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NPR 9998: 2018

Legend
L is the length of the bottom floor
L1 the length of the floor
L2 the length of the floor
L3 the depth of the indentation of the floor
L4 the depth of the indentation of the floor
H the height of the building
Figure 4.1 - Criteria for regularity of buildings with recessed portions

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4.2.4 Combination coefficient for variable loads


the combination coefficient ψE;i introduced in 3.2.4 for the calculation of the effects of the
earthquake loads are to be calculated with Formula (4.2).

ψE;i = φ × ψ2;i (4.2)

in which:

E;i the combination coefficient for variable loads i;


φ· Is a coefficient fee brings that not all mass moves completely;
;i is the combined coefficient for the quasi-permanent value of the variable load qi.
The award values φ are given in Table 4.2.

the combination coefficient ψ2;i (For the quasi-permanent value of the variable load qi) For the design of
buildings is given in A.1 of EN 1990.

Table 4.2 - Values φ for, the calculation of ψE;i


Classes loaded floor topsoil φ
surfaces a

A to C Roof 1.0
Other floors (floors) 0.6
D to F and archives 1.0
a Class in 6.3 of EN 1991-1-1.

4.3 Structural analysis

4.3.1 General

4.3.1.1 Primary and secondary seismic elements

The linear methods of analysis described in 4.3.2 to 4.3.4 for primary and secondary seismic elements are
applicable only if it meets a series of conditions from which the
regularity of the building structure is apparent.

NOTE For new construction it is relatively easy to achieve in the design. For existing buildings, this required regularity is
not always fulfilled. It may therefore be necessary for those situations over
steps on the non-linear, or non-dynamic, methods of analysis.

4.3.1.2 Non-seismic structural elements


Non-seismic structural elements can be assessed in accordance with 4.3.6.

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4.3.2 Modeling

4.3.2.1 general

The calculation of the building's stiffness and mass distribution must represent adequately
so that all significant deformation properties and inertia forces in the considered
earthquake estate tax will be charged. In the case of a non-linear calculation on the calculation model must
also describe adequately the resistance of the building structure.
For this purpose, according to the criteria apply at the same time 4.3.2.2 up to and including 4.3.2.4.

NOTE 1 The crossing of the boundary condition NC may also be determined by making use of the limit state SD, in which
the loads associated are shared with the boundary condition NC by 4/3, and, as such, be implemented in the calculations
with corresponding provisions of the limit state SD. Do both linear and non-linear methods.

NOTE 2 Because of the additional flexibility and power dissipation caused, the interaction between
ground and construction, in general, a favorable influence on the behavior of a structure. However, this depends
design type. It is conservative to use a structural model with clamped foundation "as
it is expected that the foundation continues to fulfill its function (no pole breakage or other effects that loss of
load-bearing capacity occurs) and acts, as a rigid base acts for the considered level of seismic load.

4.3.2.2 General criteria


Each of the following criteria apply:

a) the building structure may be represented as, in principle, as a number of vertical and horizontal
load remitting systems connected by horizontal discs (floors).

b) If the floor elements of the building can be considered as rigid in their plane, should the
masses and the inertia moments are concentrated from each floor in the center of gravity thereof.

NOTE A floor may be assumed to be rigid, if the horizontal displacements at the charging
transferring the actual bending stiffness in the plane are not more than 10% greater than the corresponding absolute
the horizontal displacements at a in-plane as a rigid assumed floor in the seismic design situation.

c) For buildings that do not meet the criteria for regularity in plan (see 4.2.3.2), the can
calculation would be performed using two flat models, one for each main direction,
if it is satisfied the conditions of 4.3.4.1.

d) Non-seismic, structural elements that can have an effect on the response of the
building construction, should be included.

4.3.2.3 stiffness criteria


Each of the following criteria apply:

a) The calculation should take into account the contribution of the compounds on the stiffness and ductility
of the building, such as the end zones of girders or columns in frame structures.

b) In buildings made of concrete, steel-concrete or masonry should the rigidity of the constructive
elements, in principle, be determined taking into account the effect of cracks. This stiffness should be
in reinforced concrete structures corresponding to the beginning of flow of the reinforcement.

c) Unless a more accurate calculation of the torn elements is carried out, the elastic bending and shear
stiffness properties of concrete and masonry elements may be taken to be equal to half the corresponding
stiffness of the non-cracked elements.

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d) Non-load-bearing walls in a frame that significantly contribute to the lateral stiffness and the
resistance of the building must be taken into account. For masonry walls in concrete,
steel or steel-concrete frames, see B.4.2.

e) The deformability of the foundation must be taken into account in the calculation model, if this is a
significant adverse effect on the response of the structure.

NOTE Ductility of the foundation (including the interaction between the ground and the
building structure) may always be taken into account when this leads to a positive effect on the response of
the building structure.

4.3.2.4 Criterion in respect of mass


The masses to be considered to be derived from the load combination described in 3.2.4.

4.3.3 Accidental torsional effects

To deal with uncertainty in the location of masses and in the spatial variation of the
seismic motion should the calculated center of mass on each floor i are considered to be
displaced relative to its nominal position in any direction with an additional eccentricity. The
eccentricity is to be applied simultaneously for all floors in the same direction.

ea;i = ± 0.05 Li (4.3)

in which:

ea;i is the additional eccentricity of mass storey i relative to its nominal position,
applied in the same direction at all floors;
Li the floor size of topsoil i perpendicular to the direction of the earthquake load.

4.3.4 Calculation
methods

4.3.4.1 Assumptions

4.3.4.1.1 General

In order to set in the control method for the determination of the seismic forces for new construction is the
calculation according to the modal response spectrum. Here, use must be made of a linear-
elastic calculation model of the building construction, and the design spectrum given in 3.2.2.2.3.

allowed to determine depending on the structural characteristics of the building of the


earthquake load use can be made of one of the two following types of linear-elastic
calculation:

a) the "calculation according to the side loading method 'for buildings which satisfy the
conditions in 4.3.4.2;
b) the "calculation according to the modal response spectrum", which is suitable for all of the buildings (see
4.3.4.3).

As an alternative to a linear calculation method may, under the conditions described hereinafter, also a
non-linear methods are used, such as:
c) non-linear push-over-calculation, or,
d) non-linear (dynamic) time domain calculation, on the conditions as shown in 4.3.4.4.

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NOTE nonlinear methods require more effort to research, support and computation, but may be able to demonstrate that
less conservative solutions than estimated from the linear calculation is sufficient to show that the building can withstand
earthquake loads, see Appendix F and G.

If it is not satisfied with the requirements of the frequency according to 4.2.3.2, Can still with a calculation
method
based on two perpendicular planes, one for each horizontal main direction, to be worked, if all conditions
under item 2 in 4.3.4.1.3, with the exception of d) is satisfied. If thereby not to
condition d) of 4.3.4.1.3 can be satisfied, the earthquake load effects include the following from the analysis
yet to be multiplied by 1.25 or belongs to the q factor to be multiplied by 0.8 (see 4.2.3.1).

If a spatial model (3D) is used, the design value of the earthquake load must be
provided in all of the relevant horizontal directions (depending on the structural design of the
building), and their corresponding orthogonal horizontal directions. For buildings with load-bearing elements in
two mutually perpendicular directions these directions should be regarded as the relevant
directions.

4.3.4.1.2 Conditions for the selection of the calculation method

Non-linear calculations must be substantiated with regard to earthquake loading, the constitutive model used,
the method of interpretation of the results and the requirements which must be
met.

Constructions without the vibration isolation which have been designed on the basis of a non-linear push-
over-calculation (see 4.3.4.4), have to comply with 4.4.2.2And to the provisions of Chapters 5 through 9
dissipative structures.

For buildings that are at the foundation are provided damping insulation
earthquake loads, the conditions under which the linear methods (a) and (b) or the non-linear methods (c)
and (d) may be used, given in Chapter 10 of NEN-EN 1998-1. See also section 4.5 of this NPR.

4.3.4.1.3 Conditions for schematization, with the use of linear elastic calculation models

Linear-elastic calculations may be carried out under the following conditions:

1) If compliance with the criteria for regularity in plan (see 4.2.3.2) may
linear elastic calculations are performed, using two flat models, one for
each horizontal main direction.

2) For buildings in consequence classes CC1 and CC2 may also be linear elastic calculations
carried out with the aid of two flat models, one for each horizontal main direction, if not
meets the criteria for regularity in plan (see 4.2.3.2). However, this
comply with any of the following specific criteria regularity:

a) The building façade must have a regular structure, cladding, and a relatively rigid in a
have regular structure positioned, relatively stiff, non-supporting inner walls.
b) the height of the building may not be larger than 10 m.

c) The stiffness in the plane of the floors must be, relative to the lateral stiffness of the vertical
structural elements, are large enough to be able to adopt a rigid disc operation.

d) The centers of the lateral stiffness and mass per storey must each approximately in a
vertical line lying down and, in the two horizontal directions of the calculation, to meet the
requirements: rx2 > ls2 + eox2, ry2 > ls2 + eoy2, Wherein the radius of gyration ls torsion beams rX and rY and
the
constructive eccentricities eox and eoy are defined as in 4.2.3.2.

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4.3.4.2 Side loading method

4.3.4.2.1 General
The side loading method may be used for buildings, of which the response is not
is influenced significantly by other vibration modes than the fundamental mode shape in each main direction.
This criterion is considered satisfied if the building meets the two following conditions:
a) the fundamental vibration periods T1 in the two main directions are smaller than or equal to:

T1 = Min (4 × TC; 2.0 s) (4.4)

in which:

TC is the numerical value of the upper limit of the vibration periods for which the spectral acceleration
is constant, as defined in 3.2.2.2.1.
b) The building meets the required criteria in the section, given in 4.2.3.3.

4.3.4.2.2 Shear force at the location of the foundation

The shear force due to the earthquake load at the location of the foundation Fb should be considered for the
two horizontal directions are determined using the formula (4.5):
Fb SdT1muntil
(4.5)
in which:
Sd(T1) Is the value of the design spectrum (see 3.2.2.2.3) in the period of vibration T1;

T1 the fundamental vibration period of the building in relation to the lateral movement
in the direction considered;

muntil is the total mass of the building, to the extent that located above the foundation or above as
star to consider basement or foundation connected rigidly to the ground floor,
calculated in accordance with 3.2.4;

 is the correction factor:  = 0,85 when T1 <2TC and the building has more than two floors,
and  = 1.0, in other cases.
NOTE 1 The factor  takes into account that for buildings with at least three building layers and translation degrees in
every horizontal direction, the effective activated mass of the first (fundamental) vibration shape is on average 15%
smaller than the total mass of the building.

For the estimation or calculation of the fundamental period of vibration T1See 4.3.3.2.2 of
BS EN 1998-1.
NOTE 2 The estimation or calculation of the fundamental period of vibration T1 as claimed in 4.3.3.2.2 of
BS EN 1998-1 provides a relatively rough approximation. In many cases it is advisable to apply a more detailed
calculation.

4.3.4.2.3 Distribution of the horizontal seismic forces

The fundamental mode shapes are meant to be calculated in the horizontal directions of the building
using the theory of dynamics. They may also be approximated by linearly increasing horizontal displacements
over the height of the building.

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The earthquake load effects have to be defined by horizontal forces Fi by having them engage on all the
floors in the two directions to be considered.

in which:
Fi is the horizontal seismic force acting on, on topsoil i;

Fb is the seismic shear force as a result of an earthquake load at the location of the
foundation, in accordance with formula (4.5);
si, sj the movements of the masses mi, mj in the fundamental mode shape;
mi, mj are the masses of the building layers, as calculated in accordance with 3.2.4;

n is the number of floors above the foundation or the top of a to be regarded as a rigid
cellar.

If the basic mode shape is approximated by linearly increasing horizontal displacements over the height of
the building, then the horizontal forces may Fi taken equal to:

in which:
Fi is the horizontal force;

Fb is the seismic shear force as a result of an earthquake load at the location of the
foundation, in accordance with formula (4.5);

zi, zj is the height of mass mi and mj above the level of the point of application of the
earthquake load;

n is the number of floors above the foundation or the top of a to be regarded as a rigid
cellar.
NOTE is the first floor above ground level, j = 1.

The thus-calculated horizontal forces Fi need to be distributed over the system, which offers to the lateral
load resistance, on the assumption that the floors are rigid in their plane.

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4.3.4.2.4 Torsional effects

If the lateral stiffness and mass are symmetrically distributed in the horizontal plane, and if the
additional eccentricity of 4.3.2 is not charged with a more accurate method
(For example, those of 4.3.4.3.3), then the additional torsional effects are taken into account by the load
effects on the individual, load elements may remitting that result from the application of the in certain 4.3.4.2.3
Fi, Multiplied by a factor  given by:

in which:

X the distance of the element considered in the building's center of gravity in the plan,
measured perpendicular to the direction of the earthquake load under consideration;

Le is the distance between the two most distant from one another, horizontal, load remitting elements,
measured perpendicular to the direction of the earthquake load under consideration.

If the calculation is carried out using two planes to be considered, one for each
horizontal main direction, than the torsional effects may be determined by the additional doubling
eccentricity ea;i from formula (4.3), and by applying formula (4.12), wherein the factor 0.6 in this
formula is increased to 1.2.

4.3.4.3 Spectral modal response calculation

4.3.4.3.1 General

The spectral response-modal calculation is applicable for buildings that do not meet the conditions for applying
the lateral load method given in 4.3.4.2.1.

The response of all the vibration modes that contribute significantly to the overall response, should be taken
into account. It may be assumed that this condition is met if it is shown that:

- the sum of the effective activated masses of the considered mode shapes is at least 90% of the
bringing total mass into account, or

- all mode shapes with an effective activated mass greater than 5% of the total mass charge
are accommodated.

NOTE The effective mass of activated mk, corresponding to mode shape k, Is determined such that the total lateral force at
the location of the foundation Fbk acting in the direction of the earthquake load, can be formulated as:

Fbk = Sd(Tk) × mk (4.12a)


in which:
Fbk is the total shear force at the location of the foundation acting in the direction of the earthquake load;

Sd(Tk) Is the design spectrum at mode shape k;

mk is the effective activated mass at mode shape k.

If a three-dimensional computer model is used, the above criteria must be verified for all relevant directions.

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If it cannot be satisfied the above-mentioned percentages with respect to the effective


activated masses (eg. in buildings with significant contribution from torsional vibration modes), the minimum
number of vibration modes should k Which shall be taken into account in a calculation with a spatial
calculation, meet both of the following conditions:


and

Tk ≤ 0.20 s (4.14)

in which:

k is the number of modes of vibration that is to be charged;

n is the number of floors above the foundation or the top of a to be regarded as a rigid
cellar;
Tk the oscillation period of mode shape k.

4.3.4.3.2 Combination of modal responses

The response in two vibration modes i and j (Including translational and torsional vibration forms) may be
considered as independent of each other if their vibration periods Ti and Tj (with Tj  Ti) With the following
meet conditions:


If all of the relevant modal responses (see 4.3.3.3.1) may be as independent of each other
considered, then the maximum value of the earthquake impact load may, in EE Be equivalent to:

(
4
.
1
6
)
in which:
EE is the earthquake load effect under consideration (force, displacement, etc.);
EE;i the accounting value of this tax effect due to vibration form i.

If all of the relevant modal responses (see 4.3.4.3.1) should not be as independent of each other
considered, then more accurate methods have to be used for the combination of the maxima of the activated
mass, for example, "the full quadratic combination" (see 4.2.1.3 from
BS EN 1998-2).

4.3.4.3.3 Torsional effects

If a spatial model has been used for the calculation, then the additional torsional effects may
as referred to in 4.3.3, are determined as the envelope of the effects that result from the charging of static
loads, consisting of combinations of torsion moments Ma;i around the
vertical axis of each storey i:

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in which:
Ma;i the torsional moment that acts on building layer i about its vertical axis;

ea;i is the additional eccentricity of mass storey i determined with the formula (4.3) for all
relevant directions;

Fi is the horizontal seismic force acting on building layer i, As derived in all 4.3.4.2.3
relevant directions.

The impact of these taxes should be charged with a positive and negative sign
(The same sign for each storey).

If two separate planar models have been used in the calculation, then the torque-effects may in
be charged by the application of the rules 4.3.4.2.4 calculated from the load effects in accordance with
4.3.4.3.2.

4.3.4.4 Nonlinear methods

When handling non-linear methods for new build and completely renovate buildings to be used 4.3.3.4 NEN-
EN 1998-1.

NOTE 1 The mathematical model described in 4.4.2.2 of this NPR, which is used for the elastic calculation, has to be
extended, so that the strength of structural members and their post-elastic behavior
are included herein.

For newly constructed buildings and constructions of entirely renewing buildings may be
assumed that initial skew teeth can be neglected. For purposes of this at NPR
partial construction or disapprove should skew teeth are measured and are taken into account in the
evaluation, if that are greater than the initial tilt that has to be taken into account other than earthquake
calculations with structural calculations.

For purposes of this NPR in alteration or reject, with the aid of non-linear methods a
possibly more adequate assessment carried over with the application of linear methods.

NOTE 2 in Annex F, G and H is given in more detail how filling, by means of non-linear calculations, the
earthquake resistance of a building structure can be assessed.

The remainder of this chapter 4, as it relates to the strength of the building structure of a building, for the
primary and secondary seismic elements need not be followed in
using non-linear methods, with the exception of 4.3.5.

4.3.4.5 Combining the effects of the components of the earthquake load

4.3.4.5.1 Horizontal components of the earthquake load

The load effects as a result of the horizontal components of an earthquake load must have been determined
with the use of linear calculation on the basis of Formulas (4.18) and (4.19):

Eed;X '+' 0.30 Eed;Y (4.18)

0.30 Eed;X '+' Eed;Y (4.19)

in which:
'+' Means 'to combine with';

Eed;X is the design value of the load effects caused by the horizontal component X of the
earthquake load;

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Eed;Y is the design value of the load effects caused by the horizontal component Y of the
earthquake load.

4.3.4.5.2 Vertical component of the earthquake load

If ag; d; vert is larger than that shown in 3.2.2.2, Then it must when using linear methods of calculation, the
vertical component of the earthquake load, as defined in 3.2.2.2.2, to be charged
placed for the specified elements.

If the horizontal load of the earthquake impact load is negligible, then allowed to the
vertical component of the earthquake loads are determined on the basis of a model which comprises a portion
of the building construction, each of these elements of the in 3.2.2.2 mentioned list, and taking
account of the stiffness of the adjacent elements.

If the horizontal load of the earthquake impact load is not negligible, then it must the
assay method as mentioned be used in 4.3.4.5.1, extended to all the three components
earthquake load. Alternatively, use may be made of the tax effect
resulting from the three Formulas (4.20) through (4.22), whereby the most adverse must be
held:

Eed;X '+' 0.30 Eed;Y '+' 0.30 Eed;z (4.20)

0.30 Eed;X '+' Eed;Y '+' 0.30 Eed;z (4.21)

0.30 Eed;X '+' 0.30 Eed;Y '+' Eed;z (4.22)

in which:
'+' Means 'to combine with';
Eed;X is as given in 4.3.4.5.1;
Eed;Y is as given in 4.3.4.5.1;

Eed;z is the design value of the load effects caused by the vertical component z of the
earthquake load.

4.3.5 Displacement Calculation

If a linear calculation is carried out, then have the displacements which are the result of the calculation value
of the earthquake load, are calculated on the basis of the elastic deformations of the structural system, by
means of the simplified formula (4.23):

ds = qd × de (4.23)

in which:

ds is the displacement of a point in the structural system as a result of the calculation value of
earthquake load;

qd is the behavior factor for the displacement which is assumed to be equal to q, unless otherwise
specified;

de is the displacement of the same point of the constructive system, as determined on the basis
a linear calculation using the design spectrum (see 3.2.2.2.3).

In front of ds does not need to be maintained larger value than the value derived from the elastic
spectrum.

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In terms of movements de the torsional effects of the earthquake loads must be taken into account.

In deviation from the above to be in both a static and a dynamic non-linear


calculating the displacements derived directly from the calculation, without further adjustment.

4.3.6 Non-seismic, structural elements

4.3.6.1 general

Non-seismic structural elements which, in the event of failure, non-trivial risks


cause may have the construction people or consequences which provides the stability of the building or critical
parts of plants should be read in conjunction with their connections
judged on whether they have a sufficient degree of reliability to a
to withstand earthquake loads.

Non-seismic structural elements should be considered if they meet the


following conditions:

Condition 1 - potentially life-threatening, the elements or parts thereof are so stiff and heavy that they can pose
a danger to life in the case of a (full) collapse.

For elements (such as, for example, a partition wall or a floor) complying with this condition
by assessing the following:

- the falling mass of the element or part thereof is greater than 1 kg, and on one of the following three
conditions are met:

a) vertical elements or parts thereof with a mass per unit area of less than 60 kg / m , 2

if the drop height of the bottom of the (part of) the element to the corresponding floor or the
connecting area is greater than 2 m, or the distance from the top of the (part of) the element
to the floor or the connecting area is larger than 3 m, or
b) vertical elements or parts thereof with a mass per unit area greater than or equal
to 60 kg / m , If the drop height of the top of the (part of) the element to the contiguous
2

floor, or the adjacent area of which exceeds 1.2 m, or


c) horizontal elements, as the mass per unit area is greater than 25 kg / m . 2

Condition 2 - occupancy at the place where the risk occurs: the element can in one place
fall where significantly high probability one or more persons are present during an earthquake. An element
satisfies this condition, if, in the event of a full or partial collapse, each
part of the element over the length of the covered element in view could fall in the horizontal cross-section in
or on:

a) projected perpendicularly a ground plane for the element falling outside of the facade of the building on a
base, which is intended to be accessible to the public,

1) to 3 m perpendicular to the facade for having a height up to two storeys of buildings or parts thereof, and
an attic above the adjacent area;
2) to 5 m with a height at right angles to the facade for buildings or parts thereof from
3 to 7 floors above the adjacent area;
3) to 7 m at right angles to the facade for buildings or parts thereof, with a height from
8 to 15 contiguous floors above the ground, or;
4) up to 10 m at right angles to the building facade for buildings with a height, or parts thereof,
15 floors or more above the adjacent plot.

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NOTE 1 comprises "For publicly accessible" (i) outside of areas located on the site associated with
the building and the public are accessible to visitors or customers site facilities such as
restaurants, theaters, museums, and (ii) outside areas that are publicly available, such as streets, squares,
recreation grounds, trails or roads where people are at risk because they meet outside or because they
walk past the building, bike or drive.

NOTE 2 When an adjacent lower-lying within the said distances (part of a)


another building in which people reside is located and the falling (part of) the element satisfies
Condition 1 is to take sensible account of that situation. From the viewpoint of the public
This regulation is not required.

b) projected perpendicularly a ground plane for the element falling within 1 m on either side of a
entry or exit of a vessel by those meant building (measured horizontally
parallel to the relevant wall) by a distance equal to the stated under a), measured at right angles
that entry or exit,
NOTE 3 The entry or exit of a building "includes:
1) every exit of the building which can be used as an escape route during an earthquake, and
2) each part of a pathway or driveway / exit on private property which is normally used by other users for the
access to the building and located within the scope of the risk element.

NOTE 4 outputs that can be used as an "escape route when an earthquake will normally
correspond to entrances and exits of buildings (or building parts) in the exterior which can be used as escape route
be used in case of fire.

c) within the residence of persons referred to building or from a height of 2 m or more roof
for a stay of persons referred to part of the building.

NOTE 5 "Inside a building" means within the external walls of the building, such as brick
elements that are located within the roof space but below the outer roof surface.

NOTE 6 The aim is to ensure that members are judged likely to fall in places
normally by people in use. This includes adjacent buildings to stay
people can be used. Excludes parts of buildings such as outhouses, sheds and garages
not intended for human residence.

NOTE 7 Where buildings have jumped in the front, for example in terrace houses, then include the
horizontal surfaces to be regarded as a roof.

4.3.6.2 Rating
For the assessment the following two procedures may be used:

1) A procedure based on the conventional semi-probabilistic structural analysis, in which


Design values for the load (effects) and resistors of the non-seismic, constructive
element are compared with each other (see 4.3.6.3).

2) A generic risk analysis approach based on the overall probability distribution for resistance
(Resistance curves) and the local probability distribution for earthquake load (risk function), in which all or
no explicit distinction is made between the different boundary conditions for the non-
seismic, structural elements.

The reliability of an element can be considered to be sufficient if at least one of the two procedures lead to a
positive result.

NOTE 1 For practical results based on the generic risk assessment, see Annex J.
For a more detailed approach, reference is made to [4.1A] and [4.1B].

NOTE 2, the following is the case of non-seismic, structural elements that are included in the finite element model used for
testing the primary and secondary seismic elements, from
application:

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i. Non-seismic, structural elements that fail at a load that is higher than the design value of the
peak ground acceleration of the primary and secondary seismic, structural elements, does not require further
rating.

ii. Non-seismic, structural elements that fail at a load that is lower than the design value of the
peak ground acceleration of the primary and secondary seismic, structural elements, should be
reviewed by either assessment. This can be done by the finite
applying element model of the specific load for non-seismic, structural elements. A
generic risk assessment method is also possible.

4.3.6.3 Semi Probabilistic assessment

The non-seismic, structural elements and their connections and accessories or anchorages must
according to the earthquake load combinations are evaluated as specified in 3.2.4 of this NPR.

NOTE 1 The transmission of the response at the location of the transition from the non-seismic, constructive
element to the primary and secondary seismic elements by linking the non-seismic, structural elements of the primary and
secondary seismic elements and their influence on the structural behavior thereof
should be charged. The requirements for fasteners embedded in concrete are set out in 2.7 of EN 1992-1-1.

For masonry structures with Annex H should be followed.

For other structures, the effects of the earthquake load may be determined by
application of the horizontal seismic force Fa, d on the non-seismic, structural elements, which is defined as
follows:

Fa, d = Sa, d × Wa (4.3.6.3.2)

at which:

in which:

Fa, d is the design value of the horizontal seismic force, acting in the center of the mass
of the non-seismic, a constructive element in the most unfavorable direction;
Wa is the weight of the non-seismic, a constructive element;

Sa, d is the design value of the spectrum, in g, At the relevant height acting on, on the non-
seismic, structural element.
ag; d is the design value of the peak ground acceleration, g;

qa the element behavior factor qa = 1 for cantilevers and qa = 2 for vertical spans and
end walls, [-];

z is the height of (the center of gravity of) the wall or the element to the extent that located above
the
foundation or above a basement regarded as rigid, in m;

H is the height of the building as far above the foundation or above as too rigid
consider basement, in m;

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Ta is the fundamental period of vibration of the non-seismic, structural element according to


Annex H;

T1 is the fundamental vibration period, using secant stiffness, of the building in the relevant
direction on the basis of the method described in Annex G, in s.
NOTE 2 As a conservative assumption can Ta/T1 be set to 1.

4.4 Evaluation of the structural safety

4.4.1 General

While the emphasis in this NPR on assessing the limit state NC, follows
exceeded, of which a full, or partial collapse. Assessment may be carried out via control of cross-sections,
elements or the entire structure.

4.4.2 Ultimate limit state

4.4.2.1 general

The requirement in respect of not collapse (NC, ultimate limit state) is satisfied when the seismic design
situation, if the below-described conditions relating to the strength in the cross-section, the
prevention of brittle fracture, the stability of the building, the strength of the horizontal disc-shaped
elements, the stability of the foundation and the strength of the connections have been met.

4.4.2.2 Conditions for resistance


All the structural elements, including connections, must comply with:

Ed ≤ Rd (4.27)

in which:

Ed is the design value of the load, in the seismic design situation (see 6.4.3.4 from
BS EN 1990), if necessary including any second-order effects. redistribution of
bending moments is permissible according to EN 1992-1-1, EN 1993-1-1 and
EN 1994-1-1;
Rd is the design value of the resistance of the element, calculated in accordance with the
rules that are specific to the material used, in which the characteristic values of
material properties fk be divided by the partial factor γm and the thus-determined resistance
of the element is shared by the partial factor γM, Which is in accordance with the
mechanical models that relate to the specific type of structural system, as
described in chapters 5 to 9 of this NPR, and other relevant parts of the
Eurocodes, in which:

Rd =R { fk / γm } / γM (4.27a)

in which:

γM is the partial material factor, which also model uncertainties and measurement deviations
in
takes account, the value of which is equal to 1.0;

γm is the partial factor for material properties, for γm the value of 1.0 may
be detained if degradation effects are explicitly taken into account;

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If degradation effects are not explicitly taken into account, should the
Chapters 5 to 9 and described values of γm held.
NOTE 1 The partial factor for the material properties in the determination of resistivity of the
element, γmIs not intended for extra security but to take account of the reduction in material strength during the
earthquake.

NOTE 2 In NEN-EN 1998-3 is, in contrast to NEN-EN 1998-1 and this NPR, the resistance of a
structure against the effects of an earthquake load assessed by testing of displacements occurring on displacement
requirements. At the time of drafting this NPR there was insufficient insight into the constructive
safety is achieved with the use of these methods. Therefore, this movement demands are not
acquired in this NPR. However, if the reliability of the structural safety in the use of a displacement requirement has been
sufficiently substantiated, the testing of the displacements will be seen as a method which
is equivalent to the method described in this NPR.

NOTE 3 The formula Rd =R { fk / γm } / γM corresponds to formula (6.6) from NEN-EN 1990.

There should be at verifying elastic (wherein q = 1) will suffice with a safety factor γM of 1.0.

Second-order effects need not be charged if all floors is the condition in formula (4.28):


in which:
 is the coefficient for the sensitivity to the relative displacement between the building layers;
Puntil is the mass on and above the considered storey in the seismic design situation;

dr is the design value of the relative displacement between the building layers, is equal to the difference
of the
mean lateral displacements ds at the top and bottom of the considered storey;
Vuntil is the total seismic shear force of the building layer;
h is the height between the floors (center to center).
If 0.1 <   0.2, then the second-order effects can be approximated by the relevant
multiplying earthquake action effects by a factor equal to 1 / (1 - ).
The value of the coefficient  must be less than or equal to 0.3.

If the calculated value of the tax effect Ed is determined by means of a non-linear


calculation method (see 4.3.4.4), then allowed to formula (4.27) to be used only for brittle elements.

For energy dissipation zones of elements designed and detailed for ductility, formula (4.27) focuses on the
deformations of the element (for example: plastic hinge or axis line rotations), taking into account material-bound
partial safety factors, to be applied to the deformation capacity of the elements.

4.4.2.3 Global and local ductility conditions

Must be checked whether the available ductility for both the building structure and components thereof is
sufficiently large. The required ductility will depend on the chosen system, and the
behavior factor (q).

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It is necessary to meet specific material-related requirements, such as defined in Chapter apply 5 to 9. These
requirements, to the extent indicated, including measures with respect to the
capacity related requirements with the objective to determine the hierarchy of the resistance of the
various structural elements, which is necessary to achieve the intended configuration of plastic
hinges and to avoid brittle failure possibilities.

In buildings with two or more building layers, the formation of a plastic mechanism with a weak building layer
must be prevented, because such a mechanism may possibly lead to extraordinary local ductility requirements
in the vertical load-bearing elements of the weak building layer. Unless otherwise specified in Chapters 5 to 9,
in order to meet this requirement, the following condition must be fulfilled for all connections to primary or
secondary seismic beams and primary seismic vertical load-bearing elements in frame buildings with two or
more building layers:
 Rc; d 1.3  R b; d (4.29)

in which:
MRc; d is the sum of the calculation values of the bending resistance of the vertical load-bearing
elements
meeting in the compound. The lowest value of resistance to bending of the vertical
element within the interval of the vertical forces that normally occur in the
seismic design situation, is to be used in formula (4.29);

MR b; d is the sum of the design values of bending resistance of the beams that converge in
the connection. If compounds are used with a reduced bending resistance,
the maximum occurring here moments of these compounds must be charged
introduced in the calculation of MR b; d.

NOTE A rigorous interpretation of formula (4.29) requires the calculation of the moments in the
center point of the compound. These times correspond to the design values of the modulus
of the vertical supporting elements or beams at the location of the outer sides of the seal, plus a suitable proportion for the
moments as a result of shear on the connecting surfaces. However, the loss of
accuracy is limited, and the achieved simplification is considerable in the case to increase the response rate as a result
shearing is neglected. This approach is considered acceptable.

The requirement stated in formula (4.29) is applicable in the two vertical planes in which bending
moments occur, which, in buildings with frames positioned perpendicular to each other, are
defined by these two directions. The requirement must be satisfied for both directions of the
occurring load (positive and negative) in which girder moments occur at the location of the connection,
with the moments of the vertical load-bearing elements are always opposite to the beam moments. If
the structural system, a frame or a similar system is in only one of the two
horizontal main directions of the constructional system, it must meet the requirement of formula (29.4) are
satisfied for only the vertical plane by said direction.
This requirement does not apply to the upper storey of a building with several storeys.
The requirement of formula (4.29) is satisfied if the following conditions are met:

- the plastic mechanisms, which have been determined using the push-over-calculation are
adequate,

- the requirements with respect to both the global and the local ductility and present between the building
layers and
distortions resulting from the push-over-charge (with different horizontal
load patterns) do not exceed the corresponding capacities, and
- brittle elements remain in the elastic phase.

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4.4.2.4 Stability of the building

The building must be stable at the earthquake load as specified in 6.4.3.4 from NEN-EN 1990. The stability
against tilting and sliding must be considered in the framework of the possible
complete collapse of the building.

In special situations, the stability of the building may be determined on the basis of an energy balance, or on
the basis of geometrically non-linear methods whereby the earthquake load is defined as
shown in 3.2.3.1.

4.4.2.5 Strength of the horizontal disc-shaped elements

Disks and bracing structures in the horizontal surfaces have to be able to transfer the effects as a result of the
seismic design load with sufficient strength over the systems that offer resistance to the lateral load with which
they are in communication.

This condition is met if, in the determination of the load effects in the disk, or the
strut construction, are multiplied by a load factor of the earthquake loads to the relevant resistance equation γd
equal to:
- γd = 1.3 for brittle failure behavior, such as by shearing in the disk drives of concrete;
- γd = 1.1 for ductile failure behavior.

4.4.2.6 Stability of the foundation


The foundation system must comply with Section 5 of EN 1998-5 and BS 9997-1.

The tax effects must be derived for the foundation elements based on
capacity related design considerations, taking into account the possible
development of strength. However, these values may not exceed the tax effects corresponding to the
response of the structure under the seismic design situation based on
elastic behavior (q= 1.0). Further capacity-related considerations are not required if:

1), the load effects for the foundation is not referred to in point 2) are determined on the basis of the
behavior factor q which is applicable to dissipative structures;

2) for foundations of individual vertical elements (columns or walls), the design values of the
tax effects Efd on the foundations have been derived as follows:

Efd = EF; G + γrd ×  × EF; E (4.30)

in which:

γrd is the partial factor associated with the uncertainty of the resistance model (1.0 for q  3, and
1.2 for q > 3);

EF; G is the load effect due to the non-earthquake loads that are part of the
load combination associated with the seismic design situation (see 6.4.3.4 BS EN 1990);
EF; E the load effect is resulting from the calculation of the seismic design load;
 is the value of (Rd;i / Ed;i)  q or of the dissipative zone of the element i of the structure
with the greatest impact on the considered effect EF;
in which:
Rdi is the design value of the resistance of the zone of the element or i;

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Ed;i is the design value of the load impact on the area or on the element i the seismic
design situation.
With respect to the determination of the value of  apply:
- For the foundations of structural walls or columns of point solid
is frameworks  the lowest value of the ratio Mrd / Med in the two perpendicular
main directions on the lowest cross-sectional view where a plastic hinge may
develop in the vertical element in the seismic design situation.

- is for the foundations of columns of concentric braced frames  the


minimum value of the ratio Npl, Rd / Ned all tensile diagonals of the braced
framework.
- is for the foundations of columns of eccentric braced frames  the minimum
of the following two values: the minimum ratio Vpl, Rd / Ved For all short seismic
compounds, and the minimum ratio Mpl, Rd / Med for all intermediate and long-
compounds in the braced framework.

- For foundations with more than one vertical element (foundation strips, footings, foundation slabs,
etc.) is the value of  used in Formula (4.30) are derived for the vertical element with the largest
a horizontal shear force in the seismic design situation, or, alternatively, can be in formula (4.30) a
value  = 1 are used, where at the same time connected to the value of the partial factor with the
uncertainty of the resistance model (over strength factor) γrd is increased to 1.4.

4.5 Application vibration isolation


Due to the building via a vibration isolation system to be connected with the foundation can be ensured that
the movements of the structure can be greatly reduced, and a whole can be elastically
included (q = 1). be given for further provisions in Chapter 10 of EN 1998-1.

It is recommended in 10.3 (2) P of EN 1998-1 recommended value for the magnification γX to handle.

NOTE Clause 10.3 (2) P of EN 1998-1 contains a national to fill parameter (NDP) for the
magnification γXThat this has been set at 1.2 for the Netherlands.

4.6 Assessment and measures used, additional provisions

4.6.1 General

For the assessment of existing buildings generally refer to EN 1998-3. Ten


respect of the NDP in EN 1998-3, the following applies:
a) All the attachments are informative.

b) The definitions have to be observed for the inspection levels.

c) The limitation of  / max does not apply.

The design value of the resistance of a part of the building structure must be determined as
described in 4.4.2.2.
Knowledge factors are set to 1.0 referred to in 3.3.1 of EN 1998-3.

NOTE That which is envisaged in EN 1998-3 with the knowledge factors in this NPR otherwise
processed. Therefore, do not work with the system of the knowledge factors and held the numerical value of 1.0 for all
knowledge factors.

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4.6.2 Review of existing individual building

To determine the earthquake resistance of individual buildings to calculation


be carried out with one of the methods in this NPR. The purpose of such calculation, it is necessary to have
information about the building. Appendix A provides an inspection protocol, which describes the information
of buildings can be collected in what way.

4.6.3 Assessment of a group of existing buildings

To determine the earthquake resistance of a group of buildings and take priority measures to be
determined which buildings require detailed examination and / or buildings which require reinforcement
measures. For prioritizing the approach used
are made of a safety risk-based prioritization strategy. Appendix C to this NPR above gives a possible
interpretation.

4.6.4 Possible measures for existing buildings

The following measures to be taken, resulting from a constructive risk analysis of existing
buildings can be distinguished (increasing complexity and impact):
a) reduction of risks by strengthening chimneys and the like;

b) coupling of floors to walls;


c) to improve from disk operation in constructions;
d) strengthening of existing walls;
e) moving, or the addition of stiffening walls;
f) amplifying the foundation;
g) breaking up, possibly supplemented by new building.

NOTE 1 Each of these measures should be considered within the framework of this NPR.
NOTE 2 Annex B are some pointers recorded in respect of generic and actionable enhancement measures.

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5 Specific rules for concrete structures

5.1 New and completely renovating a building

5.1.1 General

Provisions of Chapter 5 of EN 1998-1 containing parameters nationally determined, are listed below.
determination Topic

5.2.1 (5) P Geographical constraints for the use of ductility classes for concrete buildings

5.2.2.2 (10) qO value for buildings of concrete where a special quality plan
application

5.2.4 (3) Partial factors for materials for buildings of concrete for seismic
design

5.4.3.5.2 (1) Minimum Shear reinforcement ratio into large, light reinforced concrete walls

5.8.2 (3) Minimum dimensions of the cross section of foundation beams

5.8.2 (4) Minimum thickness and minimum reinforcement percentage of concrete foundation
slabs
5.8.2 (5) Minimum Reinforcement Percentage of concrete foundation beams

5.11.1.3.2 (3) Ductility class of prefabricated concrete elements

5.11.1.4 (1) reduction factors kp in front of q factors for construction of prefabricated concrete

5.11.1.5 (2) Earthquake Taxation during the assembly of prefabricated constructions

5.11.3.4 (7), e) Minimum percentage of longitudinal reinforcement in vertical joints between


prefabricated
wall elements

In the text below italic indicated in the section of Chapter 5 of EN 1998-1 is hereinafter shall apply. The
number of the relevant assay has been written in the margin.

BS EN 1998-1 5.2.1 Energy dissipation capacity and ductility classes

(5) P Ductility Classes DCM (energy dissipation average power) and DCH (high energy dissipation
power) may be used anywhere. For construction of new building and completely
renovate buildings may, in the case ag; d is greater than 0.2 g, Be applied only constructions
either complying with the requirements associated with the ductility classes DCM, or to meet the requirements
of the ductility classes DCH.

BS EN 1998-1 5.2.2.2 Behavioral factors for horizontal earthquake loads


(10) The qO- factor should not be increased if a special quality plan applies.

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BS EN 1998-1 5.2.4 Verification of structural safety

(3) The values of γ according to 4.4.2.2 of this NPR (γC and γS in EN 1992-1-1) have to Table 5.1
m

this NPR are derived.

Table 5.1 - Partial factors for materials for ultimate limit states
γm (γS) for prestressing
design Situations γm (γC) concrete γm (γS) for rebar steel
- - -
Seismic 1.5 1.15 1.1

NOTE Partial factors are also intended, as in 4.4.2.2 has been described, to take account of degradation of the
strength due to cyclic deformation, according to the recommendation in 5.2.4 (3)
BS EN 1998-1.

BS EN 1998-1 5.4.3.5.2 Shear Resistance


(1) The value of ρw; min should be equal to 0.002 ac are taken.

NOTE The value of ρw; min is taken equal to the recommended value in 9.6.2 (1) of EN 1992-1-1
and is higher than the value in 9.6.2 (1) of the National Annex of EN 1992-1-1.

BS EN 1998-1 5.8.2 Connection beams and foundation beams


(3) The value of bw; min should be taken to be equal to 0.25 m.

The value of hw; min should be taken as equal to 0,4 m for buildings up to three storeys
above the ground level.

The value of hw; min should be taken equal to 0.5 m for buildings with more than three storeys
above the ground level.
(4) The value of tminus should be taken equal to 0.2 m.
The value of ρs, min should be taken to be 0.2%.
(5) The value of ρb; min should be taken to be 0.4%.

BS EN 1998-1 5.11.1.3.2 Energy dissipation

(3) For newly constructed buildings may precast concrete, in the case ag; d is greater than 0.2 g,
only constructions are used which meet the requirements associated with the ductility classes DCM
and DCH.

NOTE prescribed in 5.2.1 (5) P of EN 1998-1 is fully applicable to constructions


precast concrete.

BS EN 1998-1 5.11.1.4 behavioral Factors

(1) The value of kp should be taken to be equal to 1.0 for structures with compounds of 5.11.2.1.1,
5.11.2.1.2 or 5.11.2.1.3 of EN 1998-1.
The value of kp should be taken to be equal to 0.5 for constructions with other compounds.

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BS EN 1998-1 5.11.1.5 Testing the installation phase


(2) The value of ap should be taken to be 30%.

BS EN 1998-1 5.11.3.4 Prefabricated walls with storey-high element


(7) The value of ρc, min should be taken to be 1%.

5.1.2 Additional instructions for testing - Material Properties


For the determination of the distribution of forces as a result of the load combination with
earthquake load may apply to the application of non-linear methods as claimed in 4.3.3.4 NEN-EN 1998-1 are
based on average material properties of concrete and steel.
The average material properties may be acquired for concrete in Table 3.1
EN 1992-1-1, whilst at the pressure of the stress-strain relationship of concrete
3.1.5 of EN 1992-1-1. On the drawing side may be extended this stress-strain relationship with a
linear branch to a voltage of /3 × fctm, followed by a linear push-pull softening branch to an elongation of 0.1%.
2

NOTE With the described draw-softening branch, a sufficiently accurate moment-curvature relationship is generally
obtained for reinforced sections which are loaded on bending (and normal pressure force). The elongation of 0.1% at the
end of the tensile softening branch is derived from [5.1].

The average material properties of rebar may be derived from a voltage


strain relationship of concrete reinforcing bars according to the schematic diagram in 3.2.7 of NEN-EN 1992-
1-1, with the
following modifications:
- a first branch to a voltage 1.1 × fyK with a corresponding elongation of 1.1 × fyK / Es;
- an inclined upper branch to a voltage 1.1 × k × fyK with an associated rack uk
at which:
k = (ft / fY) (5.1)

5.2 Renovation
To assess concrete structures in construction, apply the methods described in 5.1. Where there is existing
concrete structures, the properties can be derived from 5.3.2.
Further evidence for reinforcing concrete structures are listed in Appendix B of this NPR and Annex A of EN
1998-3.

5.3 Review existing buildings

5.3.1 General
To assess existing concrete structures, apply the methods described in 5.1.

5.3.2 Material Properties

To assess the structural safety of existing concrete structures must be made of BS 8700 usage.

NOTE various predecessors of EN 1992-1-1 are quality marks and concrete


used rebar. Annex 3 of [5.2] are tables set which included a conversion of this old quality marks for indications and / or
descriptions that may be using EN 1992-1-1
applied.

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6 Specific rules for steel structures

6.1 New and completely renovating a building


Provisions of Chapter 6 of EN 1998-1 containing parameters nationally determined, are listed below.
determination Topic

6.1.2 (1) P Upper limit for q value for low-dissipative structural behavior

6.1.3 (1) P Partial factors for materials for steel buildings for seismic
design

6.2 (3) Factor for the charging of the on strength of the material steel at
for the purpose of the design capacity of buildings made of steel

6.2 (7) Information about how EN 1993-1-10 should be used in the seismic
design

6.5.5 (7) Reference to additional rules accepted design links 3)

6.7.4 (2) Na-critical resistance of pressure-loaded on diagonals in steel frames with


V-linkages

In the text below italic indicated in the section of Chapter 6 of EN 1998-1 is hereinafter shall apply. The
number of the relevant assay has been written in the margin.

BS EN 1998-1 6.1.2 Design Concepts


(1) The upper limit for the P q value for low-dissipative structural behavior is to be set at 1.5.

where the newly built structures may in the scope of the NPR,
peak ground acceleration at ground level, determined according to the NPR-web tool 9998, is less than or
equal to 0.2 g, ductility classes DCL are used, in which the q value not greater than q = 1.5 may be taken.

where the new structures should build on the scope of the NPR,
peak ground acceleration at ground level, determined according to the NPR-web tool 9998, is greater than 0.2
g the ductility classes DCM and DCH can be used.
An existing structure can be divided into ductility classes DCL.

BS EN 1998-1 6.1.3 Verification of structural safety

(1) P In order to bring the potential degradation due to varying deformation of steel needs to be charged, the
partial
factor for steel γm = 1.00 can be used.

NOTE 1 There is no risk of degradation by changing deformation of steel when referred to in this NPR
earthquakes, whereby γm = 1.00 can be maintained.

NOTE 2 In EN 1993-1-1 γm as used in this referred to as NPR γM.

3) This is a literal translation from English. Improved text should be in English: "Reference to complementary
Rules for joint design. " 'Joint' is used in EN 1993-1-8.

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