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# MATHEMATICS Papers for B.Sc.

(Physical Sciences)/

Mathematical Sciences

mathematics,

## including the provision of a suitable foundation for further study in science

ii) develop a variety of skills in modelling, logical reasoning and problem solving;

iii) encourage student interest and satisfaction through the development and use of

## mathematics in a variety of applications;

iv) promote an awareness of the relevance of mathematics to other fields of study and
to

## other practical applications.

Paper I Calculus and Matrices

## Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)

Examination 3 hrs.

Statistics.

## difference equations. For instance, the sequence arising from Tower of

Hanoi game, the Fibonacci sequence arising from branching habit of trees

## or convergent sequences. Illustration of proof of convergence of some

simple sequences such as (–1)n/n, I/n2, (1+1/n)n, sin n/n, xn with x < 1.

rhythms.

## Successive differentiation. Leibnitz, theorem. Recursion formulae for

higher derivative.

## Computation of Taylor’s Maclaurin’s series of functions such as ex,

log(1 + x), sin (2x), cos x. Their use in polynomial approximation and error

## Geometry, Pearson Education (Singapore); 2001.

2. T.M. Apostal : Calculus, vol. 1, John Wiley and Sons (Asia) : 2002.

## 3. A.I. Kostrikin: Introduction to Algebra, Springer Verlag, 1984.

Using computer aided software for example, Matlab/ Mathematica/ Maple/ MuPad/

## of a matrix, solution of system of equations

Paper II Calculus and Geometry

## Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)

Examination 3 hrs.

Unit I: Calculus 44

curves.

## their geometrical interpretation.

Spheres, Cylindrical surfaces. Illustrations of graphing standard quadric

## surfaces like cone, ellipsoid.

Recommended Books

## Wiley and Sons (Asia) Pte, Ltd; 1982

Use of computer aided software for example, Matlab/ Mathematica/ Maple/ MuPad/

wxMaxima in identifying the singular points, points of inflection and tracing of curves.
Paper III - Algebra

## Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)

Examination 3 hrs.

## group U (n) of units under multiplication modulo n. Cyclic groups from

number systems, complex roots of unity, circle group, the general linear

## group GLn (n,R), groups of symmetries of (i) an isosceles triangle, (ii) an

equilateral triangle, (iii) a rectangle, and (iv) a square, the permutation group Sym (n),

Group of quaternions,

## and fields, examples of fields: Zp, Q, R, and C. Field of rational functions.

Vector spaces: Definition and examples of vector spaces. Subspaces

## Algebra of Linear transformations and matrix of a linear transformation

Linear functional over real & complex vector spaces: definition and

examples.

Use of computer aided software for example, Matlab/ Mathematica/ Maple/ MuPad/

## wxMaxima in Linear Transformations, invertible transformations, group of symmetries,

rectangle, square and permutation groups

Recommended Books

Narosa, 1999.

## 2. George E Andrews: Number Theory, Hindustan Publishing

Corporation. 1984

Verlag, 1991.

## 4. . David M. Blotin, Linear algebra and Geometry, Cambridge Press,

1979.
Paper IV Differential Equations

## Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)

Examination 3 hrs.

## First order exact differential equations. Integrating factors, rules to find

and integrating factor. First order higher degree equations solvable for

## phenomena, electric circuit problem, mechanics of simultaneous

differential equations.

## non-linear partial differential equations. Formation of first order partial

differential equations. Linear partial differential equation of first order,

## gravitational potential, conservation laws

Recommended Books

## International Edition, 1967.

Paper V Real Analysis

## Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)

Examination 3 hrs.

## Emphasis is on visual ideas of convergence and divergence and series expansions of

elementary fuctions.

## Unit I : Real Sequences (30 L)

Finite and infinite sets, examples of countable and uncountable sets. Real

convergence.

## series, geometric series, comparison test, convergence of p-series, Root

test, Ratio test, alternating series, Leibnitz’s test. Definition and examples

## Sequences and series of functions, Pointwise and uniform convergence.

Mn-test, M-test, change or order of limits.

## term differentiation and integration of power series. Definition in terms

of Power series and their properties of exp (x), sin (x), cos (x).

Use of computer aided software for example, Matlab/ Mathematica/ Maple/ MuPad/

wxMaxima for Taylor and Maclaurin series of sin x, cos x, log (1+x), ex, (1+x)n,

## maxima and minima, inverse of graphs.sequences

References:

Recommended Books

Ltd., 2002.

## Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, Springer Verlag, 2003.

Paper VI Mechanics and Discrete Mathematics

## Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)

Examination 3 hrs.

