You are on page 1of 14



This statement has been prepared at the request of MinnCAN in order to respond to rules
being proposed by the Minnesota Department of Education. The specific questions addressed
are twofold: (1) whether racial diversity benefits the academic outcomes for students of color,
particularly black and Hispanic students; and (2) whether lack of racial diversity in charter
schools has adverse impacts on students of color.

1. Effects of Racial Diversity on Academic Outcomes in Regular Public Schools

There is a lack of consensus in social science research on whether racial diversity has an
positive, educationally significant, and consistent impact on academic outcomes for SOC in
regular K-12 public schools. More specifically, there is no consensus on whether school
desegregation can significantly close the achievement gap between white and SOC. In this
testimony, academic outcomes are defined primarily as performance on standardized tests.

This lack of consensus has been documented by the National Academy of Education
(NAE) and also by Roslyn Mickelson.2 The major reason for lack of consensus is the wide

variation in research results, particularly for studies done during the desegregation era (1960s-
1990s) as compared to those done after 2000. Earlier studies tend to find smaller and more
variable effects of desegregation, while later studies tend to find larger and more consistent

Studies done during the desegregation era usually involve a single school district, and
they evaluate academic outcomes following a desegregation plan, often one ordered by a court or
a government agency. Many of the earlier studies also employed experimental or quasi-
experimental designs with relative small sample sizes. These earlier studies either track the
academic progress (over time) of students undergoing desegregation, or in the case of
experimental studies, compare outcomes for desegregated minority students vs. those who
remain in segregated schools.

Later studies use national databases, sometimes cross-sectional, or in some cases test
scores for an entire state. Most important, virtually all of the later studies cited by NAE and
Mickelson infer causation by examining the effects of variations in racial composition, not the
effects of an actual desegregation plan. The more recent studies require sophisticated statistical
methods in order to conclude that racial composition is the reason for SOC test scores rather than
some other factor, such as a family preference for a desegregated school.

National Academy of Education, Committee on Social Science Research Evidence on Racial Diversity in Schools, Race
Conscious Policies for Assigning Students to Schools: Social Science Research and Supreme Court Cases (Robert Linn &
Kevin Welner eds., (2007).
Roslyn A. Mickelson, "Twenty-First Century Social Science on School Racial Diversity and Educational
Outcomes," Ohio State Law Journal 69:1173-1228.
Returning to the earlier studies, one of the most comprehensive is a meta analysis
commissioned in 1984 by the National Institute for Education, a branch of the Department of
Education.3 A panel of experts selected about two dozen of the best-designed experimental or
quasi-experimental studies of the effect of desegregation on black achievement. There were
wide variations in the effects found by each study, and Thomas Cook concluded that
desegregation had no effect on black student math achievement and only a very modest effect on
their average reading achievement. Importantly, the median reading score was not statistically
significant, thereby illustrating the wide variability of the individual studies.

The conclusion of Michelson that more recent studies are more reliable because they use
national or state-wide data bases and more sophisticated methodologies misses the point of
evaluating desegregation plans. The relationship between racial composition and test scores in
the general population of public schools is not the most relevant comparison for evaluating the
desegregation proposal for Minnesota. Rather, the results of specific desegregation plans
implemented in specific school districts should be the basis for a decision about a new
desegregation policy.

In that regards, I have evaluated the effects of comprehensive desegregation plans on
academic achievement in more than a half dozen major school districts.4 One of those happens
to be the Minneapolis desegregation plan, which was implemented in stages starting in the mid-
1970s. Figure 1 shows that black reading achievement did not improve after desegregation, and
in fact the black-white gap actually worsened after 1991 even though Minneapolis schools had a
very high degree of racial balance. The same was true for math scores. None of the
desegregation plans I have evaluated show significant increases in black test scores or significant
narrowing of the black-white or Hispanic-white test score gap following desegregation.

