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Some key concepts In the English-language academic world, it has by now become something of a received idea to refer to certain key figures in the latter centuries of the history of Sufism as ‘Neo-Sufis’. The most important personalities of this socalled Neo-Sufism are the Algerian A˛mad al-Tijnı (17371815), the founder of the Tijniyya order, and the Moroccan A˛mad b. Idrıs (1749/50-1837). A˛mad al-Tijnı’s most important follower in the nineteenth century was al-˛jj ﬁUmar, who succeeded in setting up a Tijnı state in West Africa. Amongst the most influential disciples of A˛mad b. Idrıs, one may first mention Mu˛ammad b. ﬁAlı al-Sanüsı (1787-1859), next Mu˛ammad ﬁUthmn al-Mırghanı (17931852), and then Ibrhım al-Rashıd (1813-74). The Sufi orders founded by these three figures exercised considerable political and social influence in different parts of the Islamic world throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. And yet, to date very little investigation of their actual teachings has been carried out. When one reads their writings, it is striking that much of what they teach goes back to the Moroccan ﬁAbd al-ﬁAzız b. Masﬁüd al-Dabbgh who lived in Fez 1090-1132/1679–1719-8. The life and teachings of al-Dabbgh have been transmitted in a book by his
I wish to express my warmest thanks to John O’Kane and Knut S. Vikør for translating this article from German and for their help in its writing and revision.
Sudanic Africa, 7, 1996, 113-158
disciple A˛mad b. al-Mubrak al-Lama†ı entitled al-Ibrız min kalm sayyidı al-ghawth ﬁAbd al-ﬁAzız. Al-Lama†ı was a religious scholar who lived in Fez and died 1155/1742. He has a reference in Brockelmann.1 As is clear from the title, the book is not about the teachings and views of al-Lama†ı himself but about those of his mystic teacher, al-Dabbgh.2 Al-Lama†ı began composing this work in 1129/1717 and went on writing it after his master’s death.3 It is scarcely possible to establish the actual number of extant manuscripts of the Ibrız. Several printed editions exist, the earliest was published in Cairo in 1278/1861. But the two-volume edition by Mu˛ammad ﬁAdnn al-Shammﬁ, published in Damascus in 1984-86, represents a significant advance over all its predecessors. It offers a good text accompanied by learned notes. Whereas the Ibrız may be considered a kind of bible of the so-called Neo-Sufis, to date no monograph on al-Dabbgh or his work has appeared. A central theme dealt with in the Ibrız is the †arıqa Mu˛ammadiyya,4 the Mu˛ammadan path, and the position of
1 2 GAL, I I, 462f., S I I, 704; E. Lévi-Proven≈cal, Les Historiens des Chorfas, Rabat 1922, 309f. See also Bernd Radtke, ‘Zwischen Traditionalismus und Intellektualismus. Geistesgeschichtliche und historiografische Bemerkungen zum Ibrız des A˛mad b. al-Mubrak al-Lama†ı’ in Elie Wardini (ed.), Built on Solid Rock, Studies in Honour of Professor Ebbe Egede Knudsen on the occasion of his 65th Birthday April 11 1997, Oslo 1997, 240-2. Radtke, ‘Zwischen Traditionalismus und Intellektualismus’, 264-5. A monograph would here be very welcome, for now see R.S. O’Fahey and Bernd Radtke, ‘Neo-Sufism Reconsidered’, Der Islam, lxx, 1993, 64-71; Fritz Meier, ‘Eine auferstehung Mohammeds bei Suyü†ı’, Der Islam, lxii, 1985, 43; and my ‘Between Projection and Suppression. Some Considerations concerning the Study of Sufism’ in Frederick de Jong (ed.), Shıﬁa Islam, Sects and Sufism, Utrecht 1992, 74; ‘Erleuchtung und Aufklärung. Islamische Mystik und europäischer Rationalismus’, Die Welt des Islams, xxxiv, 1994, 59; ‘Ijtihd and Neo-Sufism’, Asiatische Studien, xlviii, 1994, 914ff.; ‘Sufism in the 18th Century. An Attempt at a Provisional Appraisal’, Die Welt des Islams, xxxvi, 1996 and ‘Möglichkeiten der Kritik am Neo-Sufismus’ (forthc.).
the Prophet Mu˛ammad in the cosmos. Until now the concept of the †arıqa Mu˛ammadiyya in scholarly writings has been anything but clear. Indeed it has been presented in a variety of unsatisfactory ways, often based on gross misunderstandings. Hopefully the present article will contribute to clarifying the meaning of the concept on the basis of examining an seminal work. But before turning to alLama†ı, al-Dabbgh and the Ibrız, I would like to make a few preliminary general remarks about the concept of the †arıqa Mu˛ammadiyya. Islam is a religion of law. This may seem an almost trivial observation but it is worth pausing to consider the implications of this truism. The Islamic profession of faith illustrates this point perfectly: l ilha ill ’llh—there is no god but God—Mu˛ammad rasül Allh—Mu˛ammad is the Messenger of God. Here we have two basic propositions. The first pertains to the concept of God: there is only one God, and this one God according to the understanding of Islamic theology is all-pervading and omnipotent. He determines everything that exists in nature and in man as well. The whole of creation, fashioned in accordance with the all-wise, divine regulations, exists for man; it has been created by God for man’s sake. And the existence of the world makes it possible for man to fulfil his primary duty, namely to be an obedient servant of God. Man’s obedience is to be achieved by following the divine law. And here we come to the second proposition of the Islamic profession of faith. Mu˛ammad is the Messenger of God. God communicates His law to mankind through chosen persons known as prophets or messengers, the last of them being the Arab Mu˛ammad who lived in the seventh century. With the coming of Mu˛ammad the revealed law is complete. Everything that God wished to let mankind know has been transmitted by Mu˛ammad. And this law is made known in two ways: firstly,
through the divine revelation of the Koran which is the eternal, immutable word of God transmitted to mankind by Mu˛ammad. The second way of knowing the law is through what is designated by the Arabic word sunna. Sunna originally means a path, then custom and usage. Sunna therefore means the sunna of Mu˛ammad, the path, the custom, the pious usage of Mu˛ammad. Everything that has been handed down from the Prophet, his deeds, his behaviour, his words, is all just as binding for a Muslim as the precepts and statements in the Koran. Thus, the above mentioned A˛mad b. Idrıs can say: ‘God has ordered us to do nothing but follow revelation. He has declared: “Follow what has been sent down to you from your Lord and do not follow any other friend than Him—but how little you think of this!” [K 7:3]. The revelation that has been sent down to us is the sublime Book, as well as the deeds and the words of the Messenger. Both are revelation’.5 The crucial point to note is that according to A˛mad b. Idrıs, not only the Koran is divine revelation (wa˛y), but also the sunna, the customs and practices of the Prophet. There is of course the problem of the trustworthiness of transmitted tradition. That is to say, God has revealed Himself to mankind through the Koran and the Prophet. Revelation occurred at a given moment; it no longer takes place. Present-day man has knowledge of it through written records, that is through texts. The Koran is a book. What we know of the sunna of the Prophet Mu˛ammad is also transmitted to us in books. I will not enter into the question of the trustworthiness of the Koran’s transmission. The problem is the transmission of the sunna of the Prophet. Here we enter the domain of what is known as ˛adıth-criticism. That it is possible to have doubts concerning the content of each matn text, and about the authenticity of the links of any given isnd (chain of
5 A˛mad b. Idrıs, Rislat al-radd, Ms Bergen 438 (ALA, I, 133, no. 33), 2.
We have already emphasized the point that the sunna of the Prophet has the status of divine revelation. words and comportment of the Prophet. 6 Stockholm 1918 (Ph. Whereas Western research has primarily focused attention on the content of the matn. This historical process has been described in detail by Tor Andrä in his book Die person Muhammeds in lehre und glauben seiner gemeinde which remains the fundamental work on the subject. Indeed.6 He shows how the Prophet goes from being a model of moral behaviour to being a divine-like object of cult veneration. Consequently. both his person and his physical being. Thesis. traditional Islamic criticism has paid greater attention to the personal credibility of individuals making up the chain of transmission. But here we have a situation which introduces a further element of insecurity. authentic reports on the life. Those ˛adıths that traditional Islamic criticism held to be trustworthy. By giving the sunna a written normative form in this way. Upsala 1917). that is in interpreting the Koran and the sunna. Amongst Islamic jurists and theologians a debate developed that dealt with the question of how much weight should be given to human reason in interpreting revelation. and on the other hand from one’s correct understanding of this tradition. as well as amongst Western scholars. a framework was provided for man. was gradually transferred to the divine sphere. were written down in the ninth and tenth centuries in several large collections which came to have canonical status. to follow if he wished to conform fully to the divine law. On the one hand from resorting to written tradition. understanding and interpreting texts is an activity associated with human reason. and reason is a notoriously fallible mental faculty.D. . Here we must add that the Prophet himself. certainty that one is doing what is right comes from two sources. or more precisely for a Muslim.IBRˆZIANA 117 transmitters) is well attested amongst Islamic theologians.