## understanding of discrete Mathematics. The tools and techniques in the

system are going to enable students to appreciate the power and beauty

Mechanics (L 30)

## Types of graphs : Simple graph, Directed graph, Multi graph, and

Pseudo graph. Graph modeling, terminology and basics. Special

## statements and interpretations of (i) necessary and sufficient

conditions for Euler cycles and paths (ii) suficient condition for

## Hamiltonian cycles, finding Euler cycles and Hamiltonian cycles

in a given graph.

## spanning tree using Kruskal’s algorithm, Prim’s algorithm,

Huffman codes.

Use of computer aided software for example, Matlab/ Mathematica/ Maple/ MuPad/

wxMaxima for Projectile motion, Euler and Hamiltonian graphs, Koenigsburg Bridge, ,
Prim’s algorithm,Huffman codes.

Recommended Books

## 1. A.S. Ramsay, Statics, CBS Publishers and Distributors (Indian

Reprint), 1998.
2. A.P. Roberts, Statics and Dynamics with background in

## Pearson Education Ind. 2004.

MATHEMATICS and STATISTICS

4L per week

Unit I (24 L)

## followed by concepts of recursion and difference equations. For instance,

the Fibonacci sequence arising from branching habit of trees and breeding

## habit of rabbits. Intuitive idea of algebraic relationships and convergence.

Infinite Geometric Series. Series formulas for ex, log (1+x), sin x, cos x.

## examples as given above from Biological and Physical Sciences. Use of

methods of differentiation like Chain rule, Product rule and Quotient rule.

Unit II (14)

## Examples of matrices arising in Physical, Biological Sciences and

Biological networks. Sum and Produce of matrices upto order 3.

Sciences.

Edition); 2003.

## visual, graphical and application oriented approaches.

Math I
B.Sc.( Chemical Sciences)

Calculus

Modeling Rectilinear Motion, Extreme value of a continuous function, The Mean Value Theorem, Using
derivative to sketch the graph of a function, Curve sketching with Asymptotes, L’Hopital Rule,
Optimization in Physical Sciences, engineering, Business, Economics, and the Life Sciences.

Reduction formulae, derivations and illustrations of reduction formulae of the type ∫sinn x dx, ∫cosn x dx,
∫tann x dx, ∫secn x dx, ∫(log x)n dx, ∫sinn x cosm x dx,

Volume, Polar forms and Area, Arc length and Surface Area, Physical Applications, Applications to

Introduction to Vector functions, Differentiation and integration of vector function, Modelling Ballistics and
Planetary motion, Tangential and normal components of Accerlation. gradient, divergence, curl and their
geometrical interpretation.

Functions of several Variables, Limit and Continuity, Partial Derivatives, Tangent planes, Approximation,
and Differentiability, Extrema of functions of two variables, Lagranges Multipliers.

Recommended Books

## 2. J.Stewart, Calculus with Early Transcendental functionsCengage Learning, 2008.

Math II
B.Sc.( Chemical Sciences)

## Infinite sequence and series

Sequences, Series, The integral test and estimates of sums, The comparison test,Ratio and Root
test ( Statement and Applications only) Alternating series Power series, Taylor series.

Matrices

Vectors in Rn , Introduction to Linear Transformations,, Vector spaces, subspaces, Basis and dimension,
Rank of a matrix and Applications, Orthonormal bases in Rn, Eigen values and Eigenvectors,
Diagonalizations.

Recommended Books

## 2. B.Kolman, D.R.Hill, Introductory Linear Algebra, Pearson 2001

SEMESTER I: Calculus

SECTION – I

## Limit and.Continuity, Types of discontinuities. Differentiability of functions.

Successive differentiation, Leibnitz.s theorem, Partial differentiation, Euler.s
theorem on homogeneous functions.

SECTION - II
Tangents and normals, Curvature, Asymptotes, Singular points, Tracing of curves.

SECTION – III

Rolle.s theorem, Mean Value Theorems, Taylor.s Theorem with Lagrange.s &
Cauchy.s forms of remainder. Taylor.s series, Maclaurin.s series of sin x, cos x,
ex, log(l+x), (l+x)m, Applications of Mean Value theorems to Monotonic functions
and inequalities. Maxima & Minima. Indeterminate forms.

Books Recommended:

## 1. George B. Thomas, Jr., Ross L. Finney : Calculus and Analytic

Geometry, Pearson Education (Singapore); 2001.
2. H. Anton, I. Bivens and S. Davis : Calculus, John Wiley and Sons
(Asia) Pte. Ltd. 2002.
3. R.G. Bartle and D.R. Sherbert : Introduction to Real Analysis, John
Wiley and Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd. 1982

SEMESTER II: Algebra

SECTION - I
Definition and examples of a vector space, Subspace and its properties,
Linear independence and dependence of vectors, basis and dimension of a
vector space. Types of matrices. Rank of a matrix. Invariance of rank under
elementary transformations. Reduction to normal form- Solutions .of linear
homogeneous and non-homogeneous equations with number of equations and
unknowns upto four. Cayley-Hamilton theorem, Characteristic roots and
vectors.