One of the more widely cited studies that found a desegregation effect is a state-wide
analysis Texas test scores by Eric Hanushek and colleagues.5 It should be noted that when this
study analyses black and white students separately, the usual procedure for evaluating the effect
of desegregation on black achievement, the effect of racial composition is small and not
statistically significant.

I acknowledge the value of state-wide data sets, so I have included a straightforward
analysis of the relationship between school racial composition and black achievement in a
Midwestern state. Figure 2 shows a longitudinal analysis of black student test scores over time
as cohorts move from 3rd grade to 8th grade. Three independent cohorts are averaged to
produce more stable estimates: black students entering 3rd grade in 2005, in 2006, and 2007.
The analysis shows quite clearly that black gains in math scores are virtually identical regardless
of the racial composition of schools. Black student growth is only a single point higher in
predominantly white schools than in predominantly black schools, out of a total growth of over
two hundred points; that is an advantage of only one half of one percent for blacks in majority
white schools.

See Thomas Cook et al, School Desegregation and Black Achievement, Washington, D.C., National Institute of
Education, 1984.
Five are discussed in David J. Armor, "Desegregation and Academic Achievement," in School Desegregation in
the 21st Century, eds. C. Rossell, D. Armor, & H. Walberg. Praeger 2002.
Hanushek, Eric A., John F. Kain, and Steven G. Rivkin "New Evidence about Brown v. Board of Education: The
Complex Effects of School Racial Composition on Achievement," Journal of Labor Economics 27:349-383.
When one considers the considerable body of research on the impact of actual school
desegregation plans on achievement, the conclusion is clear. School desegregation plans have
not had a significant impact on the academic achievement of black students, nor have they
reduced the achievement gap by a significant amount.


Standardized Scores (Median Percentiles)






New Test

1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

Figure 1. Minneapolis Public Schools 6th Grade Reading Scores Following Desegregation

0-25% Black
725 26-50% Black
51-75% Black
700 75-99% Black


Standarized Scores

625 Black students in predominantly
white schools gained 221 points
from 3rd grade to 8th grade
Black students in predominantly
black schools gained 220 points
575 from 3rd grade to 8th grade





Gr 3 (2005-07) Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Gr 8 (2010-12)

Figure 2 Growth in Black Student Math Scores from 3rd to 8th Grade by School Racial Composition in a
Midwestern State (over 13,000 black students)
2. The Impact of Racial Diversity in Charter Schools

The issue of racial diversity and academic achievement in charter schools has a
somewhat different context. Since charter schools are voluntarily chosen by students and their
parents, the choice process often gives rise to charter schools that are predominantly white or
predominantly SOC (usually of a single race or ethnicity). One relevant question is whether
students in a charter school that is predominantly SOC can achieve as well as if they were in a
desegregated school. Another relevant question is whether SOC in a charter school can achieve
as well as (or nearly as well as) white students in charters.

At the outset, it must be emphasized that in all states, and most school districts, SOC
generally have lower test scores than white students. This is amply demonstrated by the National
Assessment of Educational Progress as well as state testing programs in all of the states that have
significant numbers of SOC.

It is also well-understood in the social sciences that the main reason for these
achievement gaps between SOC and white students is socio-economic differences, including
language issues for some Hispanic students. Therefore, in any state it would be expected that a
predominantly black or Hispanic charter school would have lower test scores than a
predominantly white charter, and it cannot be assumed this is caused by a lack of diversity.

The findings of desegregation studies, as discussed in the previous section, apply to
students in charter schools. There is no reason to expect that simply desegregating charter
schools (while keeping the same programs) would increase SOC academic outcomes or reduce
achievement gaps.

This leads to the second question, which is whether students in a predominantly SOC
charter can achieve as well as white students, or at least perform at grade level. That is, does the
concentration of SOC in a charter school act as a barrier to high achievement? According to a
growing body of research, the answer is a definite "no."

