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SM 50 Cultures, Networks and Communities
Anne Andersen 3334
Writers: Group 5
Catrine Moltzen Wiid 2370 Chuthida Phichaiphrome 3002 Pia Vornholt
6 November 2009
Table of Contents
Table of Contents........................................................................................................... 2 1. Case Delimitation....................................................................................................... 3 2. Theory Delimitation....................................................................................................5 3. Research Question..................................................................................................... 7 4. Framework................................................................................................................. 8 5. Analysis......................................................................................................................9 5.1 Cooking Related.................................................................................................... 9 5.2 JO Related........................................................................................................... 11 6. Conclusion................................................................................................................ 15 7. Perspectives.............................................................................................................15
There is no direct way to contact other members via the website and personal information is reduced to a minimum. Members can set up a profile with basic information like interest. Foodwise is a “section on the site where [users] can share [their] knowledge of all things food related”. the number of registered users is very high (155. it includes an online community section. occupation and e-mail address. which is embedded in the official website of the British cook Jamie Oliver1 (www. ranging from personal information to his recipes. The community section consists of three elements – “Food Forums”. He gained popularity with “The Naked Chef” TV show. interest. location. the content is accessible for everyone. The registration for this community is not mandatory.jamieoliver. who became famous through a series of TV shows. The Food Forums are a “place for [users] to chat to each other.jamieoliver. turning him into a celebrity chef (Kotler & Keller 2009: 280).1. The website contains information about JO. i.com). Regarding these definitions of each element. or need” (Ren et al. “Food Blogs” and “Foodwise”.e. users cannot add friends and there is no member directory. restaurants. books and kitchen supplies. In addition. which is an “Internet-connected collective of people who interact over time around a shared purpose. It acts as an “online encyclopedia where [users] can upload articles and also edit other people’s articles as well”. 1 2 In this paper referred to as JO http://www.com/forum/ 3 . Case Delimitation This study investigates a lifestyle community centered around the topic of cooking. books and his campaign for more healthy food in British schools. Food Blogs give members the opportunity to set up their own blogs regarding their recipes and cooking tips. the forums are the part that mostly aligns with the definition of an online community. This community seems to be an interesting case for an in-depth investigation due to its dynamic and lively environment.001 registered members on 2 Nov 20092). Only active participation requires membership. Furthermore. Nevertheless. exchange recipe ideas and maybe even help each other out with any problems [they] might have in the kitchen area“. which can facilitate lurking due to the low entry barriers.
giving them the opportunity to learn about the rules and introduce themselves. wine. Throughout the paper the forums will be referred to as JO community or JO forums. Nethnography is selected as it allows studying mass consumer behavior at an in-depth level. Three forums deal with offline events. silver (2500 posts) or gold (5000 posts) star4. Depending on the number of posts. recipe swap.2007: 378). Since the activity in the forums is particularly interesting. thereby surpassing the traditional techniques of focus groups and in3 3 4 Please see Appendix D for more information http://www. JO’s posts and replies will be taken as a point of departure in order to obtain a richer insight into JO’s involvement. nutrition). but serves as an indicator for the high traffic in the forums. Based on the existing literature about nethnography by Kozinets. The forums are split up into different topics. One forum is specially set up for new members. online communities can be studied through observation of user generated data in forums and blogs (Kozinets 2002: 63). cooking advice. users can become “forum champs” with a bronze (1000 posts). For reasons of simplicity the terms will be used interchangeably. Participation in the forums is very active which has been proven by an observation . campaigns and career advice in the food industry.jamieoliver.php?id=33083 4 . In addition to in-depth observations of the chosen threads.com/bloggers/viewtopic. the new qualitative research methodology. the high participation in this community will be the starting point of this study. and leftovers. In order to get a relatively broad picture of the community activities the following four forum groups have been selected: introductions. In the four forums. These four groups have the highest traffic and number of postings. In order to study the community. growing own food. certain threads will be selected based on the number of views and the number of replies. Any other topics can be discussed in a general forum. The observation is by no means representative. will be used (Füller & Jawecki 2008: 249). in the kitchen. Five forums relate to food and cooking (recipes. These are important criteria as they represent the level of interest and participation in the thread. The focus of this project will be on analyzing limited threads in specific forums according to its relevance to the research question leaving out forums related to offline activities. nethnography.