2 vols. al-‡arıqa al-Mu˛ammadiyya wa’l-sıra alA˛madiyya. 544/1149) entitled al-Shif√ bitaﬁrıf ˛uqüq al-muß†af. 33. amongst others. 654. then ummı in this case does not mean illiterate. 417. 630. More detailed and comprehensive than the work of Abü ﬁˆs al-Tirmidhı is the book by al-Q∂ı ﬁIy∂ (d. ed. 369. At this point let us return to the Ibrız and the person of al-Dabbgh. 316.10 However he also says al-Dabbgh was able to read and write. his manner of speech.118 BERND RADTKE The reports concerning the model character of the behaviour and sayings of the Prophet were already collected in the ninth century by. 156. I. I. his laughter and joking. 334. which is in fact an actual demiurge that brought about the creation of the cosmos. this al-Lama†ı emphazises numerous times. I. This doctrine was fully elaborated by the great theosophist and mystic Ibn ﬁArabı (d. II. 378.7 In this book one finds chapters on the Prophet’s way of dressing. al-Ibrız. Al-Dabbgh was of sharıfı origin but was an unschooled ummı.9 is a compendium of ethical rules for life according to the prescriptions of the Prophet as transmitted in the sunna. Ibrız. 27. GAL. 231.11 If al-Lama†ı is not contradicting himself. The exemplary human being Mu˛ammad is steadily transformed until he becomes a cosmic category of divine origin known as the ˛aqıqa Mu˛ammadiyya. 371. 363. S I. His book.8 Following the Prophet in word and deed can be designated as †arıqa Mu˛ammadiyya. . 7 8 9 10 11 GAS. and on his way of performing worship. but means without higher theological training. GAL. Damascus 1404-06/1984-86. S II. 638/1240). 374. I. Al-Lama†ı. K. 372. 69. 373. The concept appears for the first time as the title of a book by the Ottoman theologian Birkawı (Birgilı) in the sixteenth century. II. 317. Mu˛ammad ﬁAdnn al-Shammﬁ. 440. the traditionist Abü ﬁˆs al-Tirmidhı in his book al-Sham√il al-Mu˛ammadiyya.
16 The dht is formed by the blood which flows through 366 veins. 1995. 14 15 16 . he says. 151f. Among the hundreds of references. Of course. O’Fahey and John O’Kane. Oriens. however. Ibrız. The concepts I will describe are: dht and rü˛.S. and Bernd Radtke.IBRˆZIANA 119 That al-Dabbgh had founded an order. the concupiscent soul. xxxv. dht signifies man simply as a physical body. man as a unit compounded of body. The Letters of A˛mad Ibn Idrıs. In the veins man’s lower sensual characteristics live out their life. Let me begin with dht and ru˛. R. fat˛ and Mu˛ammadology and †arıqa Mu˛ammadiyya respectively.13 At this point I would like to consider a few of the basic ideas and concepts found in the Ibrız. the passionate drive. The illuminated mystic is able to perceive the sea of inner drives 12 13 Ibrız. Idrıs also mentions being affiliated to the Kha∂iriyya which. I. Ibrız.g. Meier. 81. 52. is a later fabrication or a misunderstanding of the word †arıqa which in this case ought rather to be translated as ‘a spiritual tradition’. I. in this case usually referred to as dht turbiyya. 74.g. Fritz Meier has already drawn attention to this distinction in his article ‘Eine auferstehung Mohammeds bei Suyü†ı’.14 Very often. Dht is a human being as he can be perceived by the senses.12 and A˛mad b. 46 n. soul and spirit.15 In the Ibrız there are no cases of dht signifying higher spiritual essence. I. see e. London 1993. the Kha∂iriyya †arıqa. ‘Two Sufi Treatises of A˛mad Ibn Idrıs’. ‘Eine auferstehung Mohammeds’. the same being true of the haw. But the nafs does not have as prominent a role in the Ibrız as it does with so many other mystics. their source being the nafs. I can only deal briefly with a limited selection.). it is true that al-Dabbgh claims to have received his main litany from al-Kha∂ir himself. Einar Thomassen and Bernd Radtke (eds. 64f. that is to say the spiritual or divine kernel of one’s being. Obviously. 402. links him to al-Dabbgh spiritually. E.
218. . I. nür—or to be more precise.21 and possesses the higher human capacities of knowledge and reason. Ibrız.25 which al-Lama†ı describes in detail in Chapter Four. ﬁilm and ﬁaql. Ibrız. 112.29 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Ibrız. 54f. 305-20. Ibrız. Ibrız. the rü˛. alDabbgh’s Mu˛ammadology. Ibrız. Ibrız. II. 288. Ibrız. the dht belongs to the dark part of the world. also pp. 318. I. it originates in the world of the angels. sharıfa. kmila.19 In the cosmological scheme the rü˛ belongs to the world of light. Ibrız. that is to say it is an imperishable body made up of light. I. The prophet Mu˛ammad is also made up of dht and rü˛26—to turn now to the second complex of basic ideas. II. II. I. to attend the dıwn al-ßli˛ın in the cave of Mount ˘ir√. and all of Chapter Three. 214. II. Ibrız. Ibrız. 402. 266. 158. 441-89. I. Ibrız. it has the capacity to see God directly (mushhada). I. from the higher part of his being. But in the case of the Prophet. The dht of the Prophet is †hira. 326. 280 and passim.18 In a normal person it is separated by a ˛ijb. 169. a kind of limbo. 17. II. a partition. together with the prophets. I. al-mala√ al-aﬁl.120 BERND RADTKE and passions as a blazing fire. it is endowed with the physical qualities that the inhabitants of Paradise will enjoy.28 though it too originated from dust.22 After death the rü˛ leaves the dht and then lives in the barzakh. they are of a special kind and have a different relationship to one another than in a normal human being. From the barzakh the elite Friends of God come forth.23 which al-Lama†ı describes in a special chapter on the subject24 that I will not go into here. 115. Chapter Ten.27 While still in the world.17 From a cosmological point of view. the ÷alm. II. 69. like the angels. Ibrız. 266ff.20 That is why. II.
they are joined together. the Prophet’s dht is endowed with a special power. lxxii. 154. whose interactions and effects can be perceived by mystics who have attained illumination.34 For this reason the created universe is permeated by a network of luminous threads. as one finds in al-Suyü†ı’s Tanwır al-˛alak fı imkn ru√yat al-nabı wa’l- 30 31 32 33 34 35 Ibrız. A˛mad b. 150. 189. 151. Idrıs. and ‘Ismﬁıl al-Walı.IBRˆZIANA 121 The Prophet has no partition between his dht and rü˛. He is the very starting-point for the whole of earthly creation. xxxiii. II. Der Islam. 152. 1995. On the one hand. as is usual. while on the other hand his dht transmits them to God’s creatures. I cannot here go into the historical background to this idea. also quoted in al-˛jj ﬁUmar b. 121. Cairo 1393/1973. 400. downward to the earth and darkness.30 The rü˛ lives within the Prophet’s dht the way love lives within a human being’s soul. Oriens. 152. Ibrız. 1992. that is. even after his death it is possible to perceive the Prophet as he is in flesh and blood. . 130. the divine lights pour down on the Prophet’s dht uninterruptedly. Ibrız. Rim˛ ˛izb al-ra˛ım ﬁal nu˛ür ˛izb al-rajım. I. it draws upward to God and not. His light was the first thing to be created. for example in the form of the Koran. I. Ibrız. Ismﬁıl al-Walı’. 361. I. Mu˛ammad ﬁU±mn al-Mır„ganı. Jahrhunderts’. he is the intermediary between creation and God.32 Due to the special power of light that is active in the Prophet’s dht. I. I. However. 121f. Saﬁıd al-Fütı. al-Lama†ı or al-Dabbgh do not say anything about a resurrection of the Prophet. Ein sudanesischer Theosoph des 19. It was from the Prophet’s light that the whole of creation developed. see also Radtke.33 But the Prophet is not only an intermediary. II.35 Likewise. it permeates the dht completely. in other words to perceive his dht. Ibrız. ‘Lehrer-Schµler-Enkel.3 1 Consequently. in Jawhir al-maﬁnı. Ibrız.
II. Perceiving the Prophet after his death is possible as an image in a dream—manman—or in a waking state—yaq÷atan. in two ways. . whether in a dream or in a waking state. ‘Eine auferstehung Mohammeds’. ‘Eine auferstehung Mohammeds’. 223. If the person is not illuminated. But only the illuminated mystic is capable of seeing the Prophet’s dht. II. which Fritz Meier has already drawn attention to in his above mentioned article37 and which is also taken up in al-˛jj ﬁUmar’s later work the Rim˛: 38 Whoever sees the Lord of being in a dream can do so in two ways.122 BERND RADTKE malak. not his dht itself (ﬁayn dhtihi). This is because the dht of the Prophet possesses light which emanates from it and fills the entire world. 820. 43/Bausteine. and in the latter case. Should this vision occur to someone who is illuminated … then what he sees is the pure and noble dht of the Prophet. an apparitional form. Usually what is seen is the image of his dht (ßürat dhtihi). Ausgewählte Aufsätze zur Islamwissenschaft. Meier. 36 which Fritz Meier has analyzed in the article referred to above. In the first way the dream is in no need of interpretation because the person sees the Prophet in the same state he appeared in the world and as the Prophet’s Companions beheld him. or one can see the dht of the Prophet himself. that is while awake. Here is the key passage in the Ibrız dealing with this subject. Thus. and what is 36 37 38 On this see Meier. There is no place where the noble light of the Prophet does not exist. the light of the Prophet is similar to a mirror which fills the entire world. I. Rim˛. Seeing the Prophet in a waking state—ru√yat/mushhadat al-nabı yaq÷a tan—which is a major characteristic of later Sufism in general—is possible because the Prophet’s dht is endowed with a light that fills the entire world. since the dht of the Prophet can take on various forms and then be seen in numerous places. One can see an image of the Prophet. Istanbul-Stuttgart 1992. 823. he can experience this as well but that is a rare situation. a ßüra. The dht of the Prophet appears in this light the way the form of the face appears in a mirror. 46/Bausteine.
50.41 As mentioned. 163. Incidentally. one sees him in the south and another in the north. The Ibrız says little about the preconditions for fat˛: travelling the path. al-Lama†ı devotes two extensive chapters to the relationship between the shaykh and the novice. I. 152 n. disciplining the carnal soul. 39 The final sentences of the above quotation lead us to our next pair of basic concepts in the Ibrız: fat˛ and † a r ı q a Mu˛ammadiyya. I. and pays particular attention to the phenomenon of rbi†a. illumination. It should be noted that the concept †arıqa Mu˛ammadiyya is not mentioned explicitly in the Ibrız. IstanbulStuttgart 1994 (Beiruter Texte und Studien 58) . 287f. Zwei Abhandlungen µber die Naq¸sbandiyya. That is why one person can see the Prophet in the east and another person see him in the west. The goal of the mystic path is fat˛. And innumerable people see him in other places—all at the same time. II. he then follows it with his spiritual deeper sight (baßıra) and penetrates through the light of the image to the dht of the Prophet himself. 39. But I cannot go into this subject here. Each person really sees the Prophet before him because the light of the Prophet. Die Welt des Islams. in which his dht is represented. on this see also Radtke. It can only be achieved under the direction of a shaykh. 1995. In terms of content.40 since the path leads from the shaykh to the Prophet and from the Prophet to God. 280. xxxv. on the whole see also Radtke. Ibrız. 39 40 41 42 Ibrız. If an illuminated person (al-maftü˛ ﬁalayhi) beholds the image (ßüra) of the Prophet before him. quoted in Rim˛. however. Fritz Meier.IBRˆZIANA 123 represented in it is the dht. asceticism. one is justified in applying the term to al-Dabbgh’s ideas. 152. Ibrız. ‘Ismﬁıl al-Walı’.42 Much could be said about the role the Prophet plays in the novice-shaykh relationship through the whole process of tarbiya—this being a special aspect of the †arıqa Mu˛ammadiyya. I. is with each person. we now have Fritz Meier’s book on the subject of r b i † a as conceived amongst the Naqshbandiyya. 81.. ‘Von Iran nach Westafrika’.
as well as Paradise. 400. Ibrız. II. that is the different worlds of the earths and the stars. As for illumination itself.51 the great illumination. II. which usually only takes place after the death of one’s shaykh. 50 It is only to the believing Muslim that the spiritual cosmos reveals itself.4 8 this is a fat˛ ÷ulmnı. 49 an illumination which the unbelievers can also attain. II. Ibrız. 109. 54f. 55. II. al-fat˛ al-kabır. Chapter Nine (Ibrız.. 304. I. I. I. Ibrız. Ibrız.45 If he succeeds in this. These matters are taken for granted. Ibrız. Ibrız. 399. 298. . II. Ibrız. an enlightenment which does not bring with it any certainty of knowledge.43 two kinds are distinguished: the normal fat˛44 and the ultimate. the spirits of the Friends of God. 301. Ibrız. fat˛ nürnı and fat˛ ÷ulmnı. 398ff. 399. all-inclusive. 294. 269-304) discusses the two forms of illumination. I. I. where al-Dabbgh writes about his own early limited (∂ayyiq) fat˛. The first step is that the novice descends into his inner self. on this see also Radtke. he can attain the first stage of illumination. 275ff.47 Since the cosmos. 151 and Lehrer-Schµler-Enkel’. For example. II. 114.52 Certainty and real illumination only occur if the mystic 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Ibrız. 83. into the region of darkness of his veins which are the locus of his lower character traits. 399. But even at this stage there is the danger of falling into error.124 BERND RADTKE etc. the prophets. This is the al-fat˛ al-kabır. 275. I. He beholds the angels. The secrets of the material cosmos reveal themselves to him (futi˛a). belong to the realm of darkness (÷alm). Hell and the barzakh. ‘Ismﬁıl al-Walı’. in order to purify these traits. spiritually consorting with Jesus which is made possible by fat˛ can seduce the illuminated individual to renounce Islam and become a Christian.46 His sense organs become capable of perceiving the whole of the physical cosmos.
attaining fat˛ signifies that the partition between dht and rü˛ has been removed. Knut S. Ibrız. 80-1. II. a person must be in a special mental state.53 After this experience he is omniscient54 and permanently protected against error (maﬁßüm). … mabn hdhihı ’l-†arıqa ﬁal istighrq b†in ß˛ibih fı shuhüd dhtihı ßlﬁm. 920.58 These remarks are similar to the classical definition of †arıqa Mu˛ammadiyya which Mu˛ammad b. Vikør. This . 97 and Radtke. AlDabbgh describes that state in the following terms: His mind is constantly occupied with this noble Prophet such that the Prophet never leaves his thoughts. 110: al-Dabbgh is omniscient. in particular to that of the theologians and the fuqah√. but his thoughts are with the Prophet. 277. The phrase is given in this form by A˛mad al-Sharıf al-Sanüsı in al-Fuyü∂t al-rabbniyya. Ibrız. ﬁAlı al-Sanüsı quotes from the author ˘asan b. but his thoughts are with the Prophet.IBRˆZIANA 125 passes through all the material and spiritual worlds and is honoured with the ru√yat al-nabı yaq÷atan/mushhadat aldht al-sharıfa. 227. 218. Even when he is asleep his thoughts are with the Prophet. 55 His knowledge is far superior to that of all others. 220.56 From the anthropological point of view. Ibrız. People see him eating. Now he is actually the infallible source of interpreting the law. Sources for Sanüsı Studies. I.57 In order to experience a vision of the Prophet while awake. Bergen 1996. Other matters he is busy with do not cause him to stop thinking of the Prophet. the illuminated individual has reached a state like that of the Prophet. people see him drinking. I. 285. II. ‘Ijtihd and Neo-Sufism’. Ibrız. also quoted in Rim˛ I. 301. II. Ibrız. The text runs: The basis of this path [the †arıqa Mu˛ammadiyya] is that the inner being of the one who follows it59 is absorbed in the vision of 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 Ibrız. ﬁAlı al-ﬁUjaymı who died 1702. I. 400. II.
busying his tongue invoking blessings upon him. cit.61 From this it is perfectly clear that the †arıqa Mu˛ammadiyya is not a Sufi order but a path. I have already noted the widespread reception of al-Dabbgh/al-Lama†ı by later authors. 60 while he is zealously imitating the Prophet outwardly in word and deed. ‘Between Projection and Suppression’.64 for it leads the mystic to the final goal.62 It is the mystical intensification of the traditional conformity to the sunna of the Prophet which involves replacing the authority of the written word by a living experience—by beholding the Prophet and communicating with him directly. Ibrız. Beholding the Prophet is the greatest pleasure (ladhdha) that a human being can experience. his heart is overwhelmed beholding him and the visible appearances of the Prophet emerge before his inner sight. II. 287. As for the sources al-Dabbgh relied on and possible direct borrowings. I must confess that these still remain unclear to me. Beirut 1968. loc. 286. 9. 49 bottom & ff. 74 n. and devoting himself to him at all times whether in seclusion or in public. Ibrız. ‘Between Projection and Suppression’.63 It is even greater than the joys of Paradise. See note 32 above and Radtke. 291. See note 59 above. II. . however necessary. see Radtke. Certain features of the Ibrız recall Ibn ﬁArabı’s 60 61 62 63 64 65 is by far the best way to read this text which has caused so much confusion. the vision of God—mushhada. 286. II. Ibrız. ﬁAlı al-Sanüsı. until honouring the Prophet comes to dominate his heart and to permeate his inner being to such an extent that he need only hear the Prophet’s name and he starts trembling. proven to be far too complicated. al-Manhal al-rawı in al-Majmüﬁa almukhtra. Mu˛ammad b.65 I must limit myself to this brief sketch of some of the basic concepts found in the Ibrız.126 BERND RADTKE Mu˛ammad’s dht. a form of spiritual concentration. My attempts at correction have.
. See note 13 above. Among the many references.68 which does not appear as such in the Ibrız. I. Beirut 1393/1973. after a muqaddima (Ibrız. 1995. 62. II. We still know relatively little about the intellectual history of Sufism in the centuries after Ibn ﬁArabı—at least as far as mysticism in the Arabic language is concerned. 54. I.IBRˆZIANA 127 thought but the whole of Ibn ﬁArabı’s metaphysics. Radtke.69 However. In this connection. the problem associated with wa˛dat al-wujüd and the concept of ˛aqıqa Mu˛ammadiyya are totally absent. 73-113. which is only to be expected as the latter traces one of his affiliations back to al-Dabbgh. For a similar notion the Ibrız employs the verb saq or suqiya. On this see Radtke. Idrıs. Jawhir al-maﬁnı. The so-called bible of the Tijniyya. II. 85f.70 Consequently the Ibrız may justifiably be considered a key work for the later development of Sufism and clearly deserves to be studied more closely. 66 67 68 69 70 ﬁAlı ˘arzim Barrda. the Rim˛ of al-˛jj ﬁUmar. Sudanic Africa.67 A fundamental idea in the Tijniyya is fay∂. one may note only Ibrız. ﬁAlı Barrda’s Jawhir al-maﬁnı. ‘Studies on the Sources of the Kitb Rim˛ ˛izb al-ra˛ım of al-˛jj ﬁUmar’. In conclusion I will simply make some further observations about the historical influence of the Ibrız. 174 (twice). 39-120) with the vita of al-Dabbgh. 214. 6. In this area almost everything still remains to be done. Analysis of sources The book has twelve chapters of very different length. only contains five quotations from the Ibrız66—which is quite the contrary to the second bible of the Tijniyya. the world of ideas and the vocabulary of the Ibrız exercised an important influence in the writings of A˛mad b. 55. I may add that John O’Kane and I intend to undertake an English translation and commentary of the Ibrız. ‘Was steht in den ∏awhir al-maﬁnı? Versuch einer Ehrenrettung’ (forthc).
A list of the stories are in Ibrız. (II. also Radtke. 9. ‘Lehrer-Schµler-Enkel’. 8. 5-45): On the dıwn al-ßli˛ın. Michel Chodkiewicz. (I. 347-58): On Hell The most voluminous are the two chapters with al-Dabbgh’s interpretations of the Koran and ˛adıth in the first volume. 7. (I. . Ibn Mashısh. and after those the seventh and ninth chapters. and (3) comments by al-Lamatı which. 125-318): Interpretations of ˛adıths. 4. Paris 1986. 255-67): On the creation of Adam. 3. 325-434): Interpretations of Koranic verses.g. (II. 2. Fat˛ nürnı and fat˛ ÷ulmnı. are supported by quotations from theological-scholastic tradition. One can distinguish three types of texts: (1) Hagiographical anecdotes. 418-20. 305-20): On the barzakh. (II. Following is a list of the sources used 71 72 73 74 E. 116f. 269-304): On the two kinds of Illumination. This part comes almost completely from al-Lama†ı.74 (2) didactic-theoretical views of alDabbgh. 47-113): On being a shaykh (tashyukh).72 (II. and in particular the latter’s sentence laysa fı ’l-imkn abdaﬁu mimm kn. (I. 321-45): On Paradise (II.128 BERND RADTKE The chapters discuss: 1. 115-82): On being a novice. 183-254): The interpretation of some difficult sentences in earlier authorities’ works. 113. who takes up an old scholastic discussion. al-Ghazlı. 5. (II. Then follow in size the chapter on the dıwn al-ßli˛ın. 11. II.71 (II. (II. al-Shdhilı. see sources CXIX-CXXIX. the gathering of the spiritual regiment of the world in cave of Mount ˘ir√ near Mecca—a conception widespread in postIbn ﬁArabı mysticism73—then the chapter about shaykh and novice. 12. Ibn al-Farıd. 441-89): On darkness (÷alm). Le Sceau des saints. (II. unlike alDabbgh’s texts. 10. 6.
S: ˘adıth. 231. GAL. S II. 75. Q: I. 91. II. S II. 111. S: Fiqh. 112. 597/1200 GAL. 316.IBRˆZIANA 129 by al-Lama†ı. 340. 113 (twice). 286. 108. III Fat˛ al-brı fı shar˛ ∑a˛ı˛ al-Bukhrı by Ibn ˘ajar alﬁAsqalnı. 244. Q: I. II. GAL. 129. S: ˘adıth. I. 339. Q: I. 351. 59. 72. They are ordered by first appearance. Q: I. 246. no. 75 The following abbreviations are used: S: = Subject. vols I and II. 112. 180. II. 113 (twice). 291. with page reference to Ibrız. S: Fiqh. 71. 773-852/1372-1449. 345. IV al-Durar al-muntathira fı ’l-a˛dıth al-mushtahira by alSuyü†ı. 250. 89. 745-94/1344-92 GAL. 112. 156. 26. 242. 245.75 I Shar˛ Jamﬁ al-jawmiﬁ li’l-Subkı by Badr al-Dın al-Zarkashı. 347. 224. for Jamﬁ al-jawmiﬁ cf. no. Q: = Quotations. d. V al-Maw∂üﬁt by Ibn al-Jawzı. . S: ˘adıth. II al-Risla al-ni÷miyya by al-Juwaynı. no. 69. 393. Q: I. 113. 223. 376. S I. 911/1505 GAL. d. II. d. S II. 72. 333. 673. 503. 112. 478/1085 GAL.
Fiqh. 112. S: ˘adıth. S II. I. S: ˘adıth. d. 911/1505 GAL. 113. 49. 113. Q: I. 113. 774/1373 GAL. S II. d. Q: I.130 BERND RADTKE VI Title not given. Q: I. 405/1014 GAL. on him see GAL. 113. 26. VIII al-˘wı fi ’l-fatwı by al-Suyü†ı. 350. 318. 224. 188. S II. no. Q: I. . S: Theology. VII al-La√lı al-maßnüﬁa fı ’l-a˛dıth al-maw∂üﬁa by al-Suyü†ı. S: Koran commentary. X al-Tafsır by Ibn Kathır. d. 349. 352. 227. probably al-Mustadrak. XII al-Intißr by al-Bqillnı. 129. no. theology. d. Q: I. 751833/1350-1429 GAL. 176. 252. XI al-Nashr fi ’l-qir√t al-ﬁashr by Ibn al-Jazarı. 174. 263. S: ˘adıth. 112. 911/1505 GAL. IX Title not given. 100ff. 112. S I. 5 (?= al-Istibßr). I. 166. by al-˘kim alNaysbürı. 181. 728/1328. 201. d. 403/1013 GAL. S: Koran commentary. Q: I. d. 169c. II. by Ibn Taymiyya. 231.
150. d. 129. 193. XVII ˘shiya ﬁal ’l-Muwa††a√ by al-Suyü†ı GAL. 226. genealogy. 467. 138. XIII Title not given. I. 628. S II. praise of the Prophet. S: Koran commentary. 608—694-96/1211-2—1294-97 GAL. no. 181. S I. 180. by Abü ﬁUbayd.. 129. 70. 1. S: ˘adıth. 367. S: History. 22a. 550f. title not listed.IBRˆZIANA 131 S: Koran commentary. S I. II. XV al-Burda by al-Büßırı. Q: I. 224/839 GAS. S: Poetry. no. Q: I. . by Abü Shma. S: ˘adıth. 191. 129. 368-463/978-1071 GAL. S II. Q: I. 156. 129. XIVa al-Itqn by al-Suyü†ı GAL. XVI al-Tamhıd by Ibn ﬁAbd al-Barr. IX. Q: I. Q: I. 231. 58. S: Koran commentary. a monograph on the ˛adıth: ‘inna hdh ’lqur√n unzila ﬁal sabﬁat a˛ruf wa-kull li-sha√n’. 120. 599-665/1203-68 GAL. Q: I. S I. 232. Q: I. XIV Title not given. fiqh. 156. 179.
192. 719. S I. 193. XXI al-ﬁAqıla by Abü ’l-Qsim al-Sh†ibı. XIX Title not given. 200/822 GAS. 176. 135. by Ibn Fürak. ˛adıth. S: Fiqh. S: Koran recitation. 726. 406/1015 GAL. 193. Q: I. 309. S I. S: Koran recitation. Q: I. I. 538-90/1143-94 GAL. 277. S I. 131. Q: I. 646/1249 GAL. S: Koran recitation. S: ˘adıth. by al-Farr√. 193. I. d. by Abü ’l-˘asan al-Qbisı. 303. XXII Shar˛ al-ﬁAqıla by al-Jaﬁbarı. 410. 191. XX al-Muqniﬁ by Abü ﬁAmr al-Dnı. XXIV Title not given. 407. 640-732/1242-1333 GAL. Q: I. 531 S: Grammar. 444/1053 GAL. S I. S I. 324-57/936-1012 GAL. 192. Q: I. no. S I. 14. XXIII Title not given. by Ibn al-˘jib. IX. d. Q: I. 166. . I. d. S: Grammar. Q: I. 180. 192.132 BERND RADTKE XVIII Title not given. d.
Q: I. S: Koran commentary. S I. 244. Q: I. d. 592. 225. 217. 226. ˘anbal. 221. XXIX Title not given. XXVI al-Muqaddima by Ibn Khaldün. d. d. by al-‡abarnı. I. d. by Ibn ˘ibbn. S: World history. I. . 354/965 GAS. GAL. 808/1406 GAL. S: ˘adıth. 342. 227. d. 273. XXVIII al-Musnad by A˛mad b.IBRˆZIANA 133 XXV al-Tafsır by Abü Is˛q al-Thaﬁlabı. 231. 310/923 GAS. GAL. S: Koran commentary. XXVII al-Tafsır by al-‡abarı. 231. 360/971 GAS. S I. I. S: ˘adıth. I. most probably al-Jmiﬁ. 242. d. 327. Q: I. 241/855 GAS. XXXI Title not given. 279. I. S: ˘adıth. GAL. d. II. S I. 227. S II. 221. S I. Q: I. 326. 189. 195. 427/1035 GAL. 182. S: ˘adıth. by Abü ﬁˆs alTirmidhı. Q: I. I. XXX Title not given. GAL. 267f. 279/892 GAS. Q: I. 142. I. Q: I. GAL. S II. 226 (twice). 504. 156.
e. 395. 631/1233 GAL. Q: I. probably meant Jamﬁ al-nihya. S: Koran commentary. 415. GAL. Thbit GAL.134 BERND RADTKE XXXII Mushkil al-Qur√n by Ibn Qutayba. c. by Abü ’l-Fa∂l al-Rzı. commentary on the ∑a˛ı˛ al-Bukhrı.. 372. I. S: ˘adıth. Q: I. S: Koran commentary. S: Koran recitation. 242. I. 945 (?). I. 231. S: Koran recitation. 231. XXXIII al-Dal√il by Qsim b. S: ˘adıth. S N II. d. 137. 735. the Koran commentary. XXXVI al-Shar˛. Q: I. by Ibn Abı Jamra. 737. S I. Q: I. 244. 699/1300 GAS. GAL. XXXIV Title not given. i. d. 414. 676/1278 GAS. 276/884 GAL. i. 126. 232. 232. Q: I. 231. Q: I. . d. I. d. probably meant Shar˛ ∑a˛ı˛ Muslim. 306. 232. by alNawawı. Abü ’l-Fa∂√il al-Rzı. S I. by al-Qur†ubı. XXXV al-Shar˛. XXXVII al-Shar˛..e. 243. 671/1273 GAL. I. I. I. d. 120.
Q: I. S: ˘adıth. S I. 240. editor’s footnote 23. 555/1111 GAL. 235.IBRˆZIANA 135 XXXVIII al-∑a˛ı˛ by Muslim. I. 244. . 197. 543/1148. 663. fiqh. see Ibrız. GAL. S: ˘adıth. by al-Mzarı. d. 240. d. XLII Title not given. XL Title not given. theology. 420ff. Khalaf al-Qur†ubı. Q: I. Q: I. I. 449/1057. d. 232. 242. XLI Title not given. XXXIX Title not given. S: ˘adıth. S I. 403/1012 GAS. 607. 160. S: Fiqh. 284. 536/1141 GAL. d. he wrote a Shar˛ ∑a˛ı˛ al-Bukhrı GAL. by Abü Bakr b. Q: I. II. S: Theology. d. al-ﬁArabı. 243. XLIV Title not given. I. 136. GAL. I. 86. by ﬁAl√ al-Dın al-Qünawı. by al-Ghazlı. 727/1327 GAL. S I. by al-˘alımı. 239. I. 261. 663. S: Theology. d. 261/875 GAS. 306. by Ibn Ba††l. 262. S: Fiqh. Q: I. = ﬁAlı b. ˛adıth. Q: I. 235. d. XLIII Title not given. GAL.
LI Title not given. 240. XLVII Title not given. S: Fiqh. I. GAL. 244. Q: I. S: Theology (?). by al-ﬁUqaylı. 262. probably al-Muwa††a√. I. I. I. S: ˘adıth. S: ˘adıth. Q: I. 161. S: ˘adıth. 543/1148 GAL: title not listed. 149. GAL.136 Q: I. 177. I. by Mlik b. 458. S: ˘adıth. L al-Qabas by Ibn al-ﬁArabı. 302/915 GAS. by Abü Saﬁıd al-Safqusı S: Theology. 275/889 GAS. Q: I. Q: I. d. ˛adıth. 162f. 240. 249. Q: I. BERND RADTKE XLV Title not given. 322/934 GAS. 250. 284. GAL. d. 445(?). 256/870 GAS. XLVI al-Jmiﬁ al-∑a˛ı˛ by al-Bukhrı. probably al-Sunan. 159. I. . by al-Nas√ı. d. I. 176. d. Q: I. 250. d. I. 167. 179/795 GAS. 252. Anas. 251. I. 252. XLVIII Title not given. GAL. d. 116. XLIX al-Sunan by Abü Dwüd.
337. 263. 748/1348 GAL. I. S I. LIII Nawdir al-ußül by al-˘akım al-Tirmidhı. 291. I. 286. d. II. Q: I. d. 286. Q: I. c. Mu˛yı al-Dın. Q: I. theology. 417. S II. Q: I. 263. 289. 345. II. LIV al-A˛km al-kubr by Abü Mu˛ammad ﬁAbd al-˘aqq alIshbılı. 655. 46ff. Q: I. 973/1565 GAL. 371. I. 634. 291. 335ff. d. LII al-Talkhıß by al-Dhahabı. LV Shar˛ al-Jmiﬁ al-ßaghır by ﬁAbd al-Ra√üf al-Munwı. d. Q: I. title not listed. 638/1240 GAL. 263. 581/1185 GAL. LVII Kashf al-rn by ﬁAbd al-Wahhb al-Shaﬁrnı. S: Mysticism. 1031/1621 GAL. LVI Risla il Fakhr al-Dın al-Rzı by Ibn ﬁArabı. 306. S: ˘adıth. II. 441ff. 295-300/ 905-10 GAS.. S: Mysticism. S: ˘adıth. .IBRˆZIANA 137 Q: I. S: ˘adıth. d. d. S: Fiqh.
perhaps = LVIII S: Theology. 306. 143. LXIII Title not given. II. no. I. 747. Q: I. d. S: Theology. LXI Title not given. 309 (?). by al-Ghazlı. 393. LX al-Shif√ by al-Q∂ı ﬁIy∂. S I. 309. 544/1149 GAL. Q: I. Q: I. fiqh. 551-631/1156-1233 GAL. 806/1404 GAL. 369. d. Q: I. II. LXIV Title not given. S II. 555/1111 GAL. S I. 555/1111. 309. by ∑afı ’l-Dın al-Hindı. Q: I. LIX al-Durr al-manthür by al-Suyü†ı. 644-715/1269-1315 GAL. . Q: I. 293. 421. S: ˘adıth. 630. d. S II. 309. 911/1505 GAL. S: ˘adıth. 69. LXII Title not given. 65f. S: Koran commentary. 115. 179. I. S: ˘adıth. 325. S: Theology. d. no. 386. probably Alfiyyat al-siyar by al-ﬁIrqı = Abü ’l-Fa∂l Zayn al-Dın al-ﬁIrqı. 382. S I. 13. d.138 BERND RADTKE LVIII al-Tafriqa by al-Ghazlı. 2. S II. 299. by Sayf al-Dın al-◊midı.. 678. fiqh. I. theology. 306. Q: I.
probably Dal√il al-nubuwwa by Abü Nuﬁaym al-Ißbahnı. LXVII Zaw√id al-Musnad by Ibn A˛mad b. d. 618. 75.IBRˆZIANA 139 LXV Title not given. I. 384-458/994-1066 GAL. LXVIII Title not given. no. 1. Q: I. 616. d. ˛adıth. GAS. by al-Bayhaqı. S I. S: Biography. . 213-90/828903 GAL. 618. S I. 189. Q: I. I. 430/1038 GAL. I. 384-458/994-1066 GAL. S: ˘adıth. 511. I. 363. Q: I. by Ibn al-Sakan. theology. S I. 315. LXVI Title not given. S: ˘adıth. LXIX Dal√il al-nubuwwa by al-Bayhaqı. LXX al-Ißba fı tamyız al-ßa˛ba by Ibn ˘ajar al-ﬁAsqalnı. 317. S: ˘adıth. ˘anbal. 363. Q: I. cf. 311. 315. 362. I. 315. S II. Q: I. S: ˘adıth. Q: I. 773852/1372-1449 GAL. 353/964 GAS. S: ˘adıth. 311. S I. 310.
LXXV Title not given. 369. 1036/1626 GAL. kalm. 31. Q: I. d. 325. S: ˘adıth. by al-Shihb. 181. 539/1144 GAL. theology. by al-Jawlıqı. see also LXI. 805. d. LXXII Shar˛ al-Shif (probably = LX). d. 208. S: ˘adıth. d. S: Theology. 387. 1k. S II. 844/1440 GAL. LXXVI ˘shiya ﬁal ˘izb al-barr by Abü Zayd al-Fsı. S II. no. Q: I. I. 318. probably Shihb al-Dın al-Ramlı. 30. 417. S I. LXXIII Shar˛ al-Mawqif by al-Jurjnı. no. S: Lexicography. most probably al-Muﬁarrab. 830902/1427-97 GAL. LXXIV Shar˛ al-ßudür bi-a˛wl al-mawt wa’l-qubür by al-Suyü†ı. II. I. 1 (for this book). 357. Q: I.140 BERND RADTKE LXXI Shar˛ al-Alfiyya fı ’ß†il˛ al-˛adıth by al-Sakhwı. 352. 6a. no. 911/1505 GAL. Q: I. S II. fiqh. 351. d. 26. no. 280. S: ˘adıth. 382. . Q: I. II. S: Mysticism. IV. no. 216. 305 (for the author). 816/1413 GAL. 347.
LXXIX ˘shiya al ’l-Bay∂wı by al-Suyü†ı. LXXXI Kashf al-ßalßala ﬁan waßf al-zalzala by al-Suyü†ı. 926/1520 GAL. I. 183. S: ˘adıth. Q: I. 386. probably on al-Bay∂wı. 183. 416ff. d. II. 387. 6. 42. 911/1505 Not listed in GAL. Mu˛yı al-Dın. no. 911/1505 GAL. 422. 185. 638/1240 GAL. LXXVIII al-Hiba al-saniyya by al-Suyü†ı. LXXX ˘shiya.IBRˆZIANA 141 LXXVII al-˘ab√ık by al-Suyü†ı. Q: I. d. 387. S: ˘adıth. 99. d. no. 51. S II. S: Mysticism. no. 382. 10. S: Koran commentary. no. by Zakariyy al-Anßrı. S II. Q: I. 388. Q: I. theology. LXXXII al-Futü˛t al-Makkiyya by Ibn ﬁArabı. 911/1505 GAL. d. d. d. on Bay∂wı see GAL. 398. 66. 442. Q: I. . S: ˘adıth. S: Koran commentary. Q: I. 421. I. S II. no. 911/1505 GAL. 386.
LXXXVIIa Title not given. 805. LXXXVII al-Fußül by Abü ’l-Walıd al-Bjı. S: Mysticism. by al-Abyrı (= LXXXVIII?). Q: I. 51. 407. 409. LXXXVIIa) S: Fiqh. . I. 478/1085 GAL. Q: I. Q: I. 409. 403-74/1012-81 GAL. I. by al-Bay∂wı. 555/1111 GAL. no. GAL. Ismﬁıl (= al-Abyrı. 416ff. 5. 421. 409. 449. 404. 424. 743f. II. d. no. cf. no. LXXXIV ˘izb al-barr by Abü ’l-˘asan al-Shdhilı. S: Koran commentary. most probably his commentary on the Koran. S I. Q: I. XV. S: Fiqh. S: Fiqh. 419. I. Q: I. 656/1258 GAL. Q: I. I. d.142 BERND RADTKE LXXXIII Title not given. LXXXV al-Burhn by al-Juwaynı. S: Fiqh. 409. LXXXVI al-Mustaßf by al-Ghazlı. S I. d. 409. S: Fiqh. 201. LXXXVIII Shar˛ al-Burhn by ﬁAlı b. S I. S I. 673. 754. Q: I.
II. XCII al-Budür al-sfira by al-Suyü†ı. 409. 20. S II. Q: I. d. d. 443. S: ˘adıth. 727-71/1327-70 GAL. 466. theology. Q: I. A˛mad Bb de Tombouctou . It may be his Shar˛ al-ßadr wa-tanwır al-qalb bi-bayn maghfira m nusiba li’l-jnib al-nabawı min al-dhanb. d. 89. d. S: Fiqh. XCIV Title not given. II. theology. 331. 911/1505 GAL. by Abü Ya˛y al-Tilimsnı S: Fiqh. 95. 351. deals with the same question as XCIII. 430. S: Fiqh. 31. Q: I. see Mahmoud Zouber. 715f. by al-Suyü†ı. 1036/1627 GAL. XCV Title not given.IBRˆZIANA 143 LXXXIX Shar˛ al-Mustaßf by Ibn al-˘jj al-ﬁAbdarı. 343. 102. title not listed.. title not listed. S II. Q: I. 427. no. 430. 417. theology. 737/1336 GAL. S II. S II. S: ˘adıth. 83. no. 911/1505 GAL. 911/1505 S: Fiqh. d. II. XCI Dafﬁ al-taﬁassuf by al-Suyü†ı. theology. 182. 180. XC Jamﬁ al-jawmiﬁ by al-Subkı. S II. XCIII A Juz√ on the maghfira of the Prophet. gives a summary of XCIII and XCIV. by Abü ’l-ﬁAbbs A˛mad Bb al-Südnı. II. Q: I. Q: I. 409.
S: Fiqh. XCVII Sirj al-murıdın by Abü Bakr b. 430. Paris. Q: I. XCVIII al-Qawﬁid wa’l-furüq by al-Qarfı. XCIX Dal√il al-khayrt by al-Jazülı. 423. S: Mysticism. S: Fiqh. 448. 543/1148 GAL. 337. 252. theology. Q: I. 684/1285 GAL. 445. no. S II. see also source XLIV. S I. I. no. S: Mysticism. 445. S I. CI al-Anwr al-qudsiyya fı bayn db al-ﬁubüdiyya by alShaﬁrnı. 555/1111 GAL. Q: II. S II. 846-99/1442-93 GAL. 67. 445. S: Mysticism. 253. Q: II. d. Q: I. XCVI Minhj al-ﬁbidın by al-Ghazlı. S: Fiqh. Q: I. 751. II. 465. II. d. 973/1565 GAL. 360. II. 359. II. 663. d. S: Mysticism. 385. 186.144 BERND RADTKE (1556-1627): sa vie et son œuvre. title not listed. C Title not given. 870/1465 GAL. 1977. S II. al-ﬁArabı. 665. 120-1. 38. S I. d. 13. d. Q: I. by Zarrüq. . I. 51.
384. a didactic poem on being a novice written in the †awıl metre. d. Q: II. The author. c. ˘adıth. 802. S: Fiqh. Q: II. 920/1514. I. 383. 610/1213 GAL. 101. I. however. CVII al-R√iyya by al-Sharıshı. I. a student of Tj al-Dın al-Dhkir al-Mißrı. 662. CV al-Bayn by Ibn Rushd. 581/1185 in . who. I. Q: II. CVI al-Jawhir by Ibn Shsh. editor’s footnote 38 S: Mysticism (?). GAL. 469. Q: II. 664. d. on the latter. S I. S: Fiqh. Q: II. 299. A˛mad b. S I. 450-520/1058-1126 GAL. 581-641/1185-1243 GAL. 160-240/776-854 GAS. Q: II. see Ibrız. 101. 84.IBRˆZIANA 145 CII A Kitb by Mu˛yı ’l-Dın. 101. S: Mysticism. S: Fiqh. CIV al-Tabßira by al-Lakhmı. Mu˛ammad al-Sharıshı (b. 661. S I. 498/1104 or 478/1085 GAL. 101. 119. S I. is not mentioned. 384. CIII al-Mudawwana by Sa˛nün. S I. Comment The sixth chapter of the book contains a comment on the R√iyya of al-Sharıshı. d. S: Fiqh.
146. 130. d. d. 440. d. 157. studied in Baghdad with Abü ˘afß ﬁUmar al-Suhrawardı. d. Q: II. 641/1243 in al-Fayyüm). There is. by Abü ’l-˘asan al-Shushtarı. Q: II. S II. or at least its teachings. S: History. S: Mysticism. 155. a long commentary on it by A˛mad b. S I. 141. 158. 632/1234 GAL. 701f. II. 339. This poem was. 788. 129. GAL. 153. S: Mysticism. S II. I. 274. has been known in detail. S I. this was printed together with the R√iyya in Cairo in 1316/1898. 76 77 Ibrız. 638/1240. S: Mysticism. biography. 160. 147 (?). Al-Sharıshı’s R√iyya is an abridgement of the teachings of the ﬁAwrif on the relations between shaykh and student. CIX Title not given. Yüsuf al-Fsı77 from the beginning of the seventeenth century. Q: II. 76 highly valued in the West. it is a prose work GAL. 130. as al-Lama†ı notes. CVIII ﬁAwrif al-maﬁrif by Abü ˘afß al-Suhrawardı. CX Title not given. in the far west before the influence of later authors was felt. 136. 156. by Mu˛yı ’l-Dın Ibn ﬁArabı. 668/1269. 138. 144. Until now only the Suhrawardiyya’s expansion towards the east. the subject is tarbiya of the novices. This shows the direct influence of the Suhrawardiyya. 161-3. into Persia and India. .146 BERND RADTKE Salé. CXI Ithmid al-ﬁaynayn by Mu˛ammad al-Hazmırı who lived during the 8th/14th century GAL. I. the author of the famous Sufi textbook ﬁAwrif al-maﬁrif and the founder of the Suhrawardiyya order. for example. 483. 152.
IBRˆZIANA 147 Q: II. 358. Q: II. d. by al-Burzulı. CXIII Title not given. 347. 187. CXVIII al-Bhir fı ˛ukm al-nabı by al-Suyü†ı. 462. 247. S: Mysticism. I. S I. S: Poetry. 202. S: Theology. S II. CXIV Title not given. 577-632/1182-1235 GAL. 555/ 1111 GAL. 207. 841/1438 GAL. praise of the Prophet. Q: II. title not mentioned. Q: II. CXII al-∑alt by Ibn Mashısh. 911/1505 GAL. CXV Dıwn by Ibn al-Fri∂. 733-92/1333-90 GAL. 208. S II. no. 25. 665/1228 GAL. a commentary on the ˘izb al-barr of alShdhilı. CXVII I˛y√ ﬁulüm al-dın. Kitb al-Tafakkur. 203. 262. I. S I. I. d. Q: II. 440. S I. 124. by Ibn ﬁAbbd al-Rundı. no. Q: II. by al-Ghazlı. II. S: Mysticism. 638/1240 S: Mysticism. S: Mysticism. 422. by Ibn ﬁArabı. d. CXVI Title not given. 201. 185. 162. d. . d. Q: II. 787.
Q: II. 466. 223. S: Theology. 92. S I. S: Theology. no. 225. S: Mysticism. Q: II. d. d. Q: II. II. S: Theology. CXXIV Shar˛ Qawﬁid al-ﬁaq√id by Zarrüq. 222. 738. 7.148 S: ˘adıth. II. no. S II. 24 = Shar˛ ﬁAqıdat al-Ghazlı. 683/1284 GAL. Q: II. II. 230. Q: II. . Q: II. 82. d. 4. 846-99/1442-93 GAL. II. CXXI al-∆iy√ al-mutallı by Abü ’l-ﬁAbbs Nßir al-Dın Ibn alMunayyir al-Iskandarnı. 229. Q: II. no. BERND RADTKE CXIX ˆ∂˛ al-bayn by al-Samhüdı. 215. CXXIII al-Ajwiba al-mar∂iyya ﬁan sdtin al-fuqah√ wa’l-ßüfiyya by ﬁAbd al-Wahhb al-Shaﬁrnı. 234. 973/1565 GAL. 885/1480 GAL. 174. no. 3b. 906/1500 GAL. 223. no. S II. S: Theology. S: Theology. 141f. 28. 222. d. CXX Dallat al-burhn by Burhn al-Dın al-Biqﬁı. d. 254. CXXII Shar˛ al-Muysara by Kaml al-Dın Ibn Abı ’l-Sharıf. 911/1506 GAL.
I. S II. editor’s footnote 23 GAL. CXXX al-Ta˛bır fı shar˛ al-asm√ al-˛usn by al-Qushayrı. 359. by Abü ’l-Mawhib al-Tünisı who was still alive 806/1406 GAL. I. Q: II. Q: II. 432. CXXVIII Shar˛ al-Lumaﬁ by Sharaf al-Dın Ibn al-Tilimsnı. d. S: Theology. 265. CXXVI Title not given. Q: II. d. II. title not mentioned. 195. 926/1520 GAL. 1006. 772. S I. 265. VI. S I. see Ibrız I. . S II. d. CXXVII Tashyıd al-arkn by al-Suyü†ı. 911/1505 GAL. CXXIX al-ﬁAwßim min al-qawßim. 99. Q: II. 247. 658/ 1260 GAL. by Zakariyy al-Anßrı. 233. 543/1148. 389. no. S: Mysticism. S: Fiqh. 231. 663. Q: II. d. d. Q: II. 672. by Ibn al-ﬁArabı al-Mlikı. S: Theology. 240. 231.IBRˆZIANA 149 CXXV Title not given. S: Theology. no. S I. 465/1072 GAL. 234. S: Theology.
I. II. probably Tamyız al-†ayyib min al-khabıth GAL. by Ibn ﬁAskir. S: Theology. no. 4. 331. 499-571/1106-76 GAL. 330. CXXXV Title not given. 250. CXXXIV Shar˛ Man÷ümat al-qubür. Khalıl al-Subkı. 1032/1623 GAL. Q: II. S: Biography. by Ibn al-Daibaﬁ. Q: II. 181. CXXXII al-Sham√il by Abü ﬁˆs al-Tirmidhı. d. 430/1038 GAL. 279/892 GAS. S: ˘adıth. 400. CXXXIII Title not given. 324. 892/1486 GAL. Q: II. . 352. d. 339. 162. by Mu˛ammad b. CXXXVI Title not given. 340. S II. S: ˘adıth. 286. by A˛mad b. see no. LXXIV. I. mysticism. but see Ibrız. 325. 866-944/1461-1537. Q: II. II. no. S: Theology. 616. no. d. II. S: ˘adıth. editor’s footnote *. 278. I. GAL. 156. Q: II. Yüsuf al-Sanüsı.150 BERND RADTKE CXXXI ˘ilyat al-awliy√ by Abü Nuﬁaym al-Ißbahnı. S II. this commmentary is not mentioned there. Q: II. 30. I. 362. d. S I.
This can only be clarified by looking up the relevant source in each case to check the text of the quotation. II. as often only the author. The second table lists the subject matters and shows how often each is discussed and the number of books mentioned in connection with it. my remarks in ‘Studies on the Sources of the Kitb Rim˛’. is given. (should read alSamanhüdı). Summary Two tables follow below. 84f. This must carry with it an element of uncertainty. a very time-consuming effort that was impossible for this survey. after 950/1543 GAL. its main subject matter. One indicates the how often each source—listed by number—is quoted and. S: ˘adıth. Q: II: 340.78 Table I Source I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX 78 Quotations 2 1 23 5 4 1 2 2 6 Subject Fiqh Fiqh ˘adıth ˘adıth ˘adıth Theology ˘adıth ˘adıth. theology ˘adıth Cfr. . where possible. d. S II. not the title of the work cited. It is also often not clear whether the citation is al-Lama†ı’s own or is itself part of a quote. 416.IBRˆZIANA 151 CXXXVII al-Ghammz ﬁal ’l-Lammz by al-Samhüdı. fiqh. 305.
fiqh Fiqh Theology Theology ˘adıth Fiqh. ˛adıth ˘adıth Koran commentary History Koran commentary ˘adıth ˘adıth ˘adıth ˘adıth Koran commentary Koran recitation Koran recitation Koran commentary ˘adıth ˘adıth ˘adıth ˘adith. praise of the Prophet History. genealogy ˘adıth. fiqh Grammar (?) Grammar Koran recitation Koran recitation Koran recitation Fiqh. ˛adith Theology .152 BERND RADTKE X XI XII XIII XIV XIVa XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX XXI XXII XXIII XXIV XXV XXVI XXVII XXVIII XXIX XXX XXXI XXXII XXXIII XXXIV XXXV XXXVI XXXVII XXXVIII XXXIX XL XLI XLII XLIII XLIV XLV 1 6 7 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 1 Koran commentary Koran recitation Koran recitation ˘adith Koran commentary Koran commentary Poetry.
