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NPR 998-2018 English Version Part 2

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Legend

L is the length of the bottom floor

L1 the length of the floor

L2 the length of the floor

L3 the depth of the indentation of the floor

L4 the depth of the indentation of the floor

H the height of the building

Figure 4.1 - Criteria for regularity of buildings with recessed portions

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the combination coefficient ψE;i introduced in 3.2.4 for the calculation of the effects of the

earthquake loads are to be calculated with Formula (4.2).

in which:

φ· Is a coefficient fee brings that not all mass moves completely;

;i is the combined coefficient for the quasi-permanent value of the variable load qi.

The award values φ are given in Table 4.2.

the combination coefficient ψ2;i (For the quasi-permanent value of the variable load qi) For the design of

buildings is given in A.1 of EN 1990.

Classes loaded floor topsoil φ

surfaces a

A to C Roof 1.0

Other floors (floors) 0.6

D to F and archives 1.0

a Class in 6.3 of EN 1991-1-1.

4.3.1 General

The linear methods of analysis described in 4.3.2 to 4.3.4 for primary and secondary seismic elements are

applicable only if it meets a series of conditions from which the

regularity of the building structure is apparent.

NOTE For new construction it is relatively easy to achieve in the design. For existing buildings, this required regularity is

not always fulfilled. It may therefore be necessary for those situations over

steps on the non-linear, or non-dynamic, methods of analysis.

Non-seismic structural elements can be assessed in accordance with 4.3.6.

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4.3.2 Modeling

4.3.2.1 general

The calculation of the building's stiffness and mass distribution must represent adequately

so that all significant deformation properties and inertia forces in the considered

earthquake estate tax will be charged. In the case of a non-linear calculation on the calculation model must

also describe adequately the resistance of the building structure.

For this purpose, according to the criteria apply at the same time 4.3.2.2 up to and including 4.3.2.4.

NOTE 1 The crossing of the boundary condition NC may also be determined by making use of the limit state SD, in which

the loads associated are shared with the boundary condition NC by 4/3, and, as such, be implemented in the calculations

with corresponding provisions of the limit state SD. Do both linear and non-linear methods.

NOTE 2 Because of the additional flexibility and power dissipation caused, the interaction between

ground and construction, in general, a favorable influence on the behavior of a structure. However, this depends

design type. It is conservative to use a structural model with clamped foundation "as

it is expected that the foundation continues to fulfill its function (no pole breakage or other effects that loss of

load-bearing capacity occurs) and acts, as a rigid base acts for the considered level of seismic load.

Each of the following criteria apply:

a) the building structure may be represented as, in principle, as a number of vertical and horizontal

load remitting systems connected by horizontal discs (floors).

b) If the floor elements of the building can be considered as rigid in their plane, should the

masses and the inertia moments are concentrated from each floor in the center of gravity thereof.

NOTE A floor may be assumed to be rigid, if the horizontal displacements at the charging

transferring the actual bending stiffness in the plane are not more than 10% greater than the corresponding absolute

the horizontal displacements at a in-plane as a rigid assumed floor in the seismic design situation.

c) For buildings that do not meet the criteria for regularity in plan (see 4.2.3.2), the can

calculation would be performed using two flat models, one for each main direction,

if it is satisfied the conditions of 4.3.4.1.

d) Non-seismic, structural elements that can have an effect on the response of the

building construction, should be included.

Each of the following criteria apply:

a) The calculation should take into account the contribution of the compounds on the stiffness and ductility

of the building, such as the end zones of girders or columns in frame structures.

b) In buildings made of concrete, steel-concrete or masonry should the rigidity of the constructive

elements, in principle, be determined taking into account the effect of cracks. This stiffness should be

in reinforced concrete structures corresponding to the beginning of flow of the reinforcement.

c) Unless a more accurate calculation of the torn elements is carried out, the elastic bending and shear

stiffness properties of concrete and masonry elements may be taken to be equal to half the corresponding

stiffness of the non-cracked elements.

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d) Non-load-bearing walls in a frame that significantly contribute to the lateral stiffness and the

resistance of the building must be taken into account. For masonry walls in concrete,

steel or steel-concrete frames, see B.4.2.

e) The deformability of the foundation must be taken into account in the calculation model, if this is a

significant adverse effect on the response of the structure.

NOTE Ductility of the foundation (including the interaction between the ground and the

building structure) may always be taken into account when this leads to a positive effect on the response of

the building structure.

The masses to be considered to be derived from the load combination described in 3.2.4.

To deal with uncertainty in the location of masses and in the spatial variation of the

seismic motion should the calculated center of mass on each floor i are considered to be

displaced relative to its nominal position in any direction with an additional eccentricity. The

eccentricity is to be applied simultaneously for all floors in the same direction.

in which:

ea;i is the additional eccentricity of mass storey i relative to its nominal position,

applied in the same direction at all floors;

Li the floor size of topsoil i perpendicular to the direction of the earthquake load.

4.3.4 Calculation

methods

4.3.4.1 Assumptions

4.3.4.1.1 General

In order to set in the control method for the determination of the seismic forces for new construction is the

calculation according to the modal response spectrum. Here, use must be made of a linear-

elastic calculation model of the building construction, and the design spectrum given in 3.2.2.2.3.

earthquake load use can be made of one of the two following types of linear-elastic

calculation:

a) the "calculation according to the side loading method 'for buildings which satisfy the

conditions in 4.3.4.2;

b) the "calculation according to the modal response spectrum", which is suitable for all of the buildings (see

4.3.4.3).

As an alternative to a linear calculation method may, under the conditions described hereinafter, also a

non-linear methods are used, such as:

c) non-linear push-over-calculation, or,

d) non-linear (dynamic) time domain calculation, on the conditions as shown in 4.3.4.4.

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NOTE nonlinear methods require more effort to research, support and computation, but may be able to demonstrate that

less conservative solutions than estimated from the linear calculation is sufficient to show that the building can withstand

earthquake loads, see Appendix F and G.

If it is not satisfied with the requirements of the frequency according to 4.2.3.2, Can still with a calculation

method

based on two perpendicular planes, one for each horizontal main direction, to be worked, if all conditions

under item 2 in 4.3.4.1.3, with the exception of d) is satisfied. If thereby not to

condition d) of 4.3.4.1.3 can be satisfied, the earthquake load effects include the following from the analysis

yet to be multiplied by 1.25 or belongs to the q factor to be multiplied by 0.8 (see 4.2.3.1).

If a spatial model (3D) is used, the design value of the earthquake load must be

provided in all of the relevant horizontal directions (depending on the structural design of the

building), and their corresponding orthogonal horizontal directions. For buildings with load-bearing elements in

two mutually perpendicular directions these directions should be regarded as the relevant

directions.

Non-linear calculations must be substantiated with regard to earthquake loading, the constitutive model used,

the method of interpretation of the results and the requirements which must be

met.

Constructions without the vibration isolation which have been designed on the basis of a non-linear push-

over-calculation (see 4.3.4.4), have to comply with 4.4.2.2And to the provisions of Chapters 5 through 9

dissipative structures.

For buildings that are at the foundation are provided damping insulation

earthquake loads, the conditions under which the linear methods (a) and (b) or the non-linear methods (c)

and (d) may be used, given in Chapter 10 of NEN-EN 1998-1. See also section 4.5 of this NPR.

4.3.4.1.3 Conditions for schematization, with the use of linear elastic calculation models

1) If compliance with the criteria for regularity in plan (see 4.2.3.2) may

linear elastic calculations are performed, using two flat models, one for

each horizontal main direction.

2) For buildings in consequence classes CC1 and CC2 may also be linear elastic calculations

carried out with the aid of two flat models, one for each horizontal main direction, if not

meets the criteria for regularity in plan (see 4.2.3.2). However, this

comply with any of the following specific criteria regularity:

a) The building façade must have a regular structure, cladding, and a relatively rigid in a

have regular structure positioned, relatively stiff, non-supporting inner walls.

b) the height of the building may not be larger than 10 m.

c) The stiffness in the plane of the floors must be, relative to the lateral stiffness of the vertical

structural elements, are large enough to be able to adopt a rigid disc operation.

d) The centers of the lateral stiffness and mass per storey must each approximately in a

vertical line lying down and, in the two horizontal directions of the calculation, to meet the

requirements: rx2 > ls2 + eox2, ry2 > ls2 + eoy2, Wherein the radius of gyration ls torsion beams rX and rY and

the

constructive eccentricities eox and eoy are defined as in 4.2.3.2.

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4.3.4.2.1 General

The side loading method may be used for buildings, of which the response is not

is influenced significantly by other vibration modes than the fundamental mode shape in each main direction.

This criterion is considered satisfied if the building meets the two following conditions:

a) the fundamental vibration periods T1 in the two main directions are smaller than or equal to:

in which:

TC is the numerical value of the upper limit of the vibration periods for which the spectral acceleration

is constant, as defined in 3.2.2.2.1.

b) The building meets the required criteria in the section, given in 4.2.3.3.

The shear force due to the earthquake load at the location of the foundation Fb should be considered for the

two horizontal directions are determined using the formula (4.5):

Fb SdT1muntil

(4.5)

in which:

Sd(T1) Is the value of the design spectrum (see 3.2.2.2.3) in the period of vibration T1;

T1 the fundamental vibration period of the building in relation to the lateral movement

in the direction considered;

muntil is the total mass of the building, to the extent that located above the foundation or above as

star to consider basement or foundation connected rigidly to the ground floor,

calculated in accordance with 3.2.4;

is the correction factor: = 0,85 when T1 <2TC and the building has more than two floors,

and = 1.0, in other cases.

NOTE 1 The factor takes into account that for buildings with at least three building layers and translation degrees in

every horizontal direction, the effective activated mass of the first (fundamental) vibration shape is on average 15%

smaller than the total mass of the building.

For the estimation or calculation of the fundamental period of vibration T1See 4.3.3.2.2 of

BS EN 1998-1.

NOTE 2 The estimation or calculation of the fundamental period of vibration T1 as claimed in 4.3.3.2.2 of

BS EN 1998-1 provides a relatively rough approximation. In many cases it is advisable to apply a more detailed

calculation.

The fundamental mode shapes are meant to be calculated in the horizontal directions of the building

using the theory of dynamics. They may also be approximated by linearly increasing horizontal displacements

over the height of the building.

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The earthquake load effects have to be defined by horizontal forces Fi by having them engage on all the

floors in the two directions to be considered.

in which:

Fi is the horizontal seismic force acting on, on topsoil i;

Fb is the seismic shear force as a result of an earthquake load at the location of the

foundation, in accordance with formula (4.5);

si, sj the movements of the masses mi, mj in the fundamental mode shape;

mi, mj are the masses of the building layers, as calculated in accordance with 3.2.4;

n is the number of floors above the foundation or the top of a to be regarded as a rigid

cellar.

If the basic mode shape is approximated by linearly increasing horizontal displacements over the height of

the building, then the horizontal forces may Fi taken equal to:

in which:

Fi is the horizontal force;

Fb is the seismic shear force as a result of an earthquake load at the location of the

foundation, in accordance with formula (4.5);

zi, zj is the height of mass mi and mj above the level of the point of application of the

earthquake load;

n is the number of floors above the foundation or the top of a to be regarded as a rigid

cellar.

NOTE is the first floor above ground level, j = 1.

The thus-calculated horizontal forces Fi need to be distributed over the system, which offers to the lateral

load resistance, on the assumption that the floors are rigid in their plane.

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If the lateral stiffness and mass are symmetrically distributed in the horizontal plane, and if the

additional eccentricity of 4.3.2 is not charged with a more accurate method

(For example, those of 4.3.4.3.3), then the additional torsional effects are taken into account by the load

effects on the individual, load elements may remitting that result from the application of the in certain 4.3.4.2.3

Fi, Multiplied by a factor given by:

in which:

X the distance of the element considered in the building's center of gravity in the plan,

measured perpendicular to the direction of the earthquake load under consideration;

Le is the distance between the two most distant from one another, horizontal, load remitting elements,

measured perpendicular to the direction of the earthquake load under consideration.

If the calculation is carried out using two planes to be considered, one for each

horizontal main direction, than the torsional effects may be determined by the additional doubling

eccentricity ea;i from formula (4.3), and by applying formula (4.12), wherein the factor 0.6 in this

formula is increased to 1.2.

4.3.4.3.1 General

The spectral response-modal calculation is applicable for buildings that do not meet the conditions for applying

the lateral load method given in 4.3.4.2.1.

The response of all the vibration modes that contribute significantly to the overall response, should be taken

into account. It may be assumed that this condition is met if it is shown that:

- the sum of the effective activated masses of the considered mode shapes is at least 90% of the

bringing total mass into account, or

- all mode shapes with an effective activated mass greater than 5% of the total mass charge

are accommodated.

NOTE The effective mass of activated mk, corresponding to mode shape k, Is determined such that the total lateral force at

the location of the foundation Fbk acting in the direction of the earthquake load, can be formulated as:

in which:

Fbk is the total shear force at the location of the foundation acting in the direction of the earthquake load;

If a three-dimensional computer model is used, the above criteria must be verified for all relevant directions.

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activated masses (eg. in buildings with significant contribution from torsional vibration modes), the minimum

number of vibration modes should k Which shall be taken into account in a calculation with a spatial

calculation, meet both of the following conditions:

and

Tk ≤ 0.20 s (4.14)

in which:

n is the number of floors above the foundation or the top of a to be regarded as a rigid

cellar;

Tk the oscillation period of mode shape k.

The response in two vibration modes i and j (Including translational and torsional vibration forms) may be

considered as independent of each other if their vibration periods Ti and Tj (with Tj Ti) With the following

meet conditions:

If all of the relevant modal responses (see 4.3.3.3.1) may be as independent of each other

considered, then the maximum value of the earthquake impact load may, in EE Be equivalent to:

(

4

.

1

6

)

in which:

EE is the earthquake load effect under consideration (force, displacement, etc.);

EE;i the accounting value of this tax effect due to vibration form i.

If all of the relevant modal responses (see 4.3.4.3.1) should not be as independent of each other

considered, then more accurate methods have to be used for the combination of the maxima of the activated

mass, for example, "the full quadratic combination" (see 4.2.1.3 from

BS EN 1998-2).

If a spatial model has been used for the calculation, then the additional torsional effects may

as referred to in 4.3.3, are determined as the envelope of the effects that result from the charging of static

loads, consisting of combinations of torsion moments Ma;i around the

vertical axis of each storey i:

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in which:

Ma;i the torsional moment that acts on building layer i about its vertical axis;

ea;i is the additional eccentricity of mass storey i determined with the formula (4.3) for all

relevant directions;

Fi is the horizontal seismic force acting on building layer i, As derived in all 4.3.4.2.3

relevant directions.

The impact of these taxes should be charged with a positive and negative sign

(The same sign for each storey).

If two separate planar models have been used in the calculation, then the torque-effects may in

be charged by the application of the rules 4.3.4.2.4 calculated from the load effects in accordance with

4.3.4.3.2.

When handling non-linear methods for new build and completely renovate buildings to be used 4.3.3.4 NEN-

EN 1998-1.

NOTE 1 The mathematical model described in 4.4.2.2 of this NPR, which is used for the elastic calculation, has to be

extended, so that the strength of structural members and their post-elastic behavior

are included herein.

For newly constructed buildings and constructions of entirely renewing buildings may be

assumed that initial skew teeth can be neglected. For purposes of this at NPR

partial construction or disapprove should skew teeth are measured and are taken into account in the

evaluation, if that are greater than the initial tilt that has to be taken into account other than earthquake

calculations with structural calculations.

For purposes of this NPR in alteration or reject, with the aid of non-linear methods a

possibly more adequate assessment carried over with the application of linear methods.

NOTE 2 in Annex F, G and H is given in more detail how filling, by means of non-linear calculations, the

earthquake resistance of a building structure can be assessed.

The remainder of this chapter 4, as it relates to the strength of the building structure of a building, for the

primary and secondary seismic elements need not be followed in

using non-linear methods, with the exception of 4.3.5.

The load effects as a result of the horizontal components of an earthquake load must have been determined

with the use of linear calculation on the basis of Formulas (4.18) and (4.19):

in which:

'+' Means 'to combine with';

Eed;X is the design value of the load effects caused by the horizontal component X of the

earthquake load;

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Eed;Y is the design value of the load effects caused by the horizontal component Y of the

earthquake load.

If ag; d; vert is larger than that shown in 3.2.2.2, Then it must when using linear methods of calculation, the

vertical component of the earthquake load, as defined in 3.2.2.2.2, to be charged

placed for the specified elements.

If the horizontal load of the earthquake impact load is negligible, then allowed to the

vertical component of the earthquake loads are determined on the basis of a model which comprises a portion

of the building construction, each of these elements of the in 3.2.2.2 mentioned list, and taking

account of the stiffness of the adjacent elements.

If the horizontal load of the earthquake impact load is not negligible, then it must the

assay method as mentioned be used in 4.3.4.5.1, extended to all the three components

earthquake load. Alternatively, use may be made of the tax effect

resulting from the three Formulas (4.20) through (4.22), whereby the most adverse must be

held:

in which:

'+' Means 'to combine with';

Eed;X is as given in 4.3.4.5.1;

Eed;Y is as given in 4.3.4.5.1;

Eed;z is the design value of the load effects caused by the vertical component z of the

earthquake load.

If a linear calculation is carried out, then have the displacements which are the result of the calculation value

of the earthquake load, are calculated on the basis of the elastic deformations of the structural system, by

means of the simplified formula (4.23):

ds = qd × de (4.23)

in which:

ds is the displacement of a point in the structural system as a result of the calculation value of

earthquake load;

qd is the behavior factor for the displacement which is assumed to be equal to q, unless otherwise

specified;

de is the displacement of the same point of the constructive system, as determined on the basis

a linear calculation using the design spectrum (see 3.2.2.2.3).

In front of ds does not need to be maintained larger value than the value derived from the elastic

spectrum.

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In terms of movements de the torsional effects of the earthquake loads must be taken into account.

calculating the displacements derived directly from the calculation, without further adjustment.

4.3.6.1 general

cause may have the construction people or consequences which provides the stability of the building or critical

parts of plants should be read in conjunction with their connections

judged on whether they have a sufficient degree of reliability to a

to withstand earthquake loads.

following conditions:

Condition 1 - potentially life-threatening, the elements or parts thereof are so stiff and heavy that they can pose

a danger to life in the case of a (full) collapse.

For elements (such as, for example, a partition wall or a floor) complying with this condition

by assessing the following:

- the falling mass of the element or part thereof is greater than 1 kg, and on one of the following three

conditions are met:

a) vertical elements or parts thereof with a mass per unit area of less than 60 kg / m , 2

if the drop height of the bottom of the (part of) the element to the corresponding floor or the

connecting area is greater than 2 m, or the distance from the top of the (part of) the element

to the floor or the connecting area is larger than 3 m, or

b) vertical elements or parts thereof with a mass per unit area greater than or equal

to 60 kg / m , If the drop height of the top of the (part of) the element to the contiguous

2

c) horizontal elements, as the mass per unit area is greater than 25 kg / m . 2

Condition 2 - occupancy at the place where the risk occurs: the element can in one place

fall where significantly high probability one or more persons are present during an earthquake. An element

satisfies this condition, if, in the event of a full or partial collapse, each

part of the element over the length of the covered element in view could fall in the horizontal cross-section in

or on:

a) projected perpendicularly a ground plane for the element falling outside of the facade of the building on a

base, which is intended to be accessible to the public,

1) to 3 m perpendicular to the facade for having a height up to two storeys of buildings or parts thereof, and

an attic above the adjacent area;

2) to 5 m with a height at right angles to the facade for buildings or parts thereof from

3 to 7 floors above the adjacent area;

3) to 7 m at right angles to the facade for buildings or parts thereof, with a height from

8 to 15 contiguous floors above the ground, or;

4) up to 10 m at right angles to the building facade for buildings with a height, or parts thereof,

15 floors or more above the adjacent plot.

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NOTE 1 comprises "For publicly accessible" (i) outside of areas located on the site associated with

the building and the public are accessible to visitors or customers site facilities such as

restaurants, theaters, museums, and (ii) outside areas that are publicly available, such as streets, squares,

recreation grounds, trails or roads where people are at risk because they meet outside or because they

walk past the building, bike or drive.

another building in which people reside is located and the falling (part of) the element satisfies

Condition 1 is to take sensible account of that situation. From the viewpoint of the public

This regulation is not required.

b) projected perpendicularly a ground plane for the element falling within 1 m on either side of a

entry or exit of a vessel by those meant building (measured horizontally

parallel to the relevant wall) by a distance equal to the stated under a), measured at right angles

that entry or exit,

NOTE 3 The entry or exit of a building "includes:

1) every exit of the building which can be used as an escape route during an earthquake, and

2) each part of a pathway or driveway / exit on private property which is normally used by other users for the

access to the building and located within the scope of the risk element.