com/forum/viewtopic. Theory Delimitation Online communities have been the subject of a vast amount of studies. focus will be placed on certain threads in the chosen forums. it is not possible to adhere to all those procedures. As JO community has clear policies. The focus of the nethnography will mainly be on the first and second procedures (see footnote 5). conducts conversations in public forums.depth interviews (Kozinets 2006: 279). other procedures such as ensuring trustworthy interpretation or research ethics will also be considered during the research process as much as possible with the resources available in this study. No direct quotes of the posts in the threads will be written in this project for ethical reasons rather the content of threads will be used as an inspiration for the analysis. 2) gathering and analyzing data. They differ between identity-based attachment.jamieoliver. Kozinets proposes certain procedures5 that should be followed when using nethnography. (2007: 378. they highly depend on the commitment and participation of their members (Ren et al. and bond-based attachment. where “members feel a commitment to the online community’s purpose or topic”. 4) conducting ethical research.6 Since online communities are platforms for interaction among a collective of people. However. 2007: 378. 3) ensuring trustworthy interpretation. Concerning the second procedure. Ardichvili 2008: 543). With its high traffic and large member base. The literature spans from the classification of different types of communities to investigations on the motives for participation. the JO community is a particular interesting case in this respect. 7 tolerates a large number of participants. Ren et al. 380) argue that people develop commitment to an online community depending on their reason for being in the group. and 5) Providing opportunities for cultural member feedback (Kozinets 2002: 63) 6 7 Please see Kozinets 2006 for a more detailed outline of this topic http://www. 2.php?id=19842 5 . where “members feel socially or emotionally attached to particular members” (Ren et al. Previous research addresses the motives for members to take part in and contribute to topic5 1) making cultural entrée. limits member information it can be classified as topiccentered. due to the nature and time constraint of this study. 2007: 381). However.
McWilliam (2000: 48) states that the enthusiasm and care about the specific area encourages members to contribute.centered online communities (e. In order to understand the attachment to and interaction in the JO community. Kornum 2008). establishment of ties with others. including celebrities (Thomson 2006: 105). learning and development of expertise and altruism. 2. The interesting aspect of the case in question. however. it is thus necessary to explore both the theory for attachment to a specific interest and theory of the attachment to celebrities. reciprocity. boost of self-esteem.” This highlights that people generally take part in cooking communities to share knowledge and experience about the subject. Ewing 2008. because the topic “suit[s] the functioning of an electronic gift economy in which members contribute their own knowledge to the common capital. 2007: 242).g. development of stronger ties with the community. i. Since the JO community does not reward members financially.1 Common Interest The McKinsey consultants Amstrong and Hagel (1996: 135) refer to communities where participants interact on specific topics as communities of interest (de Valck et al. Osterloh and Frey (2000: 539) distinguish between extrinsic (indirect need satisfactions through monetary compensation) and intrinsic (direct need satisfaction through the action itself) motivations for knowledge contribution. is the involvement of a celebrity. 2006: 332). the focus will be on intrinsic compensations that encourage participation and thus act as motivators for users to contribute.2 Celebrity Involvement People can develop emotional attachment to a variety of things. The effects of celebrity influence on member interaction in a community have not been investigated so far.e. The description of the JO forums stated above illustrates that their primary purpose is also to provide an area for these exchanges. Psychologists claim that people with strong attachments to an object are likely to seek 6 . accessing and providing information. In particular knowledge sharing. Ardichvili (2008: 543-548) mentions the following personal benefits that could reward users in an online community: enhancement of reputation. is a primary reason for people to engage in communities of interest (Ridings et al. According to Werry and Mowbray (2001: 50) one of the first uses of bulletin boards on the internet was sharing recipes. 2.