SECTION - II
De Moivre.s theorem (both integral and rational index). Solutions of equations
using trigonometry, Expansion for Cos nθ. Sin nθ in terms of powers of Sin θ,
Cosθ, and Cosθ, Sinθ in terms of Cosine and Sine of multiples of θ, Summation
of series, Relation between roots and coefficients ofnth degree equation.
Solutions of cubic and biquadratic equations, when some conditions on roots
of the equation are given, Symmetric functions of the roots for cubic and

SECTION - III
Integers modulo n, Permutations, Groups, subgroups, Lagrange's Theorem,
Euler's Theorem, Symmetry Groups of a segment of a line, and regular n-gons for
n=3, 4, 5 and 6. Rings and subrings in the context of C[0,1] and Zn.

Recommended Books:
1. Abstract Algebra with a Concrete Introduction, John A. Beachy and William
D. Blair, Prentice Hall, 1990.
2. Modern Abstract Algebra with Applications, W.J. Gilbert, John Wiley &
Sons 1976.

SEMESTER III:  Integration and Differential Equation

SECTION – I: Integration
Reduction formulae, Integration of irrational and trigonometric functions.
Properties of definite integrals. Quadrature, Rectification of curves, Volumes
and areas of surfaces of revolution.

## SECTION-II: Ordinary differential equations

First order exact differential equations including rules for finding
integrating factors, first order higher degree equations solvable for x, y, p, Wronskian
and its properties, Linear homogeneous equations with constant coefficients, Linear
non-homogeneous equations. The method of variation of parameters. Euler.s
equations. Simultaneous differential equations. Total differential equations.
Applications of ordinary differential equations to Mixture Problems, Growth
and Decay, Population Dynamics and Orthogonal trajectories.

## SECTION-III: Partial differential equations

Order and degree of partial differential equations, Concept of linear and
non-linear partial differential equations, formation of first order partial differential
equations. Linear partial differential equations of first order, Lagrange.s method,
Charpit.s method, classification of second order partial differential equations into
elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic through illustrations only.
Applications to Traffic Flow.

Recommended Books:
1. Calculus, H. Anton, 1. Birens and S.Davis, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 2002.
2. Differential Equations, S.L.Ross, John Wiley and Sons, Third Edition, 1984.
3. Elements of Partial Differential Equations, I.Sneddon, McGraw-Hill
International Editions, 1967.

SEMESTER IV:  Analytic Geometry and Applied Algebra

SECTION-I : Geometry
Techniques for sketching parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Reflection
properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola and their applications to signals,
classification of quadratic equation representing lines, parabola, ellipse and
hyperbola.

## SECTION-II : 3-Dimensional Geometry and Vectors

Rectangular coordinates in 3-space; spheres, cylindrical surfaces cones.
Vectors viewed geometrically, vectors in coordinate system, vectors determine by
length and angle, dot product, cross product and their geometrical properties.
Parametric equations of lines in plane, planes in 3-space.

## SECTION - III : Applied Algebra

Latin Squares, Table for a finite group as a Latin Square, Latin squares
as in Design of experiments, Mathematical models for Matching jobs, Spelling
Checker, Network Reliabilit, Street surveillance, Scheduling Meetings, Interval
Graph Modelling and Influencen Model, Picher Pouring Puzzle, Travelling Sales
Person Problem.

Recommended Books:
1. Calculus, H. Anton, 1. Birens and S.Davis, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 2002.
2. Applied Combinatorics, A Tucker, John Waley & Sons, 2003.
SEMESTER V:  Analysis

SECTION-I
Order completeness of Real numbers, open and closed sets, limit point of
sets, Bolzano Weierstrass Theorem, properties of continuous functions,
Uniform continuity.

SECTION-II
Sequences, convergent and Cauchy sequences, sub-sequences, limit
superior and limit inferior of a sequence, monotonically increasing and
decreasing sequences, infinite series and their convergences, positive term
series, comparison tests, Cauchy.s nth root test, D. Alembert.s ratio test,
Raabe.s test, alternating series, Leibnitz.s test, absolute and conditional
convergence.

SECTION-III
Riemann integral, integrability of continuous and monotonic functions,
improper integrals and their convergences, comparison tests, Beta and
Gama functions and their properties, Pointwise and uniform convergence of
sequences and series of functions, Weierstrass M-test, Uniform convergence
and continuity, Statement of the results about uniform convergence and
integrability or differentiability of functions, Power series and radius of
convergence, Fourier series.