One of the earliest charter programs to demonstrate high achievement for high-poverty
SOC is the Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP). Although some of the early evaluations of
KIPP were not definitive, a recent rigorous evaluation by Mathematica completed in 2010
showed that about half of the KIPP programs were showing large gains in math (compared to a
matched control group) sufficient to reduce the black-white gap by 50% within three years.6 All
of these KIPP programs were more than 90% SOC (most black, but some predominantly

A second body of work involves evaluations of charter schools in New York City carried
out by Dobbie and Fryer.7 These studies find that some predominantly SOC (and low-income)
charters in New York City produce substantially higher achievement levels than regular NYC
public schools. Some of the charters are sufficiently successful, the authors' conclude, that they
can close the achievement gap between SOC and white students.
While not all charter schools actually produce such high outcomes, the important lesson
of the KIPP and NYC charter studies is that high concentrations of SOC are not a barrier to high
achievement. In fact, since the successful charters in these studies generally have instructional
programs with longer school days and more class time in academic topics, they may be a more
cost effective way to reduce the SOC-white gaps by focusing resources on disadvantaged
students instead of on all students.

Respectfully submitted,

David Armor, Professor Emeritus
School of Policy, Government, and International Affairs
George Mason University
Arlington, Virginia

Tuttle, C.C., B. Teh, I. Nichols-Barrer, B.P. Gill, and P. Gleason. Student Characteristics and Achievement in 22
KIPP Middle Schools: Final Report Mathematica Policy Research, 2010.
Dobbie, W and R.G. Fryer, “Are High Quality Schools Enough to Increase Achievement Among the Poor?
Evidence From the Harlem Children’s Zone,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 3 (2011), 158-
187; Dobbie. W. and R.G. Fryer, “Getting Beneath the Veil of Effective Schools: Evidence from New York
City,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 5 (2013), 28-60.

December 2014
OFFICE: 713 Founders Hall, GMU, Arlington, VA 22201 (703)
EMAIL: Home: (540)

1961 AB, UC Berkeley, Mathematics and Sociology
1966 Ph.D., Harvard University, Sociology

2011- Professor Emeritus of Public Policy, School of Public Policy, George Mason
2000-2011 Professor of Public Policy, School of Public Policy, George Mason University
1992-99 Research Professor, School of Public Policy, George Mason University
Dr. Armor teaches graduate courses in multivariate statistics, program evaluation, and social
policy; he conducts research in numerous policy areas including education, family, civil rights
and military manpower. He was Director of the PhD Program in Public Policy from 2002 to
2005. He was Principal Investigator of a grant to study social and racial representation in the
military, which resulted in the article, “Race and Gender in the U.S. Military,” published in
Armed Forces and Society. His book, Forced Justice: School Desegregation and the Law was
published by Oxford University Press in June 1995. He served as a member of the National
Academy of Science Committee on Enlistment Standards in Military Recruitment. He was
Principal Investigator of several grants to study family and school factors that affect IQ and
academic achievement and published his book on this topic, Maximizing Intelligence, in 2003.
In July 2006 he was invited to testify before the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights on the issue of
racial diversity in public school.

1995-97 Consultant, Pioneer Institute, Boston
Dr. Armor was Principal Investigator of a study of the Massachusetts open enrollment (choice)
law. The study tested the applicability of the market competition thesis to public schools and
evaluated the social and racial consequences of inter-district transfers. A book, Competition in
Education: A Case Study of Interdistrict Choice, was published by the Pioneer Institute in April

1989- President, National Policy Analysts
Dr. Armor consults and conducts studies on a number of national policy issues, including
education, school desegregation, school choice, and military manpower. He has testified as an
expert witness in many school desegregation cases and educational adequacy cases, including
New York City, Charlotte-Mecklenburg, Cleveland, Tampa, Kansas City, St. Louis, Dallas,
Hartford, Savannah, Topeka, DeKalb County (GA), and Wilmington (DE). His essay, "Why is
Black Achievement Rising?" was published in the Summer 1992 issue of The Public Interest.
He has also served on National Academy of Science committees advising the Department of
Defense on various military manpower issues, and contributed a chapter in a NAS report,
"Military Manpower Quality: Past, Present, and Future."