passion. because they can be professionally managed and have features of a brand. Especially statements about affection. because they want to connect with and learn more about him. This implies that members with a strong attachment to JO can be motivated to participate in the community. honesty. not only products and services can be marketed and branded. passion and connection indicate high attachment (Thomson et al. (2006: 97) refer to fans. they seek pleasure. Member interactions can either evolve around the topic of cooking or around JO as a 8 Please see Appendix B for the detailed brand print of JO 7 . Branding applies to celebrities. a brand image and brand promise (Thomson 2006: 105. Research Question The theory delimitation shows that there are different motives for engaging in a community like the JO forums. Ouwersloot and Odekerken-Schröder (2008: 574) furthermore suggest four different motivations for getting involved in a brand community: the need for quality reassurance and exchange of experiences with the brand. entertainment and self-expression (Munñiz & O’Guinn. 3. According to marketing literature. Palmer 2000: 222). Rein et al. 8 Based on their brand print the following main attributes of the JO brand are identified: quality. the desire to be connected to the brand.e. i. 278. which requires the inclusion of theory about involvement in brand communities in this study. the requirement of joint consumption and desire to live up to the brand’s symbolic meaning.proximity to it and are committed to establish and maintain a relationship with it (Thomson et al. as “interactives” that pursue a closer relationship and dialogue with the star. According to Kornum (2008: 341-342) the focal point of interaction in brand communities is the brand and the interaction between its members evolves around the brand. Members participate to fulfill their hedonic needs. e. Kotler & Keller (2009: 281) depict the specific features of JO. 2001: 427). The notion of JO as a human brand implies that his community can also be classified as a brand community. Kotler & Keller 2009: 280). 2006: 116). A meaningful online presence of a celebrity is thus likely to attract attached consumers to ask questions and learn more about the person (Thomson. 2005: 78). but also people (Kotler & Keller 2009: 46-47. simplicity.g. 2005: 88) and can thus indicate that the commitment to JO as a celebrity is the primary reason for participating in the forums. entertainment and better food. which join personality-based websites. which categorize him as a human brand.
Is the topic of cooking or JO the primary motive for users to participate? This will be done by investigating the following sub-questions: Concerning interaction related to cooking. This is indicated by on-topic discussions related to cooking and member contribution in form of questions and answers about cooking. 4. The content of the threads will be analyzed according to the extent to which members share their knowledge. conclusions about the reasons for participation will be drawn. The second step involves an in-depth assessment of these posts in order to determine the type of motivation that encouraged users to contribute. On the basis of this evaluation.human brand and celebrity. To answer the research question. Firstly. members can be motivated by their attachment to JO as a celebrity or thirdly by their involvement with JO as a brand. cooking techniques etc. members can be motivated by their enthusiasm about cooking and their willingness to share knowledge. This study will explore why the JO community is highly active and dynamic by addressing the following research question. Framework The theory delimitation shows that there are three different constructs that can help investigate the motives for users to participate in the JO forums. Secondly. the analysis of the JO community will be carried out in two steps.? What is the nature of users’ interaction of JO? Do they discuss about him in general? Or can the interaction be classified into either brand or celebrity oriented attachment? 4.1 Cooking Related Topics To find out whether the primary motive for participation is the topic of cooking. constructs from the theory about communities of interest will be used. how strong is JO’s reference in this arena? Do users refer back to his recipes. The contributions will be assessed using the motivation factors for sharing knowledge stated by Ardichvili (2008). 9 Please see Appendix A for a graphic outline 8 . 9 At first the content of the threads will be analyzed for posts that point to one of the three identified motives. It is assumed that user contributions in the forums can indicate user commitment and motivation.
hedonic needs satisfaction (i. high level of interaction regarding cooking related topics can be observed mainly in Recipe Swap and In the Kitchen. 5. the theory about attachment to celebrities serves as a foundation for the analysis.2 JO the Celebrity To investigate whether member attachment to JO as a celebrity is a motive for participation.e.3 JO the Brand The brand theories about JO as well as those regarding brand communities will be used to determine whether users’ motives for participation are brand related. 4. Gradually. these responding users started to interact amongst themselves by posting recipes that meet their interest. show an affinity to him. Therefore. entitled Foodology. There were several responses from other users and recipes were posted. or attempt to connect with him. Discussions evolving around these attributes can reveal users’ primary interest in the JO brand promise and what it stands for. To simplify the presentation of the analysis this section will thus be divided into two parts: cooking related and JO related interaction.4. user interaction can be classified as either cooking-related or JO-related. the selected thread in the latter forum did not result in insightful findings that would help address the research question.1 Cooking Related Out of the four forums investigated. The JO brand attributes can serve as a starting point for the content analysis. initially began as a problem statement where a user was seeking advice about an appropriate main dish to serve at her birthday party. Analysis After conducting the investigation of the threads. In particular. entertainment and self-expression). this section will focus on the findings from the Recipe Swap forum. However. Posts that address JO directly in order to establish personal contact or a dialogue will be used as an indicator that member participation is caused by celebrity worship. and desire to live up to the brands symbolic meaning will be used to assess the involvement of members in the community because of JO’s image and meaning as a brand. In this forum. the thread with the highest views happens to be the one with the highest replies as well. 5. The assessment of motivations (enthusiasm for celebrity and efforts to get closer) will be based on the extent to which users share their passion about JO as a person. but do not necessarily relate to the original problem 9 . This thread. exchange of experiences about the brand.
1. and where Stefanie would post selfdetermined interesting Asian recipes.statement or exhibit a common theme. where the interaction revolves around a specific area of cooking. to which Stefanie will reply. to post her recipes. who is also of Singaporean descent. Others who wanted to actively post recipes were politely suggested to start their own thread in order to be recognized for their contribution. it is mainly Stefanie who has the recognized position of posting recipes. a self-proclaimed expert in Asian cuisine.2 Motivations Analysis 10 . For example. it can be implied that these threads act as a medium for the sharing of knowledge (De Valck et al). 5. other users would leave a short comment of respect and admiration. it became an outlet for one user. Another difference is that in The Silk Road the level of interaction is shared amongst a various amount of users with the posts still being directed towards Stefanie and Asian cuisine. and the sharing of recipes.1. This thread was started by Stefanie. This illustrates that cooking is a topic of common interest amongst these users. This feedback was well received by foietruffledisiac as she replies to each post individually in a casual and friendly tone. questions about. it was decided to observe another thread in Recipe Swap for a more complete insight into the interaction between users. One interesting observation is that in this thread. It can already be observed that this thread. work. As the thread developed. The thread was designed as an arena where questions related to Asian cuisine can be posted.) regarding a topic of interest (cooking). Discussions in these threads rarely deviate from cooking-related topics and when they do. and even post questions to foietruffledisiac. has a clear theme and direction. in contrast to Foodology. foietruffledisiac. This is particularly true for The Silk Road. Occasionally. and study lives but the discussion would always come back to cooking. 5.1 Content Analysis The interactions in both threads are mainly on-topic with the subject matter: cooking. As both threads consist of requests. users would ask each other about their well-being. As the Foodology thread seemed to be dominated by mainly foietruffledisiac and two other users. the degree of deviation is quite minor. The supplementary thread chosen is named The Silk Road and is focused on Asian cuisine. Coupled with the extensive sharing of recipes and concerns regarding those recipes it can be implied that these users interact in order to “access and provide information” (Ridings et al.
In these two threads. The rationale behind this approach is that it would be interesting to further analyze how JO interacts in the community and observe the effect his posts have on the user involvement in the threads. Dominant players (foietruffledisiac and Stefanie) also engage in learning through feedback about their recipes that have been tried by other users. however. After the observations had been carried out it was possible to divide JO’s interaction into two categories. Reading between the lines of these two users’ posts. Introductions and Leftovers reveals the significant difference in user behavior and their attitude towards JO. The celebrity chef. As a new point of departure. it seems as if they are satisfied by merely sharing their knowledge about cooking. It appears that the aspect of learning is not one-way. However.2. his recipes. 5. This could be an implication that the users contributing in these two threads are more motivated to participate by cooking related topics rather than by JO. It is possible for posts of admiration from other users to influence the motivations to participate amongst the dominant users. as there is no substantial way to measure these factors. 5. This is illustrated by the contributing users’ active interest in various areas of cooking: recipes. Users are noticeably seeking new knowledge regarding ways to prepare a certain dish or a particular ingredient by requesting relevant recipes.It seems that out of Ardichvili’s list of factors motivating users to contribute information in a community.1 JO Brand Oriented Interaction 11 . The forums Introductions and Leftovers were the initial point of departure. observation of the remaining two forums. However. preparations methods etc. “learning” is the most evident within The Silk Road and Foodology threads. there is a notable absence of JO related discussions.2 JO Related In this part user interaction related to JO will be discussed. as well as his activities were rarely mentioned. ingredients. It is not clear whether the dominant users are motivated to participate by factors such as reputation enhancement or boosting self-esteem. The interaction JO has amongst users can be classified as either brand oriented or celebrity oriented. in the Leftovers forum the identified thread did not yield any valuable insights to answer the research question. JO’s posts and replies were selected independent of the forums.
e. the users’ responses were addressed directly at JO. Users will thoroughly explain the content of the episode for those who did not managed to watch it. TamaraR and ZoraO could be seen as representatives of JO because they answer questions about the show and how JO is as a person. rookiecook. also guests on the TV show. They see him as an inspiration not only related to cooking but also for bringing cultures together.2. At first. asks users to provide feedback and share relevant personal experiences. Especially one user. talking about their anticipation towards the new show. A unique aspect of this thread is that the guests featured on the show were also contributing in the thread. This is illustrated by the way users discuss how JO cooks and inspires them to make the featured dishes as on the show. the role of culture. One ongoing discussion in the thread is about how JO killed a crocodile on the TV show.g. They provide feedback by congratulating him and also applaud him for being interested in other things besides cooking. 5. They disagree with rookiecook’s point of view as they claim that JO is one of the most prominent advocates for animal welfare. The users constantly refer to JO’s belief that animals should be provided with at good life 12 . It could be thus implied TamaraR and ZoraO act as a link between JO and his audience. TamaraR and ZoraO. the thread with the most replies posted by JO was selected for observation – Jamie’s American Road Trip.1. In addition the content of the TV show is discussed extensively. JO introduces his new TV show.To observe how users react when JO posts replies within an existing thread. This can imply that the show acts as a source of entertainment for them (Kotler & Keller). Chefrigo has been on JO’s new TV show. joined the thread and were welcomed as well and even received replies from JO. claims that JO’s action is immoral. becomes quite popular in this certain thread. and the other users admire him and are happy that he contributes to the thread.1 Content Analysis This thread focuses on the brand attributes with regards to JO as a means of entertainment. Jamie’s American Road Trip is a thread within the Leftovers forum. One user in particular. engage in minute countdowns in the thread to when the show will air on TV etc. The content of the responses to this accusation can be linked back to what the users believe JO represents. Chefrigo. In this particular thread. This forum is where JO has the highest involvement both in terms of starting threads and replying to existing ones.
1. According to Munñiz and O’Guinn (2001). Users’ defense of JO’s actions and what he stands for can be interpreted as representing the users’ desire to be connected to the brand. which can be considered one of the motivational factors that influence users to participate in a brand community (Ouwersloot and Odekerken-Schröder). As the source of entertainment is JO’s TV show. these users tend to confirm and elaborate on the topics regarding their hometown covered in the TV show. these can be considered as factors motivating users to participate in the community.2. and to live up to his brand values. it can be argued that users are motivated to participate in the community due to the JO brand. Furthermore. 5. These users praise JO’s accuracy in depicting their hometown and not its stereotypical image. The users’ offensive tone in their response to the attacks against JO can imply that (most) users in the community disapprove of comments that oppose what JO stands for. This further reinforces the notion that users are motivated to participate in Jamie’s American Road Trip due to the JO brand.2 JO Celebrity Oriented Interaction 5. For example.2. but replies are still being 13 . the thread with the highest views also has the most replies and is Welcome to the forums!. it is observed in the thread that users tend to relate their personal life experiences with the content shown on the TV show. In addition users seem to be motivated to contribute by the entertainment value and pleasure they receive by watching the show. Furthermore. This thread was started by JO himself in 2005. there are a number of users whose places of origin were depicted on the TV show.2 Motivations Analysis From the users’ responses to rookiecook’s statement against JO in the thread. 5.2. which includes the TV show. This thread in particular exhibits a significantly higher degree of passion and emotion in the user participation. These are two of the motivational factors suggested by Ouwersloot & Odekerken-Schröder.even if they are bred with the purpose of being consumed.1 Content Analysis In the Introductions forum. They argue that this enhances the knowledge of where food comes which results in better quality food consumed. This can be interpreted as users’ attempt to exchange their experience with the brand. it can be observed that the tone is quite defensive in nature.2.
