et al. 2001  7KH VWUHVV LQ WKH VWHHO 6WUHVVW\SH GFRP AFRP CFRP
reinforcement under service load should be limited to 80 Sustained plus cyclic
0.20ffu 0.30ffu 0.55ffu
SHUFHQWRIWKH\LHOGVWUHQJWKDVVKRZQLQ(T D ,Q stress limit
addition, the compressive stress in concrete under service
load should be limited to 60 percent of the compressive  Ultimate strength of singly reinforced rectangular
VWUHQJWKDVVKRZQLQ(T E section—To illustrate the concepts presented in this chapter,
this section describes the application of these concepts to a
fs,s”fy D nonprestressed singly-reinforced rectangular section. Figure
10.2.10 illustrates the internal strain and stress distribution
fc,s”fcƍ E IRUDUHFWDQJXODUVHFWLRQXQGHUÀH[XUHDWWKHXOWLPDWHOLPLW
state.
 Creep rupture and fatigue stress limits—To avoid The calculation procedure used to arrive at the ultimate
creep rupture of the FRP reinforcement under sustained VWUHQJWKVKRXOGVDWLVI\VWUDLQFRPSDWLELOLW\DQGIRUFHHTXL-
stresses or failure due to cyclic stresses and fatigue of the librium, and should consider the governing mode of failure.
FRP reinforcement, the stress in the FRP reinforcement Several calculation procedures can be derived to satisfy
under these stress conditions should be checked. Because these conditions. The calculation procedure described herein
this stress will be within the elastic response range of the illustrates an iterative method that involves selecting an
member, the stresses can be computed by elastic analysis assumed depth to the neutral axis, c, calculating the strain
using cracked section properties as appropriate. LQ HDFK PDWHULDO XVLQJ VWUDLQ FRPSDWLELOLW\ FDOFXODWLQJ WKH
In 4.4, the creep rupture phenomenon and fatigue charac- DVVRFLDWHG VWUHVV LQ HDFK PDWHULDO DQG FKHFNLQJ LQWHUQDO
teristics of FRP material were described and the resistance to IRUFH HTXLOLEULXP ,I WKH LQWHUQDO IRUFH UHVXOWDQWV GR QRW
LWVHIIHFWVE\YDULRXVW\SHVRI¿EHUVZDVH[DPLQHG$VVWDWHG HTXLOLEUDWHWKHGHSWKWRWKHQHXWUDOD[LVVKRXOGEHUHYLVHG
in 4.4.1, research has indicated that glass, aramid, and carbon and the procedure repeated.
¿EHUV FDQ VXVWDLQ DSSUR[LPDWHO\   DQG  WLPHV For any assumed depth to the neutral axis, c, the strain in
their ultimate strengths, respectively, before encountering WKH )53 UHLQIRUFHPHQW FDQ EH FRPSXWHG IURP (T  
D FUHHS UXSWXUH SUREOHP <DPDJXFKL HW DO  Malvar 7KLVHTXDWLRQFRQVLGHUVWKHJRYHUQLQJPRGHRIIDLOXUHIRUWKH
 7RDYRLGIDLOXUHRIDQ)53UHLQIRUFHGPHPEHUGXHWR DVVXPHGQHXWUDOD[LVGHSWK,IWKHOHIWWHUPRIWKHLQHTXDOLW\
creep rupture and fatigue of the FRP, stress limits for these FRQWUROV FRQFUHWH FUXVKLQJ FRQWUROV ÀH[XUDO IDLOXUH RI WKH
conditions should be imposed on the FRP reinforcement. VHFWLRQ,IWKHULJKWWHUPRIWKHLQHTXDOLW\FRQWUROV)53IDLOXUH
The stress in the FRP reinforcement can be computed using UXSWXUHRUGHERQGLQJ FRQWUROVÀH[XUDOIDLOXUHRIWKHVHFWLRQ
elastic analysis and an applied moment due to all sustained The effective stress in the FRP reinforcement can be
ORDGV GHDGORDGVDQGWKHVXVWDLQHGSRUWLRQRIWKHOLYHORDG  found from the strain in the FRP, assuming perfectly elastic
plus the maximum moment induced in a fatigue loading EHKDYLRUXVLQJ(T  %DVHGRQWKHVWUDLQLQWKH)53
F\FOH )LJ 7KHVXVWDLQHGVWUHVVVKRXOGEHOLPLWHGDV reinforcement, the strain in the nonprestressed steel rein-
H[SUHVVHGE\(T  WRPDLQWDLQVDIHW\9DOXHVIRUVDIH

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MCPOL Licensed to: McMaster University Library
28 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

)LJ²,QWHUQDOVWUDLQDQGVWUHVVGLVWULEXWLRQIRUDUHFWDQJXODUVHFWLRQXQGHUÀH[XUH
at ultimate limit state.
IRUFHPHQW FDQ EH IRXQG IURP (T D  XVLQJ VWUDLQ assumed values do not agree, another value for c is selected,
compatibility and the process is repeated until convergence is attained.
7KH QRPLQDO ÀH[XUDO VWUHQJWK RI WKH VHFWLRQ ZLWK )53
⎛ d −c ⎞ H[WHUQDO UHLQIRUFHPHQW LV FRPSXWHG IURP (T G 
ε s = (ε fe + ε bi ) ⎜ ⎟ D $QDGGLWLRQDOUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUIRU)53ȥf, is applied to the
⎝ d f − c⎠ ÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKFRQWULEXWLRQRIWKH)53UHLQIRUFHPHQW7KH
UHFRPPHQGHGYDOXHRIȥf is 0.85. This reduction factor for
The stress in the steel is determined from the strain in the the strength contribution of FRP reinforcement is based on
steel using its assumed elastic-perfectly plastic stress-strain the reliability analysis discussed in , which was based
curve on the experimentally calibrated statistical properties of the
ÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWK Okeil et al. 2007
fs = Esİs”fy E
⎛ β c⎞ ⎛ β c⎞
With the stress in the FRP and steel reinforcement deter- M n = As f s ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ + ψ f Af f fe ⎜ d f − 1 ⎟ G
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
mined for the assumed neutral axis depth, internal force
HTXLOLEULXPPD\EHFKHFNHGXVLQJ(T F
 Stress in steel under service loads—The stress
Į1 fcƍȕ1bc = Asfs + Af ffe F in the steel reinforcement can be calculated based on a
cracked-section analysis of the FRP-strengthened reinforced
7KH WHUPV Į1 DQG ȕ1 LQ (T F  DUH SDUDPHWHUV FRQFUHWHVHFWLRQDVLQGLFDWHGE\(T 
GH¿QLQJDUHFWDQJXODUVWUHVVEORFNLQWKHFRQFUHWHHTXLYDOHQW
to the nonlinear distribution of stress. If concrete crushing is ⎡ ⎛ kd ⎞ ⎤
WKHFRQWUROOLQJPRGHRIIDLOXUH EHIRUHRUDIWHUVWHHO\LHOGLQJ  ⎢ M s + ε bi Af E f ⎜⎝ d f − 3 ⎟⎠ ⎥ (d − kd ) Es
Į1 DQG ȕ1 can be taken as the values associated with the fs,s =⎣ ⎦ 
:KLWQH\VWUHVVEORFN ACI 318 WKDWLVĮ1 DQGȕ1 = ⎡ ⎛ kd ⎞ ⎤
⎢ As Es ⎜⎝ d − 3 ⎟⎠ (d − kd ) ⎥
0.85 for fcƍEHWZHHQDQGSVL DQG03D DQG ⎢ ⎥
ȕ1LVUHGXFHGOLQHDUO\DWDUDWHRIIRUHDFKSVL  ⎢ ⎛ kd ⎞ ⎥
03D RIFRQFUHWHVWUHQJWKH[FHHGLQJSVL 03D 1RWH +
⎢ f f ⎜⎝ f
A E d − ⎟⎠ f
( d − kd ) ⎥
⎣ 3 ⎦
WKDWȕ1 shall not be taken less than 0.65. If FRP rupture, cover
delamination, or FRP debonding occur, the Whitney stress
The distribution of strain and stress in the reinforced
block will give reasonably accurate results. A nonlinear stress
concrete section is shown in Fig. 10.2.10.1. Similar to
distribution in the concrete or a more accurate stress block
conventional reinforced concrete, the depth to the neutral
appropriate for the strain level reached in the concrete at the
axis at service, kd FDQ EH FRPSXWHG E\ WDNLQJ WKH ¿UVW
ultimate-limit state may be used.
moment of the areas of the transformed section. The trans-
The depth to the neutral axis, c, is found by simultaneously
formed area of the FRP may be obtained by multiplying
VDWLVI\LQJ(T     D  E DQG
the area of FRP by the modular ratio of FRP to concrete.
F WKXVHVWDEOLVKLQJLQWHUQDOIRUFHHTXLOLEULXPDQG
Although this method ignores the difference in the initial
strain compatibility. To solve for the depth of the neutral
VWUDLQRIWKH)53WKHLQLWLDOVWUDLQGRHVQRWJUHDWO\LQÀXHQFH
axis, c, an iterative solution procedure can be used. An
the depth to the neutral axis in the elastic response range of
initial value for cLV¿UVWDVVXPHGDQGWKHVWUDLQVDQGVWUHVVHV
the member.
DUH FDOFXODWHG XVLQJ (T     D  DQG
The stress in the steel under service loads computed
E  $ UHYLVHG YDOXH IRU WKH GHSWK RI QHXWUDO D[LV
IURP(T  VKRXOGEHFRPSDUHGDJDLQVWWKHOLPLWV
c LV WKHQ FDOFXODWHG IURP (T F  7KH FDOFXODWHG
described in 10.2.8. The value of MsIURP(T  LV
and assumed values for c are then compared. If they agree,
HTXDOWRWKHPRPHQWGXHWRDOOVXVWDLQHGORDGV GHDGORDGV
then the proper value of c is reached. If the calculated and

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 29

Fig. 10.2.10.1—Elastic strain and stress distribution.


DQGWKHVXVWDLQHGSRUWLRQRIWKHOLYHORDG SOXVWKHPD[LPXP EHEDVHGRQWKHDFWXDOFRQGLWLRQRIWKHPHPEHU FUDFNHGRU
moment induced in a fatigue loading cycle, as shown in Fig. XQFUDFNHGVHFWLRQ WRGHWHUPLQHWKHVXEVWUDWHLQLWLDOVWUDLQ
  Strain in FRP reinforcement—The maximum
 Stress in FRP under service loads—The stress in strain that can be achieved in the FRP reinforcement will
WKH)53UHLQIRUFHPHQWFDQEHFRPSXWHGXVLQJ(T   be governed by strain limitations due to either concrete
with fs,sIURP(T  (TXDWLRQ  JLYHVWKH crushing, FRP rupture, FRP debonding, or prestressing steel
stress in the FRP reinforcement under an applied moment rupture. The effective design strain for FRP reinforcement
within the elastic response range of the member at the ultimate-limit state for failure controlled by concrete
FUXVKLQJFDQEHFDOFXODWHGE\WKHXVHRI(T 
⎛ E f ⎞ d f − kd For failure controlled by prestressing steel rupture,
f f ,s = fs,s ⎜ ⎟ − ε bi E f   (T D FDQEHXVHG)RU*UDGHDQGNVL
⎝ Es ⎠ d − kd DQG03D VWUDQGWKHYDOXHRIİpu to be used in
(T D LV
The stress in the FRP under service loads computed
IURP(T  VKRXOGEHFRPSDUHGDJDLQVWWKHOLPLWV ⎛ d f − c⎞
GHVFULEHGLQ ε fe = (ε pu − ε pi ) ⎜ ⎟ − ε bi ≤ ε fd D
⎝ dp − c⎠
10.3—Prestressed concrete members
This section presents guidance on the effect of adding in which
longitudinal FRP reinforcement to the tension face of a rect-
angular prestressed concrete member. The general concepts ⎛ e2 ⎞
Pe P
outlined herein can be extended to nonrectangular shapes ε pi = + e ⎜⎝1 + r 2 ⎟⎠  E
7VHFWLRQV DQG ,VHFWLRQV  DQG WR PHPEHUV ZLWK WHQVLRQ Ap E p Ac Ec
compression, or both, nonprestressed steel reinforcement.
 Members with bonded prestressing steel  Strength reduction factor²7R PDLQWDLQ D VXI¿-
 Assumptions—In addition to the basic assump- cient degree of ductility, the strain in the prestressing steel at
tions for concrete and FRP behavior for a reinforced concrete WKHQRPLQDOVWUHQJWKVKRXOGEHFKHFNHG$GHTXDWHGXFWLOLW\LV
section listed in 10.2.1, the following assumptions are made achieved if the strain in the prestressing steel at the nominal
LQFDOFXODWLQJWKHÀH[XUDOUHVLVWDQFHRIDSUHVWUHVVHGVHFWLRQ strength is at least 0.013. Where this strain cannot be achieved,
strengthened with an externally applied FRP system: the strength reduction factor is decreased to account for a less
D  6WUDLQ FRPSDWLELOLW\ FDQ EH XVHG WR GHWHUPLQH VWUDLQ ductile failure. The strength reduction factor for a member
in the externally bonded FRP, strain in the nonprestressed SUHVWUHVVHG ZLWK VWDQGDUG  DQG  NVL  DQG 
steel reinforcement, and the strain or strain change in the 03D SUHVWUHVVLQJVWHHOLVJLYHQE\(T  ZKHUHİps is
prestressing steel. the prestressing steel strain at the nominal strength
E  $GGLWLRQDO ÀH[XUDO IDLOXUH PRGH FRQWUROOHG E\
prestressing steel rupture should be investigated. ⎧0.90 for ε ps ≥ 0.013
F  )RU FDVHV ZKHUH WKH SUHVWUHVVLQJ VWHHO LV GUDSHG RU ⎪
⎪ 0.25(ε ps − 0.010)
harped, several sections along the span of the member φ = ⎨0.65 + for 0.010 < ε ps < 0.013
VKRXOGEHHYDOXDWHGWRYHULI\VWUHQJWKUHTXLUHPHQWV ⎪ 0.013 − 0.010
G 7KHLQLWLDOVWUDLQRIWKHFRQFUHWHVXEVWUDWHİbi, should be ⎪0.65 for ε ps ≤ 0.010

calculated and excluded from the effective strain in the FRP.
The initial strain can be determined from an elastic analysis of 
the existing member, considering all loads that will be applied
to the member at the time of FRP installation. Analysis should  Serviceability—To avoid inelastic deformations
of the strengthened member, the prestressing steel should

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30 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

be prevented from yielding under service load levels. The ⎛ dp − c⎞


stress in the steel under service load should be limited per ε pnet = (ε fe + ε bi ) ⎜ ⎟ for FRP rupture or debonding failure modes
⎝ d f − c⎠
(T D DQG E ,QDGGLWLRQWKHFRPSUHVVLYH
stress in the concrete under service load should be limited to F
45 percent of the compressive strength
The stress in the prestressing steel is calculated using the
fps,s”fpy D material properties of the steel. For a typical seven-wire low-
relaxation prestressing strand, the stress-strain curve may
fps,s”fpu E EH DSSUR[LPDWHG E\ WKH IROORZLQJ HTXDWLRQV Prestressed/
Precast Concrete Institute 2004
When fatigue is a concern, the stress in the prestressing )RU*UDGHNVL 03D VWHHO
steel due to transient live loads should be limited to 18 ksi
 03D  ZKHQ WKH UDGLL RI SUHVWUHVVLQJ VWHHO FXUYDWXUH ⎧
⎪28, 500ε for ε ps ≤ 0.0076
H[FHHGVIW P RUWRNVL 03D ZKHQWKHUDGLLRI ⎪⎪ ps

SUHVWUHVVLQJVWHHO FXUYDWXUH GRHV QRW H[FHHG  IW  P  f ps =⎨ (in.-lb)


A linear interpolation should be used for radii between 12 ⎪ 0.04
DQGIW DQGP  AASHTO 2004 7KHVHOLPLWVKDYH ⎪250 − for ε ps > 0.0076
⎪⎩ ε ps − 0.0064
EHHQYHUL¿HGH[SHULPHQWDOO\IRUSUHVWUHVVHGPHPEHUVZLWK  G
harped and straight strands strengthened with externally ⎧
ERQGHG)53 Rosenboom and Rizkalla 2006  ⎪196, 500ε for ε ps ≤ 0.0076
⎪⎪ ps
 Creep rupture and fatigue stress limits—To avoid f ps =⎨ (SI)
creep rupture of the FRP reinforcement under sustained ⎪ 0.276
stresses or failure due to cyclic stresses and fatigue of the ⎪1720 − for ε ps > 0.0076
FRP reinforcement, the stress in the FRP reinforcement ⎪⎩ ε ps − 0.0064
under these stress conditions should not exceed the limits
SURYLGHGLQ )RU*UDGHNVL 03D VWHHO
 Nominal strength—The calculation procedure to
compute nominal strength should satisfy strain compatibility ⎧
⎪28, 500ε for ε ps ≤ 0.0086
DQG IRUFH HTXLOLEULXP DQG VKRXOG FRQVLGHU WKH JRYHUQLQJ ⎪⎪ ps

mode of failure. The calculation procedure described herein f ps =⎨ (in.-lb)


uses an iterative method similar to that discussed in 10.2. ⎪ 0.04
For any assumed depth to the neutral axis, c, the effective ⎪270 − for ε ps > 0.0086
⎪⎩ ε ps − 0.007
strain and stress in the FRP reinforcement can be computed from H
(T  DQG  UHVSHFWLYHO\7KLVHTXDWLRQFRQVLGHUV ⎧
the governing mode of failure for the assumed neutral axis ⎪196, 500ε for ε ps ≤ 0.0086
⎪⎪ ps
GHSWK,IWKHOHIWWHUPRIWKHLQHTXDOLW\LQ(T  FRQWUROV f ps =⎨ (SI)
FRQFUHWHFUXVKLQJFRQWUROVÀH[XUDOIDLOXUHRIWKHVHFWLRQ,IWKH ⎪ 0.276
ULJKW WHUP RI WKH LQHTXDOLW\ FRQWUROV )53 IDLOXUH UXSWXUH RU ⎪1860 − for ε ps > 0.0086
GHERQGLQJ FRQWUROVÀH[XUDOIDLOXUHRIWKHVHFWLRQ ⎪⎩ ε ps − 0.007
The strain in the prestressed steel can be found from
(T D EDVHGRQVWUDLQFRPSDWLELOLW\ With the strain and stress in the FRP and prestressing steel
determined for the assumed neutral axis depth, internal force
HTXLOLEULXPPD\EHFKHFNHGXVLQJ(T I
Pe ⎛ e2 ⎞
ε ps = ε pe + ⎜⎝1 + r 2 ⎟⎠ + ε pnet ≤ 0.035 D
Ac Ec Į1fcƍȕ1bc = Apfp + Af ffe I

LQ ZKLFK İpe is the effective strain in the prestressing steel )RUWKHFRQFUHWHFUXVKLQJPRGHRIIDLOXUHWKHHTXLYDOHQW
DIWHUORVVHVDQGİpnet is the net tensile strain in the prestressing FRPSUHVVLYHVWUHVVEORFNIDFWRUĮ1 can be taken as 0.85, and
steel beyond decompression, at the nominal strength. The ȕ1 can be estimated as described in 10.2.10. If FRP rupture,
YDOXHRIİpnet will depend on the mode of failure, and can be cover delamination, or FRP debonding failure occurs, the
FDOFXODWHGXVLQJ(T E DQGF XVHRIHTXLYDOHQWUHFWDQJXODUFRQFUHWHVWUHVVEORFNIDFWRUVLV
appropriate. Methods considering a nonlinear stress distribu-
⎛ dp − c⎞ tion in the concrete can also be used.
ε pnet = 0.003 ⎜ for concrete crushing failure The depth to the neutral axis, c, is found by simultane-
⎝ c ⎟⎠
RXVO\ VDWLVI\LQJ (T     DQG D  WR
 E I WKXVHVWDEOLVKLQJLQWHUQDOIRUFHHTXLOLEULXPDQG
strain compatibility. To solve for the depth of the neutral
axis, c, an iterative solution procedure can be used. An initial

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 31

value for cLV¿UVWDVVXPHGDQGWKHVWUDLQVDQGVWUHVVHVDUH based on cracked or uncracked section properties, depending


FDOFXODWHG XVLQJ (T     DQG D  WR on existing conditions. In most cases, the initial strain before
H $ UHYLVHG YDOXH IRU WKH GHSWK RI QHXWUDO D[LV cracking is relatively small, and may conservatively be ignored
c LV WKHQ FDOFXODWHG IURP (T I  7KH FDOFXODWHG
and assumed values for c are then compared. If they agree, ⎛ Ef ⎞ M y
then the proper value of c is reached. If the calculated and f f , s = ⎜ ⎟ s b − ε bi E f 
⎝ Ec ⎠ I
assumed values do not agree, another value for c is selected,
and the process is repeated until convergence is attained. 'HSHQGLQJRQWKHDFWXDOFRQGLWLRQDWVHUYLFH FUDFNHGRU
7KH QRPLQDO ÀH[XUDO VWUHQJWK RI WKH VHFWLRQ ZLWK )53 XQFUDFNHG  WKH PRPHQW RI LQHUWLD I, can be taken as the
H[WHUQDOUHLQIRUFHPHQWFDQEHFRPSXWHGXVLQJ(T J  moment of inertia of the uncracked section transformed to
7KHDGGLWLRQDOUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUȥf LVDSSOLHGWRWKHÀH[- concrete, Itr, or the moment of inertia of the cracked section
ural-strength contribution of the FRP reinforcement transformed to concrete, Icr. The variable yb is the distance
from the centroidal axis of the gross section, neglecting rein-
⎛ β c⎞ ⎛ β c⎞ IRUFHPHQWWRWKHH[WUHPHERWWRP¿EHU7KHFRPSXWHGVWUHVV
M n = Ap f ps ⎜ d p − 1 ⎟ + ψ f Af f fe ⎜ d f − 1 ⎟ J in the FRP under service loads should not exceed the limits
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
SURYLGHGLQ

 Stress in prestressing steel under service loads— 10.4—Moment redistribution


The stress in the prestressing steel can be calculated based Moment redistribution for continuous reinforced concrete
RQ WKH DFWXDO FRQGLWLRQ FUDFNHG RU XQFUDFNHG VHFWLRQ  RI beams strengthened using externally bonded FRP can be used
the strengthened reinforced concrete section. The strain in to decrease factored moments calculated by elastic theory at
SUHVWUHVVLQJVWHHODWVHUYLFHİps,s, can be calculated as sections of maximum negative or maximum positive moment
IRUDQ\DVVXPHGORDGLQJDUUDQJHPHQWE\QRWPRUHWKDQİt
Pe ⎛ e2 ⎞ percent, to a maximum of 20 percent. Moment redistribution
ε ps , s = ε pe + ⎜⎝1 + r 2 ⎟⎠ + ε pnet , s D
Ac Ec is only permitted when the strain in the tension steel rein-
IRUFHPHQWİt, exceeds 0.0075 at the section at which moment
LQZKLFKİpeLVWKHHIIHFWLYHSUHVWUHVVLQJVWUDLQDQGİpnet,s is is reduced. Moment redistribution is not permitted where
the net tensile strain in the prestressing steel beyond decom- approximate values of bending moments are used.
SUHVVLRQDWVHUYLFH7KHYDOXHRIİpnet,s depends on the effec- The reduced moment should be used for calculating redis-
tive section properties at service, and can be calculated using tributed moments at all other sections within the spans.
(T E DQG F 6WDWLFHTXLOLEULXPVKRXOGEHPDLQWDLQHGDIWHUUHGLVWULEXWLRQ
of moments for each loading arrangement. El-Refaie et al.
 demonstrated that continuous reinforced concrete
M se beams strengthened with carbon FRP sheets can redistribute
ε pnet , s = for uncracked section at service E
Ec I g moment in the order of 6 to 31 percent. They also concluded
that lower moment redistribution was achieved for beam
VHFWLRQVUHWUR¿WWHGZLWKKLJKHUDPRXQWVRIFDUERQ)53UHLQ-
M snet e forcement. 6LOYDDQG,EHOO  demonstrated that sections
ε pnet , s = for cracked section at service  F
Ec I cr that can develop a curvature ductility capacity greater than
2.0 can produce moment redistribution of at least 7.5 percent
where Msnet is the net service moment beyond decompres- of the design moment.
sion. The stress in the prestressing steel under service loads
FDQWKHQEHFRPSXWHGIURP(T G DQG H  CHAPTER 11—SHEAR STRENGTHENING
and compared against the limits described in 10.3.1.4. )LEHUUHLQIRUFHGSRO\PHU )53 V\VWHPVKDYHEHHQVKRZQ
 Stress in FRP under service loads²(TXDWLRQ to increase the shear strength of existing concrete beams and
  JLYHV WKH VWUHVV LQ WKH )53 UHLQIRUFHPHQW XQGHU columns by wrapping or partially wrapping the members
an applied moment within the elastic response range of the 0DOYDUHWDO&KDMHVHWDO1RUULVHWDO
PHPEHU7KHFDOFXODWLRQSURFHGXUHIRUWKHLQLWLDOVWUDLQİbi at Kachlakev and McCurry 2000 2ULHQWLQJ)53¿EHUVWUDQV-
the time of FRP installation will depend on the state of the verse to the axis of the member or perpendicular to poten-
concrete section at the time of FRP installation and at service tial shear cracks is effective in providing additional shear
condition. Prestressed sections can be uncracked at installa- VWUHQJWK 6DWRHWDO $QLQFUHDVHLQVKHDUVWUHQJWKPD\
tion/uncracked at service, uncracked at installation/cracked at EHUHTXLUHGZKHQÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKHQLQJLVLPSOHPHQWHGWR
service, or cracked at installation/cracked at service. The initial HQVXUHWKDWÀH[XUDOFDSDFLW\UHPDLQVFULWLFDO)OH[XUDOIDLO-
VWUDLQRQWKHERQGHGVXEVWUDWHİbi, can be determined from an ures are relatively more ductile in nature compared with
elastic analysis of the existing member, considering all loads shear failures.
that will be on the member during the installation of the FRP
system. The elastic analysis of the existing member should be

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32 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

11.1—General considerations
This chapter presents guidance on the calculation of added
shear strength resulting from the addition of FRP shear rein-
forcement to a reinforced concrete beam or column. The
additional shear strength that can be provided by the FRP
system is based on many factors, including geometry of the
beam or column, wrapping scheme, and existing concrete
strength, but should be limited in accordance with the
recommendations of &KDSWHU. Fig. 11.2—Typical wrapping schemes for shear strength-
Shear strengthening using external FRP may be provided ening using FRP laminates.
at locations of expected plastic hinges or stress reversal WLRQVIURPWKHUHLQIRUFLQJVWHHO VWLUUXSVWLHVRUVSLUDOV DQG
DQGIRUHQKDQFLQJSRVW\LHOGÀH[XUDOEHKDYLRURIPHPEHUV WKHFRQFUHWH (T E $QDGGLWLRQDOUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUȥf
in moment frames resisting seismic loads, as described in is applied to the contribution of the FRP system
Chapter 13.
ࢥVn ࢥ Vc + VsȥfVf  E
11.2—Wrapping schemes
The three types of FRP wrapping schemes used to where Vc and Vs are the concrete and internal reinforcing steel
increase the shear strength of prismatic, rectangular beams, contributions to shear capacity calculated using the provi-
or columns are illustrated in Fig. 11.2. Completely wrap- sions of ACI 318, respectively. For prestressed members, Vc
ping the FRP system around the section on all four sides is is the minimum of Vci and VcwGH¿QHGE\$&,
WKHPRVWHI¿FLHQWZUDSSLQJVFKHPHDQGLVPRVWFRPPRQO\ Based on a reliability analysis using data from Bous-
used in column applications where access to all four sides VHOKDP DQG &KDDOODO  , 'HQLDXG DQG &KHQJ 
of the column is available. In beam applications where an  , )XQDNDZD HW DO  , 0DWWK\V DQG 7ULDQWD¿OORX
integral slab makes it impractical to completely wrap the  , and 3HOOHJULQR DQG 0RGHQD  , the reduc-
member, the shear strength can be improved by wrapping WLRQ IDFWRU ȥf of 0.85 is recommended for the three-sided
WKH)53V\VWHPDURXQGWKUHHVLGHVRIWKHPHPEHU 8ZUDS  FRP U-wrap or two-opposite-sides strengthening schemes.
or bonding to two opposite sides of the member. ,QVXI¿FLHQWH[SHULPHQWDOGDWDH[LVWWRSHUIRUPDUHOLDELOLW\
$OWKRXJKDOOWKUHHWHFKQLTXHVKDYHEHHQVKRZQWRLPSURYH DQDO\VLV IRU IXOO\ZUDSSHG VHFWLRQV KRZHYHU WKHUH VKRXOG
the shear strength of a rectangular member, completely be less variability with this strengthening scheme, as it is
ZUDSSLQJWKHVHFWLRQLVWKHPRVWHI¿FLHQWIROORZHGE\WKH OHVVERQGGHSHQGHQWDQGWKHUHIRUHWKHUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUȥf
three-sided U-wrap. Bonding to two sides of a beam is the RILVUHFRPPHQGHG7KHȥf factor was calibrated based
OHDVWHI¿FLHQWVFKHPH on design material properties. These recommendations are
For shear strengthening of circular members, only given in Table 11.3.
complete circumferential wrapping of the section in which
the FRP is oriented perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of Table 11.3—Recommended additional reduction
WKHPHPEHU WKDWLVĮ GHJUHHV LVUHFRPPHQGHG factors for FRP shear reinforcement
In all wrapping schemes, the FRP system can be installed ȥf  Completely wrapped members
continuously along the span of a member or placed as
ȥf = 0.85 Three-side and two-opposite-sides schemes
discrete strips. As discussed in , the potential effects
of entrapping moisture in the substrate when using contin-
XRXVUHLQIRUFHPHQWVKRXOGEHFDUHIXOO\FRQVLGHUHG6SHFL¿F 11.4—FRP contribution to shear strength
means of allowing moisture vapor transmission out of the Figure 11.4 illustrates the dimensional variables used in
substrate should be employed where appropriate. shear-strengthening calculations for FRP laminates. The
contribution of the FRP system to shear strength of a member
11.3—Nominal shear strength LV EDVHG RQ WKH ¿EHU RULHQWDWLRQ DQG DQ DVVXPHG FUDFN
The design shear strength of a concrete member strength- SDWWHUQ .KDOLIDHWDO 7KHVKHDUVWUHQJWKSURYLGHGE\
HQHG ZLWK DQ )53 V\VWHP VKRXOG H[FHHG WKH UHTXLUHG VKHDU the FRP reinforcement can be determined by calculating the
VWUHQJWK (T D 7KHUHTXLUHGVKHDUVWUHQJWKRIDQ)53 force resulting from the tensile stress in the FRP across the
strengthened concrete member should be computed with the assumed crack. The shear contribution of the FRP shear rein-
ORDGIDFWRUVUHTXLUHGE\ACI 318. The design shear strength IRUFHPHQWLVWKHQJLYHQE\(T D
should be calculated by multiplying the nominal shear strength
E\WKHVWUHQJWKUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUࢥDVVSHFL¿HGE\$&, Afv f fe (sin α + cos α )d fv
Vf = D
sf
ࢥVn•Vu D
For rectangular sections
The nominal shear strength of an FRP-strengthened
concrete member can be determined by adding the contribu- Afv = 2ntfwf E
tion of the FRP external shear reinforcement to the contribu-

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 33

7KH ERQGUHGXFWLRQ FRHI¿FLHQW LV D IXQFWLRQ RI WKH


concrete strength, the type of wrapping scheme used, and
WKHVWLIIQHVVRIWKHODPLQDWH7KHERQGUHGXFWLRQFRHI¿FLHQW
FDQ EH FRPSXWHG IURP (T E  WKURXJK H 
.KDOLIDHWDO

k1k2 Le
κv = ≤ 0.75 (in.-lb)
Fig. 11.4—Illustration of the dimensional variables used 468ε fu
 E
LQ VKHDUVWUHQJWKHQLQJ FDOFXODWLRQV IRU UHSDLU UHWUR¿W RU kk L
strengthening using FRP laminates. κ v = 1 2 e ≤ 0.75 (SI)
11, 900ε fu
For circular sections, dfv is taken as 0.8 times the diameter
of the section and The active bond length Le is the length over which the
majority of the bond stress is maintained. This length is
Afv  ʌ ntfwf F JLYHQE\(T F

The tensile stress in the FRP shear reinforcement at 2500


nominal strength is directly proportional to the strain that Le = (in.-lb)
(nt f E f )0.58
can be developed in the FRP shear reinforcement at nominal F
strength 23, 300
Le = (SI)
(nt f E f )0.58
ffe = Efİfe G
7KH ERQGUHGXFWLRQ FRHI¿FLHQW DOVR UHOLHV RQ WZR PRGL-
11.4.1 Effective strain in FRP laminates—The effective ¿FDWLRQ IDFWRUV k1 and k2, that account for the concrete
strain is the maximum strain that can be achieved in the FRP strength and the type of wrapping scheme used, respectively.
system at the nominal strength and is governed by the failure ([SUHVVLRQVIRUWKHVHPRGL¿FDWLRQIDFWRUVDUHJLYHQLQ(T
mode of the FRP system and of the strengthened reinforced G DQG H
concrete member. The licensed design professional should
consider all possible failure modes and use an effective strain ⎛ f′ ⎞
2/3

representative of the critical failure mode. The following k1 = ⎜ c ⎟ (in.-lb)


⎝ 4000 ⎠
subsections provide guidance on determining this effective 2/3
 G
VWUDLQIRUGLIIHUHQWFRQ¿JXUDWLRQVRI)53ODPLQDWHVXVHGIRU ⎛ f '⎞
k1 = ⎜ c ⎟ (SI)
shear strengthening of reinforced concrete members. ⎝ 27 ⎠
11.4.1.1 Completely wrapped members—For reinforced
concrete column and beam members completely wrapped
by FRP, loss of aggregate interlock of the concrete has been ⎧ d fv − Le
REVHUYHGWRRFFXUDW¿EHUVWUDLQVOHVVWKDQWKHXOWLPDWH¿EHU ⎪ for U-wraps
⎪ d fv
strain. To preclude this mode of failure, the maximum strain k2 = ⎨ H
used for design should be limited to 0.4 percent for members ⎪ d fv − 2 Le for two sides bonded
WKDWDUHFRPSOHWHO\ZUDSSHGZLWK)53 (T  ⎪ d fv

İfe ”İfu  7KH PHWKRGRORJ\ IRU GHWHUPLQLQJ țv has been validated
for members in regions of high shear and low moment, such
7KLVVWUDLQOLPLWDWLRQLVEDVHGRQWHVWLQJ Priestley et al. as monotonically loaded simply supported beams. Although
 DQGH[SHULHQFH+LJKHUVWUDLQVVKRXOGQRWEHXVHGIRU WKHPHWKRGRORJ\KDVQRWEHHQFRQ¿UPHGIRUVKHDUVWUHQJWK-
FRP shear-strengthening applications. HQLQJLQDUHDVVXEMHFWHGWRFRPELQHGKLJKÀH[XUDODQGVKHDU
11.4.1.2 Bonded U-wraps or bonded face plies—FRP stresses or in regions where the web is primarily in compres-
V\VWHPV WKDW GR QRW HQFORVH WKH HQWLUH VHFWLRQ WZR DQG VLRQ QHJDWLYH PRPHQW UHJLRQV  LW LV VXJJHVWHG WKDW țv is
WKUHHVLGHGZUDSV KDYHEHHQREVHUYHGWRGHODPLQDWHIURP VXI¿FLHQWO\FRQVHUYDWLYHIRUVXFKFDVHV7KHGHVLJQSURFH-
the concrete before the loss of aggregate interlock of the dures outlined herein have been developed by a combination
section. For this reason, bond stresses have been analyzed to RIDQDO\WLFDODQGHPSLULFDOUHVXOWV .KDOLIDHWDO 
GHWHUPLQHWKHHI¿FLHQF\RIWKHVHV\VWHPVDQGWKHHIIHFWLYH Anchorage details have been used to develop higher
VWUDLQWKDWFDQEHDFKLHYHG 7ULDQWD¿OORX 7KHHIIHF- strains in bonded U-wraps used in shear strengthening appli-
WLYHVWUDLQLVFDOFXODWHGXVLQJDERQGUHGXFWLRQFRHI¿FLHQWțv cations. Anchorage systems include mechanical fasteners,
applicable to shear )53VWULSV¿EHUDQFKRUVDQGQHDUVXUIDFHPRXQWHG 160 
DQFKRUVH[DPSOHVDUHVKRZQVFKHPDWLFDOO\LQ)LJE
İfe țvİfu” D .KDOLID HW DO  Kalfat et al. 2013 Grelle and Sneed
2013  3URSHUO\ DQFKRUHG 8ZUDSV FDQ EH GHVLJQHG WR IDLO

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34 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