1986-89 Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense and Acting
Assistant Secretary, Force Management and Personnel
Dr. Armor joined the Department of Defense in 1986 as Principal Deputy and in 1987 became
Acting Assistant Secretary. He supervised 6 Deputy Assistant Secretaries of Defense and
oversaw the DoD military personnel budget of $75 billion. The Assistant Secretary (FM&P)
advised the Secretary of Defense on all manpower and personnel policies including
requirements, compensation, recruiting, officer/enlisted management, training, safety, drug
programs, mobilization, equal opportunity, and the military overseas school system (Dodds). In
1988, Dr. Armor chaired a Task Force on Women in the Military.

1985-86 Elected Member, Los Angeles Board of Education
The Los Angeles Board of Education sets policy for the largest unified (K-12) school system in
the country, with an enrollment of 650,000 students. Dr. Armor was one of 7 elected members,
representing a West Los Angeles district of about 700,000 residents.

1973-82 Senior Social Scientist, The Rand Corporation
Dr. Armor served as project director on numerous studies, including military job performance
measurement, substance abuse prevalence and treatment in the military, and evaluation of
alcoholism treatment programs in the private sector. He also worked on studies of military
health care, school desegregation, compensatory education, organization of mental health care
facilities in Nevada, and the impact of television violence on aggressive behavior. During his
years at Rand Dr. Armor published numerous books, articles, and reports, including Alcoholism
and Treatment, "White Flight and the Future of School Desegregation," and "Mental Aptitudes
and Army Job Performance."

1965-72 Assistant and Associate Professor of Sociology, Harvard University
While at Harvard Dr. Armor conducted policy research and taught courses on survey research
methods, data analysis, and introductory sociology. He designed the first user-friendly computer
system for statistical analysis of data (Data-Text) and developed new methods for the analysis of
behavioral data. His research included contributions to the Coleman study of Equality of
Educational Opportunity, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights study of racial isolation in the
public schools, and studies of the treatment of mental illness. His major publications during this
period included "The Evidence on Busing," The American School Counselor, and "Theta
Reliability and Factor Scaling."

1961 Highest Honors in Sociology, UC Berkeley
1961-62 Woodrow Wilson Fellow, Harvard University
1963-65 Russell Sage Foundation Fellowship, Harvard University
1976 Article of the Year, Journal of Studies on Alcoholism
1989 Department of Defense Distinguished Public Service Medal

David J. Armor, The American School Counselor (New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1969).

David J. Armor and Arthur S. Couch, The Data-Text Primer (New York, Free Press, 1972).

David J. Armor, J. Michael Polich, and Harriet Stambul, Alcoholism and Treatment (New York,
Wiley Interscience, 1978)

J. M. Polich, D. J. Armor, and H. B. Braiker, The Course of Alcoholism: Four Years After
Treatment (New York, Wiley, 1981).

David J. Armor, Forced Justice: School Desegregation and the Law, New York: Oxford
University Press, 1995

David J. Armor and Brett M. Peiser, Competition in Education: A Case Study of Inderdistrict
Choice, Boston: The Pioneer Institute, 1997

C.H. Rossell, D.J. Armor, & H. Walberg, Editors, School Desegregation in the 21st Century,
New York: Praeger, 2002.

David J. Armor, Maximizing Intelligence, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003

David J. Armor, "Guidance Counselors," in James Coleman, et al., Equality of Educational
Opportunity (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966).

David J. Armor, "Racial Composition of Schools and College Aspirations of Negro Students," in
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Racial Isolation in the Public Schools, Vol. II (Washington,
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1967).

David J. Armor, "School and Family Effects on Black and White Achievement," in Mosteller
and Moynihan, Eds., On the Equality of Educational Opportunity, (New York, Random House,

Armor, David J., "White Flight and the Future of School Desegregation" in Walter G. Stephan
and Joe R. Feagin (eds.) School Desegregation Past, Present, and Future, Plenum Press, New
York, 1980, 187-226.

Armor, David J., "The Rand Reports and the Analysis of Relapse" in Griffith Edwards and
Marcus Grant (eds.) Alcoholism Treatment in Transition, Croom Helm Ltd., London, 1980, pp.

David J. Armor and Jan Evan Meshkoff, "Remission Among Treated and Untreated Alcoholics,"
Advances in Substance Abuse, Vol. III., Greenwich, CN: JAI Press, 1983

David J. Armor, "School Busing: A time for Change," in P. Katz and D. Taylor, editors,
Eliminating Racism, (New York, Plenum, 1988).

David J. Armor, "Military Sociology," in E.F. and M.L. Borgatta, eds., Encyclopedia of
Sociology (New York, Macmillan, 1992)

David J. Armor and C. R. Roll, "Military Manpower Quality: Past, Present, and Future," in Bert
F. Green and Anne S. Mavor, Editors, Modeling Cost and Performance for Military Enlistment,
National Academy of Science, 1994.

David J. Armor and Brett M. Peiser, “Interdistrict Choice in Massachusetts,” in Paul Peterson &
Bryan Hassel, eds., Learning from School Choice, Washington, DC: Brookings Institute, 1998

David J. Armor, "Military Sociology," in E.F. and M.L. Borgatta, eds., Encyclopedia of
Sociology, 2nd Edition (New York: Macmillan, 2000)

David J. Armor and Christine H. Rossell, “Desegregation and Resegregation in the Public
Schools,” in Abigail and Stephen Thernstrom, eds., Beyond the Color Line: New Perspectives on
Race and Ethnicity, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 2002

David J. Armor, “Desegregation and Achievement,” in C.H. Rossell, D.J. Armor, & H. Walberg,
eds., School Desegregation in the 21st Century, New York: Praeger, 2002

David J. Armor, “Reflections of an Expert Witness,” in S.J. Caldas and C.L. Bankston, eds., The
End of Desegregation?, Huntington, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2003

David J. Armor, “Family Policy and Academic Achievement,” in Isabel V. Sawhill, One Percent
for the Kids, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003

Contributor, Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military
Paul Sacket and Anne Mavor, eds., Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2003

David J. Armor and Paul Sackett, “Manpower Quality in the All-Volunteer Force,” in Curtis L.
Gilroy and John T. Warner, eds., The All-Volunteer Force: Thirty Years of Service, Brassey’s

David J. Armor, “Lessons Learned from School Desegregation,” in Paul Peterson, ed.,
Generational Change: Closing the Test Score Gap, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006.

Contributor, Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment: Physical, Medical, and Mental Health
Standards, Paul Sacket and Anne Mavor, eds., Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006

David J. Armor, “Can NCLB Close Achievement Gaps,” in A. Sadovnik et al, eds., No Child
Left Behind and the Reduction of the Achievement Gap, Routledge (2008)

Eva Y. Deykin, Gerald L. Klerman, David J. Armor, "The Relatives of Schizophrenic Patients;
Clinical Judgements of Potential Emotional Resourcefulness," American Journal of
Orthopsychiatry, 36 (April, 1966).

Howard E. Freeman, J. Michael Ross, David J. Armor, and Thomas F. Pettigrew, "Color
Gradation and Attitudes among Middle-Income Negroes," American Sociological Review, 31
(June, 1966).

Aaran Lazare, Gerald L. Klerman, and David J. Armor, "Oral, Obsessive, and Hysterical
Personality Patterns," Archives of General Psychiatry, 15 (June, 1966).

David J. Armor, et al, “Professors' Attitudes Toward The Vietnam War, Public Opinion
Quarterly 31:159-175 (1967)

David J. Armor and Gerald L. Klerman, "Professional Ideologies: Psychiatrist's Treatment
Orientations," Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 9 (September, 1968).
David J. Armor, "Developments in Data Analysis Systems for the Social Sciences," Social
Science Information, 9 (1971).

David J. Armor, "The Evidence on Busing," The Public Interest (Summer, 1972).

David J. Armor, "Theta Reliability and Factor Scaling," in Herbert Costner, Ed., Sociological
Methodology, 1973-74 (San Francisco, Jossey Bass, 1974).

Polich, J. M., D. J. Armor, and H. B. Braiker, "Patterns of Alcoholism Over Four Years," Journal
of Studies on Alcohol, 41:397-416, 1980.

David J. Armor, "After Busing: Education and Choice," The Public Interest, 95, Spring 1989.

David J. Armor, "Circuit Courts Collide over Busing," Network News and Views, (IX, #2),
February 1990

Jackson Toby and David J. Armor, “Carrots or Sticks for High School Dropouts,” The Public
Interest, Winter 1992

David J. Armor, "Why is Black Educational Achievement Rising?" The Public Interest, Summer,

Christine Rossell and David J. Armor, "The Effectiveness of School Desegregation Remedies,
1968-1991," American Politics Quarterly 24:267-302, 1996

David J. Armor, "Race and Gender in the U.S. Military," Armed Forces and Society, Fall 1996

David J. Armor, “Facts and Fictions about Education in the Sheff Decision, Connecticut Law
Review 29:981-997, 1997

David J. Armor, "On Family Size and Intelligence," American Psychologist 56: 521-2, June-July

David J. Armor, "The End of Desegregation and the Achievement Gap," Hastings Constitutional
Law Quarterly,
28: 629-654, Spring 2001

David J. Armor, Race, the Supreme Court, and Social Science Evidence, Teachers College
Record, June 15, 2009

David J. Armor and Curtis L. Gilroy, “Changing Minority Representation in the U.S. Military,”
Armed Forces and Society 36(2) January 2010

David J. Armor and Stephanie Duck O’Neill, “After Seattle: Social Science Research and
Narrowly Tailored Desegregation Plans,” Teachers College Record June 2010

David J. Armor,"Correlates of Effectiveness in NIAAA Comprehensive Treatment Centers"
(The Rand Corporation, WN-8678-HEW, July 1974).
David J. Armor, "Toward a Unified Theory of Reliability for Social Measurement" (The Rand
Corporation, P-5264, July 1974).

David J. Armor, "The Causal Analysis of Change in Panel Studies," (The Rand Corporation,

David J. Armor, Robert Crain, et al., "Design of a National Longitudinal Study of School
Desegregation," (The Rand Corporation, R-1516-USCCR, 1974).

David J. Armor, G. Brewer, and J. Kakalik, "Treatment for Alcohol and Drug Abuse," Chapter 9
in Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada (The Rand Corporation, R-1800-
FLF, 1975).

David J. Armor, "Treatment Outcomes," Chapter 5 in Lee Ruggles, et al., A Followup Study of
NIAAA Alcoholism Treatment Centers (Stanford Research Institute, 1975).

David J. Armor, Paula Johnson, Sue Polich, and Harriet Stambul, "Trends in U.S. Adult
Drinking Practices" (The Rand Corporation, WN-9742, Feb. 1977).

Paula Johnson, David J. Armor, Sue Polich, and Harriet Stambul, "U.S. Adult Drinking
Practices: Time Trends, Social Correlates, and Sex Roles" (The Rand Corporation, WN-9923,

H. B. Braiker and D. J. Armor, "Outcomes in Alcoholism Treatment," P-5845, The Rand
Corporation, 1977.

David J. Armor, "Patient Acceptance of the Air Force Physician Assistant," (The Rand
Corporation, N-1303-AF, 1979).

P. Carpenter-Huffman, B. R. Orvis, D. J. Armor, and G. Burkholtz, "The Effectiveness of the Air
Force Alcohol Eduction Seminars," R-2727-AF, The Rand Corporation, 1981.

David J. Armor, "Enlistment Standards in the Army," The Rand Corporation, P-6701, October

David J. Armor, et al., "Mental Aptitudes and Army Job Performance: Setting Enlistment
Standards for Infantrymen," The Rand Corporation, R-2874-MRA&L, 1982.

Armor, D. J., Bruce R. Orvis, Polly Carpenter-Huffman, and J. Michael Polich, "The Control of
Alcohol Problems in the U.S. Air Force," The Rand Corporation, R-2867-AF, 1982.

David J. Armor, "The Evidence on Desegregation & Black Achievement," National Institute for
Education, 1984.

David J. Armor, "The Changing Shape of DoD's Civilian Work Force," Defense '89,
Department of Defense, January/February 1989

David J. Armor, "Defense Policy and Applied Psychology," invited address at the American
Psychological Association meetings in New Orleans, August 1989.
David J. Armor, “Race and Socioeconomic Effects on Academic Achievement,” George Mason
University, July 1996

David J. Armor, “Outcomes of School Desegregation in the Public Schools,” statement prepared
for the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights Briefing on the Benefits of Diversity in Elementary and
Secondary Schools, July 28, 2006

David J. Armor and Shanea J. Watkins, “School Segregation and Black Achievement: New
Evidence from the 2003 NAEP,” George Mason University, June 2006

David J. Armor, Abigail Thernstrom, and Steven Thernstrom, Amicus Curia Brief to the
Supreme Court on the Educational and Social Benefits of Racial Diversity, filed August 21, 2006

David J. Armor and Stephanie Duck, “The Effect of Black Peers on Black Test Scores,”
Education Working Paper Archives, University of Arkansas, September 2007

David J. Armor and Sonia Sousa, "Restoring a True Safety Net," National Affairs Fall 2012

David J. Armor and Sonia Sousa, "The Dubious Promise of Universal Preschool," National
Affairs Winter 2014

David J. Armor and Tameka Porter, The Impact of Financial Aid on College Completion,
Unpublished Manuscript, George Mason University School of Public Policy, May 2014

David J. Armor, The Evidence on Universal Preschool: Are the Benefits Worth the Cost?, Cato
Institute, Policy Analysis No. 760, Washington, DC, October 15, 2014

David J. Armor, "A Computer Language for the Analysis of Variance," Proceedings of the
Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1969).

David J. Armor, "The Data-Text System: An Application Language for the Social Sciences,"
Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference (American Federation of Information
Processing Societies, 1972).

David J. Armor, "White Flight and the Future of School Desegregation," presented at the
American Sociological Association meetings, San Francisco, September 1978

David J. Armor, "Job Performance Measurement and Defense Manpower Management,"
Presented at the DoD/ETS Conference on Job Performance Measurement Technologies, San
Diego, 1987.

David J. Armor, “The Future of School Desegregation after Kansas City,” at a regional meeting
of the Education Writers Association, St. Louis, Missouri, 1995

David J. Armor, “The End of Desegregation and the Achievement Gap,” presented at a
conference on school desegregation sponsored by the University of Colorado School of Law,
Boulder, Colo., 2000
David J. Armor, “Achievement Evidence in Educational Adequacy Cases,” presented at the
annual conference of the National Association of Attorney Generals, Washington, DC, 2002

David J. Armor and Paul Sackett, “Manpower Quality in the All Volunteer Force,” Prepared for
the 30th Anniversary Conference on the All-Volunteer Force sponsored by the Department of
Defense, September 15-17, 2003, Fort Meyer, Washington, D.C.

David J. Armor, “Black Achievement 50 Years after Brown,” paper presented at a conference on
the 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, JFK School of Government, Harvard
University, April 23, 2004
David J. Armor, “Closing the Racial Gap in Education,” National Association for Scholars
meeting, New York City, May 21-23. 2004

David J. Armor, “Can NCLB Close Achievement gaps?” presented at the American Sociological
Association meetings in Philadelphia, August 20, 2005

David J. Armor and Stephanie Duck, “Unraveling Black Peer Effects on Black Achievement,”
Presented at the APPAM Research Conference in Madison, Wisconsin, November 4, 2006

David J. Armor and Shanea J. Watkins, “School Composition and Hispanic Achievement,”
Presented at the Sociology of Education Association conference in Monterey, California,
February 10, 2007

David J. Armor and Curtis L. Gilroy, “Changing Minority Representation in the U.S. Military,”
Presented at the Biennial International Conference of the Inter-University Seminar on Armed
Forces and Society, Chicago, October 2007

Sonia Sousa and David J. Armor, “Impact of Family vs. School Factors on Cross-National
Disparities in Academic Achievement: Evidence from the 2006 Pisa Survey,” presented at the
annual research meeting of APPAM, November 2010

E. J. Park and David J. Armor, “Comparing the Impact of Private Tutoring in South Korea and
the United States,” presented at the annual conference of the Comparative & International
Society, Montreal, Quebec, May 1, 2011

David J. Armor and Tameka Porter, "College Completion: Impact of Financial Aid vs. Student
Attributes." Paper presented at Advances in Policy and Politics Conference, George Mason
University School of Public Policy, Arlington, VA April 3, 2014

Wall Street Journal, 1992, Why is Black Achievement Rising?
Education Week, 1995, Desegregation Fails in Kansas City
Education Week, 2003, Environmental Effects on IQ: From Families or Schools, Nov. 19
Teacher’s College Record, 2004, “No Excuses: Overly Simplistic Solution for the Achievement
Teacher’s College Record, August 2006, “Can NCLB Close Achievement Gaps?”
Teacher’s College Record, August 2007, “Rearguing Brown v. Board of Education”
Teacher’s College Record, June 15, 2009, “Race, the Supreme Court, and Social Science
Richmond Times, November 14, 2010, “How the ‘Safety Net’ became a Comfort Net”
Teacher's College Record, November 15, 2013, "Economic Integration: Balancing Potential
Gains with Harms"
Washington Post, "We have No Idea if Universal Preschool Actually Helps Kids,"
PostEverything, October 21, 2014

PI for grant from the Spencer Foundation to support early studies on school busing, Harvard
Co-PI on several studies of education/school desegregation while at the Rand Corporation
Co-PI on contract from State of West Virginia to evaluate a HS dropout prevention program,
Co-PI on contract from Department of Education to conduct a national study of magnet schools,
PI on grant from Smith Richardson Foundation (SRF) for 1995 book, Forced Justice, GMU
PI on grant from Department of Education (NCES) to study SES effects on student achievement,
PI on grant from SRF to study school and family factors that raise IQ and achievement scores,
PI on grant from SRF to study the competition effects of charter schools in Mass., GMU
PI on grants from SRF to study the relationship between racial composition and minority
PI on grants from Searle Freedom Trust to study the growth of spending on poverty programs
PI on grant from Searle Freedom Trust to study the effect of student financial aid on attainment
of college degrees

PUBP 704 Statistical Methods for Policy Analysis
PUBP 713 Policy and Program Evaluation
PUBP 800 Culture and Policy
PUBP 804 Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Public Policy
PUBP 833 Civil Rights Policy
PUBP 860 Social Theory and Public Policy
PUBP 861 Culture and Social Policy Analysis

Testimony before various Commissions and Committees of Congress on topics related to school
desegregation and other educational topics, including the House Judiciary Committee, the House
Select Committee on Education, the Senate Committee on Education and Labor, and the U.S.
Commission on Civil Rights.

Consultant and expert witness for school districts and/or Attorney Generals in more than 50
federal and state court cases involving school desegregation and educational adequacy.