posted till this day .e. his TV shows.2. realpacucho claims to have a Mexican origin and is currently working as a chef in London. by taking JO's posts as a point of departure. Some even offered to assist JO in his visit should he ever decide to take that on. it would not be trustworthy to generalize these findings to represent a significant amount of users in the community. 5. However. The nature of the responses is mainly directed at JO. In addition there are a number of users who offer and suggest their cooking services to JO.2 Motivations Analysis According to Thomson et al. which indicate attachment to celebrities. his personality and passion for cooking). For example. has resulted in insightful learnings. as the number of posts in this thread is not significantly high. In these posts users usually directly address JO in the second person as if they were talking to him directly.) as users try to establish proximity. in this thread. Topics in the posts range from users’ interpretation of JO himself (i. The attempt to investigate how much influence JO has on the community. Users used this thread as an opportunity to reach out to JO and post messages of support and admiration.2. a user finds people like JO to be a “rare breed” and that. These elements were observed to exist in Jamie’s American Road Trip where. This reflects the psychological theory of attachments (Thomson et al. ideally. Celebrity oriented content was also noticeable in the Jamie’s American Road Trip thread. 10 10 See Appendix D 14 . affection and passion are factors. to attempts to contact him. This illustrates that users in these threads and posts are attempting to establish a personal connection with JO. There are numerous posts where users suggest that JO should visit their hometowns and explore their local cuisine. It can be argued that the thread’s position as a tangible channel to reach out to JO may be the reason behind its high traffic as the users rarely specifically introduce themselves to existing community members. thus the relevance of JO’s celebrity factor in inducing motivations amongst users is questionable. she would like for him to be her son-inlaw. posts that display strong attributes of affection and passion are uncommon. However. He offered to further enhance JO’s experience and knowledge of Mexican cuisine by proposing to stage a demonstration at Fifteen (JO’s restaurant).
7. many of JO’s activities resulted from his fame from being on The Naked Chef TV Show. Conclusion This study has revealed certain facts regarding the nature of users’ interaction related to cooking. the primary motive for the entire community could not be clearly identified. the affect of JO’s offline activities on user interaction in the community was one of the elements aimed to be explored in this study. it is possible. As the motive only clearly exists in each thread. JO the brand. their motives for participating in this community are less related to him. Hypothetically. it was not possible to derive a clear conclusion regarding user motives at forum level. it was difficult to classify whether the brand or the celebrity motivates users. several constraints and obstacles as well as potential for further research have been discovered. 15 . Therefore. Initially. it is apparent that all three types of motives (cooking related topics. JO the celebrity) exist within this community. and Leftovers). it appears that for these users. Users usually interact amongst themselves. According to Kotler & Keller (2009). In the Kitchen. With regards to JO related user interaction. if users are interested in JO and his celebrity status.6. It can be argued that the JO brand is built on the basis of these activities. After observing the forums (Introductions. the primary motive regarding user participation could be clearly identified within each observed thread. To draw a concrete conclusion for the entire community. as the scope of the investigation had to be significantly reduced and certain elements were excluded. An interesting finding is that within cooking related threads. From this study. A possible explanation for this is that the JO brand is likely to be derived from his celebrity status. it seems that these elements are linked as users address attributes of both the brand and the celebrity in their posts. for his offline activities to act as a source of motivation for users to participate in the community. which comprises of numerous forums. would require more resources mainly in terms of time and technology than what is provided in this study. which would make the two elements (JO the brand and JO the celebrity) interlinked. there was minimal reference to JO. One of the most evident constraints of this study is time. Thus. Perspectives After carrying out this investigation. Thus. Recipe Swap. From this study. it seems that cooking is the primary motivating factor for interaction amongst these users. refer back to their personal experience and skills related to cooking rather than cite that of JO’s.
However. However. it became apparent that towards the end of the thread there seemed to be a bond-like relationship developing. It seems that this community has been designed so that the focus is shifted from JO the TV personality and celebrity chef. With regards to further exploring user behavior in the community. a particular observation was noted regarding the design (layout) of the community. While conducting the investigation for this study. it can be argued that replies from lead users and JO also constitute as forms of recognition. When JO’s posts were taken as a point of departure in observing brand related interaction amongst users. Another area that was not fully explored is the notion of recognition and rewards acting as sources of motivation. JO’s involvement in the community was quite high. The topic of human brands acting as a source of user motivations has been explored in this study. an in-depth analysis into the behavior of lead users (“forum champs”) in this community can be conducted to observe how their behavior influences other users in the community. This may be a biased factor that shifts users’ participation away from JO. In addition to being named a “forum champ”. The effect that the design of the community has on user behavior is thus an interesting topic to investigate to see whether participation in those forums is genuine or influenced by the design.During the observation of the investigated threads. cooking procedures. the community highlights topics such as recipes. and natural ingredients by devoting a specific forum to each of these topics. recently his involvement has decreased as the frequency of 16 . Instead. the behavior and motivations of the human brand in engaging in the community has not been explored. By doing this. healthy lifestyle. consisting of posting every two days and replying to many users’ posts. A truly unique element of this study is the fact that JO represents both the content and the brand. During the initial phases of the website’s development. it would be interesting to investigate whether users treat these replies as recognition and whether there is a drive amongst users to be recognized in the community. In particular. it would have been interesting to investigate whether user motivations to participate change from a more content focused to more social focused over time. it has been noticed that the nature of his involvement has changed over the course of the community’s development. Thus. there are areas that can be investigated as an extension of this study. Ewing’s argument regarding the shift in users’ motivations to participate (from content to social) can be explored. One area that can be extended further relates to the observation of low barrier-like behavior exhibited by existing users. Had there been more time for the study. Taking this as a point of departure. contributing users in Foodology have already organized a social meeting.
posts is now reduced to about once a week It would be interesting to investigate JO’s behavior in this community. 17 . and the effect is has on him as a brand. whether there is a pattern in his replies.
Analysis Framework 18 . Appendix Appendix A.8.
Appendix B. Jamie Oliver Brand Print 19 .
Methodology This project can be classified as qualitative research including elements of both inductive and deductive approaches making it into a retroductive approach. 17.10 = 27222 topics 24.8% in week 43 and an average of 276 new posts per day.O community. By using this retroductive approach. = 151938 users = +1.Appendix C. = 27474 topics = +1% each day ca. The theoretical part of the project is built on secondary data such as related articles and books. It means that instead of working from a theory (deduction) or from the data (induction).8% each day ca 276 new posts 20 . whereas primary data is gathered by observing the interaction in the forums by netnography in order to answer the research question. Deductive approach was conducted by explaining the causal relationships between variables such as motivation for participation between Jamie and community members.10. the research approach was changed into deduction. 32 new topics 17. 86). Inductive approach was used in the very beginning when searching for general data in the J.5% with an average of 275 new members each day. Appendix D Online Activity Observation Conducted in week 43 Synopsis: The member base rose about 1. it is a combination of the two (Saunders. = 291472 posts = +0.10 = 289264 posts 24. the research process became clearer and the double funnel model by Kornum (2009) was applied when narrowing down the focus.10.5% Each day ca. Lewis & Thornhill 2003.10. The research strategy is a case study including empirical investigation of a specific online community within its real life context (Saunders. The posts show a similar development with an increase of 0. = 149742 users 24. Lewis & Thornhill 2003. 93). In the same period the number topics increased about 1% with an average of 32 new topics each day. After looking into the community as well as looking through different theories and deciding on which ones to use. 275 new members 17.10.
Spam and advertising on the Forums New in cookery! Anyone Ever Tried Acai Force Max? Leftovers Thread Whats [sic] For Supper? Number of Posts 9477 Date of Initiation Sun 11 Feb 07 Date of Latest Post Thu 05 Nov 09 21 Number of Posts 3322 1660 43 36 31 Date of Initiation Fri 13 May 05 2:00pm Thu 11 Dec 08 5:51pm Sat 26 Jul 08 9:44am Tue 20 Oct 09 9:59am Fri 16 Oct 09 1:19pm Date of Latest Post Tue 03 Nov 09 2:35pm Tue 03 Nov 09 6:16pm Thu 29 Oct 09 1:10am Tue 20 Oct 09 3:29pm Sun 18 Oct 09 3:51pm .. In the Kitchen Thread What do you think when you hear… Conversions Poached Eggs ..... However. Forum Statistics: Top Five Threads (according to number of posts) Note: The following information was retrieved on 05 November 2009 to ensure up-to-date information. due to the change in the layout of the website on 30 October 2009 the number of views is no longer accessible.Can't seem to get it right What is difference between cake..Ready to Serve Number of Posts 1415 68 51 33 Date of Initiation Sat 06 Jun 09 11:03am Sun 20 Nov 05 6:01pm Tue 06 Oct 09 12:15am Tue 20 Oct 09 3:24pm Tue 21 Apr 09 11:08am Date of Latest Post Wed 04 Nov 6.08pm Sat 10 Oct 09 4:35am Wed 21 Oct 09 8:50am Thu 22 Oct 09 6:12pm Tue 03 Nov 09 2:29pm 33 Introductions Thread Welcome to the forums! The Never ending 4 word story..Appendix D.... pie and bread? Polenta ..
the name game. (2008) Three Types of Firm-related Online Communities.. welcome. (2009) Marketing Management... In: Strategic Market Creation. N.. John Wiley & Sons. Chichester Kotler..7:06am ADD a letter. Bibliography Books Kornum. Upper Saddle River 22 .L. K. CHANGE a letter lets play. Prentice Hall.. / Keller. 13th ed. DROP a letter. P. Whats [sic] your weather like today? Are you an Olivercholic [sic]? 9169 6133 5914 4581 Sat 25 Oct 08 7:23pm Mon 27 Oct 08 9:44am Mon 07 Jul 08 12:07pm Thu 12 Feb 09 7:52pm 4:19pm Thu 05 Nov 09 10:47am Thu 05 Nov 4:00pm Thu 05 Nov 09 7:13pm Thu 05 Nov 09 6:56pm Recipe Swap Thread Foodology [sic] The Silk Road COOKIES ANONYMOUS [sic] Soup's on!! Weekly Cooking Challenge Revised Number of Posts 4666 2889 1706 836 506 Date of Initiation Wed 01 Sep 04 3:34pm Thu 07 Oct 04 7:17am Mon 18 Apr 05 9:52am Mon 31 Oct 05 12:52pm Sun 12 Jul 09 4:37am Date of Latest Post Mon 12 Oct 09 10:36pm Wed 04 Nov 09 8:26pm Wed 04 Nov 09 9:33am Wed 04 Nov 09 10:29pm Thu 05 Nov 09 11:00am 10..
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com/foodwise. 9 October 2009 Jamie Oliver (2009) Forum.jamieoliver.com/forum/viewtopic.php? id=33083. Volume 18. 20 October 2009 Jamie Oliver (2009) Forums/The Silk Road. / MacInnis.php? id=3134.com/forum/viewtopic. http://www. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 17 October 2009 Jamie Oliver (2009) Member Blog Danny. D. http://www. http://www. Communications of the Association for Information Systems.com/bloggers/viewtopic. Journal of Marketing. 70.com/forum/profile. Vol. (2005) The Ties That Bind: Measuring the Strength of Consumers’ Emotional Attachments to Brands.jamieoliver. 21 October 2009 Jamie Oliver (2009) Forums/Profile. http://www. 104-119 Thomson. (2006) Human Brands: Investigating Antecedents to Consumers' Strong Attachments to Celebrities. Issue 1.php?id=9148. M. / Park. 2 November 2009 Jamie Oliver (2009) Forum House Rules.com/forum/viewtopic. 2 November 2009 24 .php?id=4. http://www.php?id=2409. 15 October 2009 Jamie Oliver (2009) Forums/Jamie’s American Road Trip.jamieoliver.com/forum/viewtopic. 2 November 2009 Jamie Oliver (2009) Foodwise. Vol. 30 October 2009 Jamie Oliver (2009) Forums/Foodology.W. C. pp. 15. http://www.jamieoliver. 77–91 Websites Jamie Oliver (2009) Blogs and Forums.jamieoliver.Behaviour in Online Communities.com/forum/viewtopic.jamieoliver.php? id=19842. http://www.jamieoliver.com/forum/. pp.php?id=50889&p=9. http://www.jamieoliver. pp.com/blogs-and-forums.jamieoliver. http://www.J. http://www. M. 20 October 2009 Jamie Oliver (2009) Forums/Welcome to the forums!. 329-354 Thomson.jamieoliver.