Books Recommended:
1. R.G. Bartle and D.R.Sherbert, Introduction to Real Analysis, John Wiley
and Sons (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., 2000.
2. Richard Courant & Fritz John, Introduction to Calculus and Analysis I,
Springer-Verlag, 1999.
3. S. K. Berbarian, Real Analysis, Springer - Verlag, 2000.

SEMESTER VI:  Computer Programming and Optional

## SECTION - I Computer Programming

Programming: Preliminaries, constants, variables, type declaration,
expressions, assignment statements, input-output statements, Control
statements, functions, Arrays, simple programs using these concepts.
Control statements, functions, arrays, Format specification.

SECTION-II
Any one of the following :
1. Numerical Analysis
2. Discrete Mathematics
3. Mathematical Statistics
4. Mechanics
5. Theory of Games

1. Numerical Analysis
Solution of linear equations: Gaussian elimination including pivoting
and scaling, Iterative methods: Gauss Jacobi and Gauss Siedel methods,
Convergence of iterative methods, Roots of Non-linear equations, Bisection
method, Newton.s method, rate of convergence.
Interpolation: Lagrangian interpolating polynomials, divided difference,
error analysis, Numerical integration: Newton - cotes integration formula, the
trapezoidal rule, the Simpson.s rule, Gaussian Quadrature.

Books Recommended :
1. C.F.Gerald and P.O. Wheatlay, Applied Numerical Analysis, Sixth
edition, Addison -Wesley, New York( 1999).
2. M.K.Jain, S.R.K.lyengar and R.K.Jain, Numerical Methods for Scientific
and Engineering Computation, New Age International Publisher, 4 th Edition,
New Delhi (2003).
2. Discrete Mathematics :
Basics of Graph Theory: Introduction, Paths and cycles, Hamiltonian
cycles and the Travelling Sales person problem, A shortest -Path Algorithm,
Representation of Graphs, isomorphism of graphs, Planar graphs.
Boolean Algebras and circuits: Combinatorial circuits, Properties of
combinatorial circuits, Boolean Algebras, Functions and synthesis of circuits.

Books Recommended:
1. Richard Johnsonbough, Discrete Mathematics Pearson Eduction Inc.,
2002.
2. C.L.Liu Elements of Discrete Mathematics Mc Graw-Hill Book,1985.

3. Mathematics Statistics :
Review Unit : Measures of Central tendency, Measures of dispersion,
classical Definition of Probability.
Measures of skewness and kurtosis Bivariate data, Scatter diagram,
principles of least squares and its application in fitting of curves, correlation,
Rank correlation and linear regression.
Axiomatic definition of probability, simple theorems, probability and
conditional probability, events, Bayes theorem with illustrations, Random
variable, concept of mathematical expectations and its simple properties,
moments and moment generating functions.
Discrete and continuous distribuions: Binomial, Poisson, geometric,
uniform and normal distributions and their simple properties, central limit
theorem.
Books Recommended:
1. V.K.Rohtagi, An introduction to Probability Theory and Mathematical
Statistics, John Wiley and Sons, 1976.
2. R.V. Hogg and A.T.Craig, Introduction to Mathematical Statistics - Amerind
Publishers Co. Pvt. Ltd., (1970).
3. A.M.Mood and F.A.Graybil & Boes., Introduction to the Theory of
Statistics, McGraw Hill Book Company, 1963.

4. Mechanics:
Laws of friction, conditions of equilibrium of coplanar forces acting on
a rigid body, centre of gravity, work and potential energy, Principle of virtual
work, General force systems, Total force, Total moment relative to a base point
force, Total moment relative to a base point.
Newton.s Laws of motion, simple Harmonic motion, simple pendulum,
projectiles, constrained motion in a circle, work and energy, orbital motion,
motion of a particle under a central force.

Books Recommended:
1. J. L.Synge and B.A.Griffith, Principles of Mechanics, McGraw Hill Int.,
1959.
2. A. S. Ramsey Statics, Cambridge University Press, CBS Publication &
Distributors, Delhi 1985.
3. F. Chorlton, A Textbook of Dynamics, CBS Publication & Distributors Delhi,
1985.

5. Theory of Games :
Introduction to linear programming, simplex algorithm, Duallty in linear
programming, statement of complementary slackness theorem.
Statement of Fundamental Theorem of rectangular zero-sum games,
properties of optimal strategies, Relation of dominance, Methods of solving
rectangular Zero-sum games, Equivalence of rectangular games and linear
programming.

Books Recommended: