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MACHINE VIBRATIONS AND DIAGNOSTICS

THE WORLD OF ISO


Copyright Material IEEE
Paper No. PCIC-(do not insert number)

Dr. Horst Kuemmlee Thomas Gross Prof. Dr. Josef Kolerus


Member, IEEE DIN – Deutsches Institut National Instruments Germany
Siemens Large Drives Division fuer Normung Consultant
Nonnendammallee 72 Burggrafenstrasse 6 Eichenstrasse 49
13629 Berlin 10787 Berlin 81375 München
Germany Germany Germany
horst.kuemmlee@siemens.com thomas.gross@din.de dr.josef@kolerus.de

Abstract – The paper gives an overview of the organization, B. The Organization of ISO
standardization philosophy and existing standards within ISO,
especially ISO/TC 108 “Mechanical vibration, shock and ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, is
condition monitoring" concerning machine vibrations and the world’s largest developer of voluntary International
vibration diagnostics. Standards. It was founded in 1947, and since then has
It gives a brief summary of the most important standards, i.e. published more than 19 000 International Standards covering
the ISO 7919 and ISO 10816 series, and includes guidelines almost all aspects of technology and business. Actually 164
for usage. The paper highlights the actual status of major countries are members of ISO. The technical work is
projects of ISO/TC 108/SC 2 "Measurement and evaluation of performed by some 220 Technical Committees (ISO/TC)
mechanical vibration and shock as applied to machines, which may be subdivided into Sub-Committees (SC) consisting
vehicles and structures" and ISO/TC 108/SC 5 "Condition of several Working Groups (WG).
monitoring and diagnostics of machine systems”.
The collaboration of ISO with other international ISO closely collaborates with other standardization
standardization authorities (e.g. IEC of which the IEC series institutes. Collaboration with the International Electrotechnical
60034 is well known) and national committees in the US and Commission IEC is documented by a double logo on the
Europe are discussed. ISO/IEC publications. Figure 1 shows the logos of ISO and
IEC.
I. INTRODUCTION

A. The Aim of Standardization

The aim of standardization is an agreement between all


parties involved in a subject in order that they can rely on the
specifications given in a standard. Therefore the principle of
standardization work is the involvement of all those who are
concerned with a certain subject, e.g. manufacturers, users,
occupational safety institutes and authorities in the case of
machinery standards. To this end, standards are developed in
a "democratic" way, i.e. they are drafted in round table Fig. 1 – Logos of ISO and IEC
meetings, are made available to the public as drafts for
comments and vote, and finally are published as soon as the C. Collaboration between Standardization Organizations
technical content has reached approval by the members of the
dedicated standardization organization. Collaboration with other institutes does exist even if not
marked on the standards cover sheets. ISO/TC 67 "Materials,
Standards, by their definition as an agreement, are not equipment and offshore structures for petroleum,
mandatory in their usage. However, everyone is well advised petrochemical and natural gas industries" or ISO/TC 118
to base his contracts and decisions on standards which do "Compressors and pneumatic tools, machines and equipment"
reflect the state of the art in a certain technical area. To keep adapt publications of the American Petroleum Institute API and
standards up to date they should be revised regularly. That convert them into ISO standards, e.g. ISO 10441 "Petroleum,
keeps standardization work going on. petrochemical and natural gas industries — Flexible couplings
for mechanical power transmission — Special-purpose
There are many organizations elaborating standards, on a applications" is based on API 671 "Special-purpose couplings
national level (e.g. ANSI, BSI, DIN), on a regional level (e.g. for petroleum, chemical, and gas industry services" or ISO
CEN within the European Union), and on the international level 10440-1 "Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries
(e.g. IEC, ISO). — Rotary-type positive displacement compressors — Part 1:

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Process compressors" bases on API 619 "Rotary-type ISO 7919 "Evaluation of machine vibration by
positive-displacement compressors for petroleum, petro- measurements on rotating shafts"
chemical and natural gas industries". considering both shaft absolute and relative vibration.

On the other hand, International Standards of ISO or IEC Part 1 of both series gives a general description of the
can be converted into regional or national standards to principles that are generally applicable for the measurement
encourage their use which is additionally supported by and evaluation of vibration. The subsequent parts deal with
translations into languages other than the official ones — the individual applications.
English and French. For instance, if an ISO standard has been
taken over in the European Union as EN ISO standard it is Both standards series define the appropriate measurement
published in Germany, after translation into German, as DIN quantities, suitable measurement locations and directions on a
EN ISO standard. machine, give advice to perform a vibration measurement
within a given frequency range, and — very helpful — provide
II. ISO/TC 108 limit values for the measured vibration in terms of zone
boundary values. These boundary values reflect wordwide
The standardization for machine vibration and diagnostics experience with this kind of machinery and guarantee that the
is carried out in the Technical Committee ISO/TC 108 machine runs satisfactorily.
"Mechanical vibration, shock and condition monitoring".
Especially for electric machinery, the ISO 7919 and ISO
The Technical Committee ISO/TC 108 consists of five 10816 series focus on vibration behaviour at site. The
subcommittees: acceptance criteria under test field conditions, however, are
standardized in the IEC 60034 series, for vibration especially in
SC 2: "Measurement and evaluation of mechanical vibration IEC 60034-14. There is no comparable standard for test field
and shock as applied to machines, vehicles and criteria within ISO and on the other hand no comparable
structures" standard for in-situ conditions within IEC.
SC 3: “Use and calibration of vibration and shock measuring
instruments” To classify the vibration at normal operating speed under
SC 4 “Human exposure to mechanical vibration and shock" steady-state operating conditions in situ, the following four
SC 5: "Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machine evaluation zones are defined:
systems"
SC 6: “Vibration and shock generating systems” Zone A: The vibration of newly commissioned machines
normally falls within this zone.
In the following the work of two of its sub-committees (SC 2
and SC 5) are discussed more in detail. Zone B: Machines with vibration within this zone are
normally considered acceptable for unrestricted long-term
III. ISO/TC 108/SC 2 operation.

Sub-committee SC 2 "Measurement and evaluation of Zone C: Machines with vibration within this zone are
mechanical vibration and shock as applied to machines, normally considered unsatisfactory for long-term continuous
vehicles and structures" is mainly concerned with drafting operation. Generally, the machine may be operated for a
International Standards covering the measurement and limited period in this condition until a suitable opportunity
evaluation of mechanical vibration of machinery. arises for remedial action.

SC 2 consists of the following working groups: Zone D: Vibration values within this zone are normally
JWG 1 "Joint TC 108/SC 2-IEC/TC 4 WG; Vibration of considered to be of sufficient severity to cause damage to the
hydraulic machine sets" machine.
WG 1 "Rotodynamics and vibration of machines"
WG 2 "Vibration of ships" The vibration level associated with a particular classification
WG 7 "Vibration of machines with active magnetic bearings" range depends on the size and mass of the vibrating body, the
WG 8 "Ground-borne noise and vibration from rail systems" characteristics of the mounting system, and the power and use
WG 10 "Basic techniques for vibration diagnostics" of the machine. It is therefore necessary to take into account
WG 11 "Joint between ISO/TC 108/SC 2, ISO/TC 118/SC 1 the various purposes and circumstances concerned when
and ISO/TC 118/SC 6; Vibration in reciprocating specifying different ranges of vibration level for a specific class
compressor systems" of machinery. Where appropriate, reference should be made to
WG 31 "Balancing" the product specification.

WG 1 deals with vibration behaviour of industrial machines. Two criteria are provided for assessing the machine
There are two main standards series: vibration. One criterion considers the magnitude of the
observed vibration; the second considers the changes in the
ISO 10816 "Evaluation of machine vibration by magnitude. It must be recognized, however, that these
measurements on non-rotating parts" criteria do not form the only basis for judging the severity of
like bearing pedestals or bearing caps, and vibration.

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For long-term steady-state operation, it is common practice c) Rotating machinery having rotors with flexible
to establish operational vibration limits. These limits take the behaviour, such as large gas or steam turbine generator
form of ALARMS and TRIPS for which rules are given to set sets, multi-stage pumps and compressors. The machine
the appropriate levels. Additionally, these standards present may be set into different modes of vibration as it
guidelines to judge the machine vibration also under transient accelerates through one or more resonance speeds to
operating conditions, such as run-up or run-down. reach its service speed. On such a machine, the
vibration magnitude measured on a structural member
The standards series ISO 10816 and ISO 7919 actually may not be totally indicative of the vibration of the rotor.
cover the following machinery (Figure 2): For example, a flexible rotor may experience very large
displacements resulting in failure of the machine, even
though the vibration magnitude measured on the
bearing cap is low. Therefore, it is essential to measure
also the vibration of the shaft directly.

d) Rotating machinery having rotors with quasi-rigid


behaviour, such as some steam turbine rotors, axial-
flow compressors, and fans. Such machinery contains
a special class of flexible rotor where vibration
magnitudes measured on the bearing cap are indicative
of the shaft vibration.

A. ISO 10816 – Measurements made on non-rotating parts

ISO 10816-1 provides general guidelines that describe


procedures for the measurement and evaluation of vibration
based on measurements made on non-rotating parts of the
machine. This is the first part of a series of International
Standards that provide individual criteria for each general
class of machine covered, which are unique to those
machines. These criteria, which are presented in terms of
both vibration magnitude and change of vibration, relate to
operational monitoring and acceptance testing. ISO 10816
accomplishes the following:
─ to cover the broadband frequency range of both low- and
Fig. 2 – ISO 7919 and 10816 series high-speed machines
─ to set the vibration criteria to include various operational
For a decision which standard should be used for a given zones
machine, the Technical Report ISO/TR 19201 "Methodology ─ to incorporate vibration criteria through a worldwide survey
for selecting appropriate machinery vibration standards" can ─ to include unique criteria and measurement procedures for
be consulted giving an overview over the most important specific types of machines.
machinery vibration standards which shortly are described and
summarized. Figure 3 shows a typical zone definition of vibration velocity
versus frequency.
Machinery can be subdivided into four categories for the
purposes of vibration measurement and evaluation: ISO 10816-2 covers large steam turbine generator sets with
power greater than 50 MW.
a) Reciprocating machinery having both rotating and
reciprocation components, such as diesel engines and ISO 10816-3 covers coupled industrial machines when
certain types of compressors and pumps. The vibration measured in situ, like
is usually measured on the main structure of the ─ steam turbines up to 50 MW
machine at low frequencies, typically in the range 2 Hz ─ steam turbine sets with power greater than 50 MW and
to 1 000 Hz. speeds below 1 500 r/min or above 3 600 r/min (which are
not covered by ISO 10816-2)
b) Rotating machinery having rotors with rigid behaviour, ─ compressors, industrial gas turbines with power up to
such as certain types of electric motors, single-stage 3 MW
pumps and low-speed pumps. The vibration is usually ─ generators, electric motors of any type, all blowers, fans
measured on the main structure (such as on the bearing with power greater than 300 kW and other fans that are
caps or pedestals) where the vibration magnitudes are not too flexibly mounted
indicative of the excitation forces generated by the rotor ─ pumps which are not dealt with by ISO 10816-7.
due to unbalance, thermal bows, rubs and other sources
of excitation.

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It also provides guidance for assessing the severity of
vibration measured on the bearings, both in situ or at the
manufacturer’s test facility, or in the plant. Zones and limits
are provided for acceptance tests at the manufacturer’s test
facility, if specified and special criteria are given. The
included zone limits are for the vibration of horizontal and
vertical pumps, irrespective of their support flexibility. For
long-term operation, two additional criteria are provided. One
criterion considers the magnitude of the observed vibration
and the second considers changes in magnitude. The criteria
are applicable for the vibration produced by the machine itself,
and not for vibration transmitted to the machine from external
sources.

ISO 10816-8 covers reciprocating compressor systems. The


vibration values are defined primarily to classify the vibration of
Figure 3 – Typical zone definition according to ISO 10816 the compressor system and to avoid fatigue problems with
parts in the reciprocating compressor system, i.e. foundation,
Significant differences in design, type of bearings and type compressor, dampers, piping and auxiliary equipment
of support structures require a division in ISO 10816-3 into two mounted on the compressor system. The guidelines are not
machinery groups, namely: intended for condition monitoring purposes.
Group 1: large machines with rated power above 300 kW or
electrical machines with shaft heights above 315 mm This part of ISO 10816 applies to reciprocating
Group 2: medium-sized machines with a rated power above compressors mounted rigidly with typical speed ratings
15 kW up to and including 300 kW or electrical greater than 120 r/min and up to and including 1 800 r/min.
machines with shaft heights from 160 mm to 315 Guidance values for acceptable overall vibration
mm. displacement, velocity and acceleration for horizontal and
vertical compressor systems are given. The general
ISO 10816-4 covers gas turbine sets with fluid-film evaluation criteria relate to operational measurements. The
bearings. It applies to heavy-duty gas turbines used in criteria are also used to ensure that machine vibration does
electrical and mechanical drive applications covering the not adversely affect the equipment directly mounted on the
power range above 3 MW and a speed range under load machine, e.g. pulsation dampers and the pipe system.
between 3 000 r/min and 30 000 r/min. Generally, the criteria
apply to both the gas turbine and the driven equipment; B. ISO 7919 – Measurements made on rotating parts
however, for generators above 50 MW, the criteria of
ISO 10816-2 are used for assessing the vibration severity, ISO 7919-1 provides specific guidelines for vibration
and for generators up to 50 MW, those of ISO 10816-3. measurements on the rotating shafts of machines. Such
machines generally contain flexible rotor-shaft systems and
ISO 10816-5 covers hydraulic machines when measured in changes in the vibration condition can be detected more
situ. It applies to machine sets in hydraulic power generation decisively and more sensitively by measurements on these
and pumping plants where the hydraulic machines have rotating elements. Also, machines having relatively stiff
speeds from 120 r/min to 1 800 r/min, shell or shoe type and/or heavy casings, in comparison to the rotor mass, are
sleeve bearings and main engine power of 1 MW or more. The typical of those classes of machines for which shaft vibration
position of the line shaft may be vertical, horizontal or at an measurements are frequently preferred.
arbitrary angle between these two directions.
Machines such as industrial steam turbines, gas turbines
ISO 10816-6 covers reciprocating machines. In general, it and turbo-compressors, all of which have several modes of
refers to vibration measurements made on the main structure vibration in their service speed range and their responses due
of the machine and the limit values are defined primarily to to unbalance, misalignments, thermal bows, rubs and the
secure a reliable and safe operation of the machine, and to unloading of bearings can be better observed by
avoid problems with the auxiliary equipment mounted on the measurements on the shafts.
machine structure. In the case of reciprocating machines, the
vibration measured on the machine main structure, and There are three principle factors by which the vibration
qualified according to this International Standard, may only magnitude of a machine is judged, namely:
give a rough idea of the stresses and vibratory states of the ─ bearing kinetic load
components within the machine itself. E.g. torsional vibration ─ absolute motion of the rotor
of rotating parts cannot generally be determined by ─ rotor clearance relative to the bearing.
measurements on the structural parts of the machine.
If the bearing kinetic load is of concern to ensure against
ISO 10816-7 covers pumps for industrial applications with bearing damage, the vibration of the shaft relative to the
nominal power above 1 kW. It describes the requirements for bearing structure should be monitored as the over-riding
evaluation of vibration measurements on non-rotating parts. criteria. If the absolute motion of the shaft (a measure of rotor

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bending stress) or rotor-bearing clearance are of concern, the shaft vibration. These limit values are graphically shown as
type of measurement used depends on the vibration severity zones. The definition of these zones is the same as
magnitude of the structure which supports the relative-motion that in ISO 7919-1. Also included are the bearing clearance
transducer. Hence, if the vibration magnitude of this support effects on the zone boundaries.
structure is significant, the absolute shaft vibration will be the
more valid measurement. The rotor clearance to the bearing
needs to be monitored to ensure against rotor seal and blading
rubs which can cause rotor or blading failures.

The shaft vibration of machines, measured close to the


bearings, is evaluated on the basis of two criteria:

Criterion I: The reliable and safe running of a machine under


normal operating conditions requires that the
shaft vibration displacement remains below
certain limits consistent with e.g. acceptable
kinetic loads and adequate margins on the radial
clearance envelope for the machine. The
maximum shaft vibration is assessed against
evaluation zones.

Criterion II: Changes in shaft vibration displacement, even


though the limits of Criterion I are not exceeded,
can point to incipient damage or some other
irregularity. Consequently, such changes relative
to a reference value should not be allowed to
exceed certain limits. If this reference value
changes by a significant amount, steps should
be taken to ascertain the reasons for the change
and, if necessary, appropriate action taken. In
this context, a decision on what action to take, if
any, should be made after consideration of the
maximum magnitude of the vibration, and
whether the machine has stabilized at a new
condition.

General guidelines for establishing evaluation zones under


steady-state operating conditions are described which provide
the basis for the machine-specific evaluation criteria in the
subsequent parts of ISO 7919. The definition and application
of the different zones are the same as those adopted for ISO
10816 (Figure 4).

ISO 7919-2 provides the special features required for


measuring shaft vibration on the coupled rotor systems of
steam turbine generator sets for power stations, having rated
speeds in the range of 1 500 r/min to 3 600 r/min, and power
outputs greater than 50 MW. Evaluation criteria, based on
experience, are presented which can be used as guidelines
for assessing the vibratory conditions of such machines.

The vibration magnitudes specified are for both relative and


absolute shaft vibration measured at, or close to, the main load
carrying bearings, at rated speed and under steady-state Figure 4 – Typical zone definition according to ISO 7919
conditions. Higher magnitudes of vibration can be permitted
at other measuring positions and under transient conditions, ISO 7919-3 gives guidelines for application of evaluation
such as start-up and run-down (including passing through criteria for shaft vibration measured close to the bearings
resonance speed ranges). under normal operating conditions. These guidelines are
presented in terms of both steady-state conditions and any
The recommended shaft vibration values for large steam changes that can occur in these steady values. This
turbine generator sets measured relative to the bearings are International Standard applies to coupled industrial machines
included for relative shaft-to-bearing vibration and for absolute with fluid-film bearings, comprising: turbo compressors,

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turbines, turbine generators and electric drives, all having shaft vibration of large machines (e.g. steam turbine generator
maximum rated speeds in the range of 1 000 r/min to 30 000 sets, gas turbines, industrial turbo sets, and hydraulic
r/min, and power between 30 kW and 50 MW. machines).

The numerical values specified are not intended to serve as This part of ISO 10817 is applicable to radial vibration
the only basis for acceptance specifications. In general, the measuring systems on shafts, both for absolute and relative
vibratory condition of these machines is usually assessed by measurements. It covers the sensing device (i.e. transducer),
consideration of both the shaft vibration and the associated signal conditioning, attachment methods and calibration
casing vibration. As a result, this International Standard should procedures.
be used in conjunction with ISO 10816-3.

ISO 7919-4 applies to industrial gas turbine sets (including


those with gears) with fluid-film bearings, power outputs
greater than 3 MW and shaft rotational speeds from 3 000
r/min to 30 000 r/min. Aircraft type gas turbines are excluded,
since they differ fundamentally from industrial gas turbines,
both in the type of bearings (rolling element) and in the
stiffness and mass ratios of the rotors and support structures.

Depending on the construction and mode of operation,


there are three types of industrial gas turbines:
─ single-shaft constant-speed
─ single-shaft variable-speed
─ gas turbines having separate shafts for hot-gas
generation and power delivery.

Guidelines are given for the application of criteria for shaft


vibration measured close to the bearings of industrial gas
turbines under normal operating conditions.

ISO 7919-5 lists the special features required for


measuring shaft vibration on coupled hydraulic machine sets.
This International Standard applies to all types of hydraulic
machines having nominal speeds between 60 r/min and
3 600 r/min, with fluid-film bearings and rated power of 1 MW
or more. These machines may consist of turbines, pumps,
pump turbines, generators, motors and motor generators,
including couplings, gears or auxiliary equipment in the shaft
line. The position of the shaft may be vertical, horizontal or at
an arbitrary angle between these two directions.

The guidelines are given for the application of criteria for


shaft vibration measured close to the bearings of coupled
hydraulic machine sets, under normal operating and steady-
state conditions, and any changes that can occur in these
steady values. The numerical values specified present rotor
displacements relative to the bearings as a function of shaft Fig. 5 – Selection diagram for ISO 7919 and ISO 10816 series
rotational speed.
The standards series ISO 13373 "Vibration condition
Figure 5 shows the decision tree for selecting the monitoring" was also prepared by ISO/TC 108/SC 2. Part 1 of
appropriate standard within the ISO 7919 and ISO 10816 this series includes general guidelines for the measurement
series. It is planned within ISO/TC 108/SC 2 to combine and and data collection functions necessary for the assessment of
align the ISO 7919 and ISO 10816 series under the new machinery vibration for condition monitoring and diagnostics
unique number ISO 20816, but this project is not yet officially purposes. It is applicable to all kinds of rotating machinery and
approved at this time. also describes the narrowband analysis procedures and
techniques to perform discrete frequency analyses of the
C. Additional standards vibration signals, which are beyond the scope of the ISO
10816 and ISO 7919 series. Part 2 of the series ISO 13373
ISO 10817-1 gives details of how to obtain reproducible deals with processing, analysis and presentation of vibration
measurement results in order to enable the monitoring and data. Further parts of this standards series are currently under
evaluation of shaft vibration according to the ISO 7919 series. development (see IV. ISO/TC 108/SC 5).
As such, it is of importance primarily for the measurement of

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D. ISO 14839 – Vibration of rotating machinery equipped The gaps in numbering allow for further parts in a systematic
with active magnetic bearings (AMB) order. The current state is shown in Table 1.

The ISO 14839 series deals with machines equipped with ISO 21940 "Mechanical vibration — Rotor balancing"
active magnetic bearings. Part 1 gives the vocabulary. Part 2
addresses steady-state values of rotor vibration and the AMB New number Old number Status
coil current and voltage measured during nominal steady-state
ISO 21940-1
operation, but not the transient condition while passing through
Introduction: Guidelines on the use
resonance speeds. The guidelines for transient vibration at ISO 19499:2007 R
and application of balancing
resonance speeds are established in ISO 21940-31 (formerly standards
ISO 10814) in which the modal sensitivity, the so-called
amplification factor (Q-factor), is then evaluated. ISO 21940-2
ISO 1925:1990 R
Vocabulary
Because of the stiff support of oil-film bearings with small ISO 21940-11
clearances, shaft vibration should be regulated within low Procedures and tolerances for rotors
levels to avoid oil-film rupture of the lubricant and metal with rigid behaviour: Specification
ISO 1940-1:2003 R
contact inside the bearing. In contrast, the relatively soft and verification of balance
support of AMBs and correspondingly large clearances, a tolerances and balance quality
larger vibration level is often observed in AMB rotors, but is requirements
quite normal and acceptable. The lower stiffness introduces no ISO 21940-12
major problems in the transmission force to the machine Procedures and tolerances for rotors ISO 11342:1998 R
foundation. Compared to the oil-film bearing rotor standards with flexible behaviour
(ISO 7919 series), ISO 14839-2 provides greater values of
ISO 21940-13:2012
zone limits for vibration assessment and acceptance. Criteria and safeguards for the in-situ ISO 20806:2009 I
balancing of medium and large rotors
ISO 14839-3 describes the evaluation of stability margin.
While passive bearings, e.g. ball bearings or oil-film bearings ISO 21940-14:2012
are essentially stable systems, magnetic bearings are Procedures for assessing balance ISO 1940-2:1997 I
errors
inherently unstable due to the negative stiffness resulting from
static magnetic forces. Therefore, a feedback control is ISO 21940-21:2012
required to provide positive stiffness and positive damping so Description and evaluation of ISO 2953:1999 I
that the active magnetic bearing operates in a stable balancing machines
equilibrium to maintain the rotor at a centred position. A
ISO 21940-23:2012
combination of electromagnets and feedback control system is Enclosures and other protective
required to constitute an operable AMB system. ISO 7475:2001 I
measures for the measuring station
of balancing machines
In addition to ISO 14839-2 on evaluation of vibration of AMB
rotor systems, evaluation of the stability and its margin is ISO 21940-31
R
Susceptibility and sensitivity of ISO 10814:1996
necessary for safe and reliable operation of the AMB rotor machines to unbalance
(Draft)
system; this evaluation is specified in ISO 14839-3, the
objectives of which are as follows: ISO 21940-32:2012
ISO 8821:1989 I
a) to provide information on the stability margin for mutual Shaft and fitment key convention
understanding between vendors and users, mechanical Symbols for balancing machines and
engineers and electrical engineers, etc. ISO 3719:1994 W
associated instrumentation
b) to provide an evaluation method for the stability margin that
can be useful in simplifying contract concerns, commission Status code:
and maintenance I = Issued as ISO standard
c) to serve and collect industry consensus on the R = Currently under revision
W = Withdrawn
requirements of system stability as a design and operating
guide for AMB equipped rotors.
Table 1 – Renumbering of ISO standards for rotor balancing
For evaluation of the stability margin, zone limits are given in
ISO 14839-3. The definition of each stability zone is
determined by adapting the guidelines of ISO 7919-1. IV. ISO/TC 108/SC 5

E. Balancing The other sub-committee of ISO/TC 108 which is relevant to


the in-situ running condition of machinery is SC 5 "Condition
Currently, ISO/TC 108/SC 2 revises all rotor balancing monitoring and diagnostics of machine systems". The
standards. Since confusion could arise because of the International Standards prepared by SC 5 are concerned with
large quantity of appropriate standards with unsystematic methods of monitoring the physical state of a machine when
numeration, re-numbering and revision was started to collect running in situ by monitoring vibration, temperature, acoustic
all balancing standards under the unique number ISO 21940. emission, electric current, etc.

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SC 5 consists of the following working groups: mentioned but since it is crucial to vibration condition
monitoring it is discussed here in detail.
AG A "Vibration condition monitoring procedures and
instrumentation used for the purposes of diagnostics" ISO 13373-1 provides general guidelines for the
AG E "Strategic planning" measurement and data collection functions of machinery
WG 1 "Terminology" vibration for the purposes of condition monitoring. It is intended
WG 2 "Data interpretation and diagnostics techniques" to promote consistency of measurement procedures and
WG 3 "Performance monitoring and diagnostics" practices which usually concentrate on rotating machines.
WG 4 "Tribology-based monitoring and diagnostics"
WG 5 "Prognostics" In this International Standard, the principles of vibration
WG 6 "Formats and methods for communicating, presenting condition monitoring programs are outlined, see Figure 7.
and displaying relevant information and data" Furthermore it covers all basic principles for
WG 7 "Training and accreditation in the field of condition ─ Measurement methods
monitoring and diagnostics" ─ Measurement parameters
WG 8 "Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines" ─ Transducer selection
WG 10 "Condition monitoring and diagnostics of electrical ─ Transducer location
equipment" ─ Transducer attachment
WG 11 "Thermal imaging" ─ Data collection
WG 14 "Acoustic techniques" ─ Machine operating conditions
WG 15 "Ultrasound" ─ Vibration monitoring systems
WG 16 "Condition monitoring and diagnostics of wind ─ Signal conditioning systems
turbines" ─ Interfaces with data-processing systems
─ Continuous monitoring and periodic monitoring.
WG 8 also deals with the vibration behaviour of industrial
machines. The introductory document is ISO 17359 "Condition A table of the most common causes of machinery vibration
monitoring and diagnostics of machines – General guidelines". is given in Annex C of ISO 13373-1.
It is the parent document of a group of standards which cover
the field of condition monitoring and diagnostics, outlining ISO 13373-2 describes procedures for processing and
general procedures to be considered when setting up a presenting vibration data and analyzing vibration signatures for
condition monitoring program. This standard also includes the purposes of monitoring the vibration condition of rotating
references to other International Standards and other machinery, and performing diagnostics as appropriate.
documents which are required or useful in this process.
Recently, the project ISO 17359-2 "Condition monitoring and ISO 13373-3 is still under development. It is intended to
diagnostics of machines – Part 2: Parameter selection and set- provide general guidelines for vibration condition monitoring for
up" was established in SC 5. a range of machinery. Guidance for specific machines will be
provided in other parts of this standards series as planned:
Figure 6 gives an overview about the most important ISO
standards for condition monitoring. Part 4 – Diagnosis of steam turbines
Part 5 – Diagnosis of fans and blowers
Part 6 – Diagnosis of gas turbines
Part 7 – Diagnosis of hydraulic power generation and
pumping plants
Part 8 – Diagnosis of industrial pumps
Part 9 – Diagnosis of electric motors
Part 10 – Diagnosis of generators
Part 11 – Diagnosis of gearboxes.