E\)53UXSWXUH Belarbi et al. 2011 ,QQRFDVHKRZHYHU ment, all divided by the cross-sectional area of the concrete.
should the effective strain in the anchored FRP U-wrap 7KHXOWLPDWHVWUDLQRIWKHXQFRQ¿QHGPHPEHUFRUUHVSRQGLQJ
H[FHHGWKHOHVVHURIRUİfuDQGȥf = 0.85 remains to 0.85fcƍ &XUYH D  LV İcu7KH VWUDLQ İccu corresponds to:
appropriate for anchored U-wraps. D fccƍLQWKHFDVHRIWKHOLJKWO\FRQ¿QHGPHPEHU &XUYH
11.4.2 Spacing—Spaced FRP strips used for shear E DQGE WKHIDLOXUHVWUDLQLQERWKWKHKHDYLO\FRQ¿QHG
strengthening should be investigated to evaluate their VRIWHQLQJFDVH WKHIDLOXUHVWUHVVLVODUJHUWKDQfccƍ &XUYH
contribution to the shear strength. Spacing should adhere F RULQWKHKHDYLO\FRQ¿QHGKDUGHQLQJFDVH &XUYH G 
to the limits prescribed by ACI 318 for internal steel shear 7KH GH¿QLWLRQ RI İccu at 0.85fccƍ RU OHVV LV DUELWUDU\
UHLQIRUFHPHQW7KHVSDFLQJRI)53VWULSVLVGH¿QHGDVWKH although consistent with modeling of conventional concrete
distance between the centerline of the strips. +RJQHVWDG DQGVXFKWKDWWKHGHVFHQGLQJEUDQFKRIWKH
11.4.3 Reinforcement limits—The total shear strength VWUHVVVWUDLQ FXUYH DW WKDW OHYHO RI VWUHVV fccƍ RU KLJKHU 
provided by reinforcement should be taken as the sum of is not as sensitive to the test procedure in terms of rate of
the contribution of the FRP shear reinforcement and the ORDGLQJDQGVWLIIQHVVRIWKHHTXLSPHQWXVHG
steel shear reinforcement. The sum of the shear strengths The axial compressive strength of a nonslender, normal-
provided by the shear reinforcement should be limited based ZHLJKWFRQFUHWHPHPEHUFRQ¿QHGZLWKDQ)53MDFNHWPD\EH
on the criteria given for steel alone in ACI 318 FDOFXODWHGXVLQJWKHFRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHVWUHQJWK (T D 
DQG E 7KHD[LDOIRUFHDFWLQJRQDQ)53VWUHQJWKHQHG
Vs + V f ≤ 8 f c′bw d (in.-lb) concrete member should be computed using the load factors
 UHTXLUHGE\$&,DQGWKHYDOXHVRIWKHࢥIDFWRUVDVHVWDE-
Vs + V f ≤ 0.66 f c′bw d (SI) lished in ACI 318 for both types of transverse reinforcing
VWHHO VSLUDOVRUWLHV DSSO\
For circular sections, bwdLQ(T  LVWDNHQDVD2, For nonprestressed members with existing steel spiral
where D is the member diameter. reinforcement

CHAPTER 12—STRENGTHENING OF MEMBERS ࢥPn ࢥ>fccƍ Ag – Ast fy Ast@ D


SUBJECTED TO AXIAL FORCE OR COMBINED
AXIAL AND BENDING FORCES For nonprestressed members with existing steel-tie
&RQ¿QHPHQW RI UHLQIRUFHG FRQFUHWH FROXPQV E\ PHDQV reinforcement
RI ¿EHUUHLQIRUFHG SRO\PHU )53  MDFNHWV FDQ EH XVHG WR
enhance their strength and ductility. An increase in capacity ࢥPn ࢥ>fccƍ Ag – Ast fy Ast@ E
is an immediate outcome typically expressed in terms of
improved peak load resistance. Ductility enhancement, on Several models that simulate the stress-strain behavior
WKHRWKHUKDQGUHTXLUHVPRUHFRPSOH[FDOFXODWLRQVWRGHWHU- RI )53FRQ¿QHG FRPSUHVVLRQ VHFWLRQV DUH DYDLODEOH LQ WKH
mine the ability of a member to sustain rotation and drift OLWHUDWXUH Teng et al. 2002De Lorenzis and Tepfers 2003
without a substantial loss in strength. This chapter applies Lam and Teng 2003a 7KHVWUHVVVWUDLQPRGHOE\/DPDQG
RQO\WRPHPEHUVFRQ¿QHGZLWK)53V\VWHPV 7HQJ Db  IRU )53FRQ¿QHG FRQFUHWH LV LOOXVWUDWHG LQ
Fig. 12.1b and computed using the following expressions
12.1—Pure axial compression
FRP systems can be used to increase the axial compression ⎧ ( Ec − E2 ) 2
VWUHQJWKRIDFRQFUHWHPHPEHUE\SURYLGLQJFRQ¿QHPHQWZLWK ⎪ c c
E ε − 0 ≤ ε c ≤ ε t′
fc = ⎨ 4 f c′  F
DQ )53 MDFNHW 1DQQL DQG %UDGIRUG 7RXWDQML  
⎪ f ′+ E ε ε t′ ≤ ε c ≤ ε c,max
&RQ¿QLQJDFRQFUHWHPHPEHULVDFFRPSOLVKHGE\RULHQWLQJ ⎩ c 2 c

WKH¿EHUVWUDQVYHUVHWRWKHORQJLWXGLQDOD[LVRIWKHPHPEHU
,QWKLVRULHQWDWLRQWKHWUDQVYHUVHRUKRRS¿EHUVDUHVLPLODU İc,max”İccu” G
to conventional spiral or tie reinforcing steel. Any contribu-
WLRQRIORQJLWXGLQDOO\DOLJQHG¿EHUVWRWKHD[LDOFRPSUHVVLRQ
f cc′ − f c′
strength of a concrete member should be neglected. E2 =  H
)53MDFNHWVSURYLGHSDVVLYHFRQ¿QHPHQWWRWKHFRPSUHV- ε ccu
sion member, remaining unstressed until dilation and
cracking of the wrapped compression member occur. For 2 f c′
this reason, intimate contact between the FRP jacket and the ε t′ = I
Ec − E2
concrete member is critical.
'HSHQGLQJ RQ WKH OHYHO RI FRQ¿QHPHQW WKH XQLD[LDO
stress-strain curve of a reinforced concrete column could be 7KH PD[LPXP FRQ¿QHG FRQFUHWH FRPSUHVVLYH VWUHQJWK
depicted by one of the curves in Fig. 12.1a, where fcƍ DQG fccƍDQGWKHPD[LPXPFRQ¿QHPHQWSUHVVXUHfƐ are calculated
fccƍUHSUHVHQWWKHSHDNFRQFUHWHVWUHQJWKVIRUXQFRQ¿QHGDQG XVLQJ(T J DQG K UHVSHFWLYHO\ /DPDQG7HQJ
FRQ¿QHGFDVHVUHVSHFWLYHO\7KHVHVWUHQJWKVDUHFDOFXODWHG DE ZLWKWKHLQFOXVLRQRIDQDGGLWLRQDOUHGXFWLRQIDFWRU
as the peak load minus the contribution of the steel reinforce- ȥf 

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 35

fccƍ fcƍȥfțafƐ J

2 E f nt f ε fe
f = K
D

,Q(T J fcƍLVWKHXQFRQ¿QHGF\OLQGHUFRPSUHVVLYH


VWUHQJWK RI FRQFUHWH DQG WKH HI¿FLHQF\ IDFWRU ța accounts
for the geometry of the section, circular and noncircular, as
GH¿QHG LQ  DQG  ,Q (T K  WKH HIIHFWLYH
VWUDLQLQWKH)53DWIDLOXUHİfe, is given by

İfe țİİfu L


)LJ D²6FKHPDWLF VWUHVVVWUDLQ EHKDYLRU RI XQFRQ¿QHG
DQGFRQ¿QHGUHLQIRUFHGFRQFUHWHFROXPQV 5RFFDHWDO 
7KH)53VWUDLQHI¿FLHQF\IDFWRUțİ accounts for the prema-
WXUHIDLOXUHRIWKH)53V\VWHP Pessiki et al. 2001 UHODWHG
primarily to stress concentration regions caused by cracking
of the concrete as it dilates. Based on experimental calibra-
WLRQ XVLQJ PDLQO\ FDUERQ )53 &)53 FRQ¿QHG FRQFUHWH
specimens, an average value of 0.586 was computed for
țİ by /DPDQG7HQJ D . Similarly, a database of 251
WHVW UHVXOWV Harries and Carey 2003  FRPSXWHG D YDOXH
RI țİ = 0.58, whereas experimental tests on medium- and
ODUJHVFDOHFROXPQVUHVXOWHGLQYDOXHVRIțİ = 0.57 and 0.61,
UHVSHFWLYHO\ Carey and Harries 2005 
%DVHG RQ WHVWV E\ /DP DQG 7HQJ Db  WKH UDWLR fƐ/ )LJE²6WUHVVVWUDLQPRGHOIRU)53FRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWH
fcƍ VKRXOG QRW EH OHVV WKDQ  7KLV LV WKH PLQLPXP OHYHO (Lam and Teng 2003a).
RI FRQ¿QHPHQW UHTXLUHG WR DVVXUH D QRQGHVFHQGLQJ VHFRQG longitudinal axis of the member. For circular cross sections,
branch in the stress-strain performance, as shown by Curve WKHVKDSHIDFWRUVțaDQGțbLQ(T J DQG M UHVSHF-
G  LQ )LJ D 7KLV OLPLWDWLRQ ZDV ODWHU FRQ¿UPHG IRU tively, can be taken as 1.0.
circular cross sections by 6SRHOVWUDDQG0RQWL  using 12.1.2 Noncircular cross sections—Testing has shown
WKHLUDQDO\WLFDOPRGHO$VWUDLQHI¿FLHQF\IDFWRUțİ of 0.55 and WKDW FRQ¿QLQJ VTXDUH DQG UHFWDQJXODU PHPEHUV ZLWK )53
DPLQLPXPFRQ¿QHPHQWUDWLRfƐ/fcƍRIVKRXOGEHXVHG jackets can provide marginal increases in the maximum axial
7KH PD[LPXP FRPSUHVVLYH VWUDLQ LQ WKH )53FRQ¿QHG compressive strength fccƍRIWKHPHPEHU Pessiki et al. 2001
FRQFUHWH İccu FDQ EH IRXQG XVLQJ (T M  Concrete Wang and Restrepo 2001+DUULHVDQG&DUH\<RXVVHI
Society 2004 7KHPD[LPXPFRQFUHWHVWUDLQİc,max, used in 5RFFDHWDO 7KHSURYLVLRQVLQWKLVJXLGHDUHQRW
(T F  VKRXOG EH OLPLWHG WR  WR SUHYHQW H[FHVVLYH recommended for members featuring side aspect ratios h/b
cracking and the resulting loss of concrete integrity. greater than 2.0, or face dimensions b or h exceeding 36 in.
PP XQOHVVWHVWLQJGHPRQVWUDWHVWKHLUHIIHFWLYHQHVV
⎛ f ⎛ ε fe ⎞ ⎞
0.45
For noncircular cross sections, fƐ LQ (T K  FRUUH-
ε ccu = ε c′ ⎜1.50 + 12κ b  ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ M VSRQGVWRWKHPD[LPXPFRQ¿QLQJSUHVVXUHRIDQHTXLYDOHQW
⎝ f c′ ⎝ ε c′ ⎠ ⎠
circular cross section with diameter DHTXDOWRWKHGLDJRQDO
of the rectangular cross section
,Q (T M  WKH HI¿FLHQF\ IDFWRU țb accounts for the
geometry of the section in the calculation of the ultimate
D[LDOVWUDLQDVGH¿QHGLQDQG D = b2 + h2 D
Strength enhancement for compression members with fcƍ
RISVL 03D RUKLJKHUKDVQRWEHHQH[SHULPHQ- 7KHVKDSHIDFWRUVțaLQ(T J DQGțbLQ(T M 
WDOO\ YHUL¿HG (QKDQFHPHQW RI FRQFUHWH KDYLQJ VWUHQJWK fcƍ depend on two parameters: the cross-sectional area of effec-
LQH[FHVVRISVL 03D VKRXOGEHEDVHGRQH[SHUL- WLYHO\FRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHAe, and the side-aspect ratio h/b, as
mental testing. VKRZQLQ(T E DQG F UHVSHFWLYHO\
12.1.1 Circular cross sections—FRP jackets are most
HIIHFWLYHDWFRQ¿QLQJPHPEHUVZLWKFLUFXODUFURVVVHFWLRQV Ae ⎛ b⎞
2

'HPHUV DQG 1HDOH  Pessiki et al. 2001 +DUULHV DQG κa = ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ E
Ac h
&DUH\Youssef 2003Matthys et al. 2005Rocca et al.
2006 7KH)53V\VWHPSURYLGHVDFLUFXPIHUHQWLDOO\XQLIRUP
0.5
FRQ¿QLQJSUHVVXUHWRWKHUDGLDOH[SDQVLRQRIWKHFRPSUHV- Ae ⎛ h⎞
κb = ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ F
VLRQ PHPEHU ZKHQ WKH ¿EHUV DUH DOLJQHG WUDQVYHUVH WR WKH Ac b

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American Concrete Institute – Copyrighted © Material – www.concrete.org
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36 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

exceed the creep rupture stress limit. In addition, axial defor-


mations under service loads should be investigated to eval-
uate their effect on the performance of the structure.

12.2—Combined axial compression and bending


Wrapping with an FRP jacket can also provide strength
enhancement for a member subjected to combined axial
FRPSUHVVLRQDQGÀH[XUH 1RVKRSaadatmanesh et al.
 Chaallal and Shahawy 2000 Sheikh and Yau 2002
Iacobucci et al. 2003 Bousias et al. 2004 Elnabelsy and
Saatcioglu 2004Harajli and Rteil 2004Sause et al. 2004
Memon and Sheikh 2005 
)RUSUHGLFWLQJWKHHIIHFWRI)53FRQ¿QHPHQWRQVWUHQJWK
HQKDQFHPHQW(T D DQG E DUHDSSOLFDEOHZKHQ
WKHHFFHQWULFLW\SUHVHQWLQWKHPHPEHULVOHVVWKDQRUHTXDO
to 0.1h. When the eccentricity is larger than 0.1h, the meth-
RGRORJ\ DQG HTXDWLRQV SUHVHQWHG LQ  FDQ EH XVHG WR
Fig. 12.1.2—Equivalent circular cross section (Lam and determine the concrete material properties of the member
Teng 2003b). cross section under compressive stress. Based on that, the
D[LDOORDGPRPHQW P-M LQWHUDFWLRQGLDJUDPIRUWKH)53
The generally accepted theoretical approach for the FRQ¿QHGPHPEHUFDQEHFRQVWUXFWHGXVLQJZHOOHVWDEOLVKHG
GH¿QLWLRQ RI Ae consists of four parabolas within which SURFHGXUHV Bank 2006 
WKH FRQFUHWH LV IXOO\ FRQ¿QHG RXWVLGH RI ZKLFK QHJOLJLEOH The following limitations apply for members subjected to
FRQ¿QHPHQWRFFXUV )LJ 7KHVKDSHRIWKHSDUDERODV combined axial compression and bending:
DQGWKHUHVXOWLQJHIIHFWLYHFRQ¿QHPHQWDUHDLVDIXQFWLRQRI D 7KHHIIHFWLYHVWUDLQLQWKH)53MDFNHWVKRXOGEHOLPLWHG
WKH GLPHQVLRQV RI WKH FROXPQ b and h  WKH UDGLXV RI WKH WRWKHYDOXHJLYHQLQ(T  WRHQVXUHWKHVKHDULQWHJULW\
corners, rcDQGWKHORQJLWXGLQDOVWHHOUHLQIRUFHPHQWUDWLRȡg, RIWKHFRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWH
and can be expressed as
İfe ”țİİfu 
⎡⎛ b ⎞ 2 ⎤
⎢⎜⎝ h ⎟⎠ (h − 2rc ) ⎥ E  7KH VWUHQJWK HQKDQFHPHQW FDQ RQO\ EH FRQVLGHUHG
⎢ ⎥ when the applied ultimate axial force and bending moment,
⎢ ⎛ h⎞ 2⎥ Pu and Mu, respectively, fall above the line connecting the
⎢ + ⎜⎝ b ⎟⎠ (b − 2rc ) ⎥ origin and the balanced point in the P-M diagram for the
1− ⎣ ⎦ − ρg
Ae 3 Ag XQFRQ¿QHGPHPEHU )LJ 7KLVOLPLWDWLRQVWHPVIURP
= G WKH IDFW WKDW VWUHQJWK HQKDQFHPHQW LV RQO\ VLJQL¿FDQW IRU
Ac 1 − ρg members in which compression failure is the controlling
PRGH %DQN 
12.1.3 Serviceability considerations—As loads approach P-M diagrams may be developed by satisfying strain
factored load levels, damage to the concrete in the form of FRPSDWLELOLW\DQGIRUFHHTXLOLEULXPXVLQJWKHPRGHOIRUWKH
VLJQL¿FDQWFUDFNLQJLQWKHUDGLDOGLUHFWLRQPLJKWRFFXU7KH VWUHVVVWUDLQ EHKDYLRU IRU )53FRQ¿QHG FRQFUHWH SUHVHQWHG
FRP jacket contains the damage and maintains the structural LQ(T F WKURXJK I )RUVLPSOLFLW\WKHSRUWLRQRI
integrity of the column. At service load levels, however, WKH XQFRQ¿QHG DQG FRQ¿QHG P-M diagrams corresponding
this type of damage should be avoided. In this way, the FRP to compression-controlled failure can be reduced to two
jacket will only act during overloading conditions that are ELOLQHDUFXUYHVSDVVLQJWKURXJKWKUHHSRLQWV )LJ )RU
temporary in nature. values of eccentricity greater than 0.1h and up to the point
To ensure that radial cracking will not occur under service corresponding to the balanced condition, the methodology
loads, the transverse strain in the concrete should remain provided in Appendix D may be used for the computation of
below its cracking strain at service load levels. This corre- DVLPSOL¿HGLQWHUDFWLRQGLDJUDP7KHYDOXHVRIWKHࢥIDFWRUV
sponds to limiting the compressive stress in the concrete to as established in ACI 318 for both types of transverse rein-
0.65fcƍ,QDGGLWLRQWKHVHUYLFHVWUHVVLQWKHORQJLWXGLQDOVWHHO IRUFLQJVWHHO VSLUDOVRUWLHV DSSO\
should remain below 0.60fy to avoid plastic deformation
XQGHUVXVWDLQHGRUF\FOLFORDGV%\PDLQWDLQLQJWKHVSHFL¿HG 12.3—Ductility enhancement
stress in the concrete at service, the stress in the FRP jacket Increased ductility of a section results from the ability to
ZLOOEHUHODWLYHO\ORZ7KHMDFNHWLVRQO\VWUHVVHGWRVLJQL¿- develop greater compressive strains in the concrete before
cant levels when the concrete is transversely strained above FRPSUHVVLYHIDLOXUH 6HLEOHHWDO 7KH)53MDFNHWFDQ
the cracking strain and the transverse expansion becomes also serve to delay buckling of longitudinal steel reinforce-
large. Service load stresses in the FRP jacket should never

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 37

$ FODVVL¿FDWLRQ RI VHLVPLF UHKDELOLWDWLRQ PHWKRGV IRU


buildings in ASCE/SEI 41 and $&,5 gives the following
VWUDWHJLHV ORFDO PRGL¿FDWLRQ RI FRPSRQHQWV UHPRYDO RU
lessening of existing irregularities and discontinuities,
global structural stiffening, global structural strengthening,
mass reduction, seismic isolation, and supplemental energy
dissipation. Strengthening using FRP materials and systems
DOORZV IRU ORFDO PRGL¿FDWLRQ RI FRPSRQHQWV DQG FDQ EH
implemented in improving the overall seismic performance
of the structure. The main advantages of FRP strengthening
Fig. 12.2—Representative interaction diagram. can be summarized as follows:
D $WWKHFRPSRQHQWOHYHO)53VWUHQJWKHQLQJFDQEHXVHG
ment in compression and to clamp lap splices of longitudinal WR HI¿FLHQWO\ PLWLJDWH EULWWOH PHFKDQLVPV RI IDLOXUH7KHVH
steel reinforcement. PD\ LQFOXGH VKHDU IDLOXUH RI XQFRQ¿QHG EHDPFROXPQ
For seismic applications, FRP jackets should be designed MRLQWV VKHDU IDLOXUH RI EHDPV FROXPQV RU ERWK DQG ODS
WRSURYLGHDFRQ¿QLQJVWUHVVVXI¿FLHQWWRGHYHORSFRQFUHWH splice failure. FRP strengthening can also be used to increase
compression strains associated with the displacement WKH ÀH[XUDO FDSDFLW\ RI UHLQIRUFHG FRQFUHWH PHPEHUV WR
demands as described in Chapter 13. Shear forces should UHVLVWWKHEXFNOLQJRIÀH[XUDOVWHHOEDUVDQGWRLQFUHDVHWKH
also be evaluated in accordance with Chapter 11 to prevent inelastic rotational capacity of reinforced concrete members.
brittle shear failure in accordance with ACI 318. E  ,PSOHPHQWLQJ )53 VWUHQJWKHQLQJ VFKHPHV WUDQVODWHV
12.3.1 Circular cross sections—The maximum compres- into an increase in the global displacement and energy
VLYH VWUDLQ IRU )53FRQ¿QHG PHPEHUV ZLWK FLUFXODU FURVV dissipation capacities of the structure, thus improving the
VHFWLRQV FDQ EH IRXQG IURP (T M  ZLWK fccƍ IURP (T overall behavior of reinforced concrete structures subjected
J DQGXVLQJțb = 1.0. to seismic actions.
12.3.2 Noncircular cross sections—The maximum F )53VKHDUVWUHQJWKHQLQJDQGFRQ¿QHPHQWKDVDVPDOO
FRPSUHVVLYHVWUDLQIRU)53FRQ¿QHGPHPEHUVZLWKVTXDUH effect on the stiffness or mass of the structure. In such cases,
RUUHFWDQJXODUVHFWLRQVFDQEHIRXQGIURP(T M ZLWK a reevaluation of the seismic demand after strengthening is
fccƍIURP(T J DQGXVLQJțbDVJLYHQLQ(T F  W\SLFDOO\ QRW UHTXLUHG :KHQ WKH VWUXFWXUDO VWLIIQHVV QHHGV
7KH FRQ¿QLQJ HIIHFW RI )53 MDFNHWV VKRXOG EH DVVXPHG WR to be increased, FRP strengthening of local components can
be negligible for rectangular sections with aspect ratio h/b EHFRXSOHGZLWKRWKHUWUDGLWLRQDOJOREDOXSJUDGHWHFKQLTXHV
exceeding 2.0, or face dimensions b or h exceeding 36 in. 0DQ\UHVHDUFKSURJUDPVKDYHHYDOXDWHGWKHDGHTXDF\RI
PP XQOHVVWHVWLQJGHPRQVWUDWHVWKHLUHIIHFWLYHQHVV externally bonded FRP composites for seismic rehabilita-
WLRQ RI FRQFUHWH VWUXFWXUHV Haroun et al. 2005 Pantelides
12.4—Pure axial tension et al. 2000Ghobarah and Said 2002Gergely et al. 2000
FRP systems can be used to provide additional tensile $QWRQRSRXORV DQG7ULDQWD¿OORX  Hamed and Rabino-
strength to a concrete member. Due to the linear-elastic vitch 2005Pampanin et al. 2007Di Ludovico et al. 2008a 
nature of FRP materials, the tensile contribution of the FRP 2WKHU UHVHDUFK SURJUDPV KDYH FRQ¿UPHG WKH SRWHQWLDO RI
system is directly related to its strain and is calculated using )53 WHFKQLTXHV IRU XSJUDGLQJ WKH VHLVPLF SHUIRUPDQFH RI
Hooke’s Law. ORFDOHOHPHQWVVXFKDVUHLQIRUFHGFRQFUHWHFROXPQV Bousias
The tension capacity provided by the FRP is limited by the et al. 2004 DQGFRQQHFWLRQV $QWRQRSRXORVDQG7ULDQWD¿OORX
design tensile strength of the FRP and the ability to transfer Prota et al. 2004 5HVHDUFKUHVXOWVIRU)53DSSOLHGDW
VWUHVVHVLQWRWKHVXEVWUDWHWKURXJKERQG 1DQQLHWDO  the local element or partial structural frame level were subse-
The effective strain in the FRP can be determined based on TXHQWO\ YDOLGDWHG RQ IXOOVFDOH VWUXFWXUHV 3DQWHOLGHV HW DO
WKH FULWHULD JLYHQ IRU VKHDU VWUHQJWKHQLQJ LQ (T   2004Balsamo et al. 2005Engindeniz et al. 2008a,b 
WKURXJK G 7KHYDOXHRIk2LQ(T E FDQEH In addition, several structures that include FRP-strengthened
taken as 1.0. A minimum bonded length of Ɛdf, as calculated members have experienced seismic events. Failure of these
in 14.1.3, should be provided to develop this level of strain. members has not been reported.
This chapter presents design guidelines for the seismic
CHAPTER 13—SEISMIC STRENGTHENING strengthening of reinforced concrete elements using exter-
0DQ\VWUHQJWKHQLQJWHFKQLTXHVKDYHEHHQGHYHORSHGDQG nally bonded FRP composites. The design guidelines
XVHG IRU UHSDLU DQG UHKDELOLWDWLRQ RI HDUWKTXDNH GDPDJHG described herein are intended to be used in conjunction
DQG VHLVPLFDOO\ GH¿FLHQW VWUXFWXUHV Federal Emergency with the fundamental concepts, analysis procedures, design
Management Agency 2006  ,GHQWL¿FDWLRQ RI DQ HIIHFWLYH philosophy, seismic rehabilitation objectives, and accep-
rehabilitation method is directly related to the outcome of a tance criteria set forth in documents such as ASCE/SEI
seismic evaluation of the structure and is based on consid-  DQG $&, 5 6WUHQJWKHQLQJ RI 5& EXLOGLQJ FRPSR-
eration of many factors, including type of structure, reha- nents or structures with FRP shall follow capacity protec-
bilitation objective, strengthening scheme effectiveness, WLRQSULQFLSOHV,QFDSDFLW\GHVLJQ +ROOLQJVPark and
constructability, and cost. 3DXOD\ DGHVLUDEOHPHFKDQLVPRILQHODVWLFUHVSRQVH

@Seismicisolation
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38 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

under seismic action is ensured by providing a strength 13.2—FRP properties for seismic design
KLHUDUFK\ VWURQJFROXPQZHDNEHDPVKHDUVWUHQJWK!ÀH[- For seismic upgrades, the material environmental factors
XUDO VWUHQJWK  $SSOLFDWLRQ RI WKHVH GHVLJQ JXLGHOLQHV IRU JLYHQLQ7DEOHVKRXOGEHXVHGLQWKHGHVLJQRIWKH)53
the seismic rehabilitation of nonbuilding structures such as VWUHQJWKHQLQJVROXWLRQ7KHFUHHSUXSWXUHOLPLWVLQ7DEOH
bridges, wharves, silos, and nuclear facilities warrant addi- need not be considered for seismic strengthening applica-
tional consideration. tions unless initial strains are imposed on the FRP as part of
7KHVHJXLGHOLQHVGRQRWSURYLGHLQIRUPDWLRQUHTXLUHGWR WKHUHWUR¿WVFKHPH7\SLFDOO\ZKHQXVHGIRUVHLVPLFUHWUR¿W
complete a seismic evaluation of an existing structure, deter- WKH)53PDWHULDOZLOOQRWEHH[SRVHGWRVLJQL¿FDQWVXVWDLQHG
PLQHLIUHWUR¿WLVUHTXLUHGRULGHQWLI\WKHVHLVPLFGH¿FLHQ- service loads and creep rupture failure will not govern the
cies that need to be corrected to achieve the desired perfor- design. Creep rupture limits should be considered, however,
mance objective. These guidelines are also not meant to in cases where the application may impose initial or service
address post-seismic conditions or residual strength of the strains that can produce sustained stresses on the FRP. Some
VWUXFWXUHDQGWKH)53UHWUR¿WV\VWHP$IWHUDVHLVPLFHYHQW examples include applications with expansive grouts, preten-
D VWUXFWXUH WKDW KDV EHHQ UHWUR¿WWHG ZLWK )53 FRPSRVLWHV sioned FRP, or other methods that generate sustained stress
could develop large displacements and excessive cracking, in the FRP material. When this chapter is used in conjunc-
resulting in residual stresses or damage to the FRP system. tion with ASCE/SEI 41, FRP material properties should be
In such cases, an investigation of the stability, ductility, and considered lower-bound material properties.
residual strength of the structure should be performed after
WKH VHLVPLF HYHQW WR DVVHVV WKH DGHTXDF\ RI WKH H[LVWLQJ 13.3—Confinement with FRP
)53UHWUR¿WV\VWHPDQGWRGHWHUPLQHLIDGGLWLRQDOUHPHGLDO Jacketing concrete structural members with FRP having
measures are needed. WKH SULPDU\ ¿EHUV RULHQWHG DURXQG WKH SHULPHWHU RI WKH
PHPEHU SURYLGHV FRQ¿QHPHQW WR SODVWLF KLQJHV PLWLJDWHV
13.1—Background the splitting failure mode of poorly detailed lap splices, and
One of the most comprehensive documents developed prevents buckling of the main reinforcing bars.
to assess the need for seismic rehabilitation of reinforced 13.3.1 General considerations—In seismic applications,
concrete buildings is ASCE/SEI 41 )(0$ 3 Federal jacketing concrete structural members with FRP is not
(PHUJHQF\ 0DQDJHPHQW $JHQF\   SURYLGHV IXUWKHU recommended for rectangular sections with aspect ratios h/b
guidance in the selection of appropriate design criteria to greater than 1.5, or face dimensions b or h exceeding 36 in.
achieve the seismic performance objectives. $&,5 esti- PP  6HLEOHHWDO XQOHVVWHVWLQJGHPRQVWUDWHV
mates the desired seismic performance of concrete compo- WKHHIIHFWLYHQHVVRI)53IRUFRQ¿QHPHQWRIWKHVHPHPEHUV
nents that are largely based on the format and content of For rectangular sections with an aspect ratio greater than 1.5,
ASCE/SEI 41. WKHVHFWLRQFDQEHPRGL¿HGWREHFLUFXODURURYDOWRHQKDQFH
)(0$ Federal Emergency Management Agency 2006  WKHHIIHFWLYHQHVVRIWKH)53MDFNHW 6HLEOHHWDO )53
provides a complete list of references on technical design anchors have been shown to increase the effectiveness of the
VWDQGDUGV DQG DQDO\VLV WHFKQLTXHV WKDW DUH DYDLODEOH WR FRP jacket in rectangular sections with aspect ratios greater
design professionals. Other resources dealing with seismic WKDQ Kim et al. 2011 
upgrade of existing reinforced concrete structures can be 13.3.2 3ODVWLF KLQJH UHJLRQ FRQ¿QHPHQW—FRP-jacketed
obtained from Japan Building Disaster Prevention Associa- reinforced concrete members achieve higher inelastic rota-
WLRQ  , (XURFRGH  , International Federation for WLRQDOFDSDFLW\RIWKHSODVWLFKLQJH 6HLEOHHWDO )53
6WUXFWXUDO&RQFUHWH , 2006 Italian National Research jacketing can be used to increase the concrete compres-
&RXQFLO  , and 6DEQLVHWDO  . sive strength when the concrete member complies with the
Experience gained from examining the performance of condition in 12.3. For concrete members that do not satisfy
reinforced concrete structures after a seismic event indicates this condition, only the ultimate concrete strains can be
WKDW PDQ\ VWUXFWXUDO GH¿FLHQFLHV UHVXOW IURP LQDGHTXDWH LQFUHDVHGE\)53MDFNHWLQJ,QFUHDVHLQÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKGXH
FRQ¿QHPHQW RI FRQFUHWH LQVXI¿FLHQW WUDQVYHUVH DQG FRQWL- to higher concrete compressive strength should be consid-
nuity reinforcement in connections and structural members, ered to verify that hinges can form prior to reaching the
EXFNOLQJ RI ÀH[XUDO UHLQIRUFHPHQW ODS VSOLFH IDLOXUHV DQG shear strength of members.
DQFKRUDJHIDLOXUHV 3ULHVWOH\HWDOHaroun et al. 2003 7KHGHVLJQFXUYDWXUHࢥDIRUDFRQ¿QHGUHLQIRUFHGFRQFUHWH
Sezen et al. 20033DQWHOLGHVHWDO, 2004 7KHVHGH¿- VHFWLRQDWWKHSODVWLFKLQJHFDQEHFDOFXODWHGXVLQJ(T D 
ciencies have typically led to brittle failures, soft-story
IDLOXUHDQGODUJHUHVLGXDOGLVSODFHPHQWV Moehle et al. 2002 θp
Di Ludovico et al. 2008b Prota et al. 2004 Pessiki et al. φD = + φ y , frp ≤ φu , frp D
 ([SHULPHQWDOZRUNKDVDOVRGHPRQVWUDWHGWKDWH[WHU- Lp
nally bonded FRP systems can be effective in addressing
PDQ\RIWKHDIRUHPHQWLRQHGVWUXFWXUDOGH¿FLHQFLHV Engin- ZKHUHșp is the plastic rotation demand, which can be deter-
deniz et al. 2005Pantelides et al. 2008Silva et al. 2007  mined following the analytical procedures outlined in ASCE/
6(,,Q(T D WKHFXUYDWXUHVRIWKH)53FRQ¿QHG
VHFWLRQDWVWHHO\LHOGLQJࢥy,frpDQGDWXOWLPDWHFDSDFLW\ࢥu,frp,

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 39

DUHGHWHUPLQHGE\(T E DQG F DQGLp is the


SODVWLFKLQJHOHQJWKFRPSXWHGXVLQJ(T G 

εy
φ y , frp = E
d − c y , frp

ZKHUHİy and cy,frp are the steel strain and depth of the neutral
axis at steel yielding, respectively, and d is the distance from
WKHH[WUHPHFRPSUHVVLRQ¿EHUVWRWKHH[WUHPHWHQVLRQVWHHO

ε ccu
φu , frp = F
cu , frp )LJ²&ROXPQSODVWLFKLQJHFRQ¿QHPHQW
WKHHIIHFWLYHGHVLJQVWUDLQLQWKH)53MDFNHWİfe, should be
ZKHUHİccu and cu,frpDUHWKHH[WUHPHFRPSUHVVLRQ¿EHUVWUDLQ OLPLWHGWRWKHYDOXHJLYHQE\(T  
and depth of the neutral axis at ultimate, respectively. 13.3.3 Lap splice clamping—The capacity of lap splices
For beams, the plastic hinge length Lp can be approximated KDYLQJ LQDGHTXDWH ODS OHQJWK HVSHFLDOO\ WKRVH ORFDWHG LQ
DVWZLFHWKHEHDPKHLJKW h 7KHSODVWLFKLQJHOHQJWKFDQ plastic hinge regions, can be improved by continuously
also be determined using detailed analysis but should not FRQ¿QLQJ WKH VHFWLRQ RYHU DW OHDVW WKH OHQJWK RI WKH VSOLFH
be less than the beam height. In FRP-jacketed columns, the ZLWKH[WHUQDOO\ERQGHG)53 6HLEOHHWDOHaroun and
plastic hinge length LpFDQEHFRPSXWHGXVLQJ(T G  Elsanadedy 2005 7KHUHTXLUHGWKLFNQHVVRIWKH)53MDFNHW
3ULHVWOH\HWDO can be calculated as follows

Lp = g + 0.0003fydEƐ LQOE where D in inches and Ef in ksi,


G
Lp = g + 0.044fydEƐ 6, circular sections: ntf  D/Ef
rectangular sections: ntf  D/Ef
where dEƐ and fyDUHWKHGLDPHWHUDQG\LHOGVWUHVVRIWKHÀH[- D
ural steel, respectively, and g is the clear gap between the where D in mm and Ef is in MPa
FRP jacket and adjacent members, as shown in Fig. 13.3.2.
The gap gVKRXOGQRWEHJUHDWHUWKDQLQ PP  circular sections: ntf  D/Ef
,QSODVWLFKLQJHUHJLRQVWKH)53FRQ¿QHPHQWVKRXOGEH rectangular sections: ntf  D/Ef
provided over a length not less than the larger of the plastic
hinge length and Ɛo, where Ɛo is the length, measured along where nLVWKHQXPEHURI)53SOLHVtf is the thickness per
the member axis from the face of the joint, over which SO\ D is the diameter of a circular member or the greater
special transverse reinforcement must be provided as GLPHQVLRQRIUHFWDQJXODUVHFWLRQV SHU(T D DQGEf
GH¿QHGLQ&KDSWHURIACI 318-14. It should be noted that is the tensile modulus of the FRP jacket.
plastic hinges may occur at locations other than the ends of :KLOHFRQ¿QLQJWKHVHFWLRQZLWK)53FDQPLWLJDWHWKHVSOLW-
the member. Complete wrapping around the perimeter of ting mode of failure, the pullout failure mode may control
WKH PHPEHU VKRXOG EH XVHG IRU SODVWLF KLQJH FRQ¿QHPHQW WKHFDSDFLW\RIWKHFRQ¿QHGODSVSOLFH7KHUHIRUHUHJDUGOHVV
&RQWLQXRXV IXOO FRYHUDJHRIWKHSODVWLFKLQJHOHQJWKZLWK RI)53UHWUR¿WWKHVWUHVVLQWKHÀH[XUDOUHLQIRUFLQJEDUfs,
an FRP jacket is recommended. When a continuous jacket VKRXOGQRWH[FHHGWKHOLPLWJLYHQLQ(T E  Harries
is not possible, discrete transverse FRP strips around the et al. 2006 
perimeter of the section can be used.
2QFH WKH GHVLJQ FXUYDWXUH ࢥD has been established, the 33 prov f c′
XOWLPDWHH[WUHPHFRPSUHVVLRQ¿EHUVWUDLQLQWKHFRQFUHWHDW fs ≤ (in.-lb)
d b ψ t ψ e ψ s
XOWLPDWHİccuFDQEHFDOFXODWHGXVLQJ(T H  E
2.75 prov f c′
fs ≤ (SI)
İccu ࢥDcu” H d b ψ t ψ e ψ s

where cu is the neutral axis depth at the ultimate design limit where ƐprovLVWKHOHQJWKRIVSOLFHSURYLGHGdEƐ is the diam-
VWDWH)RUPHPEHUVVXEMHFWHGWRFRPELQHGD[LDODQGÀH[XUDO HWHURIWKHÀH[XUDOUHLQIRUFHPHQWDQGWKHȥIDFWRUVDUHWKRVH
IRUFHVİccu should be limited to 0.01. given in Section 25.4 of ACI 318-14.
2QFHİccu is determined, the thickness of the FRP jacket 13.3.4 3UHYHQWLQJ EXFNOLQJ RI ÀH[XUDO VWHHO EDUV—
can be determined in accordance with 12.1 and 12.2. To &RQWLQXRXVRUGLVFUHWH)53VWULSVKDYLQJWKHSULPDU\¿EHUV
HQVXUHWKHVKHDULQWHJULW\RIWKHFRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHVHFWLRQ oriented around the perimeter of the member can be used to
SUHYHQW EXFNOLQJ RI WKH ÀH[XUDO VWHHO EDUV Priestley et al.

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40 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

  )RU FLUFXODU VHFWLRQV WKH YROXPHWULF UHLQIRUFHPHQW 13.4—Flexural strengthening


UDWLRSURYLGHGE\WUDQVYHUVH)53ȡf, is 7KH ÀH[XUDO FDSDFLW\ RI UHLQIRUFHG FRQFUHWH EHDPV DQG
columns in expected plastic hinge regions can be enhanced
4nt f w f using FRP only in cases where strengthening will elimi-
ρf =  D nate inelastic deformations in the strengthened region and
D sf
transfer inelastic deformations to other locations in the
where nLVWKHQXPEHURI)53SOLHVtfLVWKHWKLFNQHVVSHUSO\ member or the structure that are able to handle the ensuing
DLVWKHGLDPHWHURIWKHVHFWLRQwfLVWKH)53VWULSZLGWK GXFWLOLW\ GHPDQGV 7KH UHTXLUHG ÀH[XUDO VWUHQJWK VKRXOG
and sf is the center-to-center spacing of the FRP strips. For be calculated in accordance with the design standard being
FRQWLQXRXV FRQ¿QHPHQW wf/sf = 1. In rectangular sections, used for rehabilitation, such as ASCE/SEI 41 and $&,5.
WKHYROXPHWULFUHLQIRUFHPHQWUDWLRSURYLGHGE\WKH)53ȡf, When this chapter is used in conjunction with ASCE/SEI
LV 3ULHVWOH\HWDO 41, the strengthened reinforced concrete members with FRP
should be considered force-controlled unless a deformation-
FRQWUROOHG FODVVL¿FDWLRQ FDQ EH MXVWL¿HG EDVHG RQ H[SHUL-
⎛ b + h ⎞ wf mental data.
ρ f = 2nt f ⎜ E
⎝ bh ⎟⎠ s f 7KH ÀH[XUDO FDSDFLW\ RI UHLQIRUFHG FRQFUHWH EHDPV DQG
columns can be enhanced using the design methodology
where b and h are the dimensions of the rectangular section. presented in Chapter 107KH ÀH[XUDO VWUHQJWK ࢥMn should
The amount of volumetric transverse reinforcement ratio VDWLVI\WKHUHTXLUHPHQWRI(T 
should be at least
ࢥMn•Mu 

0.0052ρ D f y where Mu is the ultimate moment demand resulting from


ρf ≥  F
d b f fe FRPELQHGJUDYLW\DQGVHLVPLFGHPDQGV7KHÀH[XUDOFDSDFLW\
of reinforced concrete members should be evaluated based
ZKHUHȡƐLVWKHÀH[XUDOUHLQIRUFHPHQWUDWLRD is the diameter on concrete and reinforcing steel strain limits set forth in the
of a circular section or the diagonal length of a rectangular design standard. ASCE/SEI 41 provides a comprehensive
VHFWLRQ (T D  dEƐ and fy are the diameter and the list of concrete and reinforcing steel strain limits. In addi-
\LHOGVWUHQJWKRIWKHÀH[XUDOUHLQIRUFHPHQWUHVSHFWLYHO\ȡf tion, the stress in the reinforcing steel should be limited to
is the volumetric transverse reinforcement ratio computed the stress that can be achieved based on the existing develop-
E\(T D RU E DQGffe is the effective design ment lengths and lap-splice details. The strength reduction
VWUHVVLQWKH)53MDFNHWFRPSXWHGE\(T G IDFWRUࢥVKRXOGEHSHUWKHGHVLJQVWDQGDUGEHLQJXVHGIRUWKH
rehabilitation. The additional strength reduction factor for
ffe İfeEf G )53ȥfVKDOOEHDSSOLHGWRWKHÀH[XUDOFRQWULEXWLRQRIWKH
FRP reinforcement as described in 10.2.10.
ZKHUHİfe is the effective design strain in the FRP jacket given 13.4.2 'HYHORSPHQWDQGDQFKRUDJHRIÀH[XUDO)53UHLQ-
E\(T  DQGEf is the tensile modulus of the FRP jacket. forcement—This section provides conceptual methods for
When discrete FRP strips rather than a continuous jacket DQFKRUDJH RI ÀH[XUDO )53 UHLQIRUFHPHQW XQGHU VHLVPLF
are used, the clear spacing between FRP strips should not loads. Any anchorage method must be properly evaluated
H[FHHGWKHOLPLWVLQ(T H EHIRUHLWLVVHOHFWHGIRU¿HOGLPSOHPHQWDWLRQ
In seismic applications and within plastic hinge regions,
WKH ÀH[XUDO )53 UHLQIRUFHPHQW VKRXOG EH FRQ¿QHG XVLQJ
⎡ ⎛ f ⎞⎤
s f ≤ ⎢3 − 6 ⎜ u − 1⎟ ⎥ db  ≤ 6db  H FRP strips that completely wrap around the perimeter of the
⎢⎣ ⎝ f y ⎠ ⎦⎥ VHFWLRQ$OWHUQDWLYHO\WKHÀH[XUDO)53UHLQIRUFHPHQWFRXOG
EH FRQ¿QHG RYHU LWV HQWLUH OHQJWK WR SURYLGH KLJKHU UHVLV-
where fu, fy, and dEƐ are the ultimate and yield strengths and WDQFHDJDLQVWGHERQGLQJRIWKHÀH[XUDO)53UHLQIRUFHPHQW
WKHVPDOOHVWGLDPHWHURIWKHLQWHUQDOÀH[XUDOUHLQIRUFHPHQW Because no anchorage design guidelines are currently avail-
UHVSHFWLYHO\7KHFOHDUVSDFLQJVKRXOGQRWH[FHHGLQ  able, the performance of any anchorage system should be
PP 7KHVHUHTXLUHPHQWVHQVXUHWKDWLIWKHFRYHUFRQFUHWH substantiated through representative physical testing.
spalls in the region between strips, the FRP can provide Such detailing provides higher resistance against
VXI¿FLHQW UHVLVWDQFH DJDLQVW EDU EXFNOLQJ 7KLV DSSURDFK GHERQGLQJRIWKHÀH[XUDO)53UHLQIRUFHPHQW,QDSSOLFDWLRQV
neglects any contribution from the existing internal trans- LQYROYLQJ ÀRRU V\VWHPV FRPSOHWH ZUDSSLQJ RI WKH EHDP
verse reinforcement because the internal ties may not coin- PD\UHTXLUHORFDOL]HGFXWWLQJRIWKHVODEWRFRQWLQXHWKH)53
cide within the open spaces between the FRP strips, and the around the section.
interaction of the internal ties and external FRP strips has Away from the plastic hinge region, transverse FRP
not been studied. U-wrap strips should be used to provide anchorage to the
)53ÀH[XUDOUHLQIRUFHPHQW2WKHUDQFKRUDJHV\VWHPVPD\
also be used alone or in conjunction with FRP U-wrap strips.

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 41

$QFKRUDJH V\VWHPV PXVW EH YHUL¿HG H[SHULPHQWDOO\ WR


demonstrate their effectiveness in preventing the debonding
RIWKHÀH[XUDO)53UHLQIRUFHPHQW6HYHUDOGHWDLOVIRU)53
DQFKRUDJH DW HQGV RI UHWUR¿WWHG PHPEHUV DUH GLVFXVVHG LQ
2UWRQHWDO  .
The area of the transverse FRP wrap reinforcement, Af,anchor,
VKRXOG EH GHWHUPLQHG LQ DFFRUGDQFH ZLWK (T   ,Q
addition, the length over which the FRP anchorage wraps
are provided, Ɛd,E, should not be less than the value given by
(T D 

Ɛd,E•Ɛo + Ɛdf D Fig. 13.4.2—Conceptual FRP strengthening detail (cross


section elevation).
where ƐoLVGH¿QHGSHU)LJDQGƐdfLVWKHUHTXLUHGGHYHO-
)53 VWUDLQ DQG VWUHQJWK VSHFL¿HG LQ WKLV GRFXPHQW VKRXOG
RSPHQWOHQJWKRIWKH)53V\VWHPFRPSXWHGXVLQJ(T  
also be considered.
)RUDGHTXDWHO\DQFKRUHGÀH[XUDO)53UHLQIRUFHPHQWWKH
13.5.2 Nominal shear strength Vn—The shear strength
effective design strain for FRP should be limited to
of the existing member Vn* should be determined following
the procedures described in the design standard being used
İfd”PLQ İfu, CEİfu  E
IRUUHKDELOLWDWLRQVXFKDV$6&(6(,DQG$&,57KH
shear strength of an FRP-strengthened concrete member is
)LJXUH  GHSLFWV D FRQFHSWXDO GHWDLO IRU ÀH[XUDO
FDOFXODWHGXVLQJ(T  
strengthening of beams and columns at a joint and is intended
WRFRQYH\WKHFULWLFDOHOHPHQWVRIVXFKDÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWK-
Vn = Vn*ȥfVf 
HQLQJ 7KH GHVLJQ SURIHVVLRQDO VKRXOG GHWDLO WKH ÀH[XUDO
FRP reinforcement to achieve continuity of the FRP across
ZKHUHȥf is the reduction factor applied to the contribution of
WKH MRLQW$SSURSULDWH GHYHORSPHQW RI WKH ÀH[XUDO )53 DW
the FRP system in accordance with Chapter 11. The contri-
ERWKHQGVDVZHOODVDGHTXDWHWUDQVYHUVHUHLQIRUFHPHQWIRU
butions of FRP to shear strength, Vf, should be determined in
FRQ¿QHPHQWRIWKHÀH[XUDO)53VKRXOGEHSURYLGHG
accordance with Chapter 11. To account for effects of stress
reversal, FRP shear strengthening should be provided with
13.5—Shear strengthening
complete continuity around the perimeter of the section.
FRP shear strengthening can prevent brittle failures and
promote the development of plastic hinges, resulting in an
13.6—Beam-column joints
enhanced seismic behavior of concrete members. The design
([SHULPHQWDOWHVWV %UDFFLHWDODProta et al. 2004
VKHDUVWUHQJWKࢥVn of a concrete member strengthened with
Pampanin et al. 2007  DQG REVHUYDWLRQV RI SRVWVHLVPLF
)53VKRXOGVDWLVI\(T 
GDPDJH Moehle et al. 2002 LQVWUXFWXUHVGHVLJQHGWRZLWK-
VWDQGRQO\JUDYLW\ORDGVVKRZWKDWXQFRQ¿QHGEHDPFROXPQ
ࢥVn•Ve 
MRLQWVIUHTXHQWO\OHGWREULWWOHIDLOXUHVDQGSUHYHQWHGVWUXFWXUHV
from achieving higher global displacements before failure.
ZKHUH ࢥ VKRXOG EH SHU WKH GHVLJQ VWDQGDUG EHLQJ XVHG IRU
([SHULPHQWDO HYLGHQFH Pantelides et al. 2008 Silva et al.
the rehabilitation, and Ve is the design shear force. When this
20073DPSDQLQHWDO%UDFFLHWDOEF KDVVKRZQ
chapter is used in conjunction with ASCE/SEI 41, the shear
that FRP systems can be effective for increasing the shear and
in the strengthened member should be considered force-
HQHUJ\GLVVLSDWLRQFDSDFLW\RIXQFRQ¿QHGMRLQWV)53OD\RXW
FRQWUROOHGXQOHVVDGHIRUPDWLRQFRQWUROOHGFODVVL¿FDWLRQFDQ
and detailing will depend on the geometry of the existing joint
EHMXVWL¿HGEDVHGRQH[SHULPHQWDOGDWD
and the number of members framing into it. FRP reinforce-
13.5.1 Design shear force Ve—The design shear force
PHQW LQ ERWK GLUHFWLRQV LV W\SLFDOO\ UHTXLUHG DW WKH MRLQW WR
should be calculated in accordance with the design standard
UHVLVWWKHF\FOLFORDGLQJHIIHFWVRIDVHLVPLFHYHQW Engindeniz
being used for the rehabilitation, such as ASCE/SEI 41 and
et al. 2008a 7KH )53 XVHG WR FRQ¿QH WKH MRLQWV VKRXOG EH
$&,57KHVKHDUFDSDFLW\VKRXOGEHHTXDOWRRUJUHDWHU
DQFKRUHGWREHHIIHFWLYH3DQWHOLGHVHWDO  6LOYDHWDO
WKDQWKHVKHDUFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRWKHÀH[XUDOFDSDFLW\RIWKH
  DQG (QJLQGHQL] HW DO E provide guidance on
section. For example, when the rehabilitation is based on
determining if FRP is a viable option for enhancing the perfor-
ASCE/SEI 41, the design shear force is based on the seismic
PDQFHRIXQFRQ¿QHGMRLQWV$GGLWLRQDOO\)53UHLQIRUFHPHQW
category and targeted seismic performance of the structure.
can be used to provide continuity across joints with discon-
:KHQUHTXLUHGE\$6&(6(,IRUWKHGHWHUPLQDWLRQRIWKH
WLQXRXVLQWHUQDOUHLQIRUFHPHQW 2UWRQHWDO 
GHVLJQVKHDUIRUFHWKHFDOFXODWLRQRIWKHSUREDEOHÀH[XUDO
strength should be based on FRP stress taken as the lesser
13.7—Strengthening reinforced concrete shear walls
of 1.2ffd and ffu ࢥ VKRXOG EH WDNHQ DV XQLW\ DQG WKH )53
13.7.1 General considerations—This section presents
VWUHQJWKUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUȥf should be 1.0. Other limits for
design guidelines for the seismic strengthening of reinforced

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42 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

concrete walls. Applying horizontal FRP strips along the


height of the walls can increase the shear capacity of rein-
IRUFHGFRQFUHWHVKHDUZDOOV)RUVKRUWRUVTXDWZDOOVZLWK
height-to-length ratios less than 1.5, vertical FRP strips may
DOVREHUHTXLUHG ACI 318 /LNHZLVHWKHLQSODQHÀH[XUDO
capacity of reinforced concrete shear walls can be increased
by placing vertical FRP strips at the ends or boundaries of
ZDOOV Lombard et al. 2000Hiotakis et al. 2004 
7KHVKHDUVWUHQJWKRIZDOOVUHLQIRUFHGZLWK)53IRUÀH[XUH
should be evaluated and compared to the shear strength
FRUUHVSRQGLQJWRWKHQRPLQDOÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKRIWKHUHWUR-
¿WWHG VWUXFWXUH WR SURPRWH D ÀH[XUDO IDLOXUH UDWKHU WKDQ D
EULWWOHVKHDUIDLOXUH6LPLODUO\DVKHDUUHWUR¿WVKRXOGDFKLHYH
greater shear capacity than the shear corresponding to the
QRPLQDOÀH[XUDOFDSDFLW\RIWKHZDOO:KHQWKLVFKDSWHULV
used in conjunction with ASCE/SEI 41WKHÀH[XUHDQGVKHDU
in the strengthened portion of the wall should be considered
force-controlled action unless a deformation-controlled clas- )LJ²)53UHLQIRUFHPHQWIRUÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKHQLQJ
VL¿FDWLRQLVMXVWL¿HGEDVHGRQH[SHULPHQWDOGDWD
the effectiveness of FRP for enhancing the shear perfor-
13.7.2 Flexural strengthening—FRP reinforcement for
mance of reinforced concrete walls subjected to seismic or
ÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKHQLQJRIZDOOVPD\EHSURYLGHGRQRQHRU
F\FOLFORDGLQJ Haroun and Mosallam 2002Khomwan and
ERWKVLGHVRIWKHZDOO)LJXUHVKRZVDZDOOUHWUR¿WWHG
Foster 2005 7KHGHVLJQVKHDUVWUHQJWKࢥVn of a reinforced
with FRP reinforcement placed at the extreme ends of the
concrete shear wall strengthened with FRP should satisfy
ZDOO7KLV¿JXUHDOVRSURYLGHVDGHVFULSWLRQRIWKHPDLQYDUL-
(T D 
DEOHVUHTXLUHGIRUGHVLJQ
13.7.2.1 Concrete strain limits—The concrete compres-
ࢥVn•Vu D
VLYHVWUDLQVİcVKRXOGEHOLPLWHGE\(T D
7KHVWUHQJWKUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUࢥVKRXOGEHSHUWKHGHVLJQ
⎛ 1 ⎞ standard being used for the rehabilitation.
ε c = ε fc ⎜ ≤ ε cu D
⎝ Lw /c − 1⎟⎠ For shear walls with externally bonded FRP, the nominal
shear strength VnFDQEHFRPSXWHGXVLQJ(T E
ZKHUH İfd corresponds to the strain at which debonding of
Vn = Vn*ȥfVf E
WKH)53PD\RFFXUSHU(T  ,QFRQFUHWHVKHDUZDOOV
WKHFRQFUHWHFRPSUHVVLYHVWUDLQVDWXOWLPDWHİcu, should be
where Vn* is the nominal shear strength of the existing shear
OLPLWHGWRWKHIROORZLQJYDOXHV :DOODFH
ZDOOȥf is the reduction factor applied to the contribution of
the FRP in accordance with Chapter 11DQGVf is the shear
İcu”IRUFRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHDWERXQGDULHV
strength provided by the FRP. The shear strength enhance-
E
ment for a wall section of length Lw in the direction of the
İcu”IRUXQFRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHDWERXQGDULHV
applied shear force, with a laminate thickness tf on two
VLGHV RU RQH VLGH RI WKH ZDOO FDQ EH FDOFXODWHG XVLQJ (T
:KHQ FRQ¿QHG ERXQGDU\ HOHPHQWV DUH UHTXLUHG SHU (T
F  Haroun et al. 2005
E PHDQVRWKHUWKDQ)53PD\EHUHTXLUHGWRPHHW
WKHFRQFUHWHVWUDLQUHTXLUHPHQWV
IRUDWZRVLGHGUHWUR¿WVf = 2tfİfeEfdfv
13.7.2.2 $QFKRUDJH RI ÀH[XUDOO\ VWUHQJWKHQHG ZDOOV²
F
)OH[XUDOO\ VWUHQJWKHQHG ZDOOV UHTXLUH DQFKRUDJH WR WKH
IRUDRQHVLGHGUHWUR¿WVf = 0.75tfİfeEfdfv
IRXQGDWLRQV IRU ORDG SDWK FRQWLQXLW\ 6LPLODUO\ ÀH[XUDO
FRP should be continuous through existing slabs to ensure
where dfvLVWKHHIIHFWLYHGHSWKRIWKHVKHDUZDOODVGH¿QHG
continuity of the load path. Two conceptual methods for
by Chapter 18 of ACI 318-14, but not to exceed hwDQGİfe
anchorage of a strengthened shear wall to the foundation are
is according to 11.4.1 of this guide. FRP should be provided
provided in Fig. 13.7.2.2. Any anchorage method, including
on two faces of the wall if the ratio of the existing trans-
the ones shown in Fig. 13.7.2.2, should be properly evalu-
YHUVHVWHHOUHLQIRUFHPHQWWRJURVVFRQFUHWHDUHDȡt, is less
DWHGSULRUWR¿HOGLPSOHPHQWDWLRQ,QVKHDUZDOOVWKHYHUWLFDO
than 0.0015. The intent of this provision is to ensure proper
ÀH[XUDO)53UHLQIRUFHPHQWGRHVQRWQHHGWREHFRQ¿QHGE\
shear resistance of concrete in the event of severe cracking
transverse FRP strips or U-wraps that extend around the
during a seismic event. The maximum nominal shear
perimeter of the section.
strength of a wall segment should not exceed the value
13.7.3 Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete shear
JLYHQLQ(T G
walls—Experimental investigations have demonstrated

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 43

VWUXFWXUH WKH VRXQGQHVV DQG TXDOLW\ RI WKH VXEVWUDWH DQG


the levels of load that are to be sustained by the FRP sheets
or laminates. Many bond-related failures can be avoided by
following these general guidelines for detailing FRP sheets
or laminates:
D 'RQRWWXUQLQVLGHFRUQHUVVXFKDVDWWKHLQWHUVHFWLRQRI
beams and joists or the underside of slabs
E 3URYLGHDPLQLPXPLQ PP UDGLXVZKHQWKH
sheet is wrapped around outside corners
F 3URYLGHDGHTXDWHGHYHORSPHQWOHQJWK
G 3URYLGHVXI¿FLHQWRYHUODSZKHQVSOLFLQJ)53SOLHV

14.1—Bond and delamination


The actual distribution of bond stress in an FRP laminate
is complicated by cracking of the substrate concrete. The
general elastic distribution of interfacial shear stress and
normal stress along an FRP laminate bonded to uncracked
concrete is shown in Fig. 14.1.
The weak link in the concrete/FRP interface is the concrete.
The soundness and tensile strength of the concrete substrate
will limit the overall effectiveness of the bonded FRP
V\VWHP 'HVLJQ UHTXLUHPHQWV WR PLWLJDWH )53 GHERQGLQJ
failure modes are discussed in 10.1.1.
14.1.1 FRP debonding—In reinforced concrete members
having relatively long shear spans or where the end peeling
UHIHUWR KDVEHHQHIIHFWLYHO\PLWLJDWHGGHERQGLQJ
PD\LQLWLDWHDWÀH[XUDOFUDFNVÀH[XUDOVKHDUFUDFNVRUERWK
near the region of maximum moment. Under loading, these
cracks open and induce high local interfacial shear stress
that initiates FRP debonding that propagates across the
shear span in the direction of decreasing moment. Typically,
this failure does not engage the aggregate in the concrete,
progressing through the thin mortar-rich layer comprising
Fig. 13.7.2.2—Conceptual anchorage methods for strength- the surface of the concrete substrate. This failure mode is
ened shear wall. exacerbated in regions having a high shear-moment ratio.
Anchorage systems, such as U-wraps, mechanical
IDVWHQHUV ¿EHU DQFKRUV DQG QHDUVXUIDFHPRXQWHG 160 
Vn ≤ 10 f c′Acw  G
anchors, have been proven successful at delaying, and some-
where Acw is the area of the concrete section of an individual times preventing, debonding failure of the longitudinal FRP
vertical wall. Kalfat et al. 2013Grelle and Sneed 2013 1XPHULFDODQG
13.7.3.1 Detailing of FRP shear reinforcement—Anchorage experimental studies have shown that these systems can
RIVKHDU)53LVFRQVLGHUHGJRRGSUDFWLFHEXWLWLVQRWUHTXLUHG LQFUHDVH WKH HIIHFWLYH VWUDLQ LQ WKH ÀH[XUDO )53 WR YDOXHV
to attain the shear strengths computed using the provisions of XS WR WHQVLOH UXSWXUH Lee et al. 2010 Orton et al. 2008 
this chapter. Anchoring of the FRP shear reinforcement can A few studies have proposed analytical models to predict
be achieved by wrapping the FRP layers around the ends of WKH EHKDYLRU RI VSHFL¿F DQFKRU V\VWHPV Kim and Smith
the wall, by using mechanical anchorage devices such as steel 2010 KRZHYHUQRSXEOLVKHGDQFKRUDJHGHVLJQJXLGHOLQHV
DQFKRUVDQGVWHHOSODWHV Paterson and Mitchell 2003 RUE\ are currently available. Therefore, the performance of any
XVLQJ)53DQFKRUV Binici and Ozcebe 2006  anchorage system should be substantiated through represen-
The maximum clear spacing between the FRP shear strips tative physical testing.
VKRXOGEHOLPLWHGWRWKHPLQLPXPRIRQH¿IWKRIWKHRYHUDOO 14.1.2 FRP end peeling²)53HQGSHHOLQJ DOVRUHIHUUHG
length of the wall, three times the thickness of the wall, or WRDVFRQFUHWHFRYHUGHODPLQDWLRQ FDQUHVXOWIURPWKHQRUPDO
LQ PP  stresses developed at the ends of externally bonded FRP
reinforcement. With this type of delamination, the existing
CHAPTER 14—FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER internal reinforcing steel provides a weak horizontal plane
REINFORCEMENT DETAILS along which the concrete cover pulls away from the rest of
This chapter provides guidance for detailing externally the beam, as shown in Fig. 14.1.2a.
ERQGHG ¿EHUUHLQIRUFHG SRO\PHU )53  UHLQIRUFHPHQW The tensile concrete cover splitting failure mode is
Detailing will typically depend on the geometry of the controlled, in part, by stress at the termination point of

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44 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Fig. 14.1.2a—Delamination caused by tension failure of the


concrete cover.
EH WHUPLQDWHG DW OHDVW  LQ  PP  SDVW WKH LQÀHFWLRQ
SRLQW )LJE 7KHVHJXLGHOLQHVDSSO\IRUSRVLWLYHDQG
negative moment regions.
Fig. 14.1—Conceptual interfacial shear and normal stress 14.1.3 Development length—The bond capacity of FRP is
distributions along the length of a bonded FRP laminate developed over a critical length Ɛdf. To develop the effective
(Roberts and Haji-Kazemi 1989; Malek et al. 1998). FRP stress at a section, the available anchorage length of
the FRP. In general, the FRP end peeling failure mode can )53VKRXOGH[FHHGWKHYDOXHJLYHQE\(T   Teng et
EH PLWLJDWHG E\ XVLQJ DQFKRUDJH 8ZUDSV PHFKDQLFDO al. 2003 
IDVWHQHUV ¿EHU DQFKRUV RU 160 DQFKRUV  E\ PLQLPL]LQJ
the stress at the FRP curtailment by locating the curtailment nE f t f
as close to the region of zero moment as possible, or by  df = 0.057 (in.-lb)
f c′
both. When the factored shear force at the termination point  
LVJUHDWHUWKDQWZRWKLUGVRIWKHFRQFUHWHVKHDUVWUHQJWK Vu nE f t f
!Vc WKH)53ODPLQDWHVVKRXOGEHDQFKRUHGZLWKWUDQV-  df = (SI)
f c′
verse reinforcement to prevent the concrete cover layer from
splitting. The area of the transverse clamping FRP U-wrap
reinforcement, Afanchor, can be determined in accordance 14.2—Detailing of laps and splices
ZLWK(T   Reed et al. 2005 Splices of FRP laminates should be provided only as
SHUPLWWHG RQ GUDZLQJV VSHFL¿FDWLRQV RU DV DXWKRUL]HG E\
( Af f fe )longitudinal the licensed design professional as recommended by the
Afanchor =  system manufacturer.
( E f κ v ε fu ) anchor
7KH ¿EHUV RI )53 V\VWHPV VKRXOG EH FRQWLQXRXV DQG
oriented in the direction of the largest tensile forces. Fiber
LQ ZKLFK țv LV FDOFXODWHG XVLQJ (T E  ,QVWHDG RI continuity can be maintained with a lap splice. For FRP
detailed analysis, the following general guidelines for the systems, a lap splice should be made by overlapping the
location of cutoff points for the FRP laminate can be used to ¿EHUVDORQJWKHLUOHQJWK7KHUHTXLUHGRYHUODSRUODSVSOLFH
avoid end peeling failure mode: length, depends on the tensile strength and thickness of the
D  )RU VLPSO\ VXSSRUWHG EHDPV D VLQJOHSO\ )53 ODPL- FRP material system and on the bond strength between adja-
QDWHVKRXOGEHWHUPLQDWHGDWOHDVWDGLVWDQFHHTXDOWRƐdf past FHQWOD\HUVRI)53ODPLQDWHV6XI¿FLHQWRYHUODSVKRXOGEH
the point along the span at which the resisted moment falls provided to promote the failure of the FRP laminate before
below the cracking moment Mcr. For multiple-ply laminates, GHERQGLQJ RI WKH RYHUODSSHG )53 ODPLQDWHV 7KH UHTXLUHG
the termination points of the plies should be tapered. The overlap for an FRP system should be provided by the mate-
outermost ply should be terminated not less than Ɛdf past rial manufacturer and substantiated through testing that is
the point along the span at which the resisted moment falls independent of the manufacturer.
below the cracking moment. Each successive ply should be Jacket-type FRP systems used for column members should
WHUPLQDWHGQRWOHVVWKDQDQDGGLWLRQDOLQ PP EH\RQG provide appropriate development area at splices, joints, and
WKHSUHYLRXVSO\ )LJE  termination points to ensure failure through the FRP jacket
E  )RU FRQWLQXRXV EHDPV D VLQJOHSO\ )53 ODPLQDWH thickness rather than failure of the spliced sections.
should be terminated at least a distance dRULQ PP  )RUXQLGLUHFWLRQDO)53ODPLQDWHVODSVSOLFHVDUHUHTXLUHG
EH\RQGWKHLQÀHFWLRQSRLQW SRLQWRI]HURPRPHQWUHVXOWLQJ RQO\LQWKHGLUHFWLRQRIWKH¿EHUV/DSVSOLFHVDUHQRWUHTXLUHG
IURPIDFWRUHGORDGV )RUPXOWLSOHSO\ODPLQDWHVWKHWHUPL- LQ WKH GLUHFWLRQ WUDQVYHUVH WR WKH ¿EHUV )53 ODPLQDWHV
nation points of the plies should be tapered. The outermost consisting of multiple unidirectional sheets oriented in more
SO\VKRXOGEHWHUPLQDWHGQROHVVWKDQLQ PP EH\RQG WKDQ RQH GLUHFWLRQ RU PXOWLGLUHFWLRQDO IDEULFV UHTXLUH ODS
WKH LQÀHFWLRQ SRLQW (DFK VXFFHVVLYH SO\ VKRXOG EH WHUPL- splices in more than one direction to maintain the continuity
QDWHGQROHVVWKDQDQDGGLWLRQDOLQ PP EH\RQGWKH RIWKH¿EHUVDQGWKHRYHUDOOVWUHQJWKRIWKH)53ODPLQDWHV
SUHYLRXVSO\)RUH[DPSOHLIDWKUHHSO\ODPLQDWHLVUHTXLUHG
the ply directly in contact with the concrete substrate should

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 45

Fig. 14.1.2b—Graphical representation of the guidelines for allowable termination points


of a three-ply FRP laminate.

Fig. 14.3a—Minimum dimensions of grooves.


14.3—Bond of near-surface-mounted systems Fig. 14.3b—Transfer of force in NSM FRP bars.
)RU QHDUVXUIDFHPRXQWHG 160  V\VWHPV WKH PLQLPXP
ERQGVWUHQJWKFDQEHH[SUHVVHGDVIJb IJmax. Average bond
dimension of the grooves should be taken at least 1.5 times the
VWUHQJWKIJb for NSM FRP bars in the range of 500 to 3000 psi
GLDPHWHURIWKH)53EDU De Lorenzis and Nanni 2001Hassan
WR03D KDVEHHQUHSRUWHG +DVVDQDQG5L]NDOOD
and Rizkalla 2003  :KHQ D UHFWDQJXODU EDU ZLWK D ODUJH
 'H /RUHQ]LV HW DO   WKHUHIRUH IJb = 1000 psi
DVSHFWUDWLRLVXVHGKRZHYHUWKHOLPLWPD\ORVHVLJQL¿FDQFH
03D LVUHFRPPHQGHGIRUFDOFXODWLQJWKHEDUGHYHORS-
due to constructibility. In such a case, a minimum groove size
PHQW OHQJWK 8VLQJ IRUFH HTXLOLEULXP WKH IROORZLQJ HTXD-
of 3.0ab x 1.5bb, as depicted in Fig. 14.3a, is suggested, where
tions for development length can be derived
ab is the smallest bar dimension. The minimum clear groove
spacing for NSM FRP bars should be greater than twice the
db
depth of the NSM groove to avoid overlapping of the tensile  db = f fd for circular bars  D
stresses around the NSM bars. Furthermore, a clear edge 4τ b
distance of four times the depth of the NSM groove should
be provided to minimize edge effects that could accelerate
GHERQGLQJIDLOXUH +DVVDQDQG5L]NDOOD  ab bb
 db = f fd for rectangular bars  E
Bond properties of NSM FRP bars depend on many factors 2(ab + bb )(τ b )
such as cross-sectional shape and dimensions and surface
SURSHUWLHV RI WKH )53 EDU +DVVDQ DQG 5L]NDOOD  De
Lorenzis et al. 2004  )LJXUH E VKRZV WKH HTXLOLEULXP
condition of an NSM FRP bar with an embedded length
HTXDOWRLWVGHYHORSPHQWOHQJWKƐdb having a bond strength
RI IJmax. Using a triangular stress distribution, the average

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46 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

CHAPTER 15—DRAWINGS, SPECIFICATIONS, 15.3.1 FRP system manufacturer²6XEPLWWDOVUHTXLUHGRI


AND SUBMITTALS the FRP system manufacturer should include:
D  ,QGLFDWLRQ RI FRPSOLDQFH ZLWK H[LVWLQJ VSHFL¿FDWLRQV
15.1—Engineering requirements VXFKDVACI 440.8 DVDSSOLFDEOH
Although federal, state, and local codes for the design of E 3URGXFWGDWDVKHHWVLQGLFDWLQJWKHSK\VLFDOPHFKDQLFDO
H[WHUQDOO\ERQGHG¿EHUUHLQIRUFHGSRO\PHU )53 V\VWHPVGR and chemical characteristics of the FRP system and all its
QRWH[LVWRWKHUDSSOLFDEOHFRGHUHTXLUHPHQWVPD\LQÀXHQFH constituent materials
the selection, design, and installation of the FRP system. For F  7HQVLOH SURSHUWLHV RI WKH )53 V\VWHP LQFOXGLQJ WKH
H[DPSOHFRGHUHTXLUHPHQWVUHODWHGWR¿UHRUSRWDEOHZDWHU PHWKRGRIUHSRUWLQJSURSHUWLHV QHW¿EHURUJURVVODPLQDWH 
PD\ LQÀXHQFH WKH VHOHFWLRQ RI WKH FRDWLQJV XVHG ZLWK WKH test methods used, and the statistical basis used for deter-
FRP system. All design work should be performed under the PLQLQJWKHSURSHUWLHV 4.3
guidance of a licensed design professional familiar with the G ,QVWDOODWLRQLQVWUXFWLRQVPDLQWHQDQFHLQVWUXFWLRQVDQG
properties and applications of FRP strengthening systems. general recommendations regarding each material to be
XVHGLQVWDOODWLRQSURFHGXUHVVKRXOGLQFOXGHVXUIDFHSUHSD-
15.2—Drawings and specifications UDWLRQUHTXLUHPHQWV
The licensed design professional should document calcu- H 0DQXIDFWXUHU¶V6DIHW\'DWD6KHHWV 6'6V IRUDOOPDWH-
lations summarizing the assumptions and parameters used rials to be used
to design the FRP strengthening system and should prepare I  4XDOLW\ FRQWURO SURFHGXUH IRU WUDFNLQJ )53 PDWHULDOV
GHVLJQ GUDZLQJV DQG SURMHFW VSHFL¿FDWLRQV 7KH GUDZLQJV DQGPDWHULDOFHUWL¿FDWLRQV
DQGVSHFL¿FDWLRQVVKRXOGVKRZDWDPLQLPXPWKHIROORZLQJ J 'XUDELOLW\WHVWGDWDIRUWKH)53V\VWHPLQWKHW\SHVRI
LQIRUPDWLRQVSHFL¿FWRH[WHUQDOO\DSSOLHG)53V\VWHPV environments expected
D )53V\VWHPWREHXVHG K 6WUXFWXUDOWHVWUHSRUWVSHUWLQHQWWRWKHSURSRVHGDSSOLFDWLRQ
E /RFDWLRQRIWKH)53V\VWHPUHODWLYHWRWKHH[LVWLQJVWUXFWXUH L 5HIHUHQFHSURMHFWV
F  'LPHQVLRQV DQG RULHQWDWLRQ RI HDFK SO\ ODPLQDWH RU 15.3.2 FRP system installation contractor—Submittals
QHDUVXUIDFHPRXQWHG 160 EDU UHTXLUHG RI WKH )53 V\VWHP LQVWDOODWLRQ FRQWUDFWRU VKRXOG
G 1XPEHURISOLHVDQGEDUVDQGWKHVHTXHQFHRILQVWDOODWLRQ include:
H /RFDWLRQRIVSOLFHVDQGODSOHQJWK D 'RFXPHQWDWLRQIURPWKH)53V\VWHPPDQXIDFWXUHURI
I *HQHUDOQRWHVOLVWLQJGHVLJQORDGVDQGDOORZDEOHVWUDLQV having been trained to install the proposed FRP system
in the FRP laminates E 3URMHFWUHIHUHQFHVLQFOXGLQJLQVWDOODWLRQVVLPLODUWRWKH
J 0DWHULDOSURSHUWLHVRIWKH)53ODPLQDWHVDQGFRQFUHWH SURSRVHGLQVWDOODWLRQ IRUH[DPSOHIRUDQRYHUKHDGDSSOLFD-
substrate tion, the contractor should submit a list of previous installa-
K  &RQFUHWH VXUIDFH SUHSDUDWLRQ UHTXLUHPHQWV LQFOXGLQJ tions involving the installation of the proposed FRP system
corner preparation, groove dimensions for NSM bars, and LQDQRYHUKHDGDSSOLFDWLRQ
maximum irregularity limitations F (YLGHQFHRIFRPSHWHQF\LQVXUIDFHSUHSDUDWLRQWHFKQLTXHV
L  ,QVWDOODWLRQ SURFHGXUHV LQFOXGLQJ VXUIDFH WHPSHUD- G  4XDOLW\ FRQWURO WHVWLQJ SURFHGXUHV LQFOXGLQJ YRLGV
ture and moisture limitations, and application time limits and delaminations, FRP bond to concrete, and FRP tensile
between successive plies properties
M &XULQJSURFHGXUHVIRU)53V\VWHPV H 'DLO\ORJRULQVSHFWLRQIRUPVXVHGE\WKHFRQWUDFWRU
N 3URWHFWLYHFRDWLQJVDQGVHDODQWVLIUHTXLUHG 15.3.3 FRP system inspection agency—If an independent
O 6KLSSLQJVWRUDJHKDQGOLQJDQGVKHOIOLIHJXLGHOLQHV LQVSHFWLRQDJHQF\LVXVHGVXEPLWWDOVUHTXLUHGRIWKDWDJHQF\
P  4XDOLW\ FRQWURO DQG LQVSHFWLRQ SURFHGXUHV LQFOXGLQJ should include:
acceptance criteria D $OLVWRILQVSHFWRUVWREHXVHGRQWKHSURMHFWDQGWKHLU
Q ,QSODFHORDGWHVWLQJRILQVWDOOHG)53V\VWHPLIQHFHVVDU\ TXDOL¿FDWLRQV
E 6DPSOHLQVSHFWLRQIRUPV
15.3—Submittals F $OLVWRISUHYLRXVSURMHFWVLQVSHFWHGE\WKHLQVSHFWRU
6SHFL¿FDWLRQV VKRXOG UHTXLUH WKH )53 V\VWHP PDQX-
IDFWXUHU LQVWDOODWLRQ FRQWUDFWRU DQG LQVSHFWLRQ DJHQF\ LI
UHTXLUHG  WR VXEPLW SURGXFW LQIRUPDWLRQ DQG HYLGHQFH RI
WKHLU TXDOL¿FDWLRQV DQG H[SHULHQFH WR WKH OLFHQVHG GHVLJQ
professional for review.