theology Theology. fiqh Theology ˘adıth ˘adıth ˘adıth ˘adıth ˘adıth. theology ˘adıth Koran commentary Koran commentary ˘adıth Mysticism . theology Biography.IBRˆZIANA 153 XLVI XLVII XLVIII XLIX L LI LII LIII LIV LV LVI LVII LVIII LIX LX LXI LXII LXIII LXIV LXV LXVI LXVII LXVIII LXIX LXX LXXI LXXII LXXIII LXXIV LXXV LXXVI LXXVII LXXVIII LXXIX LXXX LXXXI LXXXII 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 ˘adıth Fiqh. kalm ˘adıth Lexicography Mysticism ˘adıth. ˛adıth ˘adıth ˘adıth. fiqh ˘adıth ˘adıth. theology Theology Koran commentary ˘adıth. fiqh Theology. ˛adıth ˘adıth ˘adıth Theology (?) ˘adıth ˘adıth Mysticism Fiqh ˘adıth Mysticism ˘adıth. theology.
praise of the Prophet Mysticism Theology Poetry Mysticism Mysticism . theology Mysticism Fiqh Fiqh Mysticism Mysticism Mysticism Mysticism Fiqh. theology ˘adıth. theology Fiqh.154 BERND RADTKE LXXXIII LXXXIV LXXXV LXXXVI LXXXVII LXXXVIIa LXXXVIII LXXXIX XC XCI XCII XCIII XCIV XCV XCVI XCVII XCVIII XCIX C CI CII CIII CIV CV CVI CVII CVIII CIX CX CXI CXII CXIII CXIV CXV CXVI CXVII 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Koran commentary Mysticism Fiqh Fiqh Fiqh Fiqh Fiqh Fiqh Fiqh ˘adıth. theology Fiqh. theology Fiqh. biography Poetry. mysticism. ˛adıth Fiqh Fiqh Fiqh Mysticism Mysticism Mysticism Mysticism History.
IBRˆZIANA 155 CXVIII CXIX CXX CXXI CXXII CXXIII CXXIV CXXV CXXVI CXXVII CXXVIII CXXIX CXXX CXXXI CXXXII CXXXIII CXXXIV CXXXV CXXXVI CXXXVII 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Table II ˘adıth Theology Theology Theology Theology Mysticism Theology Theology Theology Theology Theology Fiqh Mysticism Biography. mysticism ˘adıth ˘adıth Theology Theology ˘adıth ˘adıth Subject ˘adıth Fiqh Theology Koran recitation Koran commentary Mysticism Poetry Praise of the Prophet History Grammar Lexicography Total Quotations 100 39 42 18 22 37 4 2 4 2 1 271 Books 48 24 23 5 11 19 3 1 3 2 1 139 .
In the Ibrız. Barrda. Paris 1986. ‘Zwischen Traditionalismus und Intellektualismus’. On this see also Lévi-Proven≈cal. Chodkiewicz. al-Ibrız min kalm sayyidı ﬁAbd al-ﬁAzız al-Dabbgh. It is interesting that the theological-scholastic literature that was available to al-Lama†ı was by and large not the same as that used by al˛jj ﬁUmar. takes over half of his quotations from mystical literature. One reason for this was that ﬁUmar went to the east and could build a library in Cairo and Mecca while alLama†ı hardly left Morocco.156 BERND RADTKE Thus. ﬁAlı ˘arzim. Idrıs. Thus. Rislat al-radd. with only a few exceptions. Damascus 1404-06/1984-86. he could only utilize the literature that was available in Fez in the first half of the eighteenth century and which was used in the city’s theological circles. al-Lama†ı. There one can find 640 to 650 quotations from other sources. Le Sceau des saints. Ms Bergen 438 (ALA. That is also different from al-˛jj ﬁUmar’s book. 32-81.79 Al-˛jj ﬁUmar. Jawhir al-maﬁnı. 242. on the other hand. A˛mad b. Beirut 1393/ 1973. The present analysis also adds to our knowledge of the extent of this literature. Michel. London 1995. That is far less than for example the Rim˛ of al-˛jj ﬁUmar. 133. Vikør. no. there two-thirds of the quotations are from twentyseven works (out of the total of 125) by only nine authors. the book contains about 270 quotations. 79 80 On this see also Radtke. most sources are mentioned only once or twice. I-II. I. ed.80 Bibliography A˛mad b. Mu˛ammad b. Sufi and Scholar on the Desert Edge. Chorfas and Knut S. Mysticism is fully covered by al-Dabbgh’s his own words. . it is presented as a knowledge that does not require external references. al-Mubrak. 33). Mu˛ammad ﬁAdnn alShammﬁ. ﬁAlı al-Sanüsı and his Brotherhood.
1996.. Ein sudanesischer Theosoph des 19. 909-21. — ‘Von Iran nach Westafrika’. ‘Neo-Sufism Reconsidered’. Some Considerations concerning the Study of Sufism’ in Frederick de Jong (ed. xxxv. 1992. 52-87 Radtke. A˛mad b. 1985. Die Welt des Islams. 1995. 1995. lxii. An Attempt at a Provisional Appraisal’. Asiatische Studien. Geistesgeschichtliche und historiografische Bemerkungen zum Ibrız des A˛mad b. — ‘Ijtihd and Neo-Sufism’. xlviii. xxxvi. E. Utrecht 1992. — ‘Studies on the Sources of the Kitb Rim˛ ˛izb alra˛ım of al-˛jj ﬁUmar’. 20-58. — ‘Erleuchtung und Aufklärung. Jahrhunderts’. Sects and Sufism. al-Mubrak al-Lama†ı’ . Shıﬁa Islam. 326-64. Bernd. — ‘Zwischen Traditionalismus und Intellektualismus. Islamische Mystik und europäischer Rationalismus’. Ausgewählte Aufsätze zur Islamwissenschaft. 1993. Fritz. Sudanic Afrika. lxx. R. 94-132. xxxiv. 48-66. Istanbul-Stuttgart 1992 (Beiruter Texte und Studien 53 a-c). Oriens. — Zwei Abhandlungen µber die Naq¸sbandiyya. — ‘Sufism in the 18th Century. 6. 73113. 1994. Die Welt des Islams. — Bausteine. 148-55. — ‘Lehrer-Schµler-Enkel.S. Mu˛ammad ﬁU±mn al-Mır„ganı. Ismﬁıl al-Walı’. I-III. 1995. IstanbulStuttgart 1994 (Beiruter Texte und Studien 58). ‘Between Projection and Suppression.). Der Islam. Der Islam. and Bernd Radtke. Les Historiens des Chorfas. ‘Eine auferstehung Mohammeds bei Suyü†ı’. 1994. — ‘Ismﬁıl al-Walı.IBRˆZIANA 157 Lévi-Proven≈cal. Die Welt des Islams. Rabat 1922 [reprinted 1991]. lxxii. 37-69. Meier. O’Fahey. Idrıs. xxxiii. Der Islam.
al-˛jj ﬁUmar b. Bernd. Radtke. ﬁAlı al-Sanüsı and his Brotherhood.).). Sufi and Scholar on the Desert Edge. Mu˛ammad b. — Sources for Sanüsı Studies. 1995. 1). London 1995. Built on Solid Rock.158 BERND RADTKE in Elie Wardini (ed. Mu˛ammad b. — ‘Möglichkeiten der Kritik am Neo-Sufismus’ (forthcoming).. Knut S. Studies in Honour of Professor Ebbe Egede Knudsen on the occasion of his 65th Birthday April 11 1997. Cairo 1393/1973. . London 1993. R. Vikør. Saﬁıd al-Fütı. Bergen 1996 (Sudanic Africa: Texts and Sources. The Letters of A˛mad Ibn Idrıs. 240-67. ‘Two Sufi Treatises of A˛mad Ibn Idrıs’. Oslo 1997. 143-78. Rim˛ ˛izb al-ra˛ım ﬁal nu˛ür ˛izb al-rajım. Oriens.S. al-Manhal al-rawı in alMajmüﬁa al-mukhtra. Thomassen Einar and Bernd Radtke (eds. Beirut 1968. O’Fahey and John O’Kane. in the margins of ﬁAlı ˘arzim alBarrda’s Jawhir al-maﬁnı. xxxv. ﬁAlı. al-Sanüsı. — ‘Was steht in den ∏awhir al-maﬁnı? Versuch einer Ehrenrettung’ (forthcoming).