Diagnostics is a collective designation for procedures and


methods to identify a failure mode in case of a fault indicated
by a monitoring system. For vibration based condition
monitoring, the most common vibration causes useful for
diagnosis are described in ISO 13373-1, Annex C, see also
Table 2. However, this method will handle different vibration
parameters separately, independent from each other. General
procedures that can be used to determine the condition of a
machine relative to a set of baseline parameters are described
in the standard series ISO 13379. However, although this
standard exceeds vibration-based methods and includes also
Fig. 6 – Most important ISO condition monitoring standards
other condition monitoring methods in a multivariate system it
is mentioned here since vibration will be the most important
ISO 13373 is the standards series for vibration condition
feature in most cases.
monitoring which is a central topic in most condition monitoring
systems. This ISO series is edited by SC 2 as already

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Cause Characteristic Remarks
vibration (Phase measurements can give
frequencies additional information for many causes)
Unbalance 1x (i.e. once per Changes in balance will give changes in
revolution) 1x vector. Vibration will be highest when
running speed coincides with a rotor
system critical speed. Significant vibration
phase change will occur when passing
through critical speeds. At a fixed speed
vibration magnitudes are constant.
Bearing 1x or higher Parallel or angular bearing misalignment
misalign- harmonics is generally caused by foundation
ment movements. Bearing misalignment is not
a direct cause of vibration excitation but
changes the dynamic characteristics of
the support system.
Shaft 1x, 2x or higher Angular/parallel misalignment due to
misalign- harmonics coupling geometric inaccuracies. It
ment introduces vibration excitation due to
shaft bending. In some cases, the axial
vibration component may be of similar
magnitude to the radial components.
Journal Subsynchronous Changes in the bearing operating
bearing or 1x, 2x, 3x conditions or geometry can cause
operating changes in the steady-state vibration at
condition/ 1x and higher harmonics, or cause
geometry subsynchronous instability (oil or steam
whirl). In the latter case the vibration is
usually unsteady and can increase with
time, often rapidly.
Rolling Wideband Detection requires transducers with high-
element acceleration at frequency response. Vibration tends to be
bearing high frequency localized to the region of the defective
wear bearing. Vibration readings are usually
unsteady and increase with time. Other
techniques may be necessary to
characterize the type of fault.
Stiffness 2x Vibration peaks when a 2x stimulus is
dissym- coincident with a rotor critical speed. At a
metry (e.g. fixed rotor speed vibration magnitudes
axial are constant. Compensation grooves are
winding used on large machines to minimize the
slots in stimulus.
generator/
motor
rotors)
Bent rotor 1x, 2x or higher Change of 1x is most common. If the rotor
(see also harmonics is bent near the coupling, a high 2x axial
thermal vibration is frequently observed. At a fixed
dissym- speed the rotor vibration values are
metry) constant.
Cracked 1x, 2x or higher A growth in the 2x vector is an indication
rotor harmonics that the growth of a transverse crack is
getting critical. Changes in the 1x or
higher harmonic vectors can also occur.
Compo- 1x and Vibration values may be erratic and
nent harmonics of inconsistent between successive start-
looseness running speed stop cycles. Sometimes subharmonic
in rotor frequency frequencies are also observed.
Eccentric 1x and for non- Vibration values can be abnormal or
or non- circular journals excessive at low rotor speeds as well as
circular at harmonics of at rotor critical speeds. At a fixed rotor
journals running speed speed the vibration values are constant.
frequency
Thermal 1x Can be caused by non-uniform rotor
dissym- ventilation or shorted electrical windings
metry or non-uniform tightness of parts. Causes
rotor to bow with the same vibration
Fig. 7 – Vibration condition monitoring flowchart according to characteristics as for unbalance.
Gear High frequencies Detection requires transducers with high-
ISO 13373-1
defects corresponding to frequency responses.
harmonics of For defect in one tooth: 1x and multiples.
gear For worn teeth: Gear mesh frequencies
mesh/rotational with sidebands and multiples.
frequency and
associated
sidebands

9
Resonan- At the excitation Vibration magnification occurs at each Nowadays, certification is an important topic in condition
ce frequencies such machine resonant speed and large phase
as when rotor angle changes are evident in the 1x
monitoring. The ISO 18436 series (see Figure 9) maintains the
speed equals a response as the rotor passes through basis documents for qualification and assessment of personnel
natural critical speeds. Rotor unbalance is also in the field of condition monitoring. Part 2 defines the
frequency of the the most common stimulus which can requirements for vibration condition monitoring and diagnosis
rotor/support produce resonant responses of the
system machine in its non-rotating systems. On personnel.
electric machines, the other major
stimulus is at 2x which results from
electromagnetic forces that the rotor
induces on the stator.
Rubs Most commonly Slight rubs that are initiated at low speed
1x, but also may clear themselves. However, rubs
multiples of 1x, that are initiated at high speed may result
subsynchronous in an abrupt change in vibration that rises
frequencies and rapidly to a magnitude that requires
natural machine shut-down. Sometimes rubs
frequencies occur due to machines being loaded too
rapidly or as a result of sudden changes
in the thermal condition within the
machine. In other cases rubs may result
from clearances being set too small
between rotating and stationary parts, or
a result of parts shifting during service.

Table 2 – Most common causes of machinery lateral


vibration and resulting vibration characteristics (ISO 13373-1)

ISO 13379 is the ISO series on data interpretation and


diagnostic techniques. Part 1 "General guidelines" gives
guidance for the data interpretation and diagnostics of Fig. 9 – ISO 18436 standards for qualification and
machines. Further parts are currently under development in certification of personnel
SC 5:
Part 2 – Data-driven applications
Part 3 – Knowledge based applications. Furthermore, there is a couple of standards dedicated to
special machine types as shown in Figure 10. ISO 19860 for
Figure 8 shows the subdivision of the central condition gas turbines already exists. ISO 16079 is a new project for
monitoring standards in several parts. ISO 13373 is wind turbines, based on today’s knowledge that is recorded in
specialized on vibration condition monitoring, whereas ISO VDI 3834 and the German Lloyd Guideline for the Certification
13379 exceeds the field of vibration, outlining the principles of of Condition Monitoring Systems for Wind Turbines. This
multivariate condition monitoring systems. standard will be updated later by further parts as the
knowledge increases. In addition, a liaison to IEC/TC 88 Wind
turbines is maintained.

Fig. 8 – Details of central ISO condition monitoring Fig. 10 – ISO standards dedicated to special machine types
standards

10
Besides the common standards as mentioned before, there [4] ISO 2954, Mechanical vibration of rotating and
are further International Standards dealing with data reciprocating machinery — Requirements for instruments
processing, communication and presentation (ISO 13374) or for measuring vibration severity
signal processing (ISO 18431). An overview is given in
ISO/TR 19201 "Methodology for selecting appropriate [5] ISO 3719, Symbols for balancing machines and
machinery vibration standards". associated instrumentation (withdrawn)

ISO 2041 gives the vocabulary for mechanical vibration, [6] ISO 4866, Mechanical vibration and shock — Vibration
shock and condition monitoring while ISO 13372 defines the of fixed structures — Guidelines for the measurement of
vocabulary for condition monitoring and diagnostics of vibrations and evaluation of their effects on structures
machines.
[7] ISO 5348, Mechanical vibration and shock —
However, although vibration measurement and analysis will Mechanical mounting of accelerometers
in most cases be the central part of a monitoring system, a
[8] ISO 7919-1, Mechanical vibration of non-reciprocating
strict limitation to vibration topics will not be useful any more.
machines — Measurements on rotating shafts and
This is clearly reflected in the development of the standards of
evaluation criteria — Part 1: General guidelines
ISO/TC 108/SC 5.
[9] ISO 7919-2, Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of
There are a couple of standards of interest from other TCs.
machine vibration by measurements on rotating shafts —
Two of them should be mentioned here:
Part 2: Land-based steam turbines and generators in
excess of 50 MW with normal operating speeds of
ISO 19859 "Gas turbine applications — Requirement for
1500 r/min, 1800 r/min, 3000 r/min and 3600 r/min
power generation" (currently draft) established by ISO/TC 192
"Gas turbines". Normative references include the relevant ISO [10] ISO 7919-3, Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of
10816 and ISO 7919 vibration standards. machine vibration by measurements on rotating shafts —
Part 3: Coupled industrial machines
ISO 19860 "Gas turbines — Data acquisition and trend
monitoring system requirements for gas turbine installations" [11] ISO 7919-4, Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of
also established by ISO/TC 192. This standard applies to data machine vibration by measurements on rotating shafts —
acquisition and trend monitoring systems for gas turbine Part 4: Gas turbine sets with fluid-film bearings
installations and associated systems. It classifies and defines
monitoring systems and their technical terms. For these very [12] ISO 7919-5, Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of
complex systems with extremely important safety aspects (e.g. machine vibration by measurements on rotating shafts —
for aircraft engines), performance monitoring concepts Part 5: Machine sets in hydraulic power generating and
covering multiple operational and other parameters (not only pumping plants
restricted to unique quantities such as vibrations) are very
important to prevent failures and to keep the safety on a high [13] ISO 8528-9, Reciprocating internal combustion engine
level. driven alternating current generating sets — Part 9:
Measurement and evaluation of mechanical vibrations
The following future project is in progress in SC 5:
[14] ISO 8579-2, Acceptance code for gears — Part 2:
ISO 18129 "Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines Determination of mechanical vibrations of gear units
— Approaches for performance diagnosis". during acceptance testing

[15] ISO 10814, Mechanical vibration — Susceptibility and


V. REFERENCES sensitivity of machines to unbalance

[16] ISO 10816-1, Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of


The following reference list gives an overview of publicly
machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts
available International Standard concerning machine vibration
— Part 1: General guidelines (plus Amendment 1)
and condition monitoring. Some of the references are not
mentioned in the text body but listed for completeness.
[17] ISO 10816-2, Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of
machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts
[1] ISO 1925, Mechanical vibration — Balancing —
— Part 2: Land-based steam turbines and generators in
Vocabulary
excess of 50 MW with normal operating speeds of
1500 r/min, 1800 r/min, 3000 r/min and 3600 r/min
[2] ISO 1940-1, Mechanical vibration — Balance quality
requirements for rotors in a constant (rigid) state — Part 1: [18] ISO 10816-3, Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of
Specification and verification of balance tolerances machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts
— Part 3: Industrial machines with nominal power above
[3] ISO 2041, Mechanical vibration, shock and condition 15 kW and nominal speeds between 120 r/min and
monitoring — Vocabulary 15000 r/min when measured in situ

11
[19] ISO 10816-4, Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of
machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts [35] ISO 14695, Industrial fans — Method of measurement of
— Part 4: Gas turbine sets with fluid-film bearings fan vibration