NOTE 4 outputs that can be used as an "escape route when an earthquake will normally

correspond to entrances and exits of buildings (or building parts) in the exterior which can be used as escape route

be used in case of fire.

c) within the residence of persons referred to building or from a height of 2 m or more roof

for a stay of persons referred to part of the building.

NOTE 5 "Inside a building" means within the external walls of the building, such as brick

elements that are located within the roof space but below the outer roof surface.

NOTE 6 The aim is to ensure that members are judged likely to fall in places

normally by people in use. This includes adjacent buildings to stay

people can be used. Excludes parts of buildings such as outhouses, sheds and garages

not intended for human residence.

NOTE 7 Where buildings have jumped in the front, for example in terrace houses, then include the

horizontal surfaces to be regarded as a roof.

4.3.6.2 Rating

For the assessment the following two procedures may be used:

Design values for the load (effects) and resistors of the non-seismic, constructive

element are compared with each other (see 4.3.6.3).

2) A generic risk analysis approach based on the overall probability distribution for resistance

(Resistance curves) and the local probability distribution for earthquake load (risk function), in which all or

no explicit distinction is made between the different boundary conditions for the non-

seismic, structural elements.

The reliability of an element can be considered to be sufficient if at least one of the two procedures lead to a

positive result.

NOTE 1 For practical results based on the generic risk assessment, see Annex J.

For a more detailed approach, reference is made to [4.1A] and [4.1B].

NOTE 2, the following is the case of non-seismic, structural elements that are included in the finite element model used for

testing the primary and secondary seismic elements, from

application:

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i. Non-seismic, structural elements that fail at a load that is higher than the design value of the

peak ground acceleration of the primary and secondary seismic, structural elements, does not require further

rating.

ii. Non-seismic, structural elements that fail at a load that is lower than the design value of the

peak ground acceleration of the primary and secondary seismic, structural elements, should be

reviewed by either assessment. This can be done by the finite

applying element model of the specific load for non-seismic, structural elements. A

generic risk assessment method is also possible.

The non-seismic, structural elements and their connections and accessories or anchorages must

according to the earthquake load combinations are evaluated as specified in 3.2.4 of this NPR.

NOTE 1 The transmission of the response at the location of the transition from the non-seismic, constructive

element to the primary and secondary seismic elements by linking the non-seismic, structural elements of the primary and

secondary seismic elements and their influence on the structural behavior thereof

should be charged. The requirements for fasteners embedded in concrete are set out in 2.7 of EN 1992-1-1.

For other structures, the effects of the earthquake load may be determined by

application of the horizontal seismic force Fa, d on the non-seismic, structural elements, which is defined as

follows:

at which:

in which:

Fa, d is the design value of the horizontal seismic force, acting in the center of the mass

of the non-seismic, a constructive element in the most unfavorable direction;

Wa is the weight of the non-seismic, a constructive element;

Sa, d is the design value of the spectrum, in g, At the relevant height acting on, on the non-

seismic, structural element.

ag; d is the design value of the peak ground acceleration, g;

qa the element behavior factor qa = 1 for cantilevers and qa = 2 for vertical spans and

end walls, [-];

z is the height of (the center of gravity of) the wall or the element to the extent that located above

the

foundation or above a basement regarded as rigid, in m;

H is the height of the building as far above the foundation or above as too rigid

consider basement, in m;

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Annex H;

T1 is the fundamental vibration period, using secant stiffness, of the building in the relevant

direction on the basis of the method described in Annex G, in s.

NOTE 2 As a conservative assumption can Ta/T1 be set to 1.

4.4.1 General

While the emphasis in this NPR on assessing the limit state NC, follows

exceeded, of which a full, or partial collapse. Assessment may be carried out via control of cross-sections,

elements or the entire structure.

4.4.2.1 general

The requirement in respect of not collapse (NC, ultimate limit state) is satisfied when the seismic design

situation, if the below-described conditions relating to the strength in the cross-section, the

prevention of brittle fracture, the stability of the building, the strength of the horizontal disc-shaped

elements, the stability of the foundation and the strength of the connections have been met.

All the structural elements, including connections, must comply with:

Ed ≤ Rd (4.27)

in which:

Ed is the design value of the load, in the seismic design situation (see 6.4.3.4 from

BS EN 1990), if necessary including any second-order effects. redistribution of

bending moments is permissible according to EN 1992-1-1, EN 1993-1-1 and

EN 1994-1-1;

Rd is the design value of the resistance of the element, calculated in accordance with the

rules that are specific to the material used, in which the characteristic values of

material properties fk be divided by the partial factor γm and the thus-determined resistance

of the element is shared by the partial factor γM, Which is in accordance with the

mechanical models that relate to the specific type of structural system, as

described in chapters 5 to 9 of this NPR, and other relevant parts of the

Eurocodes, in which:

Rd =R { fk / γm } / γM (4.27a)

in which:

γM is the partial material factor, which also model uncertainties and measurement deviations

in

takes account, the value of which is equal to 1.0;

γm is the partial factor for material properties, for γm the value of 1.0 may

be detained if degradation effects are explicitly taken into account;

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If degradation effects are not explicitly taken into account, should the

Chapters 5 to 9 and described values of γm held.

NOTE 1 The partial factor for the material properties in the determination of resistivity of the

element, γmIs not intended for extra security but to take account of the reduction in material strength during the

earthquake.

NOTE 2 In NEN-EN 1998-3 is, in contrast to NEN-EN 1998-1 and this NPR, the resistance of a

structure against the effects of an earthquake load assessed by testing of displacements occurring on displacement

requirements. At the time of drafting this NPR there was insufficient insight into the constructive

safety is achieved with the use of these methods. Therefore, this movement demands are not

acquired in this NPR. However, if the reliability of the structural safety in the use of a displacement requirement has been

sufficiently substantiated, the testing of the displacements will be seen as a method which

is equivalent to the method described in this NPR.

There should be at verifying elastic (wherein q = 1) will suffice with a safety factor γM of 1.0.

Second-order effects need not be charged if all floors is the condition in formula (4.28):

in which:

is the coefficient for the sensitivity to the relative displacement between the building layers;

Puntil is the mass on and above the considered storey in the seismic design situation;

dr is the design value of the relative displacement between the building layers, is equal to the difference

of the

mean lateral displacements ds at the top and bottom of the considered storey;

Vuntil is the total seismic shear force of the building layer;

h is the height between the floors (center to center).

If 0.1 < 0.2, then the second-order effects can be approximated by the relevant

multiplying earthquake action effects by a factor equal to 1 / (1 - ).

The value of the coefficient must be less than or equal to 0.3.

calculation method (see 4.3.4.4), then allowed to formula (4.27) to be used only for brittle elements.

For energy dissipation zones of elements designed and detailed for ductility, formula (4.27) focuses on the

deformations of the element (for example: plastic hinge or axis line rotations), taking into account material-bound

partial safety factors, to be applied to the deformation capacity of the elements.

Must be checked whether the available ductility for both the building structure and components thereof is

sufficiently large. The required ductility will depend on the chosen system, and the

behavior factor (q).

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It is necessary to meet specific material-related requirements, such as defined in Chapter apply 5 to 9. These

requirements, to the extent indicated, including measures with respect to the

capacity related requirements with the objective to determine the hierarchy of the resistance of the

various structural elements, which is necessary to achieve the intended configuration of plastic

hinges and to avoid brittle failure possibilities.

In buildings with two or more building layers, the formation of a plastic mechanism with a weak building layer

must be prevented, because such a mechanism may possibly lead to extraordinary local ductility requirements

in the vertical load-bearing elements of the weak building layer. Unless otherwise specified in Chapters 5 to 9,

in order to meet this requirement, the following condition must be fulfilled for all connections to primary or

secondary seismic beams and primary seismic vertical load-bearing elements in frame buildings with two or

more building layers:

Rc; d 1.3 R b; d (4.29)

in which:

MRc; d is the sum of the calculation values of the bending resistance of the vertical load-bearing

elements

meeting in the compound. The lowest value of resistance to bending of the vertical

element within the interval of the vertical forces that normally occur in the

seismic design situation, is to be used in formula (4.29);

MR b; d is the sum of the design values of bending resistance of the beams that converge in

the connection. If compounds are used with a reduced bending resistance,

the maximum occurring here moments of these compounds must be charged

introduced in the calculation of MR b; d.

NOTE A rigorous interpretation of formula (4.29) requires the calculation of the moments in the

center point of the compound. These times correspond to the design values of the modulus

of the vertical supporting elements or beams at the location of the outer sides of the seal, plus a suitable proportion for the

moments as a result of shear on the connecting surfaces. However, the loss of

accuracy is limited, and the achieved simplification is considerable in the case to increase the response rate as a result

shearing is neglected. This approach is considered acceptable.

The requirement stated in formula (4.29) is applicable in the two vertical planes in which bending

moments occur, which, in buildings with frames positioned perpendicular to each other, are

defined by these two directions. The requirement must be satisfied for both directions of the

occurring load (positive and negative) in which girder moments occur at the location of the connection,

with the moments of the vertical load-bearing elements are always opposite to the beam moments. If

the structural system, a frame or a similar system is in only one of the two

horizontal main directions of the constructional system, it must meet the requirement of formula (29.4) are

satisfied for only the vertical plane by said direction.

This requirement does not apply to the upper storey of a building with several storeys.

The requirement of formula (4.29) is satisfied if the following conditions are met:

- the plastic mechanisms, which have been determined using the push-over-calculation are

adequate,

- the requirements with respect to both the global and the local ductility and present between the building

layers and

distortions resulting from the push-over-charge (with different horizontal

load patterns) do not exceed the corresponding capacities, and

- brittle elements remain in the elastic phase.

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The building must be stable at the earthquake load as specified in 6.4.3.4 from NEN-EN 1990. The stability

against tilting and sliding must be considered in the framework of the possible

complete collapse of the building.

In special situations, the stability of the building may be determined on the basis of an energy balance, or on

the basis of geometrically non-linear methods whereby the earthquake load is defined as

shown in 3.2.3.1.

Disks and bracing structures in the horizontal surfaces have to be able to transfer the effects as a result of the

seismic design load with sufficient strength over the systems that offer resistance to the lateral load with which

they are in communication.

This condition is met if, in the determination of the load effects in the disk, or the

strut construction, are multiplied by a load factor of the earthquake loads to the relevant resistance equation γd

equal to:

- γd = 1.3 for brittle failure behavior, such as by shearing in the disk drives of concrete;

- γd = 1.1 for ductile failure behavior.

The foundation system must comply with Section 5 of EN 1998-5 and BS 9997-1.

The tax effects must be derived for the foundation elements based on

capacity related design considerations, taking into account the possible

development of strength. However, these values may not exceed the tax effects corresponding to the

response of the structure under the seismic design situation based on

elastic behavior (q= 1.0). Further capacity-related considerations are not required if:

1), the load effects for the foundation is not referred to in point 2) are determined on the basis of the

behavior factor q which is applicable to dissipative structures;

2) for foundations of individual vertical elements (columns or walls), the design values of the

tax effects Efd on the foundations have been derived as follows:

in which:

γrd is the partial factor associated with the uncertainty of the resistance model (1.0 for q 3, and

1.2 for q > 3);

EF; G is the load effect due to the non-earthquake loads that are part of the

load combination associated with the seismic design situation (see 6.4.3.4 BS EN 1990);

EF; E the load effect is resulting from the calculation of the seismic design load;

is the value of (Rd;i / Ed;i) q or of the dissipative zone of the element i of the structure

with the greatest impact on the considered effect EF;

in which:

Rdi is the design value of the resistance of the zone of the element or i;

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Ed;i is the design value of the load impact on the area or on the element i the seismic

design situation.

With respect to the determination of the value of apply:

- For the foundations of structural walls or columns of point solid

is frameworks the lowest value of the ratio Mrd / Med in the two perpendicular

main directions on the lowest cross-sectional view where a plastic hinge may

develop in the vertical element in the seismic design situation.

minimum value of the ratio Npl, Rd / Ned all tensile diagonals of the braced

framework.

- is for the foundations of columns of eccentric braced frames the minimum

of the following two values: the minimum ratio Vpl, Rd / Ved For all short seismic

compounds, and the minimum ratio Mpl, Rd / Med for all intermediate and long-

compounds in the braced framework.

- For foundations with more than one vertical element (foundation strips, footings, foundation slabs,

etc.) is the value of used in Formula (4.30) are derived for the vertical element with the largest

a horizontal shear force in the seismic design situation, or, alternatively, can be in formula (4.30) a

value = 1 are used, where at the same time connected to the value of the partial factor with the

uncertainty of the resistance model (over strength factor) γrd is increased to 1.4.

Due to the building via a vibration isolation system to be connected with the foundation can be ensured that

the movements of the structure can be greatly reduced, and a whole can be elastically

included (q = 1). be given for further provisions in Chapter 10 of EN 1998-1.

It is recommended in 10.3 (2) P of EN 1998-1 recommended value for the magnification γX to handle.

NOTE Clause 10.3 (2) P of EN 1998-1 contains a national to fill parameter (NDP) for the

magnification γXThat this has been set at 1.2 for the Netherlands.

4.6.1 General

respect of the NDP in EN 1998-3, the following applies:

a) All the attachments are informative.

The design value of the resistance of a part of the building structure must be determined as

described in 4.4.2.2.

Knowledge factors are set to 1.0 referred to in 3.3.1 of EN 1998-3.

NOTE That which is envisaged in EN 1998-3 with the knowledge factors in this NPR otherwise

processed. Therefore, do not work with the system of the knowledge factors and held the numerical value of 1.0 for all

knowledge factors.

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be carried out with one of the methods in this NPR. The purpose of such calculation, it is necessary to have

information about the building. Appendix A provides an inspection protocol, which describes the information

of buildings can be collected in what way.

To determine the earthquake resistance of a group of buildings and take priority measures to be

determined which buildings require detailed examination and / or buildings which require reinforcement

measures. For prioritizing the approach used

are made of a safety risk-based prioritization strategy. Appendix C to this NPR above gives a possible

interpretation.

The following measures to be taken, resulting from a constructive risk analysis of existing

buildings can be distinguished (increasing complexity and impact):

a) reduction of risks by strengthening chimneys and the like;

c) to improve from disk operation in constructions;

d) strengthening of existing walls;

e) moving, or the addition of stiffening walls;

f) amplifying the foundation;

g) breaking up, possibly supplemented by new building.

NOTE 1 Each of these measures should be considered within the framework of this NPR.

NOTE 2 Annex B are some pointers recorded in respect of generic and actionable enhancement measures.

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5.1.1 General

Provisions of Chapter 5 of EN 1998-1 containing parameters nationally determined, are listed below.

determination Topic

5.2.1 (5) P Geographical constraints for the use of ductility classes for concrete buildings

5.2.2.2 (10) qO value for buildings of concrete where a special quality plan

application

5.2.4 (3) Partial factors for materials for buildings of concrete for seismic

design

5.4.3.5.2 (1) Minimum Shear reinforcement ratio into large, light reinforced concrete walls

5.8.2 (4) Minimum thickness and minimum reinforcement percentage of concrete foundation

slabs

5.8.2 (5) Minimum Reinforcement Percentage of concrete foundation beams

5.11.1.4 (1) reduction factors kp in front of q factors for construction of prefabricated concrete

prefabricated

wall elements

In the text below italic indicated in the section of Chapter 5 of EN 1998-1 is hereinafter shall apply. The

number of the relevant assay has been written in the margin.

(5) P Ductility Classes DCM (energy dissipation average power) and DCH (high energy dissipation

power) may be used anywhere. For construction of new building and completely

renovate buildings may, in the case ag; d is greater than 0.2 g, Be applied only constructions

either complying with the requirements associated with the ductility classes DCM, or to meet the requirements

of the ductility classes DCH.

(10) The qO- factor should not be increased if a special quality plan applies.

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(3) The values of γ according to 4.4.2.2 of this NPR (γC and γS in EN 1992-1-1) have to Table 5.1

m

Table 5.1 - Partial factors for materials for ultimate limit states

γm (γS) for prestressing

design Situations γm (γC) concrete γm (γS) for rebar steel

- - -

Seismic 1.5 1.15 1.1

NOTE Partial factors are also intended, as in 4.4.2.2 has been described, to take account of degradation of the

strength due to cyclic deformation, according to the recommendation in 5.2.4 (3)

BS EN 1998-1.

(1) The value of ρw; min should be equal to 0.002 ac are taken.

NOTE The value of ρw; min is taken equal to the recommended value in 9.6.2 (1) of EN 1992-1-1

and is higher than the value in 9.6.2 (1) of the National Annex of EN 1992-1-1.

(3) The value of bw; min should be taken to be equal to 0.25 m.

The value of hw; min should be taken as equal to 0,4 m for buildings up to three storeys

above the ground level.

The value of hw; min should be taken equal to 0.5 m for buildings with more than three storeys

above the ground level.

(4) The value of tminus should be taken equal to 0.2 m.

The value of ρs, min should be taken to be 0.2%.

(5) The value of ρb; min should be taken to be 0.4%.

(3) For newly constructed buildings may precast concrete, in the case ag; d is greater than 0.2 g,

only constructions are used which meet the requirements associated with the ductility classes DCM

and DCH.

precast concrete.

(1) The value of kp should be taken to be equal to 1.0 for structures with compounds of 5.11.2.1.1,

5.11.2.1.2 or 5.11.2.1.3 of EN 1998-1.

The value of kp should be taken to be equal to 0.5 for constructions with other compounds.

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(2) The value of ap should be taken to be 30%.

(7) The value of ρc, min should be taken to be 1%.

For the determination of the distribution of forces as a result of the load combination with

earthquake load may apply to the application of non-linear methods as claimed in 4.3.3.4 NEN-EN 1998-1 are

based on average material properties of concrete and steel.

The average material properties may be acquired for concrete in Table 3.1

EN 1992-1-1, whilst at the pressure of the stress-strain relationship of concrete

3.1.5 of EN 1992-1-1. On the drawing side may be extended this stress-strain relationship with a

linear branch to a voltage of /3 × fctm, followed by a linear push-pull softening branch to an elongation of 0.1%.

2

NOTE With the described draw-softening branch, a sufficiently accurate moment-curvature relationship is generally

obtained for reinforced sections which are loaded on bending (and normal pressure force). The elongation of 0.1% at the

end of the tensile softening branch is derived from [5.1].

strain relationship of concrete reinforcing bars according to the schematic diagram in 3.2.7 of NEN-EN 1992-

1-1, with the

following modifications:

- a first branch to a voltage 1.1 × fyK with a corresponding elongation of 1.1 × fyK / Es;

- an inclined upper branch to a voltage 1.1 × k × fyK with an associated rack uk

at which:

k = (ft / fY) (5.1)

5.2 Renovation

To assess concrete structures in construction, apply the methods described in 5.1. Where there is existing

concrete structures, the properties can be derived from 5.3.2.

Further evidence for reinforcing concrete structures are listed in Appendix B of this NPR and Annex A of EN

1998-3.

5.3.1 General

To assess existing concrete structures, apply the methods described in 5.1.

To assess the structural safety of existing concrete structures must be made of BS 8700 usage.

used rebar. Annex 3 of [5.2] are tables set which included a conversion of this old quality marks for indications and / or

descriptions that may be using EN 1992-1-1

applied.

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Provisions of Chapter 6 of EN 1998-1 containing parameters nationally determined, are listed below.

determination Topic

6.1.2 (1) P Upper limit for q value for low-dissipative structural behavior

6.1.3 (1) P Partial factors for materials for steel buildings for seismic

design

6.2 (3) Factor for the charging of the on strength of the material steel at

for the purpose of the design capacity of buildings made of steel

6.2 (7) Information about how EN 1993-1-10 should be used in the seismic

design

V-linkages

In the text below italic indicated in the section of Chapter 6 of EN 1998-1 is hereinafter shall apply. The

number of the relevant assay has been written in the margin.

(1) The upper limit for the P q value for low-dissipative structural behavior is to be set at 1.5.

where the newly built structures may in the scope of the NPR,

peak ground acceleration at ground level, determined according to the NPR-web tool 9998, is less than or

equal to 0.2 g, ductility classes DCL are used, in which the q value not greater than q = 1.5 may be taken.

where the new structures should build on the scope of the NPR,

peak ground acceleration at ground level, determined according to the NPR-web tool 9998, is greater than 0.2

g the ductility classes DCM and DCH can be used.

An existing structure can be divided into ductility classes DCL.

(1) P In order to bring the potential degradation due to varying deformation of steel needs to be charged, the

partial

factor for steel γm = 1.00 can be used.

NOTE 1 There is no risk of degradation by changing deformation of steel when referred to in this NPR

earthquakes, whereby γm = 1.00 can be maintained.

3) This is a literal translation from English. Improved text should be in English: "Reference to complementary

Rules for joint design. " 'Joint' is used in EN 1993-1-8.

72

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Sweco Netherlands BV (NC) 2018-11-08 08:05:21

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