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 47

CHAPTER 16—DESIGN EXAMPLES Table 16.1a—FRP system tension test results


6SHFLPHQ 0HDVXUHGFRXSRQ Measured
16.1—Calculation of FRP system tensile &RXSRQ
width WKLFNQHVV UXSWXUHORDG
properties ID in. mm. in. mm. NLSV N1
This example calculation shown in Table 16.1b illustrates
T-1 2 50.8 0.055 1.40 17.8 
WKH GHULYDWLRQ RI PDWHULDO SURSHUWLHV EDVHG RQ QHW¿EHU
T-2 2 50.8 0.062 1.58 16.4 
area versus the properties based on gross-laminate area. As
described in 4.3.1, both methods of determining material T-3 2 50.8  1.75 16.7 74.3
properties are valid. It is important, however, that any design T-4 2 50.8 0.053 1.35 16.7 74.3
calculations consistently use material properties based on T-5 2 50.8 0.061 1.55 17.4 77.4
RQO\ RQH RI WKH WZR PHWKRGV IRU H[DPSOH LI WKH JURVV
Average 2 50.8 0.060 1.52 17.0 75.6
laminate thickness is used in any calculation, the strength
based on gross-laminate area should be used in the calcula-
XVLQJWKHZHWOD\XSWHFKQLTXH%DVHGRQWKHNQRZQ¿EHU
WLRQVDVZHOO 5HSRUWHGGHVLJQSURSHUWLHVVKRXOGEHEDVHG
FRQWHQWRIWKLV)53V\VWHPWKHQHW¿EHUDUHDLVLQ2/
on a population of 20 or more coupons tested in accordance
LQ  PP2PP  ZLGWK SHU SO\$IWHU WKH V\VWHP KDV
with $670''0. Reported properties should be
FXUHG¿YHLQ PP ZLGHWHVWFRXSRQVDUHFXWIURP
statistically adjusted by subtracting three standard deviations
the panel. The test coupons are tested in tension to failure
from the mean tensile stress and strain, as discussed in 4.3.1.
LQ DFFRUGDQFH ZLWK$670 ''0 7DEXODWHG LQ
$WHVWSDQHOLVIDEULFDWHGIURPWZRSOLHVRIDFDUERQ¿EHU
Table 16.1a are the results of the tension tests.
UHVLQXQLGLUHFWLRQDO¿EHUUHLQIRUFHGSRO\PHU )53 V\VWHP

Table 16.1b—FRP system net fiber and gross laminate property calculations
1HW¿EHUDUHDSURSHUW\FDOFXODWLRQV *URVVODPLQDWHDUHDSURSHUW\FDOFXODWLRQV
2 2
Calculate AfXVLQJWKHNQRZQQHW¿EHU Af   LQ LQ LQ  LQ Calculate Af using the average, measured Af  LQ LQ  LQ2
area ply thickness: 2 laminate thickness:
Af   PP PP PP
Af = ntfwf Af = tfwf Af  PP PP  PP2
= 16.8 mm2

Calculate the average FRP system tensile 17 kip Calculate the average FRP system tensile 17 kip
f fu = = 650 ksi f fu = = 140 ksi
VWUHQJWKEDVHGRQQHW¿EHUDUHD 0.026 in.2 strength based on gross-laminate area: 0.120 in.2
average rupture load average rupture load
f fu = 75.62 kN f fu = 75.62 kN
Af f fu = = 4.5 kN/mm 2 Af f fu = = 0.997 kN/mm 2
16.8 mm 2 77.4 mm 2

Calculate the average FRP system tensile (650 ksi)(0.026 in.2 ) Calculate the average FRP system tensile (140 ksi)(0.120 in.2 )
p fu = = 8.4 kip/in. p fu = = 8.4 kip/in.
VWUHQJWKSHUXQLWZLGWKEDVHGRQQHW¿EHU 2 in. strength per unit width based on laminate 2 in.
area: area:

f fu Af (4.5 kN/mm 2 )(16.8 mm 2 ) f fu Af (0.98 kN/mm 2 )(77.4 mm 2 )


p fu = p fu = p fu = p fu =
wf 50.8 mm wf 50.8 mm
= 1.49 kN/mm = 1.49 kN/mm

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48 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

16.2—Comparison of FRP systems’ tensile adhesive resin. Excerpts from the data sheets provided by the
properties FRP system manufacturers are given in Table 16.2a. After
Two FRP systems are being considered for strength- reviewing the material data sheets sent by the FRP system
ening concrete members. The mechanical properties of two manufacturers, the licensed design professional compares
FRP systems are available from respective manufacturers. the tensile strengths of the two systems.
6\VWHP$FRQVLVWVRIGU\FDUERQ¿EHUXQLGLUHFWLRQDOVKHHWV Because the data sheets for both systems are reporting
and is installed with an adhesive resin using the wet layup statistically based properties, it is possible to directly
WHFKQLTXH6\VWHP%FRQVLVWVRISUHFXUHGFDUERQ¿EHUUHVLQ compare the tensile strength and modulus of both systems,
laminates that are bonded to the concrete surface with an as shown in Table 16.2b.

Table 16.2a—Material properties and description of two types of FRP systems


6\VWHP$ H[FHUSWVIURPGDWDVKHHW 6\VWHP% H[FHUSWVIURPGDWDVKHHW
System type: dry, unidirectional sheet System type: precured, unidirectional laminate
Fiber type: high-strength carbon Fiber type: high-strength carbon
Polymer resin: epoxy Polymer resin: epoxy

System A is installed using a wet layup procedure where the dry carbon- System B’s precured laminates are bonded to the concrete substrate using
¿EHUVKHHWVDUHLPSUHJQDWHGDQGDGKHUHGZLWKDQHSR[\UHVLQRQVLWH System B’s epoxy paste adhesive.
Mechanical properties*†‡ Mechanical properties*†
tf LQ PP tf LQ PP
ffu* NVL 1PP2 ffu  NVL 1PP2
İfu* = 1.6% İfu* = 1.5%
Ef NVL 1PP2 Ef NVL 1PP2
*
5HSRUWHGSURSHUWLHVDUHEDVHGRQDSRSXODWLRQRIRUPRUHFRXSRQVWHVWHGLQDFFRUGDQFHZLWK$670''0

Reported properties have been statistically adjusted by subtracting three standard deviations from the mean tensile stress and strain.

7KLFNQHVVLVEDVHGRQWKHQHW¿EHUDUHDIRURQHSO\RIWKH)53V\VWHP5HVLQLVH[FOXGHG$FWXDOLQVWDOOHGWKLFNQHVVRIFXUHG)53LVWRLQ 
WRPP SHUSO\

Table 16.2b—Procedure comparing two types of FRP systems


3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,XQLWV
Step 1A—Calculate the tensile
strength per unit width of System A pfu*  NVL LQ  NLSLQ pfu*  N1PP2 PP  N1PP
pfu* = ffu*tf
Step 1B—Calculate the tensile
strength per unit width of System B pfu  NVL LQ  NLSLQ pfu  N1PP2 PP  N1PP
pfu* = ffu*tf
Step 2A—Calculate the tensile
modulus per unit width of System
kf  NVL LQ  NLSLQ kf  N1PP2 PP  N1PP
A
kf = Eftf
Step 2B—Calculate the tensile
modulus per unit width of System B kf  NVL LQ  NLSLQ kf  N1PP2 PP  N1PP
kf = Eftf

Step 3—Compare the two systems p*fu (System B) 19 kip/in. p*fu (System B) 3.33 kN/mm
= = 2.66 = = 2.66
Compare the tensile strengths: p*fu (System A) 7.15 kip/in. p*fu (System A) 1.25 kN/mm
pfu* 6\VWHP$
pfu* 6\VWHP% ‫׵‬WKUHHSOLHVRI6\VWHP$DUHUHTXLUHGIRUHDFKSO\RI ‫׵‬WKUHHSOLHVRI6\VWHP$DUHUHTXLUHGIRUHDFKSO\RI
6\VWHP%IRUDQHTXLYDOHQWWHQVLOHVWUHQJWK 6\VWHP%IRUDQHTXLYDOHQWWHQVLOHVWUHQJWK

k f (System B) 1100 kip/in. k f (System A) 192.7 kN/mm


Compare the stiffnesses: = = 2.56 = = 2.56
k f (System A) 429 kip/in. k f (System B) 75.1 kN/mm
kf 6\VWHP$
kf 6\VWHP% ‫׵‬WKUHHSOLHVRI6\VWHP$DUHUHTXLUHGIRUHDFKSO\RI ‫׵‬WKUHHSOLHVRI6\VWHP$DUHUHTXLUHGIRUHDFKSO\RI
6\VWHP%IRUDQHTXLYDOHQWVWLIIQHVV 6\VWHP%IRUDQHTXLYDOHQWVWLIIQHVV

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 49

Because all the design procedures outlined in this docu- In many instances, it may be possible to vary the width of
ment limit the strain in the FRP material, the full nominal WKH)53VWULSDVRSSRVHGWRWKHQXPEHURISOLHV XVHODUJHU
strength of the material is not used and should not be the ZLGWKVIRUV\VWHPVZLWKORZHUWKLFNQHVVHVDQGYLFHYHUVD 
basis of comparison between two material systems. When ,QVXFKLQVWDQFHVHTXLYDOHQWVWLIIQHVVFDOFXODWLRQVW\SLFDOO\
considering various FRP material systems for a particular ZLOO QRW \LHOG HTXLYDOHQW FRQWULEXWLRQV WR WKH VWUHQJWK RI D
application, the FRP systems should be compared based PHPEHU ,Q JHQHUDO WKLQQHU ORZHU ntf  DQG ZLGHU KLJKHU
RQ HTXLYDOHQW VWLIIQHVV RQO\ ,Q DGGLWLRQ HDFK )53 V\VWHP wf )53V\VWHPVZLOOSURYLGHDKLJKHUOHYHORIVWUHQJWKWRD
under consideration should have the ability to develop the PHPEHUGXHWRORZHUERQGVWUHVVHV7KHH[DFWHTXLYDOHQF\
VWUDLQ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH HIIHFWLYH VWUDLQ UHTXLUHG E\ WKH however, can only be found by performing complete calcu-
DSSOLFDWLRQZLWKRXWUXSWXULQJİfu!İfe. ODWLRQV DFFRUGLQJ WR SURFHGXUHV GHVFULEHG LQ Chapters 10,
11, and 12RIWKLVJXLGH IRUHDFKV\VWHP

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50 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

16.3—Flexural strengthening of an interior existing reinforced concrete beam should be strengthened


reinforced concrete beam with FRP laminates ZLWKWKH)53V\VWHPGHVFULEHGLQ7DEOHEVSHFL¿FDOO\
A simply supported concrete beam reinforced with three No. WZRLQ PP ZLGH[IW P ORQJSOLHVERQGHG
EDUV )LJ LVORFDWHGLQDQXQRFFXSLHGZDUHKRXVHDQG WRWKHVRI¿WRIWKHEHDPXVLQJWKHZHWOD\XSWHFKQLTXH
is subjected to a 50 percent increase in its live-load-carrying By inspection, the degree of strengthening is reasonable
UHTXLUHPHQWV$QDQDO\VLVRIWKHH[LVWLQJEHDPLQGLFDWHVWKDW LQWKDWLWGRHVPHHWWKHVWUHQJWKHQLQJOLPLWFULWHULDVSHFL¿HG
WKHEHDPVWLOOKDVVXI¿FLHQWVKHDUVWUHQJWKWRUHVLVWWKHQHZ LQ(T  7KDWLVWKHH[LVWLQJPRPHQWVWUHQJWKZLWKRXW
UHTXLUHG VKHDU VWUHQJWK DQG PHHWV WKH GHÀHFWLRQ DQG FUDFN )53 ࢥMn w/o NLSIW N1P LVJUHDWHUWKDQWKH
FRQWURO VHUYLFHDELOLW\ UHTXLUHPHQWV ,WV ÀH[XUDO VWUHQJWK XQVWUHQJWKHQHGPRPHQWOLPLW MDL + 0.75MLL new = 177
KRZHYHULVLQDGHTXDWHWRFDUU\WKHLQFUHDVHGOLYHORDG NLSIW  N1P  7KH GHVLJQ FDOFXODWLRQV XVHG WR YHULI\
Summarized in Table 16.3a are the existing and new load- WKLVFRQ¿JXUDWLRQIROORZLQ7DEOHF
ings and associated midspan moments for the beam. The

)LJ²6FKHPDWLFRIWKHLGHDOL]HGVLPSO\VXSSRUWHGEHDPZLWK)53H[WHUQDOUHLQIRUFHPHQW

Table 16.3a—Loadings and corresponding moments


Loading/moment ([LVWLQJORDGV $QWLFLSDWHGORDGV
Dead loads wDL 1.00 kip/ft 14.6 N/mm 1.00 kip/ft 14.6 N/mm
Live load wLL 1.20 kip/ft 17.5 N/mm 1.80 kip/ft 26.3 N/mm
8QIDFWRUHGORDGV wDL + wLL 2.20 kip/ft 32.1 N/mm 2.80 kip/ft 1PP
8QVWUHQJWKHQHGORDGOLPLW wDL + 0.75wLL NA NA 2.50 kip/ft 35.8 N/mm
)DFWRUHGORDGV wDL + 1.6wLL 3.12 kip/ft 45.5 N/mm 4.08 kip/ft 1PP
Dead-load moment MDL 72 kip-ft N1P 72 kip-ft N1P
Live-load moment MLL 86 kip-ft 117 kN-m 130 kip-ft 176 kN-m
Service-load moment Ms 158 kip-ft 214 kN-m 202 kip-ft 274 kN-m
8QVWUHQJWKHQHGPRPHQWOLPLW MDL + 0.75MLL NA NA 177 kip-ft 240 kN-m
Factored moment Mu 224 kip-ft 304 kN-m NLSIW N1P

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Table 16.3b—Manufacturer’s reported FRP system properties


Thickness per ply tf 0.040 in. 1.02 mm
Ultimate tensile strength ffu* NVL 621 N/mm2
5XSWXUHVWUDLQİfu* 0.015 in./in. 0.015 mm/mm
Modulus of elasticity of FRP laminates Ef 5360 ksi 37,000 N/mm2

Table 16.3c—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior reinforced concrete beam with fiber-
reinforced polymer laminates
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKH)53V\VWHP
GHVLJQPDWHULDOSURSHUWLHV

The beam is located in an interior space


DQGDFDUERQ)53 &)53 PDWHULDOZLOO
EHXVHG7KHUHIRUHSHU7DEOHDQ
HQYLURQPHQWDOUHGXFWLRQIDFWRURILV
suggested.

ffu = CEffu* ffu   NVL  NVL ffu   1PP2  1PP2

İfu = CEİfu* İfu   LQLQ  LQLQ İfu   PPPP  PPPP
6WHS²3UHOLPLQDU\FDOFXODWLRQV

Properties of the concrete:

ȕ1 from ACI 318-14, Section 22.2.2.4.3 ȕ1 ± fcƍ   ȕ1 ± fcƍ  

Ec = 57, 000 f c′ Ec = 57, 000 5000 psi = 4,030,000 psi Ec = 4700 34.5 N/mm 2 = 27,600 N/mm 2

Properties of the existing reinforcing steel: As  LQ2  LQ2 As  PP2  PP2

Properties of the externally bonded FRP


reinforcement:

Af = ntfwf Af  SOLHV LQSO\ LQ  LQ2 Af  SOLHV PPSO\ PP  PP2
6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHH[LVWLQJVWDWHRI
VWUDLQRQWKHVRI¿W

The existing state of strain is calculated


assuming the beam is cracked and the only
loads acting on the beam at the time of the
FRP installation are dead loads. A cracked
section analysis of the existing beam gives k =
0.334 and Icr LQ4 = 2471 × 106 mm4

M DL d f − kd NLSLQ >LQ −  LQ @ N1PP >PP −  PP @


ε bi = ε bi = ε bi =
I cr Ec LQ4 NVL  × 6 PP 4 N1PP 2
= 0.00061 = 0.00061

6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHGHVLJQVWUDLQRI
the FRP system

The design strain of FRP accounting for 5000 psi 34.5 N/mm 2
GHERQGLQJIDLOXUHPRGHİfd is calculated ε fd = 0.083 ε fd = 0.41
  SVL LQ  1PP3 PP
XVLQJ(T 
  ≤   =   =  ≤   = 
Because the design strain is smaller than
the rupture strain, debonding controls the
design of the FRP system.

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52 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.3c (cont.)—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior reinforced concrete beam with
fiber-reinforced polymer laminates
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²(VWLPDWHcWKHGHSWKWRWKH
QHXWUDOD[LV

A reasonable initial estimate of c is


0.20d. The value of the c is adjusted after
FKHFNLQJHTXLOLEULXP

c = 0.20d c   LQ  LQ c   PP  PP


6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHHIIHFWLYHOHYHORI
VWUDLQLQWKH)53UHLQIRUFHPHQW

The effective strain level in the FRP may


EHIRXQGIURP(T  

⎛ d f − c⎞ ⎛ 24 in. − 4.3 in.⎞ ⎛ PP − PP ⎞


ε fe = 0.003 ⎜ = ε bi ≤ ε fd ε fe = 0.003 ⎜ ⎟⎠ − 0.00061 ≤ 0.009 ε fe =  ⎜ ⎟⎠ −  ≤ 
⎝ c ⎟⎠ ⎝ 4.3 in. ⎝ PP

Note that for the neutral axis depth


selected, FRP debonding would be in
the failure mode because the second
H[SUHVVLRQLQWKLVHTXDWLRQFRQWUROV,IWKH
¿UVWH[SUHVVLRQJRYHUQHGWKHQFRQFUHWH
crushing would be in the failure mode. İfe ! İfe !
Because FRP controls the failure of the
section, the concrete strain at failure İfe İfd  İfe İfd 
İc may be less than 0.003 and can be
calculated using similar triangles:

⎛ c ⎞
ε c = (ε fe + ε bi ) ⎜ ⎛ 4.3 in. ⎞ ⎛ PP ⎞
⎟ ε c = (0.09 + 0.00061) ⎜ = 0.0021 ε c =  +  ⎜ = 
⎝ d f − c⎠ ⎝ 24 in. − 4.3 in.⎟⎠ ⎝ PP − PP ⎟⎠

6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHVWUDLQLQWKH
H[LVWLQJUHLQIRUFLQJVWHHO

The strain in the reinforcing steel can


be calculated using similar triangles
DFFRUGLQJWR(T  

⎛ c ⎞
ε s = ε fe + ε bi ⎜ ⎛ 21.5 in. − 4.3 in.⎞ ⎛ 546.1 mm − 109.2 mm ⎞
⎟ ε s = (0.09 + 0.00061) ⎜ = 0.0084 ε s = (0.09 + 0.00061) ⎜ = 0.0084
⎝ d f − c⎠ ⎝ 24 in. − 4.3 in. ⎟⎠ ⎝ 609.6 mm − 109.2 mm ⎟⎠

6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHVWUHVVOHYHOLQWKH
UHLQIRUFLQJVWHHODQG)53

7KHVWUHVVHVDUHFDOFXODWHGXVLQJ(T
E DQG+RRNH¶V/DZ

fs = Esİs”fy fs  NVL  ”NVL fs  N1PP2  ”N1PP2


fs NVL”NVL fs = 1.68 kN/mm2”N1PP2
Hence, fs = 60 ksi Hence, fs = 0.414 kN/mm2

ffe = Efİfe ffe  NVL   NVL ffe  N1PP2   N1PP2

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 53

Table 16.3c (cont.)—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior reinforced concrete beam with
fiber-reinforced polymer laminates
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHLQWHUQDOIRUFH
UHVXOWDQWVDQGFKHFNHTXLOLEULXP

Concrete stress block factors may be


calculated using ACI 318. Approximate
stress block factors may also be calculated
based on the parabolic stress-strain
relationship for concrete as follows:
4ε ′c − ε c 4(0.0021) − 0.0021 4(0.0021) − 0.0021
β1 = β1 = = 0.749 β1 = = 0.749
6ε ′c − 2ε c 6(0.0021) − 2(0.0021) 6(0.0021) − 2(0.0021)

3ε ′c ε c − ε c2    −  2    −  2


α1 = α1 = = 0.886 α1 = = 0.886
3β1ε′c 2    2    2
ZKHUHİcƍLVVWUDLQFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRfcƍ
calculated as
1.7 f c′    
ε ′c = ε ′c = = 0.0021 ε ′c = = 0.0021
Ec 4.03 × 106 27, 600
)RUFHHTXLOLEULXPLVYHUL¿HGE\FKHFNLQJ
the initial estimate of cZLWK(T J 

As f s + Af f fe (3.00 in.2 )(60 ksi) + (0.96 in.2 )(48.2 ksi) (1935.48 mm 2 )(414 N/mm 2 ) + (619 mm 2 )(330 N/mm 2 )
c= c= c=
α1 f c′β1b (0.886)(5 ksi)(0.749)(12 in.) (0.886)(34.5 N/mm 2 )(0.749)(304.8 mm)
c LQLQQJ c PPPPQJ
‫׵‬revise estimate of cDQGUHSHDW6WHSVWKURXJK ‫ ׵‬revise estimate of cDQGUHSHDW6WHSVWKURXJK
XQWLOHTXLOLEULXPLVDFKLHYHG XQWLOHTXLOLEULXPLVDFKLHYHG
6WHS²$GMXVWcXQWLOIRUFHHTXLOLEULXP
LVVDWLV¿HG

6WHSVWKURXJKZHUHUHSHDWHGVHYHUDO
times with different values of c until
HTXLOLEULXPZDVDFKLHYHG7KHUHVXOWVRI
WKH¿QDOLWHUDWLRQDUH
LQ2 NVL + LQ2 NVL PP 2 1PP 2 + PP 2 1PP 2
c LQİs fs = fy NVL c= c=
ȕ1 Į1 DQGffd = 48.2 ksi  NVL  LQ  1PP 2  PP
c = 5.17 in. c = 131 mm
‫ ׵‬the value of cVHOHFWHGIRUWKH¿QDOLWHUDWLRQLV ‫ ׵‬the value of cVHOHFWHGIRUWKH¿QDOLWHUDWLRQLV
correct. correct.
6WHS²&DOFXODWHÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWK
FRPSRQHQWV

7KHGHVLJQÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKLVFDOFXODWHG
XVLQJ(T G $QDGGLWLRQDO
UHGXFWLRQIDFWRUȥf = 0.85, is applied to
the contribution of the FRP system.

Steel contribution to bending:


⎛ β c⎞ ⎛ 0.786(5.17 in.) ⎞ ⎛ 0.786(131 mm) ⎞
M ns = As f s ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ M ns = (3.00 in.2 )(60 ksi) ⎜ 21.5 in. − ⎟⎠ M ns = (1935.5 mm 2 )(414 N/mm 2 ) ⎜ 546.1 mm −
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎟

Mns NLSLQ NLSIW Mns î81PP N1P


FRP contribution to bending:
⎛ β c⎞ ⎛ 0.786(5.17 in.) ⎞ ⎛ 0.786(131 mm) ⎞
M nf = Af f fe ⎜ d f − 1 ⎟ M nf = (0.96 in.2 )(48.2 ksi) ⎜ 24 in. −
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎟ M nf = (619 mm 2 )(330 N/mm 2 ) ⎜ 609.6 mm −
⎝ 2
⎟⎠

Mnf = 1020 kip-in. = 85 kip-ft Mnf = 1.140 × 108 N-mm = 114 kN-m

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54 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.3c (cont.)—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior reinforced concrete beam with
fiber-reinforced polymer laminates
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&DOFXODWHGHVLJQÀH[XUDO
VWUHQJWKRIWKHVHFWLRQ

7KHGHVLJQÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKLVFDOFXODWHG
XVLQJ(T  DQG G %HFDXVH
İs !DVWUHQJWKUHGXFWLRQ
IDFWRURIࢥ LVDSSURSULDWHSHU(T
 

ࢥMn ࢥ>MnsȥfMnf] ࢥMn >NLSIW NLSIW @ ࢥMn >N1P N1P @


ࢥMn NLSIW•Mu NLSIW ࢥMn N1P•Mu N1P

‫׵‬the strengthened section is capable of sustaining the ‫׵‬the strengthened section is capable of sustaining
QHZUHTXLUHGPRPHQWVWUHQJWK WKHQHZUHTXLUHGPRPHQWVWUHQJWK
6WHS²&KHFNVHUYLFHVWUHVVHVLQWKH
UHLQIRUFLQJVWHHODQGWKH)53

Calculate the elastic depth to the cracked


QHXWUDOD[LV7KLVFDQEHVLPSOL¿HGIRUD
rectangular beam without compression
reinforcement as follows:

2
⎛ Es Ef ⎞ * ‡

⎜⎝ ρs E + ρ f E ⎟⎠ k = 0.343 k = 0.343
c c
k=
⎛ E Ef ⎛ d f ⎞⎞
+2 ⎜ ρs s + ρ f kd   LQ  LQ kd   PP  PP
⎝ Ec Ec ⎝⎜ d ⎠⎟ ⎟⎠ † §

⎛ E Ef ⎞
− ⎜ ρs s + ρ f
⎝ Ec Ec ⎟⎠

Calculate the stress level in the reinforcing


VWHHOXVLQJ(T  DQGYHULI\WKDW
it is less than the recommended limit per
(T D 

⎡ ⎛ kd ⎞ ⎤
⎢ M s + ε bi Af E f ⎝⎜ d f − 3 ⎠⎟ ⎥ (d − kd ) Es
f s ,s = ⎣ ⎦
⎛ kd ⎞ ⎛ kd ⎞
As Es ⎜ d − ⎟ (d − kd ) + Af E f ⎜ d f − ⎟ (d f − kd )
⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠

fs,s”fy fs,s NVL”  NVL  NVL fs,s 1PP2”  1PP2  1PP2

‫׵‬the stress level in the reinforcing steel is within the ‫׵‬the stress level in the reinforcing steel is within the
recommended limit. recommended limit.

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 55

Table 16.3c (cont.)—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior reinforced concrete beam with
fiber-reinforced polymer laminates
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&KHFNFUHHSUXSWXUHOLPLWDW
VHUYLFHRIWKH)53

Calculate the stress level in the FRP using


(T  DQGYHULI\WKDWLWLVOHVV
than creep-rupture stress limit given in
7DEOH$VVXPHWKDWWKHIXOOVHUYLFH
load is sustained.

⎛ E f ⎞ ⎛ d f − kd ⎞ ⎛ 5360 ksi ⎞ ⎛ 24 in. − 7.37 in. ⎞ ⎛ N1PP 2 ⎞ ⎛ PP − PP ⎞


f f ,s = 40.4 ksi ⎜ f f ,s = 0.278 kN/mm 2 ⎜
⎝ NVL ⎟⎠ ⎝⎜ LQ − LQ⎠⎟
f f ,s = f s.s ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ − ε bi E f ⎜ ⎟
⎝ Es ⎠ ⎝ d − kd ⎟⎠ ⎝ 200 kN/mm 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 546 mm − 187 mm ⎠
 −  NVL  −  1PP 2
For a carbon FRP system, the sustained ff,s NVL”  NVL  NVL ff,s = 38 N/mm2”  1PP2  1PP2
plus cyclic stress limit is obtained from
7DEOH ‫׵‬the stress level in the FRP is within the ‫׵‬the stress level in the FRP is within the
recommended sustained plus cyclic stress limit. recommended sustained plus cyclic stress limit.
Sustained plus cyclic stress limit = 0.55ffu

*
2
⎡ ⎛  ⎞ ⎛  ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛  ⎞ ⎛  ⎞ ⎛ LQ ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛  ⎞ ⎛  ⎞ ⎤
k = ⎢0.0116 ⎜ + 0.00372 ⎜ + 2 ⎢0.0116 ⎜ + 0.00372 ⎜ − 0.0116 ⎜ + 0.00372 ⎜
⎣ ⎝ 4030 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 4030 ⎟⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎝ 4030 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 4030 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 21.5 in.⎟⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 4030 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 4030 ⎟⎠ ⎥⎦

⎛⎡ ⎡ ⎛ 7.37 in.⎞ ⎤ ⎤ ⎞
⎟ ⎥ × [ LQ − LQ NVL ]⎟
3
† ⎜ ⎢ NLSLQ + ⎢  LQ × NVL ⎝⎜ LQ − 3 ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎦
⎝⎣ ⎣ ⎠
f s ,s =
⎛⎡ 2 ⎛ 7.37 in.⎞ ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎛ 7.37 in.⎞ ⎤⎞
⎢ LQ NVL × ⎜⎝ LQ − ⎟ LQ − LQ ⎥ + ⎢ LQ NVL ⎝⎜ LQ − ⎟ LQ − LQ ⎥⎟
⎝⎜ ⎣ 3 ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ 3 ⎠ ⎦⎠

‡ 2
⎡ ⎛  ⎞ ⎛  ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛  ⎞ ⎛  ⎞ ⎛ PP ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛  ⎞ ⎛  ⎞ ⎤
k = ⎢0.0116 ⎜ + 0.00372 ⎜ + 2 ⎢0.0116 ⎜ + 0.00372 ⎜ − 0.0116 ⎜ + 0.00372 ⎜
⎣ ⎝ 27.6 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 27.6 ⎟⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎝ 27.6 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 27.6 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 546 mm ⎟⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 27.6 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 27.6 ⎟⎠ ⎥⎦

§ ⎛⎡ ⎡ ⎛ 187 mm ⎞ ⎤ ⎤ ⎞
⎟ ⎥ × ⎡ PP − PP N1PP ⎤⎦⎟
2 2 2
⎜ ⎢ N1PP + ⎢  PP N1PP × ⎜⎝ PP − 3 ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎦ ⎣
⎝⎣ ⎣ ⎠
f s ,s =
⎛⎡ 2 2 ⎛ 187 mm ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ 2 2 ⎛ 187 mm ⎞ ⎤⎞
PP N1PP × PP − PP − PP + PP N1PP PP − PP − PP ⎥⎟
⎜⎝ ⎢
⎣ ⎝⎜ 3 ⎠
⎟ ⎥ ⎢
⎦ ⎣
⎜⎝
3 ⎠

⎦⎠

In detailing the FRP reinforcement, the FRP should be estimated as two-thirds of the concrete shear strength. If the
terminated a minimum of ƐdfFDOFXODWHGSHU(T  SDVW shear force is greater than two-thirds of the concrete shear
the point on the moment diagram that represents cracking. strength, the FRP strips should be extended further toward
The factored shear force at the termination should also be the supports. U-wraps may also be used to reinforce against
checked against the shear force that causes FRP end peeling, cover delamination.

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56 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

16.4—Flexural strengthening of an interior By inspection, the degree of strengthening is reasonable


reinforced concrete beam with near-surface- in that it does meet the strengthening limit criteria put forth
mounted FRP bars LQ(T  7KDWLVWKHH[LVWLQJÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKZLWKRXW
$Q H[LVWLQJ UHLQIRUFHG FRQFUHWH EHDP )LJ   LV WR )53 ࢥMn w/o NLSIW N1P LVJUHDWHUWKDQWKH
be strengthened using the loads given in Table 16.3a and XQVWUHQJWKHQHGPRPHQWOLPLW MDL + 0.75MLL new = 177
WKHQHDUVXUIDFHPRXQWHG 160 )53V\VWHPGHVFULEHGLQ NLSIW  N1P  7KH GHVLJQ FDOFXODWLRQV XVHG WR YHULI\
7DEOH D 6SHFL¿FDOO\ WKUHH 1R  FDUERQ )53 &)53  WKLVFRQ¿JXUDWLRQIROORZLQ7DEOHE
EDUVDUHWREHXVHGDWDGLVWDQFHLQ PP IURPWKH
H[WUHPHWRS¿EHURIWKHEHDP

)LJ ²6FKHPDWLF RI WKH LGHDOL]HG VLPSO\ VXSSRUWHG EHDP ZLWK )53 H[WHUQDO
reinforcement.

Table 16.4a—Manufacturer’s reported NSM FRP system properties


Area per No. 3 bar 0.10 in.2 64.5 mm2
Ultimate tensile strength ffu* 250 ksi 1725 N/mm2
5XSWXUHVWUDLQİfu* 0.013 in./in. 0.013 mm/mm
Modulus of elasticity of FRP laminates Ef NVL 132,700 N/mm2
Length of the beam Ɛ IW 8.84 m
Bay width l2 30 ft P
Width of beam w 24 in. 610 mm
dp 22.5 in. 571 mm
h 25 in. 635 mm
(IIHFWLYHÀDQJHZLGWKbf 87 in. 2210 mm
Flange thickness hf 4 in. 102 mm
fcƍ 4000 psi 27.6 N/mm2
Strands diameter 1/2 in. 12.7 mm
fpe 165 ksi 1138 N/mm2
fpy 230 ksi 1586 N/mm2
fpu 270 ksi 1860 N/mm2
Ep 28,500 ksi î5 N/mm2
ࢥMn without FRP 336 kip-ft 455 kN-m

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 57

Table 16.4b—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior reinforced concrete beam with NSM FRP bars
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKH)53V\VWHP
GHVLJQPDWHULDOSURSHUWLHV

The beam is located in an interior space


and a CFRP material will be used.
7KHUHIRUHSHU7DEOHDQHQYLURQPHQWDO
UHGXFWLRQIDFWRURILVVXJJHVWHG

ffu = CEffu* ffu   NVL  NVL ffu   1PP2  1PP2

İfu = CEİfu* İfu   LQLQ  LQLQ İfu   PPPP  PPPP
6WHS²3UHOLPLQDU\FDOFXODWLRQV

Properties of the concrete:


f c′ f c′
ȕ1 from ACI 318-14, Section 22.2.2.4.3 β1 = 1.05 − 0.05 = 0.85 β1 = 1.05 − 0.05 = 0.85
1000 

Ec = 57, 000 f c′ Ec = 57,000 5000 psi = 4,030,00 psi Ec = 4700 34.5 N/mm 2 = 27,600 N/mm 2

As  LQ2  LQ2 As  PP2  PP2

Af  EDUV LQ2EDU  LQ2 Af  EDUV PP2EDU  PP2


6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHH[LVWLQJVWDWHRI
VWUDLQRQWKHVRI¿W

The existing state of strain is calculated


assuming the beam is cracked and the only
loads acting on the beam at the time of the
FRP installation are dead loads. A cracked
section analysis of the existing beam gives k =
0.334 and Icr LQ4 = 2471 × 106 mm4

M DL d f − kd (864 kip-in.) [23.7 in. − (0.334)(21.5 in.)] (97.6 kN-mm) [602 mm − (0.334)(546 mm)]
ε bi = ε bi = = 0.00061 ε bi = = 0.00061
I cr Ec (5937 in.4 )(4030 ksi) (2471 × 106 mm 4 )(27.6 kN/mm 2 )

6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHERQGGHSHQGHQW
FRHI¿FLHQWRIWKH)53V\VWHP

Based on the manufacturer’s


recommendation, the dimensionless bond-
GHSHQGHQWFRHI¿FLHQWIRUÀH[XUHțm is 0.7. țm = 0.7 țm = 0.7
6WHS²(VWLPDWHcWKHGHSWKWRWKH
QHXWUDOD[LV

A reasonable initial estimate of c is


0.20d. The value of the c is adjusted after
FKHFNLQJHTXLOLEULXP

c = 0.20d c   LQ  LQ c   PP  PP

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58 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.4b (cont.)—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior reinforced concrete beam with
NSM FRP bars
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHHIIHFWLYHOHYHORI
VWUDLQLQWKH)53UHLQIRUFHPHQW

The effective strain level in the FRP may


EHIRXQGIURP(T  

⎛ d f − c⎞ ⎛ 23.7 in. − 4.3 in.⎞ ⎛ 602 mm − 109 mm ⎞


ε fe = ⎜ − ε bi ≤ κ m ε fd ε fe = 0.003 ⎜ ⎟⎠ − 0.00061 = 0.0129 ε fe = 0.003 ⎜ ⎟⎠ − 0.00061 = 0.0129
⎝ c ⎟⎠ ⎝ 4.3 in. ⎝ 109 mm

Note that for the neutral axis depth


selected, FRP debonding would be țmİfd     țmİfd    
the failure mode because the second
H[SUHVVLRQLQWKLVHTXDWLRQFRQWUROV,IWKH +HQFHİfe = 0.00865 +HQFHİfe = 0.00865
¿UVWH[SUHVVLRQJRYHUQHGWKHQFRQFUHWH 0RGHRIIDLOXUHLV)53GHERQGLQJ 0RGHRIIDLOXUHLV)53GHERQGLQJ
crushing would be the failure mode.
Because FRP controls the failure of the
section, the concrete strain at failure,
İc, may be less than 0.003 and can be
calculated using similar triangles:

⎛ c ⎞
ε c = ε fd + ε bi ⎜ ⎛ 4.3 ⎞ ⎛  ⎞
⎟ ε c =  +  ⎜ =  ε c =  +  ⎜ = 
⎝ d f − c⎠ ⎝ 23.7 − 4.3 ⎟⎠ ⎝  −  ⎟⎠

6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHVWUDLQLQWKH
H[LVWLQJUHLQIRUFLQJVWHHO

The strain in the reinforcing steel can


be calculated using similar triangles
DFFRUGLQJWR(T D 

⎛ d −c ⎞
ε s = (ε fe + ε bi ) ⎜ ⎛ 21.5 − 4.3 ⎞ ⎛ 546 − 109 ⎞
⎟ ε s = (0.00865 + 0.00061) ⎜ = 0.0082 ε s = (0.00865 + 0.00061) ⎜ = 0.0082
⎝ d f − c⎠ ⎝ 23.7 − 4.3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 602 − 109 ⎟⎠

6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHVWUHVVOHYHOLQWKH
UHLQIRUFLQJVWHHODQG)53

7KHVWUHVVHVDUHFDOFXODWHGXVLQJ(T
E DQG+RRNH¶V/DZ

fs = Esİs”fy fs  NVL  ”NVL fs  N1PP2  ”N1PP2


fs NVL!NVL fs = 1.64 kN/mm2”N1PP2
therefore, fs = 60 ksi therefore, fs = 0.414 kN/mm2

ffe = Efİfe ffe  NVL   NVL ffe  1PP2   1PP2

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 59

Table 16.4b (cont.)—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior reinforced concrete beam with
NSM FRP bars
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHLQWHUQDOIRUFH
UHVXOWDQWVDQGFKHFNHTXLOLEULXP

Concrete stress block factors may be


calculated using ACI 318. Approximate
stress block factors may also be calculated
based on the parabolic stress-strain
relationship for concrete as follows:

4ε ′c − ε c   −    − 


β1 = β1 = = 0.743 β1 = = 0.743
6ε ′c − 2ε c   −     −  

3ε ′c ε c − ε c2    −  2    −  2


α1 = α1 = = 0.870 α1 = = 0.870
3β1ε′c 2    2    2
ZKHUHİcƍLVVWUDLQFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRfcƍ
calculated as

1.7 f c′    


ε ′c = ε ′c = = 0.0021 ε ′c = = 0.0021
Ec 4030 × 106 27, 606

)RUFHHTXLOLEULXPLVYHUL¿HGE\FKHFNLQJ
the initial estimate of cZLWK(T J 

As f s + Af f fe LQ2 NVL  LQ2 NVL PP 2 1PP 2 + PP 2 1PP 2


c= c= c=
α1 f c ' β1b  NVL  LQ  1PP 2  PP

c LQLQQJ c PPLQQJ

‫׵‬revise estimate of cDQGUHSHDW6WHSVWKURXJK ‫׵‬revise estimate of cDQGUHSHDW6WHSVWKURXJK


XQWLOHTXLOLEULXPLVDFKLHYHG XQWLOHTXLOLEULXPLVDFKLHYHG
6WHS²$GMXVWcXQWLOIRUFH
HTXLOLEULXPLVVDWLV¿HG

6WHSVWKURXJKZHUHUHSHDWHGVHYHUDO
times with different values of c until
HTXLOLEULXPZDVDFKLHYHG7KHUHVXOWVRI
WKH¿QDOLWHUDWLRQDUH

c LQİs fs = fy NVLİfe PP 2 1PP 2 + PP 2 1PP 2


LQ2 NVL + LQ2 NVL c=
İc ȕ1  c=
Į1 DQGffe = 166 ksi  NVL  LQ  1PP 2  PP
c LQ§LQ c PP§PP

‫ ׵‬the value of cVHOHFWHGIRUWKH¿QDOLWHUDWLRQLVFRUUHFW ‫׵‬the value of cVHOHFWHGIRUWKH¿QDOLWHUDWLRQLVFRUUHFW

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60 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.4b (cont.)—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior reinforced concrete beam with
NSM FRP bars
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&DOFXODWHÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWK
FRPSRQHQWV

7KHGHVLJQÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKLVFDOFXODWHG
XVLQJ(T G $QDGGLWLRQDO
UHGXFWLRQIDFWRUȥf = 0.85, is applied to
the contribution of the FRP system.
Steel contribution to bending:
⎛ β c⎞ ⎛ 0.786(5.25 in.) ⎞
M ns = As f s ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ M ns = (3.0 in.2 )(60 ksi) ⎜ 21.5 in. − ⎟⎠ M ns = (1935 mm 2 )(414 N/mm 2 ) ⎛⎜ 546 mm −
0.786(133 mm)⎞
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎟

Mns NLSLQ NLSIW Mns N1P


FRP contribution to bending:
⎛ β c⎞ ⎛ 0.786(5.25 in.) ⎞ ⎛ 0.786(133 mm ) ⎞
M nf = As f fe ⎜ d f − 1 ⎟ M nf = (0.3 in.2 )(166 ksi) ⎜ 23.7 in. − ⎟⎠ M nf = (194 mm )(1147 N/mm ) ⎜ 602.1 mm −
2 2
⎟⎠
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ 2

Mnf NLSLQ NLSIW Mnf = 122 kN-m


6WHS²&DOFXODWHGHVLJQÀH[XUDO
VWUHQJWKRIWKHVHFWLRQ

7KHGHVLJQÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKLVFDOFXODWHG
XVLQJ(T  DQG G %HFDXVH
İs !DVWUHQJWKUHGXFWLRQ
IDFWRURIࢥ LVDSSURSULDWHSHU(T
 

ࢥMn ࢥ>MnsȥfMnf] ࢥMn >NLSIW NLSIW @ ࢥMn >N1P N1P @


ࢥMn NLSIW•Mu NLSIW ࢥMn N1P•Mu N1P

‫׵‬the strengthened section is capable of sustaining the ‫׵‬the strengthened section is capable of sustaining the
QHZUHTXLUHGÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWK QHZUHTXLUHGÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWK
6WHS²&KHFNVHUYLFHVWUHVVHVLQWKH
UHLQIRUFLQJVWHHODQGWKH)53

Calculate the elastic depth to the cracked


QHXWUDOD[LV7KLVFDQEHVLPSOL¿HGIRUD
rectangular beam without compression
reinforcement as follows:


*
2
⎛ Es Ef ⎞
⎜⎝ ρs E + ρ f E ⎟⎠ k = 0.345 k = 0.345
k= c c
kd   LQ  LQ kd   PP  PP
⎛ Es E ⎛ d ⎞⎞
+2 ⎜ ρs + ρ f f ⎜ f ⎟⎟
⎝ Ec Ec ⎝ d ⎠ ⎠
⎛ E Ef ⎞
− ⎜ ρs s + ρ f
⎝ Ec Ec ⎟⎠

Calculate the stress level in the reinforcing


VWHHOXVLQJ(T  DQGYHULI\WKDW
it is less than the recommended limit per
(T D 

⎡ ⎛ kd ⎞ ⎤
⎢ M s + ε bi Af E f ⎝⎜ d f − 3 ⎠⎟ ⎥ (d − kd ) Es
f s ,s = ⎣ ⎦
⎛ kd ⎞ ⎛ kd ⎞
As Es ⎜ d − ⎟ (d − kd ) + Af E f ⎜ d f − ⎟ (d f − kd )
⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠

† §
fs,s”fy fs,s NVL”  NVL  NVL fs,s = 278 N/mm2”  1PP2  1PP2

‫׵‬the stress level in the reinforcing steel is within the ‫׵‬the stress level in the reinforcing steel is within the
recommended limit. recommended limit.

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 61

Table 16.4b (cont.)—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior reinforced concrete beam with
NSM FRP bars
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&KHFNFUHHSUXSWXUHOLPLWDW
VHUYLFHRIWKH)53

Calculate the stress level in the FRP using


(T  DQGYHULI\WKDWLWLVOHVV
than creep-rupture stress limit given in
7DEOH$VVXPHWKDWWKHIXOOVHUYLFH
load is sustained.

⎛ E f ⎞ ⎛ d f − kd ⎞ ⎛  NVL ⎞ ⎛ LQ − LQ⎞ ⎛ 133 kN/mm 2 ⎞ ⎛ 602 mm − 188 mm ⎞


f f ,s = f s ,s ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ − ε bi E f f f ,s = 40.3 ksi ⎜ f f .s = 0.278 kN/mm 2 ⎜
⎝  NVL ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ LQ − LQ ⎟⎠
⎜ ⎟
⎝ Es ⎠ ⎝ d − kd ⎠⎟ ⎝ 200 kN/mm 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 546 mm − 188 mm ⎠
 −  NVL  −  1PP 2
For a carbon FRP system, the sustained
plus cyclic stress limit is obtained from ff,s NVL”  NVL  NVL ff,s = 134 N/mm2”  1PP2  1PP2
7DEOH
‫׵‬the stress level in the FRP is within the ‫׵‬the stress level in the FRP is within the
Sustained plus cyclic stress limit = 0.55ffu recommended sustained plus cyclic stress limit. recommended sustained plus cyclic stress limit.

* 2
⎡ ⎛  ⎞ ⎛  ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛  ⎞ ⎛  ⎞ ⎛ LQ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛  ⎞ ⎛ ,230 ⎞ ⎤
k = ⎢0.0116 ⎜ + 0.0012 ⎜ + 2 ⎢0.0116 ⎜ + 0.0012 ⎜ − 0.0116 ⎜ + 0.0012 ⎜
⎣ ⎝ 4030 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 4030 ⎟⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎝ 4030 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 4030 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 21.5 in. ⎟⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 4030 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 4030 ⎟⎠ ⎥⎦

⎛⎡ ⎡ ⎛ 7.4 in.⎞ ⎤ ⎤ ⎞
⎜ ⎢ NLSLQ + ⎢  LQ ×  NVL ⎝⎜ LQ − 3 ⎠⎟ ⎥ ⎥ × [ LQ − LQ  NVL ]⎟
† 2

⎝⎣ ⎣ ⎦⎦ ⎠
f s ,s =
⎛⎡ ⎛ 7.4 in.⎞ ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎛ 7.4 in.⎞ ⎤⎞
LQ2  NVL ⎜ LQ − ⎟ × LQ − LQ ⎥ + ⎢ LQ  NVL ⎝⎜ LQ − ⎟ × LQ − LQ ⎥⎟
⎝⎜ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ 3 ⎠ ⎦⎠
2
‡ ⎡ ⎛ 200 ⎞ ⎛ 133 ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 200 ⎞ ⎛ 133 ⎞ ⎛ 602 mm ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 200 ⎞ ⎛ 133 ⎞ ⎤
k = ⎢0.0116 ⎜ + 0.0012 ⎜ + 2 ⎢0.0116 ⎜ + 0.0012 ⎜ − 0.0116 ⎜ + 0.0012 ⎜
⎣ ⎝ 27.6 ⎠⎟ ⎝ 27.6 ⎠⎟ ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎝ 27.6 ⎠⎟ ⎝ 27.6 ⎠⎟ ⎝⎜ 546 mm ⎠⎟ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 27.6 ⎠⎟ ⎝ 27.6 ⎠⎟ ⎥⎦

⎛⎡ ⎡ ⎛ 188 mm ⎞ ⎤ ⎤ ⎞
⎟ ⎥ × ⎡ PP − PP N1PP ⎦⎤⎟
2 2 2
§
⎜ ⎢ N1PP + ⎢  PP × N1PP × ⎝⎜ PP − 3 ⎠ ⎦⎥ ⎦ ⎣
⎝⎣ ⎣ ⎠
f s ,s =
⎛⎡ 2 2 ⎛ 188 mm ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ 2 2 ⎛ 188 mm ⎞ ⎤⎞
⎜⎝ ⎢ PP N1PP × ⎝⎜ PP − 3 ⎠
⎟ PP − PP ⎥ + ⎢ PP N1PP × ⎜⎝ PP −
3 ⎠
⎟ PP − PP ⎥⎟
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎠

In detailing the FRP reinforcement, FRP bars should


EH WHUPLQDWHG DW D GLVWDQFH HTXDO WR WKH EDU GHYHORSPHQW
length past the point on the moment diagram that represents
cracking.

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62 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

16.5—Flexural strengthening of an interior PHQWV 7KH FDVWLQSODFH EHDPV VXSSRUW D  LQ  PP 
prestressed concrete beam with FRP laminates slab. For bending at midspan, beams should be treated as
A number of continuous prestressed concrete beams with T-sections. Summarized in Table 16.5a are the existing and
¿YHLQ PP GLDPHWHUERQGHGVWUDQGV )LJ  new loads and associated midspan moments for the beam.
are located in a parking garage that is being converted to FRP system properties are shown in Table 16.3b.
DQ RI¿FH VSDFH $OO SUHVWUHVVLQJ VWUDQGV DUH *UDGH  By inspection, the degree of strengthening is reasonable
NVL  1PP2  ORZUHOD[DWLRQ VHYHQZLUH VWUDQGV in that it does meet the strengthening limit criteria put forth
7KH EHDPV UHTXLUH DQ LQFUHDVH LQ WKHLU OLYHORDGFDUU\LQJ LQ(T  7KDWLVWKHH[LVWLQJÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKZLWKRXW
capacity from 50 to 75 lb/ft2 WRNJP2 7KHEHDPV )53 ࢥMn w/o NLSIW N1P LVJUHDWHUWKDQWKH
DUHDOVRUHTXLUHGWRVXSSRUWDQDGGLWLRQDOGHDGORDGRIOE XQVWUHQJWKHQHGPRPHQWOLPLW MDL + 0.75MLL new = 273
ft2  NJP2 $QDO\VLV LQGLFDWHV WKDW HDFK H[LVWLQJ EHDP NLSIW  N1P  7KH GHVLJQ FDOFXODWLRQV XVHG WR YHULI\
KDVDGHTXDWHÀH[XUDOFDSDFLW\WRFDUU\WKHQHZORDGVLQWKH WKLV FRQ¿JXUDWLRQ IROORZ 7KH EHDP LV WR EH VWUHQJWKHQHG
QHJDWLYH PRPHQW UHJLRQ DW WKH VXSSRUWV EXW LV GH¿FLHQW LQ using the FRP system described in Table 16.3b. A one-ply,
ÀH[XUHDWPLGVSDQDQGLQVKHDUDWWKHVXSSRUWV7KHEHDP  LQ  PP  ZLGH VWULS RI )53 LV FRQVLGHUHG IRU WKLV
PHHWVWKHGHÀHFWLRQDQGFUDFNFRQWUROVHUYLFHDELOLW\UHTXLUH- evaluation.

)LJ ²6FKHPDWLF RI WKH LGHDOL]HG FRQWLQXRXV SUHVWUHVVHG EHDP ZLWK )53 H[WHUQDO
reinforcement.

Table 16.5a—Loadings and corresponding moments


Loading/moment ([LVWLQJORDGV $QWLFLSDWHGORDGV
Dead loads wDL 2.77 kip/ft 40.4 N/mm NLSIW 45.1 N/mm
Live load wLL 1.60 kip/ft 23.3 N/mm 2.4 kip/ft 35 N/mm
8QIDFWRUHGORDGV wDL + wLL 4.37 kip/ft 63.8 N/mm NLSIW 80.2 N/mm
8QVWUHQJWKHQHGORDGOLPLW wDL + 0.75wLL NA NA 5.2 kip/ft 1PP
)DFWRUHGORDGV wDL + 1.6wLL 5.88 kip/ft 1PP 7.55 kip/ft 110.2 N/mm
Dead-load moment MDL 147 kip-ft N1P 162 kip-ft 220.2 kN-m
Live-load moment MLL 85 kip-ft 115 kN-m 126 kip-ft 171.1 kN-m
Service-load moment Ms 232 kip-ft 314 kN-m 288 kip-ft N1P
8QVWUHQJWKHQHGPRPHQWOLPLW MDL + 0.75MLL new NA NA 273 kip-ft 371 kN-m
Factored moment Mu 312 kip-ft 423 kN-m NLSIW 538 kN-m

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 63

Table 16.5b—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior prestressed concrete beam with FRP
laminates
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKH)53V\VWHP
GHVLJQPDWHULDOSURSHUWLHV

The beam is located in an interior space


and a CFRP material will be used.
7KHUHIRUHSHU7DEOHDQHQYLURQPHQWDO
UHGXFWLRQIDFWRURILVVXJJHVWHG

ffu = CEffu* ffu   NVL  NVL ffu   1PP2  1PP2

İfu = CEİfu* İfu   LQLQ  LQLQ İfu   PPPP  PPPP
6WHS²3UHOLPLQDU\FDOFXODWLRQV

Properties of the concrete:

ȕ1 from ACI 318-14, Section 22.2.2.4.3 f c′ f c′


β1 = 1.05 − 0.05 = 0.85 β1 = 1.05 − 0.05 = 0.85
1000 

Ec = 57, 000 f c′ Ec = 57, 000 4000 psi = 3,605,00 psi Ec = 4700 27.6 N/mm 2 = 24,700 N/mm 2

Properties of the existing prestressing steel: Aps  LQ2  LQ2 Aps  PP2  PP2

Area of FRP reinforcement:

Af = ntfwf Af  SO\ LQSO\ LQ  LQ2 Af  SO\ PPSO\ PP  PP2

Cross-sectional area:

Acg = bfhf + bw h – hf Acg  LQ LQ  LQ LQ±LQ  LQ2 Acg  PP PP  PP PP±
PP  î5 mm2
'LVWDQFHIURPWKHWRS¿EHUWRWKHVHFWLRQ
centroid:

h 2f ⎛ h − h f ⎞
bf + b h − h f ⎜ h f + 4 in.2
2 w ⎝ 2 ⎠⎟ 87 in. × + 24 in. × 21 × 14.5 2210 mm ×
102 mm 2
+ 610 mm × 533 × 368
yt = yt = 2 = LQ yt = 2 = 238 mm
Acg 852 5.5 × 105

Gross moment of inertia:

b f h3f hf ⎞
2
bw h − h f 3 87 in. × 4 in.3 2210 mm × 102 mm3
⎛ Ig =  + LQ × LQ LQ −  2 Ig = + 2210 mm
Ig = + b f h f ⎜ yt − ⎟ + 12 12
12 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 12
24 in. × 213 610mm × 5333
h − hf ⎞
2  + + LQ ×   −  2  × PP  −  2 +
⎛ 12 12
 + bw h − h f ⎜ yt −
⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ = 38, 610 in.4  + PP ×   −  2 =  × 10 PP 4
Radius of gyration:

Ig
r= 38, 610 1.61 × 1010
Acg r= = 6.73 in. r= = 171 mm
852 5.5 × 105
Effective prestressing strain:

f pe 165 1138
ε pe = ε pe = = 0.00578 ε pe = = 0.00579
Ep 28, 500 1.96 × 105
Effective prestressing force:

Pe = Apsfpe Pe = 0.765 × 165 = 126.2 kip Pe î 1

Eccentricity of prestressing force:

e = dp – yt e ± LQ e = 571 – 238 = 333 mm

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64 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.5b (cont.)—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior prestressed concrete beam with
fiber-reinforced polymer laminates
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHH[LVWLQJVWDWHRI
VWUDLQRQWKHVRI¿W

The existing state of strain is calculated


assuming the beam is uncracked and the
only loads acting on the beam at the time
of the FRP installation are dead loads.
'LVWDQFHIURPH[WUHPHERWWRP¿EHUWRWKH
section centroid:

yb = h – yt yb ± LQ yb ± PP

,QLWLDOVWUDLQLQWKHEHDPVRI¿W

−ρe ⎛ eyb ⎞ M DL yb −126.2 ⎛ 13.1 × 15.6 ⎞ 147 × 12 × 15.6 −563, 310


ε bi = ⎜⎝1 + 2 ⎟⎠ + ε bi = ⎛ 333 × 397 ⎞ 199 × 106 × 397
Ec Acg r Ec I g ⎜1 + ⎟+ ε bi = ⎜1 + ⎟+
3605 × 852 ⎝ 6.732 ⎠ 3605 × 38, 610 24, 700 × 5.5 × 105 ⎝ 1712 ⎠ 24, 700 × 1.61 × 1010
İbi = –2.88 × 10–5 İbi = –2.88 × 10–5
6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHGHVLJQVWUDLQRI
the FRP system

The design strain of FRP accounting for


GHERQGLQJIDLOXUHPRGHİfd is calculated 4000 psi
ε fd = 0.083 27.6 N/mm 2
XVLQJ(T   SVL LQ ε fd = 0.042
 1PP 2 PP
Because the design strain is smaller than   ≤   =    ≤    
the rupture strain, debonding controls the
design of the FRP system.
6WHS²(VWLPDWHcWKHGHSWKWRWKH
QHXWUDOD[LV

A reasonable initial estimate of c is


0.1h. The value of the c is adjusted after
FKHFNLQJHTXLOLEULXP

c = 0.1h c   LQ  LQ c   PP  PP


6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHHIIHFWLYHOHYHORI
VWUDLQLQWKH)53UHLQIRUFHPHQW

The effective strain level in the FRP may


EHIRXQGIURP(T F 

⎛ d f − c⎞ ⎛ 25 − 2.5 ⎞ ⎛ 635 − 63.5 ⎞


ε fe = 0.003 ⎜ − ε bi ≤ ε fd ε fe = 0.003 ⎜ − 0.00003 = 0.027 ε fe = 0.003 ⎜ − 0.00003 = 0.027
⎝ c ⎠⎟ ⎝ 2.5 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 63.5 ⎠⎟
!İfd = 0.0113 !İfd = 0.0113
Note that for the neutral axis depth
selected, FRP debonding would be
the failure mode because the second
H[SUHVVLRQLQWKLVHTXDWLRQFRQWUROV,IWKH Failure is governed by FRP debonding Failure is governed by FRP debonding
¿UVW OLPLWLQJ H[SUHVVLRQJRYHUQHGWKHQ
FRP rupture would be the failure mode. İfe İfd = 0.0113 İfe İfd = 0.0113

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 65

Table 16.5b (cont.)—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior prestressed concrete beam with
fiber-reinforced polymer laminates
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHVWUDLQLQWKH
H[LVWLQJSUHVWUHVVLQJVWHHO

The strain in the prestressing steel can


EHFDOFXODWHGXVLQJ(T F DQG
D 

⎛ dp − c⎞
ε pnet = ε fe + ε bi ⎜ ⎛ 22.5 − 2.5 ⎞ ⎛ 571 − 63.5 ⎞
⎟ ε pnet = (0.0113 + 0.00003) ⎜ ε pnet = (0.0113 + 0.00003) ⎜
⎝ d f − c⎠ ⎝ 25 − 2.5 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 635 − 63.5 ⎟⎠
İpnet = 0.01 İpnet = 0.01

Pe ⎛ e 2 ⎞ 126.2 ⎛ 13.12 ⎞ 563, 310 ⎛ 3332 ⎞


ε ps = ε pe + 1+ + ε pnet ≤ 0.035 ε ps = 0.00589 + 1+ + 0.01 ε ps = 0.00589 + 1+ + 0.01
Acg Ec ⎜⎝ r 2 ⎟⎠ 852 × 3605 ⎜⎝ 6.732 ⎟⎠ 5.5 × 105 × 24, 700 ⎜⎝ 1712 ⎟⎠
İps ” İps ”
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHVWUHVVOHYHOLQWKH
SUHVWUHVVLQJVWHHODQG)53

7KHVWUHVVHVDUHFDOFXODWHGXVLQJ(T
H DQG+RRNH¶V/DZ

⎧28,500ε ps for ε ps ≤ 0.0086


⎪ 0.04 0.276
f ps = ⎨ 0.04 f ps = 270 − = 265.6 ksi f ps = 1860 − = 1831 N/mm 2
⎪270 − ε − 0.007 for ε ps > 0.0086 0.016 − 0.007 0.016 − 0.007
⎩ ps

ffe = Efİfe ffe  NVL   NVL ffe  1PP2   1PP2
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHHTXLYDOHQW
FRQFUHWHFRPSUHVVLYHVWUHVVEORFN
SDUDPHWHUVĮ1DQGȕ1.

The strain in concrete at failure can be


calculated from strain compatibility as
follows:

⎛ c ⎞
ε c = ε fe + ε bi ⎜ ⎛ 2.5 ⎞ ⎛ 63.5 ⎞
⎟ ε c =  +  ⎜ =  ε c =  +  ⎜ = 
⎝ d f − c⎠ ⎝ 25 − 2.5 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 635 − 63.5 ⎟⎠

7KHVWUDLQİcƍFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRfcƍLV
calculated as

1.7 f c′    


ε c′ = ε c′ = =  ε c′ = = 
Ec 3605 × 106 24, 700

Concrete stress block factors can be


estimated using ACI 318. Approximate
stress block factors may be calculated from
the parabolic stress-strain relationship for
concrete and is expressed as follows:

4ε c′ − ε c   −    − 


β1 = β1 = = 0.716 β1 = = 0.716
6ε c′ − 2ε c   −     −  

ε c′ ε c − ε c    −  2    −  2


α = α1 = = 0.738 α1 = = 0.738
β ε′    2    2

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66 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.5b (cont.)—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior prestressed concrete beam with
fiber-reinforced polymer laminates
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHLQWHUQDOIRUFH
UHVXOWDQWVDQGFKHFNHTXLOLEULXP

)RUFHHTXLOLEULXPLVYHUL¿HGE\FKHFNLQJ
the initial estimate of cZLWK(T
F  c LQLQQJ c PPLQQJ

‫׵‬revise estimate of c and repeat Steps 6 through 10 ‫׵‬revise estimate of c and repeat Steps 6 through 10
XQWLOHTXLOLEULXPLVDFKLHYHG XQWLOHTXLOLEULXPLVDFKLHYHG
6WHS²$GMXVWcXQWLOIRUFH
HTXLOLEULXPLVVDWLV¿HG

Steps 6 through 10 were repeated several


times with different values of c until
HTXLOLEULXPZDVDFKLHYHG7KHUHVXOWVRI
WKH¿QDOLWHUDWLRQDUH

c LQİps fps = fy NVL c = 1.86 in. = 1.86 in. c = 47 mm = 47 mm


İfe ffe NVLİc 
Į1 DQGȕ1  ‫׵‬the value of cVHOHFWHGIRUWKH¿QDOLWHUDWLRQLVFRUUHFW ‫ ׵‬the value of cVHOHFWHGIRUWKH¿QDOLWHUDWLRQLVFRUUHFW
6WHS²&DOFXODWHÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWK
components

7KHGHVLJQÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKLVFDOFXODWHG
XVLQJ(T J $QDGGLWLRQDO
UHGXFWLRQIDFWRUȥf = 0.85, is applied to
the contribution of the FRP system.

Prestressing steel contribution to bending: Mnp = 4440 kip-in. = 370 kip-ft Mnp = 501.6 × 106 N-mm = 501.6 kN-m

FRP contribution to bending: Mnf = 1417 kip-in. = 118 kip-ft Mnf = 160.1 × 106 N-mm = 160.1 kN-m
6WHS²&DOFXODWHGHVLJQÀH[XUDO
VWUHQJWKRIWKHVHFWLRQ

7KHGHVLJQÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKLVFDOFXODWHG
XVLQJ(T  DQG J %HFDXVH
İps !DVWUHQJWKUHGXFWLRQ
IDFWRURIࢥ VKRXOGEHXVHGSHU(T
 $QDGGLWLRQDOUHGXFWLRQIDFWRU
ȥf = 0.85 is used to calculate the FRP
contribution to nominal capacity.

ࢥMn ࢥ>MnpȥfMnf] ࢥMn >NLSIW NLSIW @ ࢥMn >N1P N1P @


ࢥMn NLSIW•Mu NLSIW ࢥMn N1P•Mu = 538 kN-m

‫׵‬the strengthened section is capable of sustaining the ‫׵‬the strengthened section is capable of sustaining the
QHZUHTXLUHGÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWK QHZUHTXLUHGÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWK
6WHS²&KHFNVHUYLFHFRQGLWLRQRIWKH
VHFWLRQ

Calculate the cracking moment and


compare the service moment:
f r = 7.5 4000 = 474 psi = 0.474 ksi f r = 0.6 27.6 = 3.15 N/mm 2
Mcr NLSLQ NLSIW Mcr = 411,654,013 N-mm = 412 kN-mm
!Ms = 288 kip-ft !Ms N1P

‫׵‬the strengthened section is uncracked at service. ‫׵‬the strengthened section is uncracked at service.

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 67

Table 16.5b (cont.)—Procedure for flexural strengthening of an interior prestressed concrete beam with
fiber-reinforced polymer laminates
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&KHFNVWUHVVLQSUHVWUHVVLQJ
VWHHODWVHUYLFHFRQGLWLRQ

Calculate the cracking moment and


compare to service moment:

Pe ⎛ e 2 ⎞ M s e
ε ps , s = ε pe + 1+ +
Ac Ec ⎜⎝ r 2 ⎟⎠ Ec I g İps,s ” İps,s ”

&DOFXODWHWKHVWHHOVWUHVVXVLQJ(T G 

⎧28,500ε ps , s for ε ps , s ≤ 0.0086



f ps , s = ⎨ 0.04 fps,s    NVL fps,s î5   1PP2
⎪270 − ε − 0.07 for ε ps , s ≤ 0.0086
⎩ ps , s

&KHFNWKHVHUYLFHVWUHVVOLPLWVRI(T
D DQG E 

fps,s”fpy fps,s NVL   NVL2. fps,s = 1238 N/mm2   1PP2 OK

fps,s”fpu fps,s NVL   NVL2. fps,s = 1238 N/mm2   1PP2 OK
6WHS²&KHFNVWUHVVLQFRQFUHWHDW
VHUYLFHFRQGLWLRQ

Calculate the cracking moment and


compare to service moment:

− Pe ⎛ e 2 ⎞ M s yt − ⎛ 2 ⎞  ×  ×  − ⎛ 2 ⎞  × 6 × 


εc,s = ⎜⎝1 + r 2 ⎟⎠ − E I ε c ,s = 1+ − ε cs = 1+ −
Ac Ec c g 852 × 3605 ⎜⎝ 7.752 ⎟⎠ 3605 × 51,150 ⎜ 2⎟
 ×  ×   ⎝  ⎠   ×  × 10
5

İc,s = 0.00016 İc,s = 0.00016

fc,s = Ecİc,s fc,s SVL   SVL fc,s = 24,700 N/mm2   1PP2

0.45fcƍ    SVL 0.45fcƍ    1PP2


fc,s”fcƍ fc,s = 577 psi < 0.45fcƍ SVL2. fc,s 1PP2 < 0.45fcƍ 1PP2 OK
6WHS²&KHFNVHUYLFHVWUHVVHVLQWKH
)53UHLQIRUFHPHQW

The stress in the FRP at service condition


FDQEHFDOFXODWHGXVLQJ(T  
⎛ Ef ⎞ M y ⎛ 37, 700 N/mm 2 ⎞ 391.3 × 106 N/mm × 397 mm
f f , s = ⎜ ⎟ s b − ε bi E f ⎛ 5360 ksi ⎞ 289 kip-ft × 12 in./ft × 15.61 in. f f ,s = ⎜
⎝ Ec ⎠ I
f f ,s = ⎜
⎝ 3605 ksi ⎟⎠ 511,150 in.4 ⎝ 24, 700 N/mm 2 ⎠⎟ 2.13 × 1010 mm 4
− 0.00003 × 5360 ksi − 0.00003 × 37, 700 N/mm 2
Because the section is uncracked at ff,s = 1.41 ksi ff,s 1PP2
service, the gross moment of inertia of the
section must be used.

The calculated stress in FRP should be


FKHFNHGDJDLQVWWKHOLPLWVLQ7DEOH
For carbon FRP:

ff,s”ffu 0.55ffu    NVL 0.55ffu    1PP2

ff,s = 1.41 ksi < 0.55ffu = 47 ksi OK ff,s 1PP2 < 0.55ffu = 322 N/mm2 OK

In detailing the FRP reinforcement, the FRP should be estimated as two-thirds of the concrete shear strength. If the
terminated a minimum of ƐdfFDOFXODWHGSHU(T  SDVW shear force is greater than two-thirds of the concrete shear
the point on the moment diagram that represents cracking. strength, FRP strips should be extended further toward the
The factored shear force at the termination should also be supports. U-wraps may also be used to reinforce against
checked against the shear force that causes FRP end peeling, cover delamination.

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68 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

16.6—Shear strengthening of an interior T-beam


$UHLQIRUFHGFRQFUHWH7EHDP fcƍ= 3000 psi [20.7 N/mm2@ 
ORFDWHGLQVLGHRIDQRI¿FHEXLOGLQJLVVXEMHFWHGWRDQLQFUHDVH
LQ LWV OLYHORDGFDUU\LQJ UHTXLUHPHQWV $Q DQDO\VLV RI WKH
existing beam indicates that the beam is still satisfactory for
ÀH[XUDO VWUHQJWK KRZHYHU LWV VKHDU VWUHQJWK LV LQDGHTXDWH
to carry the increased live load. Based on the analysis, the
nominal shear strength provided by the concrete is Vc = 44.2
NLS N1 DQGWKHQRPLQDOVKHDUVWUHQJWKSURYLGHGE\
steel shear reinforcement is Vs NLS N1 7KXV
WKHGHVLJQVKHDUVWUHQJWKRIWKHH[LVWLQJEHDPLVࢥVn,existing =
 NLSNLS  NLS N1 7KHIDFWRUHG
UHTXLUHGVKHDUVWUHQJWKLQFOXGLQJWKHLQFUHDVHGOLYHORDGDW )LJD²6KHDUGLDJUDPVKRZLQJGHPDQGYHUVXVH[LVWLQJ
a distance d away from the support is Vu NLS N1  VWUHQJWK 7KH )53 UHLQIRUFHPHQW VKRXOG FRUUHFW WKH GH¿-
Figure 16.6a shows the shear diagram with the locations where ciency shown shaded.
VKHDUVWUHQJWKHQLQJLVUHTXLUHGDORQJWKHOHQJWKRIWKHEHDP
Supplemental FRP shear reinforcement is designed as
shown in Fig. 16.6b and summarized in Table 16.6a. Each
)53 VWULS FRQVLVWV RI RQH SO\ n    RI D ÀH[LEOH FDUERQ
sheet installed by wet layup. The FRP system manufactur-
er’s reported material properties are shown in Table 16.6b.
7KHGHVLJQFDOFXODWLRQVXVHGWRDUULYHDWWKLVFRQ¿JXUDWLRQ
follow in Table 16.6c.
)LJ E²&RQ¿JXUDWLRQ RI WKH VXSSOHPHQWDO )53 VKHDU
reinforcement.

Table 16.6a—Configuration of the supplemental FRP shear reinforcement


d 22 in. PP
dfv 16 in. 406 mm
Width of each sheet wf 10 in. 254 mm
Span between each sheet sf 12 in. 305 mm
FRP strip length 70 in. 1778 mm

Table 16.6b—Manufacturer’s reported FRP system properties


Thickness per ply tf 0.0065 in. 0.165 mm
Ultimate tensile strength ffu* 550,000 psi 1PP2
5XSWXUHVWUDLQİfu* 0.017 in./in. 0.017 mm/mm
Modulus of elasticity Ef 33,000,000 psi 227,530 N/mm2

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 69

Table 16.6c—Procedure for shear strengthening of an interior T-beam


3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&RPSXWHWKHGHVLJQPDWHULDO
SURSHUWLHV

The beam is located in an enclosed and


conditioned space and a CFRP material
ZLOOEHXVHG7KHUHIRUHSHU7DEOHDQ
HQYLURQPHQWDOUHGXFWLRQIDFWRURILV
suggested.
ffu = CEffu* ffu   NVL  NVL ffu   N1PP2  N1PP2

İfu = CEİfu* İfu      İfu     
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHHIIHFWLYHVWUDLQ
OHYHOLQWKH)53VKHDUUHLQIRUFHPHQW

The effective strain in FRP U-wraps


should be determined using the bond-
UHGXFWLRQFRHI¿FLHQWțv7KLVFRHI¿FLHQW
FDQEHFRPSXWHGXVLQJ(T E 
WKURXJK H 

2500 2500 416


Le = Le = = 2.0 in. Le = = 50.8 mm
nt f E f 0.58 [(1)(0.0065 in.)(33 × 106 psi)]0.58 >  PP  × 3 N1PP 2 @0.58

2/3 2/3 2/3


⎛ f′ ⎞ ⎛ 3000 psi ⎞ ⎛ 20.7 kN/mm 2 ⎞
k1 = ⎜ c ⎟ k1 = ⎜ = 0.825 k1 = ⎜ = 0.825
⎝ 4000 ⎠ ⎝ 4000 ⎠⎟ ⎝ 254 ⎠⎟

⎛ d fv − Le ⎞
k2 = ⎜ ⎛ 16 in. − 2.0 in.⎞ ⎛ 406 mm − 50.8 mm ⎞
⎟ k2 = ⎜ ⎟⎠ = 0.875 k2 = ⎜ ⎟⎠ = 0.875
⎝ d fv ⎠ ⎝ 16 in. ⎝ 406 mm

k1k2 Le   LQ   PP


κv = ≤ 0.75 κv = =  ≤  κv = =  ≤ 
468ε fu    

The effective strain can then be computed


XVLQJ(T D DVIROORZV

İfe țvİfu” İfe    ” İfe    ”
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHFRQWULEXWLRQRIWKH
)53UHLQIRUFHPHQWWRWKHVKHDUVWUHQJWK

The area of FRP shear reinforcement can


be computed as:

Afv = 2ntfwf Afv   LQ LQ  LQ2 Afv   PP PP  PP2

The effective stress in the FRP can be


computed from Hooke’s law.

ffe İfeEf ffe   NVL  NVL ffe   N1PP2  N1PP2

The shear contribution of the FRP can be


WKHQFDOFXODWHGIURP(T D 

Afv f fe VLQ α + FRV α d fv LQ2 NVL  LQ PP 2 N1PP 2  PP


Vf = Vf = Vf =
sf LQ PP

Vf = 17.7 kip Vf = 78.5 kN

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70 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.6c (cont.)—Procedure for shear strengthening of an interior T-beam


3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHVKHDUVWUHQJWKRI
WKHVHFWLRQ

The design shear strength can be


FRPSXWHGIURP(T E ZLWKȥf = 0.85
for U-wraps.

ࢥVn ࢥ Vc + VsȥfVf ࢥVn >   @ ࢥVn >   @
ࢥVn NLS!Vu = 57 kip ࢥVn N1!Vu = 253.3 kN

‫׵‬the strengthened section is capable of sustaining ‫׵‬the strengthened section is capable of sustaining
WKHUHTXLUHGVKHDUVWUHQJWK WKHUHTXLUHGVKHDUVWUHQJWK

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 71

16.7—Shear strengthening of an exterior column $Q(JODVVEDVHG)53FRPSOHWHZUDSLVVHOHFWHGWRUHWUR¿W


$[LQ [PP VTXDUHFROXPQUHTXLUHVDQ the column. The properties of the FRP system, as reported by
DGGLWLRQDONLS N1 RIVKHDUVWUHQJWK ¨Vu = 60 kip the manufacturer, are shown in Table 16.7. The design calcu-
>N1@ 7KHFROXPQLVORFDWHGLQDQXQHQFORVHGSDUNLQJ ODWLRQVWRDUULYHDWWKHQXPEHURIFRPSOHWHZUDSVUHTXLUHG
garage and experiences a wide variation in temperature and follow.
climate. A method of strengthening the column using FRP
is sought.

Table 16.7a—Manufacturer’s reported FRP system properties*


Thickness per ply tf 0.051 in. 1.3 mm
Guaranteed ultimate tensile strength ffu* 80,000 psi 552 N/mm2
*XDUDQWHHGUXSWXUHVWUDLQİfu* 0.020 in./in. 0.020 mm/mm
Modulus of elasticity Ef 4,000,000 psi 27,600 N/mm2
*
The reported properties are laminate properties.

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72 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.7b—Procedure for shear strengthening of an exterior column


3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&RPSXWHWKHGHVLJQPDWHULDO
SURSHUWLHV

The column is located in an exterior


HQYLURQPHQWDQGDJODVV)53 *)53 
material will be used. Therefore, per Table
DQHQYLURQPHQWDOUHGXFWLRQIDFWRURI
0.65 is suggested.

ffu =CEffu* ffu   NVL  NVL ffu   1PP2  1PP2

İfu =CEİfu* İfu      İfu     
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHHIIHFWLYHVWUDLQ
OHYHOLQWKH)53VKHDUUHLQIRUFHPHQW

The effective strain in a complete


)53ZUDSFDQEHGHWHUPLQHGIURP(T
 

İfe ”İfu İfe ”    İfe ”   

‫׵‬XVHDQHIIHFWLYHVWUDLQRIİfe = 0.004. ‫׵‬XVHDQHIIHFWLYHVWUDLQRIİfe = 0.004.


6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHDUHDRI)53
UHLQIRUFHPHQWUHTXLUHG

7KHUHTXLUHGVKHDUFRQWULEXWLRQRIWKH
FRP reinforcement can be computed based
on the increase in strength needed, the
strength reduction factor for shear, and
DSDUWLDOUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUȥf IRU
completely wrapped sections in shear.

ΔVu 60 kip N1


V f , reqd = V f , reqd = = 74.3 kip V f , reqd = = 330.5 kN
φ ψ f    

7KHUHTXLUHGDUHDRI)53FDQEH
GHWHUPLQHGE\UHRUJDQL]LQJ(T D 
7KHUHTXLUHGDUHDLVOHIWLQWHUPVRIWKH
spacing.

V f , reqd s f NLS s f N1 s f


Afv , reqd = Afv , reqd = =  s f Afv , reqd = = s f
ε fe E f VLQ α + FRV α d f  NVL  LQ  N1PP 2  PP

6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHQXPEHURISOLHV
DQGVWULSZLGWKDQGVSDFLQJ

The number of plies can be determined


in terms of the strip width and spacing as
follows:

Af , reqd  s f sf s f sf


n= n= =  n= = 
2t f w f  in w f wf  PP w f wf

‫׵‬XVHWZRSOLHV n  FRQWLQXRXVO\DORQJWKHKHLJKW ‫׵‬XVHWZRSOLHV n  FRQWLQXRXVO\DORQJWKHKHLJKW


RIWKHFROXPQ sf = wf  RIWKHFROXPQ sf = wf 

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 73

16.8—Strengthening of a noncircular concrete ronment, and a CFRP material will be used. A method of
column for axial load increase strengthening the column is sought.
$  [  LQ  [  PP  VTXDUH FROXPQ UHTXLUHV $FDUERQEDVHG)53FRPSOHWHZUDSLVVHOHFWHGWRUHWUR¿W
an additional 20 percent of axial load-carrying capacity. the columns. The properties of the FRP system, as reported
Concrete and steel reinforcement material properties as by the manufacturer, are shown in Table 16.8b. The design
well as details of the cross section of the column are shown FDOFXODWLRQV WR DUULYH DW WKH QXPEHU RI UHTXLUHG FRPSOHWH
in Table 16.8a. The column is located in an interior envi- wraps follow.

Table 16.8a—Column cross section details and material properties


fcƍ 6.5 ksi 45 MPa
fy 60 ksi 400 MPa
rc 1 in. 25 mm
Bars 12 No. 10 ࢥ
Ag 576 in.2 3716 cm2
Ast 15.24 in.2 FP2
ȡg, % 2.65 2.65
ࢥPn without FRP 2087 kip N1
ࢥPn(req) 2504 kip 11,138 kN
Note: The column features steel ties for transverse reinforcement.

Table 16.8b—Manufacturer’s reported FRP system properties


Thickness per ply tf 0.013 in. 0.33 mm
Ultimate tensile strength ffu* 550 ksi 03D
5XSWXUHVWUDLQİfu* 0.0167 in./in. 0.0167 mm/mm
Modulus of elasticity Ef 33,000 ksi 227,527 MPa

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74 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.8c—Procedure for strengthening of a noncircular concrete column for axial load increase
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&RPSXWHWKHGHVLJQ)53
PDWHULDOSURSHUWLHV

The column is located in an interior


environment and a CFRP material will
EHXVHG7KHUHIRUHSHU7DEOHDQ
HQYLURQPHQWDOUHGXFWLRQIDFWRURILV
suggested.

ffu = CEffu* ffu   NVL  NVL ffu   03D  03D

İfu = CEİfu* İfu     LQLQ İfu     PPPP
6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHUHTXLUHG
PD[LPXPFRPSUHVVLYHVWUHQJWKRI
FRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHfccƍ

fccƍFDQEHREWDLQHGE\UHRUGHULQJ(T
E 

1 ⎛ φPn , req ⎞ 1 1
f cc′ = − f y Ast ⎟ f cc′ = f cc′ =
 Ag − Ast ⎜⎝ φ ⎠  × LQ2 − LQ2 0.85 × (371, 612 mm 2 − 9832 mm 2 )
⎛ 2504 kip ⎞ ⎛ 11,138 kN ⎞
×⎜ − 60 ksi × 15.24 in.2 ⎟ ×⎜ − 414 MPa × 9832 mm 2 ⎟
⎝ 0.80 × 0.65 ⎠ ⎝ 0.80 × 0.65 ⎠

fccƍ NVL fccƍ 03D


6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHPD[LPXP
FRQ¿QLQJSUHVVXUHGXHWRWKH)53
MDFNHWfƐ

fƐFDQEHREWDLQHGE\UHRUGHULQJ(T J 

f cc′ − f c′ 8.18 ksi − 6.5 ksi 56.4 MPa − 44.8 MPa


f = f = = 1.26 ksi f = = 8.7 MPa
3.3κ a  ×  ×  0.95 × 3.3 × 0.425

where

2
Ae ⎛ b⎞
κa = ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ ța   2 = 0.425 ța   2 = 0.425
Ac h

⎡⎛ b ⎞ 2 ⎛ h⎞ 2⎤
⎢⎜⎝ h ⎟⎠ h − rc + ⎜⎝ b ⎟⎠ b − rc ⎥ ⎡ 2 × (1)(610 mm − 2 × 25 mm) 2 ⎤⎦
1− ⎣ ⎦ −ρ
g 1−
[2 × (1)(24 in. − 2 × 1 in.) 2 ]
− 0.0265 1− ⎣ − 0.0265
Ae 3 Ag Ae 3 × 576 in.2 Ae 3 × 371,612 mm 2
= = =
Ac 1 − ρg Ac 1 − 0.0265 Ac 1 − 0.02265

Ae Ae
= 0.425 = 0.425
Ac Ac

SWHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHQXPEHURISOLHVn.
NVL LQ 2 + LQ 2 03D PP 2 + PP 2
n= n=
nFDQEHREWDLQHGE\UHRUGHULQJ(T K   ( NVL )(LQ)  × −3 LQLQ  (03D )(PP )  ×  −3 PPPP

f b2 + h2
n= n §SOLHV n §SOLHV
2 E f t f ε fe
İfe țeİfu İfe îLQLQ î–3 in./in. İfe îPPPP î–3 mm/mm

&KHFNLQJWKHPLQLPXPFRQ¿QHPHQWUDWLR

f f  1.26 ksi f 8.7 MPa


≥ 0.08 = =  > 2. = =  > 2.
f c′ f c′ 6.5 ksi f c′ 44.8 MPa

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 75

Table 16.8c (cont.)—Procedure for strengthening of a noncircular concrete column for axial load increase
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²9HULI\WKDWWKHXOWLPDWHD[LDO
VWUDLQRIWKHFRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHİccu”

İccuFDQEHREWDLQHGXVLQJ(T M 

⎛ ε cc = LQLQ
f ⎛ ε fe ⎞ ⎞
0.45
ε cc = PPPP
ε ccu = ε c′ ⎜1.5 + 12κ b  ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎛ 1.2 ksi ⎛ 8.8 × 10−3 in./in.⎞ ⎞
0.45
⎝ f c′ ⎝ ε c′ ⎠ ⎠ ⎛ 8.3 MPa ⎛ 8.8 × 10−3 mm/mm ⎞ ⎞
0.45

× ⎜1.5 + 12 × 0.425 × ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ × ⎜1.5 + 12 × 0.425 × ⎜ ⎟ ⎟


⎝ 6.5 ksi ⎝ 0.002 in./in. ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 44.8 MPa ⎝ 0.002 mm/mm ⎠ ⎠

where İcc = 0.0067 in./in. < 0.01 OK İcc = 0.0067 mm/mm < 0.01 OK

0.5
Ae ⎛ h ⎞
κb = ⎜ ⎟ țb   0.5 = 0.425 țb   0.5 = 0.425
Ac ⎝ b ⎠

,IWKHFDVHWKDWİccu was to be greater than


0.01, then fccƍVKRXOGEHUHFDOFXODWHGIURP
WKHVWUHVVVWUDLQPRGHOXVLQJ(T F 

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76 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

16.9—Strengthening of a noncircular concrete 0.1h ,WLVVRXJKWWRLQFUHDVHORDGGHPDQGVE\SHUFHQWDW


column for increase in axial and bending forces FRQVWDQWHFFHQWULFLW\ Pu = 2470 kip, Mu NLSIW 
The column described in 16.8 is subjected to an ultimate The calculations to determine moment-axial interaction
axial compressive load Pu   NLS  N1  DQG DQ IRUWKH)53FRQ¿QHGFROXPQIROORZLQ7DEOH
ultimate bending moment Mu NLSIW N1P  e =

Table 16.9—Procedure for strengthening of a noncircular concrete column for increase in axial and
bending forces
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHVLPSOL¿HGFXUYH
IRUWKHXQVWUHQJWKHQHGFROXPQ n 
SOLHV

Points A, B, and C can be obtained by


well-known procedures, and also by using
(T ' WR ' FRQVLGHULQJȥf = 1, fccƍ 
fcƍE2 DQGİccu İcu = 0.003. ࢥPn A  NLSࢥMn A = 0 kip-ft ࢥPn A  N1ࢥMn A = 0 kN-m
ࢥPn B  NLSࢥMn B = 644 kip-ft ࢥPn B  N1ࢥMn B = 873 kN-m
ࢥPn C  NLSࢥMn C = 884 kip-ft ࢥPn C  N1ࢥMn C  N1P

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 77

Table 16.9 (cont.)—Procedure for strengthening of a noncircular concrete column for increase in axial
and bending forces
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²'HWHUPLQHWKHVLPSOL¿HGFXUYH
IRUDVWUHQJWKHQHGFROXPQ

A wrapping system composed of six plies


will be the starting point to construct the
bilinear Curve A-B-C and then be compared
ZLWKWKHSRVLWLRQRIWKHUHTXLUHGPu and Mu.

Points A, B, and C of the curve can be Point A: Point A:


FRPSXWHGXVLQJ(T   ' DQG '  Nominal axial capacity: Nominal axial capacity:

ࢥPn A  ࢥ fccƍ Ag – Ast fyAst ࢥPn A  î îNVLî LQ2 – 15.24 ࢥPn A  î î03Dî PP2
in.2 NVLîLQ2 ±PP2 03DPP2
ࢥPn A = 2523 kip ࢥPn A = 11,223 kN
where where
fccƍ NVL  NVL fccƍ 03D  03D
fccƍ NVL fccƍ 03D

⎛ in.⎞ ⎛ mm ⎞
 ×  ×  NVL ×  × LQ × ⎜  ×  ⎟  ×  × 03D ×  × PP × ⎜  ×  ⎟
⎝ in.⎠ ⎝ mm ⎠
fl = fl =
LQ 2 + LQ 2 PP 2 + PP 2

fƐ = 1.26 ksi fƐ = 8.67 MPa

Point B: Point B:
Nominal axial capacity: Nominal axial capacity:

ࢥPn B,C  ࢥ A yt 3 + B yt 2 + C yt D  ࢥPn B = 0.65[–0.22 kip/in.3 LQ 3 + 10.17 ksi ࢥPn B = 0.65[–6.003 × 10–5 kN/mm3 PP 3 + 70.14
™Asifsi] LQ 2±NLSLQ LQ NLS@ × 10–3 kN/mm2 PP 2±N1PP PP 
ࢥMn B,C  ࢥ E yt 4 + F yt 3 + G yt 2 + H yt  in.2 NVL LQ2 NVL LQ2 NVL @ 16,215 kN] + 3277 mm2 03D PP2 
+ I ™Asifsidi 03D PP2 NVL
ࢥPn B = 2210 kip ࢥPn B  N1
7KHFRHI¿FLHQWVA, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, where where
and I of the previous expressions are given
E\(T ' 
2
−b Ec − E2 2 ⎛ ε ccu ⎞
2
−24 in.(4595 ksi − 190.7 ksi) 2 ⎛ 0.0042 in./in.⎞ 2
A= A= ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ −PP  03D − 03D 2 ⎛ PPPP ⎞
⎜⎝ ⎟ 12 × 6.5 ksi A=
12 f c′ c ⎠ 22 in.  × 03D ⎝⎜ PP ⎠⎟
= −0.22 kip/in.3 = −6.003 × 10 −5 kN/mm3

b Ec − E2 ⎛ ε ccu ⎞ LQ NVL − NVL ⎛ LQLQ⎞ 600 mm(31, 685 MPa − 1315 MPa ) ⎛ 0.0042 mm/mm ⎞
B= ⎜⎝ c ⎟⎠ B= ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ B= ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠
2 2 22 in. 2 559 mm
C = bfcƍ = 10.17 ksi = 70.14 × 10 −3 kN/mm 2
C = –24 in. × 6.5 ksi = –156 kip/in. C = –610 mm × 44.84 MPa = –27.32 kN/mm
bcE2 LQ × LQ × NVL
D = bf c′ + ε ccu D = 24 in. × 22 in. × 6.5 ksi +
2 2 D = PPîPPî03D
î LQLQ  NLS PP × PP × 03D
−b Ec − E2 2 ⎛ ε ccu ⎞
2
+
E= 2
16 f c′ ⎜⎝ c ⎟⎠
î PPPP =  N1

2
⎛ h ⎞ E − E2 2 ⎛ ε ccu ⎞ b Ec − E2 ⎛ ε ccu ⎞
F = b⎜c − ⎟ c ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜⎝ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ 12 f c′ ⎝ c ⎠ 3 c ⎠

⎛b ⎛ h ⎞ E − E2 ⎛ ε ccu ⎞ ⎞
G = − ⎜ f c′ + b ⎜ c − ⎟ c ⎜⎝ ⎟
⎝2 ⎝ 2⎠ 2 c ⎠ ⎟⎠

⎛ h⎞
H = bf c′ ⎜ c − ⎟
⎝ 2⎠
bc 2 ⎛ h ⎞ bc 2 E2
I=
2
f c′ − bcf c′ ⎜ c − ⎟ +
⎝ 2⎠ 3
(ε ccu )
bcE2 ⎛ h⎞
− ⎜⎝ c − ⎟⎠ (ε ccu )
2 2

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78 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.9 (cont.)—Procedure for strengthening of a noncircular concrete column for increase in axial
and bending forces
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
Key parameters of the stress-strain model: )RUWKHFDOFXODWLRQRIWKHFRHI¿FLHQWVLWLVQHFHVVDU\WR )RUWKHFDOFXODWLRQRIWKHFRHI¿FLHQWVLWLVQHFHVVDU\WR
compute key parameters from the stress-strain model: compute key parameters from the stress-strain model:
ε′t 0.003 in./in. 0.003 mm/mm
yt = c yt = 22 in. × = 15.33 in. yt = 559 mm × = 389 mm
ε ccu 0.0042 in./in. 0.0042 mm/mm

⎧d for Point B
⎪ c = 22 in. c PP
c=⎨ ε ccu
⎪d ε + ε for Point C
⎩ sy ccu

2 f c′ 2 × 6.5 ksi 2 × 44.8 MPa


ε t′ = ε t′ = = 0.003 in./in. ε t′ = = 0.003 mm/mm
Ec − E2 NVL − NVL 31, 685 MPa − 1315 MPa

f cc′ − f c′ 7.31 ksi − 6.5 ksi 50.4 MPa − 44.8 MPa


E2 = E2 = = 190.7 ksi E2 = = 1315 MPa
ε ccu 0.0042 in./in. 0.0042 mm/mm

fccƍ fcƍțafl fccƍ NVL  NVL  NVL fccƍ 03D  03D  03D

⎛ f ⎛ ε fe ⎞ ⎞
0.45

ε ccu = ε c′ ⎜1.5 + 12κ b  ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ε ccu = 0.002 in./in. ε ccu = 0.002 mm/mm


⎝ f c′ ⎝ ε c′ ⎠ ⎠
⎛ ⎛ 0.58 ksi ⎞ ⎛ 0.004 in./in.⎞ ⎞
0.45
⎛ ⎛ 03D ⎞ ⎛ PPPP ⎞ ⎞
0.45
× ⎜1.5 + 12 × 0.425 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ × ⎜1.5 + 12 × 0.425 ⎜
İfe PLQ țİİfu
⎝ ⎝ 6.5 ksi ⎠ ⎝ 0.002 in./in.⎠ ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 44.8 MPa
⎟ ⎝⎜
⎠ 0.002 mm/mm
⎟ ⎟
⎠ ⎠
İccu = 0.0042 in./in. İccu = 0.0042 mm/mm
2
Ae ⎛ b ⎞
κa = ⎜ ⎟ ța țb = 0.425 ța țb = 0.425
Ac ⎝ h ⎠
0.5
Ae ⎛ h ⎞
κb = ⎜ ⎟
Ac ⎝ b ⎠

ψ f E f nt f ε fe  ×  ×  NVL ×  × LQ × LQLQ  ×  × 03D ×  × PP × PPPP


f = f =
b2 h2 LQ 2 + LQ 2 PP 2 + PP 2

Notes: The designer should bear in mind &KHFNLQJWKHPLQLPXPFRQ¿QHPHQWUDWLR &KHFNLQJWKHPLQLPXPFRQ¿QHPHQWUDWLR


that, for the case of pure compression, the fƐ/fcƍ NVLNVL •2. fƐ/fcƍ 03D03D •2.
HIIHFWLYHVWUDLQLQWKH)53İfe, is limited
E\țİİfu and, in the case of combined axial The strains in each layer of steel are determined The strains in each layer of steel are determined
DQGEHQGLQJE\İfe PLQ țİİfu  by similar triangles in the strain distribution. The by similar triangles in the strain distribution. The
corresponding stresses are then given by: corresponding stresses are then given by:
fs1 İs1Es LQLQîNVLĺNVL fs1 İs1Es PPPPî03Dĺ03D
fs2 İs2Es LQLQîNVLĺNVL fs2 İs2Es PPPPî03Dĺ03D
fs3 İs3Es LQLQîNVL NVL fs3 İs3Es = 0.0013 mm/mm × 200,000 MPa = 257 MPa
fs4 İs4Es LQLQîNVL NVL fs4 İs4Es = 0 mm/mm × 200,000 MPa = 0 MPa
Nominal bending moment:
Nominal bending moment: ࢥMn B = 0.65[–4.502 × 10–5 kN/mm3 PP 4 +
ࢥMn B = 0.65[–0.166 kip/in.3 LQ 4NVL 62.01 × 10–3 kN/mm3 PP 3±N1PP 
LQ 3±NLSLQ LQ 2 + 1560 kip PP 2N1 PP N1PP@
LQ NLSLQ@LQ2 NVL LQ  3277 mm2 03D PP PP2 
2.54 in.2 NVL LQ ±LQ2 NVL LQ 03D PP ±PP2 03D PP
ࢥMn B = 682 kip-ft ࢥMn B  N1P
where where

2
−LQ NVL − NVL 2 ⎛ LQLQ⎞ −PP  03D − 03D 2
E= ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ E=
16 × 6.5 ksi 22 in. 16 × 44.8 MPa
2
= – 0.166 kip/in.3 ⎛ 0.0042 mm/mm ⎞ –5 3
× ⎜
⎝ ⎟⎠ = –0.452 × 10 kN/mm
PP

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 79

Table 16.9 (cont.)—Procedure for strengthening of a noncircular concrete column for increase in axial
and bending forces
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
F = LQ LQ±LQ F = PP PP±PP
2
2
NVL − NVL ⎛ LQLQ⎞
2  03D − 03D 2 ⎛ PPPP ⎞
× ×⎜
× ×⎜
⎝ ⎟⎠  × 03D ⎝ PP ⎠⎟
12 × 6.5 ksi 22 in.
PP  03D − 03D
LQ NVL − NVL ⎛ LQLQ⎞ +
+ ×⎜ ⎟⎠ 3
3 ⎝ 22 in.
⎛ 0.0042 mm/mm ⎞ −3 2
 = NVL ×⎜ ⎟⎠ = 62.01 × 10 kN/mm
⎝ PP

G = NVLîLQLQ LQ±LQ G = 03DîPPPP PP±PP


⎛ NVL − NVL ⎞ ⎛ LQLQ⎞ ⎛ 31, 685 MPa − 1315 MPa ⎞ ⎛ 0.0042 mm/mm ⎞
×⎜
⎝ 2 ⎠⎟ ⎝⎜ 22 in. ⎠⎟ ×⎜
⎝ 
⎟⎠ ⎜⎝
PP
⎟⎠
 = ±NLSLQ = –31.48 kN/mm

H NVLîLQ LQ±LQ  NLS H 03DîPP PP±PP  N1

I NVLîLQî >LQ@2 ±NVL LQ± I 03DîPPî >PP@2@ ±03D


LQ îLQîLQNVLîLQî > PP±PP î PP PP 03D
in.]2 LQLQ ±NVLîLQî LQ îPPî >PP@2@ PPPP ±
LQ±LQ LQLQ  NLSLQ 03DîPPî PP  PP±PP
PPPP  N1PP

The distances from each layer of steel reinforcement The distances from each layer of steel reinforcement
to the geometric centroid of the cross section are: to the geometric centroid of the cross section are:

d1 = 10 in. d1 = 254 mm
d2 = d3 = 3.3 in. d2 = d3 = 85 mm

Point C: Point C:
Nominal axial capacity: Nominal axial capacity:
ࢥPnI >±NLSLQ3 LQ 3NVL  ࢥPn C = 0.65[–1.33 ×10–4 kN/mm3 PP 3 +
LQ 2±NLSLQ LQ NLS@LQ2 104.41 × 10–3 kN/mm2î PP 2 – 27.32 kN/
NVL LQ2 NVL LQ2 ±NVL  PP PP N1@PP2 03D 
5.08 in.2 ±NVL + 1315 mm2 03D PP2 ±03D 
3277 mm2 ±03D

ࢥPnI = 1320 kip ࢥPn C = 5870 kN

where where

2
−LQ NVL − NVL 2 ⎛ LQLQ⎞ −PP  03D − 03D 2
A= ⎜⎝ ⎟ A=
12 × 6.5 ksi 14.78 in. ⎠ 12 × 44.8 MPa
2
 ±NLSLQ3 ⎛ 0.0042 mm/mm ⎞ −4 2
×⎜ ⎟⎠ = 1.33 × 10 kN/mm
⎝ 375 mm

−LQ NVL − NVL ⎛ LQLQ⎞ −PP  03D − 03D


B= ⎜⎝ ⎟ B=
2 14.78 in. ⎠ 2
= 15.14 ksi ⎛ 0.0042 mm/mm ⎞ −3 2
× ⎜ ⎟⎠ = –104.41 × 10 kN/mm
⎝ 375 mm

C = –24 in. × 6.5 ksi = –156 kip/in. C = –610 mm × 44.8 MPa = –27.32 kN/mm

D = 24 in. × 14.78 in. × 6.5 ksi D = 610 mm × 375 mm × 44.8 MPa


LQ × LQ × NVL 610 mm × 375 mm × 1315 MPa
+ +
2 2
î LQLQ  NLS î PPPP  N1

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80 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.9 (cont.)—Procedure for strengthening of a noncircular concrete column for increase in axial
and bending forces
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
)RUWKHFDOFXODWLRQRIWKHFRHI¿FLHQWVLWLVQHFHVVDU\ )RUWKHFDOFXODWLRQRIWKHFRHI¿FLHQWVLWLVQHFHVVDU\
to compute key parameters from the stress-strain to compute key parameters from the stress-strain
model: model:
⎛ 0.0042 in./in. ⎞ ⎛ 0.0042 mm/mm ⎞
c = 22 in. × ⎜ c = 560 mm × ⎜
⎝ 0.0021 in./in. + 0.0042 in./in.⎟⎠ ⎝ 0.0021 mm/mm + 0.0042 mm/mm ⎟⎠
= 14.67 in. = 373 mm

0.003 in./in. 0.003 in./in.


yt = 14.64 in. = 10.5 in. yt = 373 mm = 266 mm
0.0042 in./in. 0.0042 in./in.

The strains in each layer of steel are determined The strains in each layer of steel are determined
by similar triangles in the strain distribution. The by similar triangles in the strain distribution. The
corresponding stresses are then given by: corresponding stresses are then given by:
fs1 İs1Es LQLQîNVLĺNVL fs1 İs1Es PPPPî03Dĺ03D
fs2 İs2Es LQLQîNVL NVL fs2 İs2Es = 0.0018 mm/mm × 200,000 MPa = 350 MPa
fs3 İs3Es ±î–4LQLQîNVL ±NVL fs3 İs3Es ±î–4 mm/mm × 200,000 MPa = –31.8 MPa
fs4 İs4Es ±LQLQîNVL ±NVL fs4 İs4Es = –0.0021 mm/mm × 200,000 MPa = –414 MPa

Nominal bending moment: Nominal bending moment:


ࢥMn & = 0.65[–0.37 kip/in.3 LQ 4 + 11.46 ksi ࢥMn C  >±î–5 kN/mm3 PP 4î
LQ 3±NLSLQ LQ 2NLS  10–3 kN/mm2 PP 3±N1PP PP 2 +
LQ NLSLQ@LQ2 NVL LQ  N1 PP N1PP@PP2
in.2 NVL LQ ±LQ2 ±NVL   03D PP PP2 ±03D 
LQ ±LQ2 ±NVL LQ PP ±PP2 ±03D  PP

ࢥMn C  NLSIW ࢥMn C = 1345 kN-m


where where

2
−LQ NVL − NVL 2 ⎛ LQLQ⎞ 2
E= −PP  03D − 03D 2 ⎛ PPPP ⎞
16 × 6.5 ksi ⎝⎜ 14.78 in. ⎠⎟ E=
16 × 44.8 MPa
⎜⎝
375 mm
⎟⎠
= –0.37 kip/in.3  ±î−5 N1PP3

F = LQ LQ±LQ F = PP PP±PP


2 2 2
NVL − NVL ⎛ LQLQ⎞  03D − 03D 2 ⎛ PPPP ⎞
× ×
12 × 6.5 ksi ⎝⎜ 14.78 in. ⎠⎟ 12 × 44.8 MPa ⎝⎜ 375 mm ⎠⎟
LQ NVL − NVL PP  03D − 03D
+ +
3 3
⎛ 0.0042 in./in.⎞ ⎛ 0.0042 mm/mm ⎞
×⎜ = 11.46 ksi ×⎜ =  × −3 N1PP 2
⎝ 14.78 in. ⎠⎟ ⎝ 375 mm ⎠⎟
G = ±NVLîLQLQ LQ±LQ G = ±03DîPPPP PP±PP
⎛ NVL − NVL ⎞ ⎛ LQLQ⎞ ⎛ 31,681 MPa − 1315 MPa ⎞ ⎛ 0.0042 mm/mm ⎞
×⎜ ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ ⎟ ×⎜
⎝ 2 14.78 in. ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎟ ⎝⎜ 375 mm ⎠⎟
= –120.08 kip/in. = –21.03 kN/mm

H NVLîLQ LQ±LQ  NLS H 03DîPP PP±PP  N1

I NVLîLQî >LQ@2 ±NVL  I 03DîPPî >PP@2 ±03D


LQ±LQ LQ LQ NVLîLQî PP±PP î PP PP 
>LQ@2  LQLQ ±NVLîLQî 03DîPPî >PP@2 PPPP ±
LQ LQ±LQ LQLQ 03DîPPî PP PP±
= 11,643 kip-in. PP PPPP  N1PP

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 81

Table 16.9 (cont.)—Procedure for strengthening of a noncircular concrete column for increase in axial
and bending forces
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,PHWULFXQLWV
6WHS²&RPSDULVRQRIVLPSOL¿HG The following table summarizes the axial and bending The following table summarizes the axial and bending
SDUWLDOLQWHUDFWLRQGLDJUDPZLWK QRPLQDOFDSDFLWLHV XQVWUHQJWKHQHGDQGVWUHQJWKHQHG  QRPLQDOFDSDFLWLHV XQVWUHQJWKHQHGDQGVWUHQJWKHQHG 
UHTXLUHGPu and Mu for Points A, B, and C. These points are plotted in the for Points A, B, and C. These points are plotted in the
IROORZLQJ¿JXUH IROORZLQJ¿JXUH

n = 0 plies n = 0 plies
XQVWUHQJWKHQHG XQVWUHQJWKHQHG
PHPEHU n = 6 plies PHPEHU n = 6 plies
ࢥPn, ࢥMn, ࢥPn, ࢥMn, ࢥPn, ࢥMn, ࢥPn, ࢥMn,
Point kip kip-ft kip kip-ft Point kN kN-m kN kN-m
A 2087 0 2523 0 A  0 11,223 0
B 1858 644 2210 682 B 8264 873  
C  884 1320  C 4128  5870 1345

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82 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

16.10—Plastic hinge confinement for seismic ties and other relevant information are listed in Table 16.10a.
strengthening From a seismic analysis, the column should be capable of
7KLV H[DPSOH LOOXVWUDWHV WKH GHVLJQ RI DQ )53 UHWUR¿W WR GHYHORSLQJDSODVWLFURWDWLRQșp = 0.025 rad. The axial load
enhance the plastic rotation capacity of a nonductile rein- on the column, including gravity plus seismic loads, is Pu =
forced concrete column. In this example, the column cannot NLS N1 7KLVSODVWLFURWDWLRQGHPDQGH[FHHGVWKH
HI¿FLHQWO\ UHVLVW VHLVPLF ORDGV IRU WZR UHDVRQV   WKH WLH limiting value of 0.015 stipulated in ASCE/SEI 41 numerical
VSDFLQJGRHVQRWFRQIRUPWRFXUUHQWVHLVPLFGHVLJQFRGHV acceptance criteria for reinforced concrete columns that do
DQG  WKHWLHVGRQRWSURMHFWLQWRWKHFRUHDQGXQGHUVHLVPLF not conform to current seismic design codes. The concrete
loads may open once the cover concrete begins to spall. The and reinforcing steel strain limitations of ASCE/SEI 41 as
DIRUHPHQWLRQHG GH¿FLHQFLHV LQGLFDWH WKDW WKH FROXPQ PD\ listed in Table 16.10b should not be exceeded.
KDYHLQDGHTXDWHVKHDUVWUHQJWKLQDGHTXDWHFRQ¿QHPHQWRI The column is strengthened with CFRP laminates having
WKH SODVWLF KLQJH UHJLRQ DQG LQDGHTXDWH FODPSLQJ RI ODS the composite properties listed in Table 16.10c and bonded
VSOLFHV ,Q DGGLWLRQ WKH GHVLJQHU VKRXOG HQVXUH DGHTXDWH DURXQG WKH FROXPQ XVLQJ WKH ZHW OD\XS WHFKQLTXH *ODVV
resistance against buckling of the main longitudinal rein- )53 *)53  KRZHYHU FDQ VLPLODUO\ EH XVHG LI GHVLUHG
IRUFHPHQW ,Q WKLV H[DPSOH WKH GH¿FLHQF\ XQGHU FRQVLGHU- The design process was initiated by considering a wrap-
DWLRQ LV LQDGHTXDWH SODVWLF URWDWLRQ FDSDFLW\ ZKLFK FDQ EH ping system composed of three plies. After two iterations,
HQKDQFHG E\ FRQ¿QHPHQW RI WKH SODVWLF KLQJH UHJLRQ ZLWK WKH ¿QDO ZUDSSLQJ V\VWHP ZDV IRXQG WR UHTXLUH ¿YH SOLHV
FRP. A seismic analysis has already determined that the 2QO\WKHFDOFXODWLRQVXVHGWRYHULI\WKH¿QDOFRQ¿JXUDWLRQ
FROXPQLVFDSDEOHRIUHVLVWLQJWKHUHTXLUHGVHLVPLFPRPHQWV are provided. These calculations are shown in Table 16.10d.
7KXVWKHUHLVQRQHHGWRLQFUHDVHWKHÀH[XUDOFDSDFLW\RIWKH Figure 16.10b shows the moment curvature analysis of the
section. This example is limited in scope to the FRP design DVEXLOWDQGUHWUR¿WUHFWDQJXODUVHFWLRQV7KHPRPHQWFXUYD-
UHTXLUHPHQWV DQG GRHV QRW FRYHU WKH VHLVPLF DQDO\VLV ture analysis results show the as-built ultimate curvature
ASCE/SEI 41 is used as the base standard for this example. FDSDFLW\ LV VLJQL¿FDQWO\ ORZHU WKDQ WKH UHTXLUHG FXUYDWXUH
The column, which is to be part of a lateral load-resisting demand.
system, is illustrated in Fig. 16.10a. Expected material proper-

)LJD²$VEXLOWFROXPQGHWDLOV

)LJE²0RPHQWFXUYDWXUHDQDO\VLV

Table 16.10a—Column material properties


Concrete strength fcƍ 4000 psi 27.6 MPa
Concrete elastic modulus
Ec =   f c′  SVL  3605 ksi 25 GPa
Ec =  f c′  03D 

Longitudinal reinforcing steel: yield strength fy 44,000 psi 303 MPa


Modulus of elasticity of steel Es NVL 200 GPa
Longitudinal reinforcing steel: yield strain İy 0.0015 0.0015
Column height between plastic hinges L 10 ft 3.05 m
Distance to extreme tension steel d 14.625 in. 371 mm

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Table 16.10b—Maximum usable strain levels (ASCE/SEI 41)


Strain limits
8QFRQ¿QHGVHFWLRQV &RQ¿QHGVHFWLRQVSHU
&RPSUHVVLYH FRQFUHWH 0.003 İccu
7HQVLOH VWHHO 0.005 0.05
&RPSUHVVLYH VWHHO Limited by the concrete 0.02

Table 16.10c—Manufacturer’s reported composite properties


Thickness per ply tf 0.023 in. 0.584 mm
Ultimate tensile strength ffu* 155 ksi 1072 MPa
5XSWXUHVWUDLQİfu* 0.015 0.015
Modulus of elasticity, Ef NVL 64.3 GPa

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84 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.10d—Procedure for designing plastic hinge confinement for seismic strengthening
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,XQLWV
6WHS²)53V\VWHPGHVLJQPDWHULDO
SURSHUWLHV

İfu = CEİfu* İfu”î 

CE 

The column is located in an interior space.


7KHUHIRUHSHU7DEOHDQHQYLURQPHQWDO
UHGXFWLRQIDFWRURILVXVHG țe = 0.55

İfe ”țİİfu İfe ”î ‫׵‬İfe = 0.04 ‫׵‬İfe = 0.04


6WHS²3ODVWLFKLQJHOHQJWK Lp = 2 + 0.0003 ×44,000 × 0.75 = 12 in. Lp îî LQ

In FRP jacketed columns, the plastic hinge


length is:
1RWH8VHDPD[LPXPJDSEHWZHHQWKH)53DQGWKHFROXPQEDVHRILQ PP
Lp = g + 0.0003fydEƐ SVLDQGLQ
Lp = g + 0.044fydEƐ 03DDQGPP
6WHS²3UHOLPLQDU\FDOFXODWLRQV

b = h LQ PP

From 12.1.2:

D = h2 + b2 D = 162 + 162 = 22.63 in. D = 406.42 + 406.42 = 575 mm

Ae/Ac = 0.62 Ae/Ac = 0.62


2 2
Ae ⎛ b ⎞ ⎛A⎞ ța = 0.62
κa = ⎜ ⎟ κ a = 0.62 ⎜ e ⎟ = 0.62
Ac ⎝ h ⎠ ⎝ Ac ⎠

Ae h 16 țb = 0.62
κb = κ b = 0.62 = 0.62
Ac b 16

where Ae/Ac is calculated as: İcƍ  İcƍ 


h/b = 1.00
⎡⎛ b⎞ 2 ⎛ h⎞ 2⎤
⎢ ⎜⎝ h ⎟⎠ h − rc + ⎜⎝ b ⎟⎠ b − rc ⎥
1− ⎢ ⎥ − ρg 1RWH)RUUHFWDQJXODUPHPEHUVSODVWLFKLQJHFRQ¿QHPHQWE\MDFNHWLQJLVQRWUHFRPPHQGHGIRUPHPEHUV
⎢ 3 Ag ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎦ featuring side aspect ratios, h/b, greater than 1.5, or face dimensions, b or hH[FHHGLQJLQ PP 
Ae ⎣
= XQOHVVWHVWLQJGHPRQVWUDWHVWKHLUHIIHFWLYHQHVV  
Ac 1 − ρg

6WHS²&RQ¿QLQJFRQFUHWHPRGHO
YDULDEOHV

8VLQJWKHWULDOGHVLJQRI¿YHSOLHV
FRPSXWHWKHFRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHPRGHO
parameters listed in the following:
2 E f t f n f ε fe  ×   ×  ×  ×  2 × 64,300 × 0.584 × 5 × 0.004
f = fl = = 380 psi fl = = 2.61 MPa
D 22.63 575

ȥf IRUIXOO\ZUDSSHGVHFWLRQV ȥf 

fccƍ fcƍȥfțafl fccƍ îîî SVL fccƍ îîî 03D

⎛ f ⎛ ε fe ⎞ ⎞
0.45
⎛ ⎛ 2.61 ⎛ 0.004 ⎞ ⎞
0.45
380 ⎛ 0.004 ⎞ ⎞
0.45
ε ccu = ε c′ ⎜1.50 + 12κ b  ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ε ccu = 0.002 ⎜1.50 + 12 × 0.62 × ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ ⎟ ε ccu = 0.002 ⎜1.50 + 12 × 0.62 × ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ ⎟
⎝ f c′ ⎝ ε′c ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 4000 0.002 ⎠ ⎝ 27.60 0.002 ⎠
=  ≤  = ≤ 

İccu is limited to 0.01 to prevent excessive cracking and the resulting loss of concrete integrity
1RWH7KHH[SUHVVLRQVSUHVHQWHGSUHYLRXVO\DUHXVHGLQFRQMXQFWLRQZLWKDPRPHQWFXUYDWXUH Mࢥ DQDO\VLVSURJUDPWRREWDLQWKH\LHOGDQGXOWLPDWHFXUYDWXUH7KHVHFXUYDWXUHV
are presented in Steps 5 and 6.

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Table 16.10d (cont.)—Procedure for designing plastic hinge confinement for seismic strengthening
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,XQLWV
6WHS²2XWSXWIURPMࢥDQDO\VLV Neutral axis: Neutral axis:
SURJUDPREWDLQWKHQHXWUDOD[LVDW cy,frp = 5.34 in. cy,frp = 136 mm
\LHOGLQJRIORQJLWXGLQDOUHLQIRUFHPHQW
1RWH<LHOGVWUDLQRIORQJLWXGLQDOUHLQIRUFHPHQWİy 
cy,frp
6WHS²2XWSXWIURPMࢥDQDO\VLV Neutral axis: Neutral axis:
SURJUDPREWDLQWKHQHXWUDOD[LVDW cu,frp LQ cu,frp = 50 mm
XOWLPDWHcu,frp
1RWH7KHXOWLPDWHFRQFUHWHFRPSUHVVLYHVWUDLQLVFRPSXWHGSHU6WHSİccu 
1. Concrete compression strain:
İccu 

2. Steel tension strain:


⎛d ⎞ ⎛ 14.625 ⎞ ⎛ 371 ⎞
ε s = ε ccu ⎜ − 1⎟ ε s =  ⎜ − ⎟ =  <  ε s =  ⎜ −  =  < 
⎝ cu ⎠ ⎝ 5.34 ⎠ ⎝ 136 ⎟⎠

6WHS²&RPSXWHWKH\LHOGFXUYDWXUH From a MࢥDQDO\VLVWKH\LHOGFXUYDWXUHLV From a MࢥDQDO\VLVWKH\LHOGFXUYDWXUHLV


εy
φ y , frp = 0.0015 0.0015
d − c y , frp φ y , frp = = 0.000163/in. φ y , frp = = 0.0064/m
14.625 − 5.34 371 − 136

6WHS²&RPSXWHWKHXOWLPDWH From a MࢥDQDO\VLVWKHXOWLPDWHFXUYDWXUHLV From a MࢥDQDO\VLVWKHXOWLPDWHFXUYDWXUHLV


FXUYDWXUHFDSDFLW\
ε ccu  0.0049
φu , frp = φu , frp = = 0.0025/in. φu , frp = = 0.099/m
cu , FRP  50

6WHS²&RPSXWHWKHXOWLPDWH
FXUYDWXUHGHPDQG
θp
φD = + y , frp 0.025 0.025
Lp φD = + 0.000163 = 0.0022/in. φD = + 0.0064 = 0.084/m
12 0.305

6WHS²9HULI\GHVLJQ
ࢥDࢥu,frp ࢥD = 0.0022/in. < 0.0025/in. OK ࢥD PP2.
6WHS²/HQJWKRIFRQ¿QHGUHJLRQlo ⎧16 in. ⎧406.4 mm
⎪⎪120 / 2 ⎪⎪ 3050/2
7UDQVYHUVHUHLQIRUFHPHQWDVVSHFL¿HG o ≥ ⎨ = 10 in. o ≥ ⎨ = 254 mm
per Section 18.7 of ACI 318-14 shall be ⎪ 6 ⎪ 6
provided over a length lo ⎪⎩18 in. ⎪⎩457 mm

lo!Lp LQ PP


Design summary:
&RPSOHWHO\ZUDSWKHVHFWLRQZLWK¿YHWUDQVYHUVHSOLHV
&RQ¿QLQJMDFNHWVKRXOGH[WHQGDWOHDVWLQ PP EH\RQGWKHMRLQWLQWHUIDFH

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86 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

16.11—Lap-splice clamping for seismic


strengthening
7KLV H[DPSOH LOOXVWUDWHV WKH GHVLJQ RI DQ )53 UHWUR¿W WR
improve the seismic performance of a reinforced concrete
column that is constructed with a lap splice in a region of
plastic rotations. Material properties, details, and other
relevant information are provided in Table 16.11a and Fig.
16.11. The column is strengthened with CFRP laminates
having the composite properties listed in Table 16.11b and
ERQGHG DURXQG WKH FROXPQ XVLQJ WKH ZHW OD\XS WHFKQLTXH
Glass FRP, however, can similarly be used if desired.
7KH¿QDOZUDSSLQJV\VWHPZDVIRXQGWRUHTXLUH¿YHSOLHV
2QO\WKHFDOFXODWLRQVXVHGWRYHULI\WKH¿QDOFRQ¿JXUDWLRQ
are provided. These calculations are shown in Table. 16.11c. )LJ²'HWDLORIODSVSOLFHLQDSODVWLFKLQJHUHJLRQ

Table 16.11a—Column material properties


Concrete strength fcƍ 4000 psi 27.6 MPa
Concrete elastic modulus

Ec =   f c′  SVL 3605 ksi 25 GPa


Ec =  f c′  03D

Longtudinal reinforcing steel: yield strength fy 44,000 psi 303.4 MPa


Modulus of elasticity of steel Es NVL 200 GPa
/RQJLWXGLQDOUHLQIRUFLQJVWHHO\LHOGVWUDLQİy 0.0015 0.0015
Column height between plastic hinges, L 10 ft 3.05 m
Distance to extreme tension steel, d 14.625 in. 371 mm

Table 16.11b—Manufacturer’s reported composite properties


Thickness per ply tf 0.08 in. 2 mm
Ultimate tensile strength 143 ksi 03D
Rupture strain 0.010 0.010
Modulus of elasticity Ef NVL *3D

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Table 16.11c—Procedure for designing lap-splice clamping for seismic strengthening


3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,XQLWV
6WHS²&RPSXWHWKHWHQVLOHVWUHVV s = 12 in. s = 305 mm
WKDWH[LVWLQJVSOLFHFDQGHYHORS $&, n=1 n=1
6HFWLRQ Longitudinal bars in the potential plane of splitting

⎛c K ⎞ 40 × 1 × 0.11 40 × 1× 71
40  d λ f c′ ⎜ b tr ⎟ K tr = = 0.37 in. Ktr = = PP
⎝ db ⎠ 12 × 1 305 × 1
fs =  LQDQGSVL
3 db ψ t ψ e ψ s
⎛c K ⎞ cb + K tr  +  +  +  cb + K tr  +  +  + 
3.33  d λ f c′ ⎜ b tr ⎟ = = 2.24 ≤ 2.50 = = 2.24 ≤ 2.50
⎝ db ⎠ db 1.00 db 25.4
fs =  PPDQG03D
3 db ψ t ψ e ψ s

cb + K tr
3HU(T D RI$&,WKHYDOXH
40 Atr db
K tr = cannot be greater than 2.5.
sn
ȥt ȥe ȥs = 1.00
40 × 20.0 × 1.0 4000 × 2.24 3.33 × 508 × 1.0 27.6 × 2.24
fs = fs =
Ȝ  QRUPDOZHLJKWFRQFUHWH 3 × 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0 3 × 25.4 × 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0
 =  SVL ≤ SVL = 260 MPa ≤ 303 MPa
Note: Computed stress fs does not reach fy, longitudinal bar yield strength, and as such lap splice must be clamped.
6WHS²6WUHVVFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRSXOORXW Ɛprov = 20dEƐ = 20 × 1.0 = 20 in. Ɛprov = 20dEƐ = 20 × 25.4 = 508 mm
FDSDFLW\RIVSOLFH
Pullout capacity of splice: Pullout capacity of splice:

33  d λ f c′ 33 × 20.0 × 4000 2.75 × 508 × 27.6


fs ≤  LQDQGSVL fs = = 41,742 psi fs = = 03D
db  ψ t ψ e ψ s 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0 25.4 × 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0
2.75 d λ f c′
fs ≤  PPDQG03D
db  ψ t ψ e ψ s

6WHS²&RPSXWHWKHUHTXLUHGMDFNHW D LQ PD[LPXPGLPHQVLRQLQDUHFWDQJXODUPHPEHU D = 610 mm


WKLFNQHVVtj
Ef NVL Ef 03D
D
nt f =  ×  NVLDQGLQ 24 610
Ef t j = 218 × = 0.38 in. t j =  × = PP
 
D
nt f =  ×  03DDQGPP
Ef

6WHS²&RPSXWHWKHUHTXLUHGQXPEHU
RISOLHVn
tf = 0.08 in. tf = 2 mm

n = tj/tf n  ¿YHSOLHV n  ¿YHSOLHV


Design summary:
&RPSOHWHO\ZUDSWKHVHFWLRQZLWK¿YHWUDQVYHUVHSOLHV
&RQ¿QLQJMDFNHWVKRXOGH[WHQGDWOHDVWIXOOKHLJKWRIODSVSOLFHWKDWLVLQ PP
8VLQJ¿YHSOLHVRIWKH)53VSHFL¿HGUHVXOWVLQDVSOLFHFDSDFLW\RISVL 03D ZKLFKLVFRQWUROOHGE\WKHPD[LPXPSXOORXWFDSDFLW\FDOFXODWHG
in Step 2.

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88 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

16.12—Seismic shear strengthening


This example illustrates the main steps in calculating the
DPRXQWRI)53UHTXLUHGIRUWKHVKHDUVWUHQJWKHQLQJRIDUHLQ-
forced concrete member. The member used in this example
is illustrated in Fig. 16.12. Column material properties are
VKRZQLQ7DEOHDWKHFRQ¿JXUDWLRQRIWKH)53VKHDU
reinforcement is described in Table 16.12b, and the CFRP
laminate material properties are listed in Table 16.12c.
ASCE/SEI 41 is used as the standard for this example. Glass
)53 *)53 FDQVLPLODUO\EHXVHGLIGHVLUHG&DOFXODWLRQV
IRUGHWHUPLQLQJWKH)53UHTXLUHGDVVKRZQLQ7DEOHG )LJ²$VEXLOWFROXPQGHWDLOV

Table 16.12a—Column material properties


Concrete strength fcƍ 4000 psi 27.6 MPa
Concrete elastic modulus

Ec =   f c′  SVL 3605 ksi 25 GPa


Ec =  f c′ 03D

Longtudinal reinforcing steel: yield strength fy 44,000 psi 303.4 MPa


Modulus of elasticity of steel Es NVL 200 GPa
/RQJLWXGLQDOUHLQIRUFLQJVWHHO\LHOGVWUDLQİy 0.0015 0.0015
Column height between plastic hinges, L 10 ft 3.05 m
Distance to extreme tension steel, d 14.625 in. 371 mm
Ultimate axial load Pu 75 kip 333.62 kN

Table 16.12b—Configuration of supplemental FRP shear reinforcement


Minimum section dimension 16 in. 406 mm
dfy JRYHUQHGE\PLQLPXPVHFWLRQGLPHQVLRQ 16 in. 406 mm
Width wf 8 in. 203 mm
Spacing sf IXOOFRYHUDJH 8 in. 203 mm

Table 16.12c—Manufacturer’s reported composite properties


Thickness per ply tf 0.023 in. 0.584 mm
Ultimate tensile strength ffu* 155 ksi 1072 MPa
5XSWXUHVWUDLQİfu* 0.015 0.015
Modulus of elasticity Ef NVL 64.3 GPa

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Table 16.12d—Procedure for seismic shear strengthening


'HVLJQVWHSV &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,XQLWV
6WHS²&RPSXWHWKHSUREDEOHPRPHQW From a MࢥDQDO\VLVWKHSUREDEOHPRPHQWFDSDFLW\LV From a MࢥDQDO\VLVWKHSUREDEOHPRPHQWFDSDFLW\LV
FDSDFLW\RIWKHPHPEHUMpr Mpr = 322 kip-ft Mpr = 437 kN-m
Notes:
3HULQFDOFXODWLQJWKHSUREDEOH
 ,QVHLVPLFDSSOLFDWLRQVWKHVKHDUGHVLJQSURFHVVLQLWLDWHVZLWKWKHFDOFXODWLRQRIWKHSUREDEOHPRPHQW
PRPHQWࢥ DQGȥf = 1 are used.
capacity of the section.
 0RPHQWMpr is computed at both top and bottom ends of the member.
6WHS²2EWDLQWKH\LHOGDQGXOWLPDWH Yield curvature: Yield curvature:
FXUYDWXUHIURPDMࢥDQDO\VLV ࢥy,frp = 0.000163/in. ࢥy,frp = 0.0064/m

Ultimate curvature: Ultimate curvature:


ࢥu,frp LQ ࢥu,frp = 0.074/m
6WHS²&RPSXWHWKHGLVSODFHPHQW
GXFWLOLW\DQGUHGXFWLRQIDFWRUk

In FRP jacketed columns, the plastic hinge Plastic hinge length: Plastic hinge length:
OHQJWKLV (T  
Lp = g + 0.0003fydb Lp = 2 + 0.0003 × 44,000 × 0.75 = 12 in. Lp îî PP
fy is in ksi and db is in inches
Note: Use a maximum gap between the FRP and the Note: Use a maximum gap between the FRP and the
Lp = g + 0.044fydb column base of 2 in. column base of 50.8 mm.
fy is in MPa and db is in mm

In this example:

L
Leff = = LQ PP
2
<LHOGGHÀHFWLRQ¨y,frp: <LHOGGHÀHFWLRQ <LHOGGHÀHFWLRQ
2
φ y , frp L
eff 0.000163 × 60 2
0.0065 × 15242
Δ y , frp = Δ y , frp = = 0.20 in. Δy = = 5.1 mm
3 3 3 × 1000

3ODVWLFGHÀHFWLRQ¨p,frp: 3ODVWLFGHÀHFWLRQ 3ODVWLFGHÀHFWLRQ


⎛ Lp ⎞ ⎛ 12 ⎞  −  ⎛  ⎞
Δ p , frp = φu − φ y L p ⎜ Leff − ⎟ Δ p , frp =  −  ×  ⎜  − ⎟ = LQ Δ p , frp = 305 ⎜1524 − ⎟ = 28.6 mm
⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 1000 ⎝ 2 ⎠

'LVSODFHPHQWGXFWLOLW\ȝ¨: Displacement ductility: Displacement ductility:


Δp 1.13 28.6
μΔ = 1 + μΔ = 1 + = 6.7 μΔ = 1 + = 6.7
Δy 0.20 5.1

Shear reduction factor per ASCE/SEI 41 Reduction factor: Reduction factor:

⎧μ Δ ≤  k = 
⎪  ×  − μ Δ k = 0.70 k = 0.70

⎨ ≤ μ Δ ≤  k =  +
⎪ 4
⎪⎩μ Δ >  k = 

6WHS²&RPSXWHWKHVKHDUGHVLJQ ,QWKLVH[DPSOHZLWKWKHH[FHSWLRQRIWKHHDUWKTXDNHIRUFHVWKHUHDUHQRDSSOLHGXQLIRUPORDGVRQWKHPHPEHU
IRUFHVu as such:

Wu = 0.00

From Step 1, the probable moment capacity is:

Mpr,top = Mpr,bot NLSIW N1P


Design shear force: Design shear force:
Per ACI 318-14 Section 18.7.6:
322 + 322 437 + 437
M pr ,top + M pr ,bot wu L Vu = ± 0 = 64.4 kip Vu = ± 0 = 286 kN
Vu = ± 120/12 3.05
L 2

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Table 16.12d (cont.)—Procedure for seismic shear strengthening


'HVLJQVWHSV &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,XQLWV
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHFRQFUHWHVcDQG
VWHHOFRQWULEXWLRQVs

Concrete contribution, Vc: Concrete contribution to shear capacity: Concrete contribution to shear capacity:

Per ACI 318-14 Section 18.7.6.2.1, and


because:
M pr , r + M pr ,l ⎛w  ⎞ 1
≥⎜ u n⎟ ⇒
n ⎝ 2 ⎠2
Vc = 0 Vc = 0 Vc = 0

Steel contribution Vs Steel contribution to shear capacity: Steel contribution to shear capacity:

d 14.625 371.475
Vs = Ash f y Vs = 2 × 0.20 × 44 × = 21.4 kip Vs = 2 × 129 × 303.4 × = 95.2 kN
s 12 305

Combined concrete and steel contribution: Combined concrete and steel contribution:
k Vc +Vs     NLS k Vc +Vs     N1
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHUHTXLUHG)53
IRUFHVf
5HTXLUHG)53IRUFH 5HTXLUHG)53IRUFH
⎡Vu ⎤
⎢ φ − k Vc + Vs ⎥ ⎡ 64.4 ⎤ ⎡ 286 ⎤
⎣ ⎦ ⎢ 1.00 − ⎥⎦ ⎢1.00 − 66.6⎥⎦
V f ,R =
ψf V f ,R =⎣ = 45.26 kip V f ,R =⎣ = 201.3 kN
 

3HU$6&(6(,ࢥ 

For completely wrapped members, Table


UHFRPPHQGVȥf 
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHHIIHFWLYHVWUHVVffe.

For fully wrapped members, the effective


VWUDLQLVFRPSXWHGXVLQJ(T  
Effective strain: Effective strain:
İfe = 0.75CEİfu*” İfe îî ” İfe îî ”

CE 

The column is located in an interior space.


7KHUHIRUHSHU7DEOHDQHQYLURQPHQWDO
UHGXFWLRQIDFWRURILVXVHG

The effective FRP stress can be computed


from Hooke’s law:
Effective stress: Effective stress:
ffe İfeEf ffe î NVL ffe = 0.004 × 64,300 = 257 MPa
6WHS²&DOFXODWHWKHQXPEHURISOLHVnf

Area of a single ply for a fully wrapped


PHPEHU (T D 
Area per ply: Area per ply:
Afv = 2tfwf Afv = 2 × 0.023 × 8 = 0.37 in.2 Afv = 2 × 0.584 × 203 = 237 mm2
The shear contribution of the FRP can be
WKHQFDOFXODWHGIURP(T   Force per ply: Force per ply:
VLQ α + FRV α d fv
V f = Afv f fe    
sf V f = 0.37 × 37.3 = 27.6 kip V f = 237 × 257 = 122 kN
8 203

Number of plies: Number of plies:


V f ,R 45.26 V f ,R 201.3
n fv = = =  PLQLPXP n fv = = =  PLQLPXP
Vf 27.6 Vf 122

Design summary: Completely wrap the section with two transverse plies

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 91

16.13—Flexural and shear seismic strengthening Details of the wall and relevant information are provided
of shear walls in Fig. 16.13a and Table 16.13a. The wall is assumed to be
7KLV H[DPSOH LOOXVWUDWHV WKH XVH RI DQ )53 UHWUR¿W WR an ordinary shear wall. The wall is strengthened with FRP
LQFUHDVHWKHVKHDUDQGÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKRIDQH[LVWLQJFDQWL- having the composite properties listed in Table 16.13b. A
levered concrete wall. The shear strengthening is achieved factored axial load, PuRINLS N1 LVDVVXPHGLQDGGL-
by installing horizontally oriented FRP on one face of the tion to the lateral force. ASCE/SEI 41 is assumed to be the
ZDOO 7KH ÀH[XUDO VWUHQJWKHQLQJ LV DFKLHYHG E\ LQVWDOOLQJ standard used as the basis for the rehabilitation.
multiple layers of vertically oriented FRP on both faces of This example illustrates a manual calculation approach for
the wall near the wall ends. Details for anchorage of the FRP the design of FRP strengthening of a shear wall. A moment
WRWKHIRXQGDWLRQDUHQRWDGGUHVVHG&DUERQ)53 &)53 LV curvature analysis of the existing and repaired wall, shown
XVHG LQ WKLV H[DPSOH *ODVV )53 *)53  FDQ VLPLODUO\ EH in Fig. 16.13b, is used to assess the accuracy of the manual
used if desired. DSSURDFK 7KH UHDVRQDEO\ JRRG DJUHHPHQW RI WKH ÀH[XUDO
The example incorporates the following two major phases: results from the design example with those from a moment-
 'HWHUPLQH WKH VKHDU DQG ÀH[XUDO FDSDFLW\ RI WKH curvature analysis validates the illustrative example. The
existing wall design calculations are shown in Table 16.13c.
'HVLJQWKH)53WRDFKLHYHWKHUHTXLUHGVWUHQJWK

)LJD²&RQFUHWHZDOOGHWDLOV

)LJ E²0RPHQWFXUYDWXUH DQDO\VLV IRU VKHDU ZDOO


example.

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92 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.13a—As-built shear wall properties and demands


Concrete strength 2500 psi 17.23 MPa
Longitudinal reinforcing steel yield strength 40.0 ksi 275.8 MPa
Modulus of elasticity of steel NVL 200 GPa
Longitudinal reinforcing yield strain 0.0014 in./in. 0.0014 mm/mm
Shear wall height h 10 ft 3000 mm
Shear wall length 60.0 in. 1500 mm
Shear wall thickness 6 in. 150 mm
Existing wall reinforcement
— —
+RUL]RQWDO1RDWLQ PP RQFHQWHU !ȡt = 0.0015
9HUWLFDO1RDWLQ PP RQFHQWHU !ȡl ȡb = 0.0027
Axial factored load Pu 12 kip 53.4 kN
Ultimate shear demand Vu 52 kip 232 kN
Ultimate moment demand at wall base Mu 260 kip-ft 348 kN-m
Asw DUHDRIZDOOZHEVWHHO !DUHDRIIRXU1REDUV
0.8 in.2 500 mm2
QHJOHFWLQJRQHEDUZLWKLQWKHFRPSUHVVLRQ]RQH

Table 16.13b—Manufacturer’s reported composite properties


Thickness per ply tf 0.023 in. 0.575 mm
Ultimate tensile strength ffu* 140 ksi 03D
5XSWXUHVWUDLQİfu* 0.012 in./in. 0.012 mm/mm
Modulus of elasticity Ef NVL 66.2 GPa

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Table 16.13c—Procedure for flexural and shear seismic strengthening of shear walls
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,XQLWV
6WHS²&RPSXWHH[LVWLQJZDOOFDSDFLW\

Shear capacity:
Shear capacity per ACI 318:

Vc = 2λ f c′tw d fv Vc =
  ×  ×  
Vc =
(0.167 × 0.8 × 1500) 17.23
1000 1000

0.167bw d f c′
Vc = Vc = 28.8 kip Vc = 124.8 kN
1000
1500
Av f v d fv 71 × 275.8 × 0.8 ×
0.8 × 60 305
Vsw = Vsw = 0.11 × 40, 000 × Vsw =
s 12 1000
Vsw = 17.6 kip Vsw = 77.0 kN

Vn = Vc + Vsw Vn = 28.8 kip + 17.6 kip Vn = 124.8 kN + 77.0 kN


Vn = 46.4 kip Vn = 201.8 kN
ࢥVn = 201.8 kN < Vu = 232 kN
8VLQJࢥ IRUVKHDU SHU$6&(6(, 

Flexural capacity:
$TXLFNPHWKRGWRDVVHVVWKHÀH[XUDO
capacity is shown in the following.
Assume that all web steel in the wall ࢥVn = 46.4 kip < Vu = 52 kip
yields. This includes all the longitudinal
reinforcement except for the one bar that
is adjacent to the compression face, that is,
four No. 4 bars can be considered to yield. ⎛ 500 mm 2 × 275.8 MPa ⎞
⎜⎝ 1000 ⎟⎠ + 53.4 kN
Asw f y + Pu 0.8 in. × 40 ksi + 12 kip
2
a= = 87.1 mm
a= a= = 3.45 in.
0.85 f c′tw 0.85 × 2.5 ksi × 6 in. ⎛ 0.85 × 17.23 MPa × 150 mm ⎞
⎜⎝ ⎟⎠
1000

Mn  Aswfy + Pu d – a d = Lw/2 = 30 in. d = 750 mm


where d = Lw/2 Mn = 104 kip-ft Mn = 135.1 kN-m

8VLQJࢥ 
ࢥMn = 104 kip-ft < Mu = 260 kip-ft ࢥMn = 135.1 kN-m < Mu = 348 kN-m
It can be observed that the wall does not
KDYHDGHTXDWHFDSDFLW\
6WHS²)53GHVLJQPDWHULDOSURSHUWLHV For interior exposure for carbon FRP: CE 

Use environmental reduction factors from


7DEOH

3HU
ffu = CEffu* ffu = 133 ksi ffu 03D
İfu = CEİfu* İfu = 0.0114 in./in. İfu = 0.0114 mm/mm
6WHS²)OH[XUDOVWUHQJWKHQLQJ

6WHSD²&RPSXWHWKHGHERQGLQJVWUDLQ
OLPLWİfd

This is the limit for the effective strain in


the FRP.

3HU(T  

f c′
ε fd = 0. ≤ ε fu  LQOE )RURQHOD\HURI)53İfd = 0.0088 )RURQHOD\HURI)53İfd = 0.0088
nE f t f )RUWZROD\HUVRI)53İfd = 0.0062 )RUWZROD\HUVRI)53İfd = 0.0062
f c′ )RUWKUHHOD\HUVRI)53İfd = 0.0051 )RUWKUHHOD\HUVRI)53İfd = 0.0051
ε fd = 0.41 ≤ ε fu SI
nE f t f

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94 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.13c (cont.)—Procedure for flexural and shear seismic strengthening of shear walls
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,XQLWV
Flexural design involves iteration to Use the available information to assist with an
DFKLHYHHTXLOLEULXPDFURVVWKHVHFWLRQ assumption for the depth of the neutral axis c.
8VXDOO\WKH¿UVWVWHSLVWRDVVXPHWKHGHSWK
of the neutral axis c. wf = 8 in. wf = 200 mm
nf = 3 nf = 3
$VVXPHWKDWWKHÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWKHQLQJZLOO tf = 0.023 in. tf = 0.575 mm
UHTXLUHWKUHHOD\HUVRILQ PP ZLGH Af WZRVLGHVî  
strips on each side of the wall at each end. Af = 1.104 in.2 Af PP2
Assume that the effective strain is at the
centroid of the FRP area. Knowing the
maximum effective strain in the FRP,
compute the force in the FRP

Tf = CEAfİfdEf Tf    NVL  NLS  ()()( 03D )
Tf = = N1
1000
Depth of corresponding compression block:

Asw f y + Pu + T f
a= a = 7.05 in. a = 177.2 mm
0.85 f c′tw

Compute an estimate of the depth of the


neutral axis, c: c = a/0.85 = 8.3 in. c = a/0.85 = 208.5 mm

Check actual strain at centroid of FRP area ⎛ W f /2 ⎞ ⎛ W f /2 ⎞


and corresponding force in the FRP: ε fe CG = ε fd ⎜ + =  ε fe CG = ε fd ⎜ + = 
⎝ c + 1 − Lw ⎟⎠ ⎝ c + 25.4 − Lw ⎠⎟
It is observed that the force in the FRP
does not agree with that based on the initial Corresponding force in FRP, Corresponding force in FRP,
assumption. However, the above steps Tf = CEAfİfeCGEf = 42.32 kip Tf = CEAfİfeCGEf = 182.1 kN
provide a reasonable starting point for an
assumption for c. Assume c = 8.0 in. Assume c = 200 mm

Compute concrete strain at extreme


FRPSUHVVLRQVXUIDFHSHU(T D 

⎛ 1 ⎞ İc = 0.0008 İc = 0.0008
ε c = ε fd ⎜ ≤ ε cu
⎝ Lw c − 1⎟⎠ İcİcu = 0.003 OK İcİcu = 0.003 OK

Compute strain in the bar in the


compression zone:

⎛ε ⎞ İsc = 0.007 İsc = 0.007


ε sc = ⎜ c ⎟ (c − d ′ )
⎝ c⎠ where dƍ LQ where dƍ PP
İscİy = 0.0014 İscİy = 0.0014

Compute strain in the bars in the tension


zone:
⎛ε ⎞ ⎛ε ⎞
ε st1 = ⎜ c ⎟ (14.5 + 1 − 8.0 ) ε st1 = ⎜ c ⎟ (362.5 + 25 − 200 )
⎝ c⎠ ⎝ c⎠
İst1 İy İst1 İy

Compute strain at centroid of FRP area: Similarly, Similarly,


İst2 !İy İst2 !İy
Recompute total tensile force components İst3 !İy İst3 !İy
at the above determined strain levels: İst4 !İy İst4 !İy
İfeCG = 0.0047 İfeCG = 0.0047

Recalculate depth of compression block


and depth to neutral axis: Tf = 42.34 kip Tf = 182.5 kN
Tsw îîîî Tsw = 125 × 0.00075 × 200,000 + 3 × 125 × 275.8
,WHUDWHDVUHTXLUHGWRUHDFKFRQYHUJHQFH = 28.35 kip = 122.175 kN = 122.2 kN

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 95

Table 16.13c (cont.)—Procedure for flexural and shear seismic strengthening of shear walls
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,XQLWV
6WHSE²&DOFXODWHWKHVWUDLQVDQG a = 6.48 in. a = 163 mm
IRUFHFRPSRQHQWVLQFRQFUHWH)53DQG c = 7.63 in. c PP
UHLQIRUFLQJVWHHO

Force in the bar in the compression zone: Final value of the depth of the neutral axis is
achieved after iteration.
c = 7.648 in. c PP
a = 6.5 in. a = 162.4 mm
Strains and forces in bars in tensile zone: İc İcu İc İcu

İsc İy İsc İy

Csc îî NLS Csc = 125 × 0.00066 × 200 = 16.5 kN

Strain and force in FRP: İst1 İy İst1 İy


İst2 !İy İst2 !İy
İst3 !İy İst3 !İy
İst4 !İy İst4 !İy

)URPHTXLOLEULXPFRPSUHVVLYHIRUFHLQ
concrete: Ts1 = 4.52 kip Ts1 N1
Ts2 = Ts3 = Ts4 = 8.0 kip Ts2 = Ts3 = Ts4 = 34.48 kN
™Ts = 28.52 kip ™Ts N1

6WHSF²&DOFXODWHWKHPRPHQWFDSDFLW\
RIWKHVHFWLRQ İfeCG = 0.0047 İfeCG = 0.0047
Tf = 42.37 kip Tf = 182.5 kN
Compute lever arm for different force
components: Cc  ™Ts + Tf + Pu + Csc  NLS Cc  ™Ts + Tf + Pu + Csc  N1

Bar in compression: Bar in compression:


d1 = c –1 in. = 7.648 – 1 = 6.65 in. d1 = c – 25 = 166 mm

Concrete compression: Concrete compression:


⎛ a⎞ 6.5 ⎛ a⎞
c − ⎟ = 7.648 − = 4.4 in. c − ⎟ = PP
⎝⎜ 2⎠ 2 ⎝⎜ 2⎠
First bar in tension: First bar in tension:

LQLQ±c  LQ PPPP±c  PP

Second bar in tension: 22.35 in. 6HFRQGEDULQWHQVLRQPP


Third bar in tension: 36.85 in. 7KLUGEDULQWHQVLRQPP
Fourth bar in tension: 51.35 in. Fourth bar in tension: 1284 mm

FRP: FRP:
Lw – c – Wf/2 – 1 in. = 47.35 in. Lw – c – Wf/2 – 25 mm = 1184 mm

Pu: Pu:
Lw/2 – c = 22.35 in. Lw/2 – c PP

Nominal moment capacity, Mn: Mn îîî


× 22.35 + 8 × 36.85 + 8 × 51.35 + 0.85 × 42.37 ×
Per Section 10.2.10, include reduction 47.35 + 12 × 22.35 = 272.2 kip-ft Mn = 353 kN·m
IDFWRUIRU)53FRQWULEXWLRQȥ 
ࢥMn NLSIW!Mu = 260 kip-ft ࢥMn N1āP!Mu = 348 kN·m
ࢥMn!Mu ‫׵‬OK ࢥMn!Mu ‫׵‬OK

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96 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Table 16.13c (cont.)—Procedure for flexural and shear seismic strengthening of shear walls
3URFHGXUH &DOFXODWLRQLQLQOEXQLWV &DOFXODWLRQLQ6,XQLWV
6WHS²6KHDUVWUHQJWKHQLQJ

3HU(T E  From Step 1, Vn* = 46.4 kip From Step 1, Vn   N1

Vf is the shear contribution of FRP and is


computed in accordance with Chapter 11.

6WHSD²&DOFXODWHVf

Because the FRP is only on one side of the For one layer of the FRP:
ZDOOSHU(T F  Le LQ
k1 =0.731
k2 
țv = 0.2
Since the FRP will be face-bonded to the
wall, the effective FRP strain will be:
İfe țvİfu” İfe = 0.2 × 0.014 = 0.0028 İfe = 0.2 × 0.014 = 0.0028
ffe î NVL ffe = 0.0028 × 66.2 = 0.185 GPa
8VH(T E  F 
G DQG H WRFRPSXWHțv.