[20] ISO 10816-5, Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of [36] ISO 14839-1, Mechanical vibration — Vibration of
machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating rotating machinery equipped with active magnetic
parts — Part 5: Machine sets in hydraulic power bearings — Part 1: Vocabulary (plus Amendment 1)
generating and pumping plants
[37] ISO 14839-2, Mechanical vibration — Vibration of
[21] ISO 10816-6, Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of rotating machinery equipped with active magnetic
machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts bearings — Part 2: Evaluation of vibration
— Part 6: Reciprocating machines with power ratings
[38] ISO 14839-3, Mechanical vibration — Vibration of
above 100 kW
rotating machinery equipped with active magnetic
bearings — Part 3: Evaluation of stability margin
[22] ISO 10816-7, Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of
machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts
[39] ISO 14839-4, Mechanical vibration — Vibration of
— Part 7: Rotodynamic pumps for industrial applications,
rotating machinery equipped with active magnetic
including measurements on rotating shafts
bearings — Part 4: Technical guidelines
[23] ISO 10816-8, Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of [40] ISO 15242 (all parts), Rolling bearings — Measuring
machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts methods for vibration
— Part 8: Reciprocating compressor systems (draft)
[41] ISO 17359, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of
[24] ISO 10817-1, Rotating shaft vibration measuring machines — General guidelines
systems — Part 1: Relative and absolute sensing of
radial vibration [42] ISO 18431 (all parts), Mechanical vibration and shock —
Signal processing
[25] ISO 11342, Mechanical vibration — Methods and criteria
for the mechanical balancing of flexible rotors [43] ISO 18436 (all parts), Condition monitoring and
diagnostics of machines — Requirements for
[26] ISO 13372, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of qualification and assessment of personnel
machines — Vocabulary
[44] ISO/TR 19201, Mechanical vibration — Methodology for
[27] ISO 13373-1, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of selecting appropriate machinery vibration standards
machines — Vibration condition monitoring — Part 1:
General procedures [45] ISO 19499, Mechanical vibration — Balancing —
Guidance on the use and application of balancing
[28] ISO 13373-2, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of standards
machines — Vibration condition monitoring — Part 2:
Processing, analysis and presentation of vibration data [46] ISO 19859, Gas turbine applications — Requirement for
power generation (draft)
[29] ISO 13374-1, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of
[47] ISO 19860, Gas turbines — Data acquisition and trend
machines — Data processing, communication and
monitoring system requirements for gas turbine
presentation — Part 1: General guidelines
installations
[30] ISO 13374-2, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of
[48] ISO 20283-4, Mechanical vibration — Measurement of
machines — Data processing, communication and
vibration on ships — Part 4: Measurement and
presentation — Part 2: Data processing
evaluation of vibration of the ship propulsion machinery
[31] ISO 13374-3, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of
[49] ISO 21940-13, Mechanical vibration — Rotor balancing
machines — Data processing, communication and
— Part 13: Criteria and safeguards for the in-situ
presentation — Part 3: Communication
balancing of medium and large rotors
[32] ISO 13379-1, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of
[50] ISO 21940-14, Mechanical vibration — Rotor balancing
machines — Data interpretation and diagnostics
— Part 14: Procedures for assessing balance errors
techniques — Part 1: General guidelines
[51] ISO 21940-21, Mechanical vibration — Rotor balancing
[33] ISO 13381-1, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of
— Part 21: Description and evaluation of balancing
machines — Prognostics — Part 1: General guidelines
machines
[34] ISO 14694, Industrial fans — Specifications for balance
quality and vibration levels

12
[52] ISO 21940-23, Mechanical vibration — Rotor balancing Thomas Gross is member of staff of DIN Deutsches Institut
— Part 23: Enclosures and other protective measures fuer Normung in Berlin since 1991. He is associated with the
for the measuring station of balancing machines department Acoustics, Noise control and Vibration. Since mid
2013 he is Secretary of ISO/TC 108/SC 2 and since many
[53] ISO 21940-31, Mechanical vibration — Rotor balancing years already Secretary of some ISO and a couple of DIN
— Part 31: Susceptibility and sensitivity of machines to working groups.
unbalance (draft) Thomas Gross graduated from Technical University of Berlin
with a Dipl.-Ing. degree in Mechanical Engineering (1982).
[54] ISO 21940-32, Mechanical vibration — Rotor balancing From 1984 to 1989 he was scientific fellow for acoustics at the
— Part 32: Shaft and fitment key convention same university.

[55] ISO 22266-1, Mechanical vibration — Torsional vibration


of rotating machinery — Part 1: Land-based steam and Prof. Dr. Josef Kolerus was graduated from Technical
gas turbine generator sets in excess of 50 MW University of Vienna with a Dip.-Ing. degree in Physics (1965)
and has received the degree of Dr. of technical sciences at the
[56] IEC 60034-14, Rotating electrical machines — Part 14: department of mechanical engineering for his work self-excited
Mechanical vibration of certain machines with shaft vibrations (1971). After some years with Bruel & Kjaer he was
heights 56 mm and higher — Measurement, evaluation employed at Mueller-BBM, a consulting company for acoustics
and limits of vibration severity and vibration in Munich until 2004.
Nowadays he still working as a consultant for vibration
[57] IEC 60994, Guide for field measurement of vibrations analysis and condition monitoring. Additionally he gives
and pulsations in hydraulic machines (turbines, storage lectures at the Technical University of Vienna for machinery
pumps and pump-turbines) monitoring and acoustics. He is member and chair of several
working groups within ISO, DIN and VDI.
[58] API 541, Form-wound squirrel-cage induction motors
------ 500 horsepower and larger

[59] API 546, Brushless synchronous machines ------


500 kVA and larger

[60] API 547, General purpose form-wound squirrel cage


induction motors ------ 250 horsepower and larger

[61] API 617, Axial and centrifugal compressors and


expander-compressors for petroleum, chemical and
gas industry services

[62] API RP 684, Paragraphs rotodynamic tutorial: lateral


critical speeds, unbalance response, stability, train
torsionals and rotor balancing

VI. VITA

Dr. Horst Kuemmlee is the head of the Research and


Developement Department for large electrical machines in the
Large Drives Division of the Siemens Industrial Sector in the
Siemens Dynamowerk in Berlin, Germany. He is responsible
for the basic mechanical and electrical design, rotor dynamics,
simulation of electro-mechanical systems, measurement
procedures and systems and standardization. He worked at
Siemens Dynamowerk since 1985 as research engineer, head
of the Special Machines Order Processing and Design
Department and in his current position. He is member or chair
of several working groups within ISO, IEC, DIN, VDI and API.
Dr. Kuemmlee graduated from Technical University of Berlin
with a Dipl.-Ing. degree in Mechanical Engineering (1980). He
has received the degree Dr.-Ing. for his work on Hyperelastic
Coupling Elements and Dampers (1985).

13