Corresponding tensile stress in the FRP: It is assumed that FRP is installed over the full
Per ACI 318-14, Section 11.5.4.2, dfv is height of the wall and not in discrete strips.
taken as 0.8Lw. dfv = 0.8Lw = 48 in. dfv = 0.8Lw = 1200 mm
Vf îîîî NLS Vf îîîî N1

5HGXFWLRQIDFWRUIRU)53VKHDUFRQWULEXWLRQȥf = 0.85.
ȥfVf NLS ȥf Vf = 81.5 kN

Compute shear capacity of FRP 6KHDUFDSDFLW\RIWKHUHWUR¿WWHGZDOO


VWUHQJWKHQHGZDOOXVLQJࢥ  ࢥVn   NLS ࢥVn   N1
ࢥVn NLS!Vu = 52 kip ࢥVn N1!Vu = 232 kN
ࢥVn!Vu ‫׵‬OK ࢥVn!Vu ‫׵‬OK
Mn = 272.2 kip-ft Mn = 353 kN·m

6WHSE²&RPSXWHWKHVKHDU 6KHDUFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRWKHQRPLQDOÀH[XUDOVWUHQJWK
FRUUHVSRQGLQJWRWKHQRPLQDOÀH[XUDO VM nom = 272.2 kip-ft/10 ft = 27.2 kip VM nom = 353 kN·m/3 m = 117.1 kN
VWUHQJWK6HH6HFWLRQ The shear strength of the wall is: The shear strength of the wall is:
Vn = 65.3 kip Vn = 284.6 kN
Note: The FRP for shear strengthening Vn•VM nom ‫׵‬OK Vn•VM nom ‫׵‬OK
could be optimized by using horizontal
strips rather than full coverage. For
anchorage of shear FRP see Section
13.6.3.1.

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CHAPTER 17—REFERENCES $670 '²6WDQGDUG 7HVW 0HWKRGV IRU )OH[XUDO


&RPPLWWHHGRFXPHQWVDUHOLVWHG¿UVWE\GRFXPHQWQXPEHU Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and
and year of publication followed by authored documents Electrical Insulating Materials
listed alphabetically. ASTM D2240-15—Standard Test Method for Rubber
Property—Durometer Hardness
American Concrete Institute (ACI) $670 '  ²6WDQGDUG 3UDFWLFH IRU )XVLRQ
$&, ²&RGH 5HTXLUHPHQWV IRU 'HWHUPLQLQJ RI3RO\ 9LQ\O&KORULGH  39& &RPSRXQGV8VLQJD7RUTXH
Fire Resistance of Concrete and Masonry Construction Rheometer
Assemblies ASTM D2584-11—Standard Test Method for Ignition
ACI 224.1R-07—Causes, Evaluation, and Repair of Loss of Cured Reinforced Resins
Cracks in Concrete Structures $670 '²6WDQGDUG 7HVW 0HWKRGV IRU 7HQVLOH
$&,²%XLOGLQJ&RGH5HTXLUHPHQWVIRU6WUXFWXUDO Compressive, and Flexural Creep and Creep-Rupture of
Concrete and Commentary Plastics
ACI 364.1R-07—Guide for Evaluation of Concrete Struc- $670 ''0²6WDQGDUG 7HVW 0HWKRG IRU
tures before Rehabilitation Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials
$&, 5²*XLGH IRU 6HLVPLF 5HKDELOLWDWLRQ RI ASTM D3171-15—Standard Test Methods for Constit-
Existing Concrete Frame Buildings and Commentary uent Content of Composite Materials
ACI 437R-03—Strength Evaluation of Existing Concrete ASTM D3418-15—Standard Test Method for Transition
Buildings Temperatures and Enthalpies of Fusion and Crystallization
ACI 440R-07—Report on Fiber-Reinforced Polymer of Polymers by Differential Scanning Calorimetry
)53 5HLQIRUFHPHQWIRU&RQFUHWH6WUXFWXUHV $670 ''0²6WDQGDUG 7HVW 0HWKRG IRU
ACI 440.3R-12—Guide Test Methods for Fiber-Rein- Tension-Tension Fatigue of Polymer Matrix Composite
IRUFHG 3RO\PHUV )53V  IRU 5HLQIRUFLQJ RU 6WUHQJWKHQLQJ Materials
Concrete Structures ASTM D4476/D4476M-14—Standard Test Method for
ACI 440.7R-10—Guide for the Design and Construction Flexural Properties of Fiber Reinforced Pultruded Plastic
of Externally Bonded Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Systems Rods
for Strengthening Unreinforced Masonry Structures $670''0  ²6WDQGDUG7HVW0HWKRG
$&,²6SHFL¿FDWLRQIRU&DUERQDQG*ODVV)LEHU for Tensile Properties of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix
5HLQIRUFHG3RO\PHU )53 0DWHULDOV0DGHE\:HW/D\XSIRU Composite Bars
External Strengthening of Concrete and Masonry Structures ASTM D7337/D7337M-12—Standard Test Method for
$&, ²6WDQGDUG 6SHFL¿FDWLRQ IRU 5HSDLULQJ Tensile Creep Rupture of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix
&RQFUHWHZLWK(SR[\0RUWDUV 5HDSSURYHGE\ Composite Bars
ACI 546R-14—Guide to Concrete Repair ASTM D7522/D7522M-15—Standard Test Method for
$&,²&RGH5HTXLUHPHQWVIRU(YDOXDWLRQ5HSDLU Pull-Off Strength for FRP Bonded to Concrete Substrate
and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings and Commentary $670''0  ²6WDQGDUG7HVW0HWKRG
for Determining Tensile Properties of Fiber Reinforced
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Polymer Matrix Composites Used for Strengthening of Civil
$16, ==²+D]DUGRXV :RUNSODFH Structures
Chemicals - Hazard Evaluation and Safety Data Sheet and ASTM D7616/D7616M-11—Standard Test Method for
Precautionary Labeling Preparation Determining Apparent Overlap Splice Shear Strength Prop-
erties of Wet Lay-Up Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Composites Used for Strengthening Civil Structures
ASCE 7-10—Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and ASTM D7617/D7617M-11—Standard Test Method for
Other Structures Transverse Shear Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer
$6&(6(,²6HLVPLF5HKDELOLWDWLRQDQG5HWUR¿WRI Matrix Composite Bars
Existing Buildings ASTM E84-16—Standard Test Method for Surface
Burning Characteristics of Building Materials
ASTM International ASTM E328-13—Standared Test Methods for Stress
ASTM C1583/C1583M-13—Standard Test Method for Relaxation Tests for Materials and Structures
Tensile Strength of Concrete Surfaces and the Bond Strength ASTM E831-14—Standard Test Method for Linear
or Tensile Strength of Concrete Repair and Overlay Mate- Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials by Thermomechan-
ULDOVE\'LUHFW7HQVLRQ 3XOORII0HWKRG ical Analysis
$670 '²7HVW 0HWKRG IRU 'HÀHFWLRQ 7HPSHUD- $670 (  ²6WDQGDUG 7HVW 0HWKRG IRU
ture of Plastics Under Flexural Load in the Edgewise Position Assignment of the Glass Transition Temperatures by Differ-
$670 '²6WDQGDUG 7HVW 0HWKRG IRU &RHI¿FLHQW ential Scanning Calorimetry
of Linear Thermal Expansion of Plastics Between –30°C ASTM E1640-13—Standard Test Method for Assignment
and 30°C with a Vitreous Silica Dilatometer of the Glass Transition Temperature by Dynamic Mechan-
ical Analysis

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98 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

$670(²7HVW0HWKRGIRU'LVWRUWLRQ7HPSHUD- %LDQFR 9 0RQWL * DQG %DUURV - $ 2 
ture in Three-Point Bending by Thermomechanical Analysis “Design Formula to Evaluate the NSM FRP Strips Shear
Strength Contribution to a RC Beam,” Composites.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part B, Engineering 9  SS  GRL 10.1016/j.
CFR 16 Part 1500-2015—Hazardous Substances and Arti- FRPSRVLWHVE
FOHV$GPLQLVWUDWLRQDQG(QIRUFHPHQW5HJXODWLRQV Binici, B., and Ozcebe, G., 2006, “Seismic Evaluation
&)5²7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ RI ,Q¿OOHG 5HLQIRUFHG &RQFUHWH )UDPHV 6WUHQJWKHQHG ZLWK
FRPS,” Proceedings of the 8th U.S. National Conference on
International Code Council (ICC) Earthquake Engineering(DUWKTXDNH(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
,&& $&  ²$FFHSWDQFH &ULWHULD IRU &RQFUHWH Center, San Francisco, CA, 10 pp.
and Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry Strengthening %LVE\/$*UHHQ0)DQG.RGXU9.5D
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Structures,” Journal of Architectural Engineering, V. 2, No. Bonded CFRP Repair/Strengthening of Concrete Beams,”
2, pp. 63-70. doi:  $6&(     NCHRP Web-Only Document 155, http://onlinepubs.trb.org/
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of FRP Rods as Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement,” forced Concrete Beams using CFRP sheets,” ACI Structural
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$6&(     M. C. Forde, ed., Commonwealth Institute, London, 10 pp.
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(XURFRGH³'HVLJQRI6WUXFWXUHVIRU(DUWKTXDNH with Composite Materials,” Journal of Composites for


Resistance, Part 3: Strengthening and Repair of Buildings,” Construction91R6HSWSSGRL10.1061/
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)LUPR - 3 &RUUHLD - 5 DQG )UDQoD 3  ³)LUH Composites,” Proceedings of SAMPE Conference, Balti-
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South Africa,” RILEM International Symposium, Synthetic Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, pp. 327-340.
Resins in Building Construction3DULVSS +DURXQ 0 $ 0RVDOODP $ 6 )HQJ 0 4 DQG
)XQDNDZD,6KLPRQR.:DWDQDEH7$VDGD6DQG Elsanadedy, H. M., 2003, “Experimental Investigation
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Mechanical Recycling of Carbon Fibre Composite,” Journal .KDOLID $ $ONKUGDML 7 1DQQL $ DQG /DQVEXUJ 6
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0DQGHOO - )  ³)DWLJXH %HKDYLRU RI )LEUH5HVLQ 1DQQL $  ³&RQFUHWH 5HSDLU ZLWK ([WHUQDOO\
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10), SP-275, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, 3URWD $ 1DQQL $ 0DQIUHGL * DQG &RVHQ]D (
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3DPSDQLQ 6 %RORJQLQL ' DQG 3DYHVH $  Concrete Beam-Column Joints Using Carbon Fiber-Rein-
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$6&(     Concrete Bridge Members Subjected to Repeated Loadings
3DQWHOLGHV & 3 *HUJHO\ - 5HDYHOH\ / ' DQG 3KDVH ´KTRAN Report No. K-TRAN: KSU-01-2, Kansas
9ROQ\\ 9 $  ³5HWUR¿W RI 5& %ULGJH 3LHU ZLWK Department of Transportation, Topeka, KS, 106 pp.
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$XFNODQG1HZ=HDODQG &'520 Strengthened by Externally Bonded Steel Plates,” Proceed-
3DQWHOLGHV&3$ODPHGGLQH)6DUGR7DQG,PEVHQ ings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, Part 2, V. 87, No.
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3DQWHOLGHV&32NDKDVKL<DQG5HDYHOH\/' Concrete Columns,” Report No. UTC-142, University of
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3DUN5DQG3DXOD\7Reinforced Concrete Struc- of Composites for Construction, V. 12, No. 1, Jan.-Feb., pp.
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3DWHUVRQ-DQG0LWFKHOO'³6HLVPLF5HWUR¿WRI Rosenboom, O. A., and Rizkalla, S. H., 2006, “Behavior
Shear Walls with Headed Bars and Carbon Fiber Wrap,” of Prestressed Concrete Strengthened with Various CFRP
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Handbook Precast and Prestressed Concrete, sixth edition, 5RVWDV\)6³%RQGLQJRI6WHHODQG*)533ODWHV
Prestressed/Precast Concrete Institute, Chicago, IL, 750 pp. in the Area of Coupling Joints. Talbrucke Kattenbusch,”
Pellegrino, C., and Modena, C., 2002, “Fiber Reinforced Research Report1R)HGHUDO,QVWLWXWHIRU0DWH-
Polymer Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams ULDOV7HVWLQJ%UDXQVFKZHLJ*HUPDQ\ LQ*HUPDQ
with Transverse Steel Reinforcement,” Journal of Compos- 5RVWDV\ ) 6  ³2Q 'XUDELOLW\ RI )53 LQ$JJUHV-
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$6&(     Non-Metallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures
3HVVLNL 6 3 &RQOH\ & + *HUJHO\ 3 DQG:KLWH 5 )535&6 9-DSDQ&RQFUHWH,QVWLWXWH7RN\R-DSDQ
1³6HLVPLF%HKDYLRURI/LJKWO\5HLQIRUFHG&RQFUHWH pp. 107-114.
Column and Beam-Column Joint Details,” NCEER Report 5R\ODQFH0DQG5R\ODQFH2³(IIHFWRI0RLVWXUH
1RSS on the Fatigue Resistance of an Aramid-Epoxy Composite,”
3HVVLNL 6 +DUULHV . $ .HVWQHU - 6DXVH 5 DQG Organic Coatings and Plastics Chemistry, V. 45, American
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&RQ¿QHG ZLWK )53 -DFNHWV´ Journal of Composites for 6DDGDWPDQHVK + (KVDQL 0 5 DQG -LQ / 
Construction, V. 5, No. 4, pp. 237-245. doi: 10.1061/ “Seismic Strengthening of Circular Bridge Pier Models with
$6&(     Fiber Composites,” ACI Structural Journal 9  1R 
3RUWHU0/0HKXV-<RXQJ.$2¶1HLO()DQG 1RY'HFSS
%DUQHV % $  ³$JLQJ IRU )LEHU 5HLQIRUFHPHQW LQ 6DEQLV*06KURII$&DQG.DKQ/)HGV
Concrete,” Proceedings of the Third International Sympo- “Seismic Rehabilitation of Concrete Structures,” SP-160,
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Structures, Japan Concrete Institute, Sapporo, Japan. 6DWR < 8HGD 7 .DNXWD < DQG 7DQDND 7 
3ULHVWOH\ 0 6HLEOH ) DQG &DOYL *  Seismic “Shear Reinforcing Effect of Carbon Fiber Sheet Attached to
'HVLJQDQG5HWUR¿WRI%ULGJHV, John Wiley and Sons, New Side of Reinforced Concrete Beams,” Advanced Composite
York, 704 pp. Materials in Bridges and Structures, M. M. El-Badry, ed.,
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6DXVH 5 +DUULHV . $ :DONXS 6 / 3HVVLNL 6 7HQJ - * /X ; =<H / 3 DQG -LDQJ - - 
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,QQDPRUDWR '  ³6HLVPLF 5HWUR¿W RI 5& &ROXPQV 7RXWDQML +  ³6WUHVV6WUDLQ &KDUDFWHULVWLFV RI
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$6&(     0D\-XQHSS
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LQJV GXULQJ WKH $XJXVW   .RFDHOL 7XUNH\ (DUWK- Structural Journal91R0DU$SUSS
TXDNH DQG 6HLVPLF 'HVLJQ DQG &RQVWUXFWLRQ 3UDFWLFH LQ :DOODFH - :  ³6HLVPLF 'HVLJQ RI 5& 6WUXF-
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6KDULI $ $O6XODLPDQL * %DVXQEXO , %DOXFK 0 of Concentrically Loaded Reinforced Concrete Columns
DQG *KDOHE %  ³6WUHQJWKHQLQJ RI ,QLWLDOO\ /RDGHG &RQ¿QHG ZLWK *ODVV )LEHU5HLQIRUFHG 3RO\PHU -DFNHWV´
Reinforced Concrete Beams Using FRP Plates,” ACI Struc- ACI Structural Journal91R0D\-XQHSS
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Sheikh, S., and Yau, G., 2002, “Seismic Behavior of )DQG&KRZGKXU\(³)LUH,QVXODWLRQ6FKHPHVIRU
&RQFUHWH &ROXPQV &RQ¿QHG ZLWK 6WHHO DQG )LEHU5HLQ- FRP-Strengthened Concrete Slabs,” Composites. Part A,
forced Polymers,” ACI Structural Journal 9  1R  Applied Science and Manufacturing, V. 37, No. 8, pp. 1151-
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'HFSS :X :  ³7KHUPRPHFKDQLFDO 3URSHUWLHV RI )LEHU
6LOYD3)(UHFNVRQ1-DQG&KHQ*³6HLVPLF 5HLQIRUFHG 3ODVWLFV )53  %DUV´ 3K' GLVVHUWDWLRQ :HVW
5HWUR¿W RI %ULGJH -RLQWV LQ WKH &HQWUDO 86 ZLWK &)53 9LUJLQLD8QLYHUVLW\0RUJDQWRZQ:9SS
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$6&(     tures )535&6  9  -DSDQ &RQFUHWH ,QVWLWXWH 7RN\R
Suppliers of Advanced Composite Materials Associa- -DSDQSS
WLRQSACMA Recommended Methods (SRM) Manual, Youssef, M. N., 2003, “Stress Strain Model for Concrete
Suppliers of Advanced Composite Materials Association, &RQ¿QHGE\)53&RPSRVLWHV´3K'GLVVHUWDWLRQ8QLYHUVLW\
Arlington, VA. of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA, 310 pp.
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7HQJ-*&KHQ-)6PLWK67DQG/DP/ pp. 43-48.
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Sussex, UK, 266 pp. '5DQG7ULDQWD¿OORX7&³5HFRPPHQGHG*XLGH
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APPENDIX A—MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF EDUVZLWK¿EHUYROXPHVRIDSSUR[LPDWHO\WRSHUFHQW


CARBON, GLASS, AND ARAMID FIBERS 3URSHUWLHVDUHEDVHGRQJURVVODPLQDWHDUHD  
Table A.1 presents ranges of values for the tensile proper- Table A.3 presents ranges of tensile properties for CFRP,
WLHVRIFDUERQJODVVDQGDUDPLG¿EHUV7KHWDEXODWHGYDOXHV *)53DQG$)53ODPLQDWHVZLWK¿EHUYROXPHVRIDSSUR[L-
DUHEDVHGRQWKHWHVWLQJRILPSUHJQDWHG¿EHU\DUQVRUVWUDQGV mately 40 to 60 percent. Properties are based on gross-
in accordance with suppliers of SACMA Recommended ODPLQDWHDUHD  7KHSURSHUWLHVDUHVKRZQIRUXQLGLUHF-
0HWKRG5 Suppliers of Advanced Composite Mate- tional, bidirectional, and +45/–45-degree fabrics. Table A.3
ULDOV$VVRFLDWLRQ 7KHVWUDQGVRU¿EHU\DUQVDUHLPSUHJ- DOVRVKRZVWKHHIIHFWRIYDU\LQJWKH¿EHURULHQWDWLRQRQWKH
nated with resin, cured, and then tested in tension. The tabu- 0-degree strength of the laminate.
ODWHGSURSHUWLHVDUHFDOFXODWHGXVLQJWKHDUHDRIWKH¿EHUVWKH Table A.4 gives the tensile strengths of some commer-
resin area is ignored. Hence, the properties listed in Table A.1 cially available FRP systems. The strength of unidirectional
are representative of unidirectional FRP systems whose prop- ODPLQDWHVLVGHSHQGHQWRQ¿EHUW\SHDQGGU\IDEULFZHLJKW
HUWLHVDUHUHSRUWHGXVLQJQHW¿EHUDUHD 4.3.1  These tables are not intended to provide ultimate strength
Table A.2 presents ranges of tensile properties for carbon values for design purposes.
)53 &)53 JODVV)53 *)53 DQGDUDPLG)53 $)53 

Table A.1—Typical tensile properties of fibers used in FRP systems


Elastic modulus Ultimate strength
3
Fiber type 10 ksi GPa ksi MPa Rupture strain, minimum, %
Carbon
General purpose 32 to 34 220 to 240 300 to 550 WR 1.2
High-strength 32 to 34 220 to 240 550 to 700 WR 1.4
Ultra-high-strength 32 to 34 220 to 240 WR 4820 to 6200 1.5
High-modulus 50 to 75 340 to 520 250 to 450 1720 to 3100 0.5
Ultra-high-modulus 75 to 100 WR 200 to 350 1380 to 2400 0.2
Glass
E-glass 10 to 10.5 WR WR 1860 to 2680 4.5
S-glass 12.5 to 13 WR 500 to 700 3440 to 4140 5.4
Aramid
General purpose 10 to 12 WR 500 to 600 3440 to 4140 2.5
High-performance 16 to 18 110 to 124 500 to 600 3440 to 4140 1.6

Table A.2—Tensile properties of FRP bars with fiber volumes of 50 to 70 percent


Elastic modulus,
FRP system description 103NVL *3D 8OWLPDWHWHQVLOHVWUHQJWKNVL 03D Rupture strain, %
High-strength carbon/epoxy WR WR WR WR 1.2 to 1.8
E-glass/epoxy WR WR WR WR 1.6 to 3.0
High-performance aramid WR WR WR WR 2.0 to 3.0

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Table A.3—Tensile properties of FRP laminates with fiber volumes of 40 to 60 percent


Elastic modulus Ultimate tensile strength
Property at 0 degrees 3URSHUW\DWGHJUHHV Property at 0 degrees 3URSHUW\DWGHJUHHV
FRP system description Rupture strain
¿EHURULHQWDWLRQ 103NVL *3D 103NVL *3D NVL 03D NVL 03D at 0 degrees, %
High-strength carbon/epoxy,
degrees
0 WR WR WR WR WR WR WR WR 1.0 to 1.5
 WR WR WR WR WR WR WR WR 1.0 to 1.5
+45/–45 WR WR WR WR WR WR WR WR 1.5 to 2.5
E-glass/epoxy, degrees
0 WR WR WR WR WR WR WR WR 1.5 to 3.0
 WR WR WR WR WR WR WR WR 2.0 to 3.0
+45/–45 WR WR WR WR WR WR WR WR 2.5 to 3.5
High-performance aramid/epoxy,
degrees
0 WR WR WR WR WR WR WR WR 2.0 to 3.0
 WR WR WR WR WR WR WR WR 2.0 to 3.0
+45/–45 WR WR WR WR WR WR WR WR 2.0 to 3.0
Notes:
)53FRPSRVLWHSURSHUWLHVDUHEDVHGRQ)53V\VWHPVKDYLQJDQDSSUR[LPDWH¿EHUYROXPHRISHUFHQWDQGDFRPSRVLWHWKLFNQHVVRILQ PP ,QJHQHUDO)53EDUVKDYH
¿EHUYROXPHVRIWRSHUFHQWSUHFXUHGV\VWHPVKDYH¿EHUYROXPHVRIWRSHUFHQWDQGZHWOD\XSV\VWHPVKDYH¿EHUYROXPHVRIWRSHUFHQW%HFDXVHWKH¿EHUYROXPH
LQÀXHQFHVWKHJURVVODPLQDWHSURSHUWLHVSUHFXUHGODPLQDWHVXVXDOO\KDYHKLJKHUPHFKDQLFDOSURSHUWLHVWKDQODPLQDWHVFUHDWHGXVLQJWKHZHWOD\XSWHFKQLTXH
=HURGHJUHHVUHSUHVHQWVXQLGLUHFWLRQDO¿EHURULHQWDWLRQ
=HURGHJUHHV RU±GHJUHHV UHSUHVHQWV¿EHUEDODQFHGLQWZRRUWKRJRQDOGLUHFWLRQVZKHUHGHJUHHVLVWKHGLUHFWLRQRIORDGLQJDQGGHJUHHVLVQRUPDOWRWKHGLUHFWLRQ
of loading.
Tension is applied to 0-degree direction. All FRP bar properties are in the 0-degree direction.

Table A.4—Ultimate tensile strength* of some commercially available FRP systems


Fabric weight Ultimate strength†
3 3
)53V\VWHPGHVFULSWLRQ ¿EHUW\SHVDWXUDWLQJUHVLQIDEULFW\SH oz/yd g/m lb/in. kN/mm
6 200 2600 500
General purpose carbon/resin unidirectional sheet
12 400 3550 620
7 230 1800 320
High-strength carbon/resin unidirectional sheet  300 4000 700
18 620 5500 
High-modulus carbon/resin unidirectional sheet  300 3400 600
General-purpose carbon/resin balanced sheet  300 1000 180
27  4100 720
E-glass/resin unidirectional sheet
10 350 1300 230
E-glass/balanced fabric  300 680 120
Aramid/resin unidirectional sheet 12 420 4000 700
‡ ‡
High-strength carbon/resin precured, unidirectional laminate 70 2380  3300
E-glass/vinyl ester precured, unidirectional shell 50‡ 1700‡  1580
*Values shown should not be used for design.

Ultimate tensile strength per unit width of sheet or fabric.

Precured laminate weight.

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 107

APPENDIX B—SUMMARY OF STANDARD TEST Durability-related tests use the same test methods but
METHODS UHTXLUH DSSOLFDWLRQVSHFL¿F SUHFRQGLWLRQLQJ RI VSHFLPHQV
Table B provides a summary of test methods for the short- Acceptance of the data generated by the listed test methods
and long-term mechanical and durability testing of FRP FDQEHWKHEDVLVIRU)53PDWHULDOV\VWHPTXDOL¿FDWLRQDQG
rods and sheets. The recommended test methods are based DFFHSWDQFH IRUH[DPSOHACI 440.8 
on the knowledge gained from research results and litera-
ture worldwide and include those methods described in ACI
440.3R that have not yet been adopted by ASTM.

Table B—Test methods for FRP material systems


ACI 440.3R test
Property $670WHVWPHWKRG V method Summary of differences
Test methods for sheets, prepreg, and laminates
D2538
Surface hardness D2240 — No ACI methods developed
D3418
&RHI¿FLHQWRIWKHUPDO
' — No ACI methods developed
expansion
Glass-transition temperature E1640 — No ACI methods developed
D3171
Volume fraction — No ACI methods developed
D2584
Sheet to concrete adhesion $&,PHWKRGSURYLGHVVSHFL¿FUHTXLUHPHQWVIRUVSHFLPHQSUHSDUDWLRQQRW
D7522/D7522M L.1*
GLUHFWWHQVLRQSXOORII found in the ASTM method
''0RU ACI method provides methods for calculating tensile strength and
Tensile strength and modulus D7565/D7565M, as L.2* PRGXOXVRQJURVVFURVVVHFWLRQDODQGHIIHFWLYH¿EHUDUHDEDVLV6HFWLRQ
appropriate 3.3.1 is used to calculate design values.

Lap shear strength D7616/D7616M L.3* $&,PHWKRGSURYLGHVVSHFL¿FUHTXLUHPHQWVIRUVSHFLPHQSUHSDUDWLRQ

Test methods for FRP bars


Two options for bar area are provided in ASTM D7205/D7205M
Cross-sectional area D7205/D7207M B.1* QRPLQDODQGDFWXDO ZKHUHDVRQO\QRPLQDODUHDLVXVHGLQ$&,5
Method B.1
Longitudinal tensile strength
D7205/D7205M B.2* Strain limits for calculation of modulus are different in the two methods.
and modulus
The ACI method focuses on dowel action of bars and does not overlap
* with existing ASTM methods that focus mainly on beam shearing failure
Shear strength D7617/D7617M B.4
PRGHV%DUVKHDUVWUHQJWKLVRIVSHFL¿FFRQFHUQIRUDSSOLFDWLRQVZKHUH
FRP rods are used to cross construction joints in concrete pavements.
Durability properties — B.6 No existing ASTM test methods available.
Fatigue properties ''0 B.7
$&,PHWKRGVSURYLGHVSHFL¿FLQIRUPDWLRQRQDQFKRULQJEDUVLQWKHWHVW
Creep properties D7337/D7337M B.8* ¿[WXUHVDQGRQDWWDFKLQJHORQJDWLRQPHDVXULQJGHYLFHVWRWKHEDU7KH
' $&,PHWKRGVDOVRUHTXLUHVSHFL¿FFDOFXODWLRQVWKDWDUHQRWSURYLGHGLQWKH
Relaxation properties % ASTM methods.
E328
Flexural tensile properties — B.11 No existing ASTM test methods available.
'
Flexural properties — No ACI methods developed.
D4476/D4476M

&RHI¿FLHQWRIWKHUPDO E831
— No ACI methods developed.
expansion '
E1356
E1640
Glass-transition temperature — No ACI methods developed.
D648
(
Volume fraction D3171 — No ACI methods developed.
*
Test method in ACI 440.3R is replaced by reference to appropriate ASTM method.

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108 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

APPENDIX C—AREAS OF FUTURE RESEARCH iii. Effects of high concrete strength on behavior of
Future research is needed to provide information in areas FRP-strengthened members
that are still unclear or are in need of additional evidence iv. Effects of lightweight concrete on behavior of FRP-
to validate performance. The list of topics presented in this strengthened members
appendix provides a summary. Y0D[LPXPFUDFNZLGWKDQGGHÀHFWLRQSUHGLFWLRQDQG
D 0DWHULDOV control of concrete reinforced with FRP systems
L0HWKRGVRI¿UHSURR¿QJ)53VWUHQJWKHQLQJV\VWHPV YL /RQJWHUP GHÀHFWLRQ EHKDYLRU RI FRQFUHWH ÀH[XUDO
ii. Behavior of FRP-strengthened members under members strengthened with FRP systems
elevated temperatures F 6KHDU
iii. Behavior of FRP-strengthened members under cold i. Effective strain of FRP systems that do not completely
temperatures wrap around the section
iv. Fire rating of concrete members strengthened with ii. Use of FRP systems for punching shear reinforce-
FRP systems ment in two-way systems
Y(IIHFWRIGLIIHUHQWFRHI¿FLHQWVRIWKHUPDOH[SDQVLRQ G 'HWDLOLQJ
between FRP systems and member substrates i. Anchoring of FRP systems
vi. Creep-rupture behavior and endurance times of FRP 7KHGHVLJQJXLGHVSHFL¿FDOO\LQGLFDWHVWKDWWHVWPHWKRGV
systems are needed to determine the following properties of FRP:
vii. Strength and stiffness degradation of FRP systems D  %RQG FKDUDFWHULVWLFV DQG UHODWHG ERQGGHSHQGHQW
in harsh environments FRHI¿FLHQWV
E )OH[XUHD[LDOIRUFH E &UHHSUXSWXUHDQGHQGXUDQFHWLPHV
i. Compression behavior of noncircular members F )DWLJXHFKDUDFWHULVWLFV
wrapped with FRP systems G &RHI¿FLHQWRIWKHUPDOH[SDQVLRQ
ii. Behavior of members strengthened with FRP systems H 6KHDUVWUHQJWK
oriented in the direction of the applied axial load I &RPSUHVVLYHVWUHQJWK

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EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17) 109

APPENDIX D—METHODOLOGY FOR


COMPUTATION OF SIMPLIFIED P-M INTERACTION
DIAGRAM FOR NONCIRCULAR COLUMNS
$[LDO ORDGPRPHQW P-M  LQWHUDFWLRQ GLDJUDPV PD\ EH
GHYHORSHGE\VDWLVI\LQJVWUDLQFRPSDWLELOLW\DQGIRUFHHTXLOLE-
rium using the model for the stress strain behavior for FRP-
FRQ¿QHG FRQFUHWH SUHVHQWHG LQ (T F  WKURXJK H 
)RUVLPSOLFLW\WKHSRUWLRQRIWKHXQFRQ¿QHGDQGFRQ¿QHG30
diagrams corresponding to compression-controlled failure can
be reduced to two bilinear curves passing through the following
SRLQWV )LJ  7KHIROORZLQJRQO\PDNHVUHIHUHQFHWRWKH
FRQ¿QHGFDVHEHFDXVHWKHXQFRQ¿QHGFDVHLVDQDORJRXV 
D 3RLQW$ SXUHFRPSUHVVLRQ DWDXQLIRUPD[LDOFRPSUHV-
VLYHVWUDLQRIFRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHİccu
E  3RLQW % ZLWK D VWUDLQ GLVWULEXWLRQ FRUUHVSRQGLQJ WR
zero strain at the layer of longitudinal steel reinforcement
QHDUHVWWRWKHWHQVLOHIDFHDQGDFRPSUHVVLYHVWUDLQİccu on
the compression face
F  3RLQW & ZLWK D VWUDLQ GLVWULEXWLRQ FRUUHVSRQGLQJ WR
EDODQFHG IDLOXUH ZLWK D PD[LPXP FRPSUHVVLYH VWUDLQ İccu
Fig. D.1—Strain distributions for Points B and C for simpli-
DQGD\LHOGLQJWHQVLOHVWUDLQİsy at the layer of longitudinal
¿HGLQWHUDFWLRQGLDJUDP
steel reinforcement nearest to the tensile face
)RUFRQ¿QHGFRQFUHWHWKHYDOXHRIࢥPn corresponding to
⎛b ⎛ h ⎞ E − E2 ⎛ ε ccu ⎞ ⎞
3RLQW$ ࢥMnHTXDOV]HUR LVJLYHQLQ(T D DQG E  G = ⎜ f c′ + b ⎜ c − ⎟ c ⎜⎝ ⎟  'J
while the coordinates of Points B and C can be computed as: ⎝2 ⎝ 2⎠ 2 c ⎠ ⎟⎠

⎡ A yt 3 + B yt 2 + C yt ⎤ ⎛ h⎞
φPn B C = φ ⎢ ⎥ ' H = bf c′ ⎜ c − ⎟  'K
⎝ 2⎠
⎣ + D + ∑ Asi f si ⎦

⎡ bc 2 ⎛ h ⎞ bc 2 E2 ⎤
⎡ E yt 4 + F yt 3 + G yt 2 ⎤ ⎢ f ′ − bcf ′
c ⎜ c − ⎟ + ε ccu ⎥
φM n B C = φ⎢ ⎥  ' 2
c
⎝ 2⎠ 3
⎣ + H yt + I + ∑ Asi f si di ⎦ I=⎢ ⎥  'L
⎢ bcE2 ⎛ h⎞ ⎥
⎢− ⎜⎝ c − ⎟⎠ ε ccu ⎥
⎣ 2 2 ⎦
where
,Q (T 'D  WKURXJK 'L  c is the distance from the
2
−b Ec − E2 2 ⎛ ε ccu ⎞ H[WUHPHFRPSUHVVLRQ¿EHUWRWKHQHXWUDOD[LV )LJ' DQG
A= ⎜⎝ ⎟ 'D
12 f c′ c ⎠ LW LV JLYHQ E\ (T '  7KH SDUDPHWHU yt represents the
vertical coordinate within the compression region measured
from the neutral axis position and corresponds to the transi-
b Ec − E2 ⎛ ε ccu ⎞
B= ⎜⎝ c ⎟⎠ 'E WLRQVWUDLQİtƍ (T ' >UHIHUWR)LJ'@ 
2
⎧d for Point B
C = –bfcƍ 'F ⎪
c=⎨ ε ccu  '
⎪d ε + ε for Point C
⎩ sy ccu
bcE2
D = bcf c′ + ε ccu  'G
2
ε t′
2 yt = c  '
−b Ec − E2 2 ⎛ ε ccu ⎞ ε ccu
E= ⎜⎝ c ⎟⎠ 'H
16 f c′
where fsi is the stress in the i-th layer of longitudinal steel
reinforcement. The values are calculated by similar triangles
⎡ ⎛ h ⎞ Ec − E2 2 ⎛ ε ccu ⎞
2

⎢b ⎜ c − ⎟ ⎥ from the strain distribution corresponding to Points B and
⎝ ⎜ ⎟
2 ⎠ 12 f c′ ⎝ c ⎠ C. Depending on the neutral axis position c, the sign of fsi
F=⎢ ⎥ 'I
⎢ b E − E ⎛ ε ⎞ ⎥ will be positive for compression and negative for tension. A
⎢+ c 2
⎜⎝
ccu
⎟ ⎥ ÀRZFKDUWLOOXVWUDWLQJWKHDSSOLFDWLRQRIWKHSURSRVHGPHWK-
⎣⎢ 3 c ⎠ ⎦⎥ odology is shown in Fig. D.2.

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110 EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE STRUCTURES (ACI 440.2R-17)

Fig. D.2—Flowchart for application of methodology.

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As ACI begins its second century of advancing concrete knowledge, its original chartered purpose
remains “to provide a comradeship in finding the best ways to do concrete work of all kinds and in
spreading knowledge.” In keeping with this purpose, ACI supports the following activities:

· Technical committees that produce consensus reports, guides, specifications, and codes.

· Spring and fall conventions to facilitate the work of its committees.

· Educational seminars that disseminate reliable information on concrete.

· Certification programs for personnel employed within the concrete industry.

· Student programs such as scholarships, internships, and competitions.

· Sponsoring and co-sponsoring international conferences and symposia.

· Formal coordination with several international concrete related societies.

· Periodicals: the ACI Structural Journal, Materials Journal, and Concrete International.

Benefits of membership include a subscription to Concrete International and to an ACI Journal. ACI
members receive discounts of up to 40% on all ACI products and services, including documents, seminars
and convention registration fees.

As a member of ACI, you join thousands of practitioners and professionals worldwide who share
a commitment to maintain the highest industry standards for concrete technology, construction,
and practices. In addition, ACI chapters provide opportunities for interaction of professionals and
practitioners at a local level to discuss and share concrete knowledge and fellowship.

American Concrete Institute


38800 Country Club Drive
Farmington Hills, MI 48331
Phone: +1.248.848.3700
Fax: +1.248.848.3701
www.concrete.org

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38800 Country Club Drive
Farmington Hills, MI 48331 USA
+1.248.848.3700
www.concrete.org

The American Concrete Institute (ACI) is a leading authority and resource


worldwide for the development and distribution of consensus-based
bcM]QMaQbM]QcRPV]WPMZaRb^daPRb͜RQdPMcW^]MZ_a^UaM\b͜M]QPRacWŬPMcW^]b
for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction,
and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.

Individuals interested in the activities of ACI are encouraged to explore the


ACI website for membership opportunities, committee activities, and a wide
variety of concrete resources. As a volunteer member-driven organization,
ACI invites partnerships and welcomes all concrete professionals who wish to
be part of a respected, connected, social group that provides an opportunity
for professional growth, networking and enjoyment.

9 781945 487590

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