You are on page 1of 167

Safety Practices for Water Utilities

P
Safety Practices
rotecting the professionals that produce adequate supplies of high-quality
drinking water is of the utmost importance, as well as is safeguarding the general
public from construction sites and operations. To that end, AWWA has revised and
updated Safety Practices for Water Utilities, AWWA Manual M3, to reflect the latest

for Water Utilities


safety practices and federal safety regulations. Sample safety forms and safety signs,
ready to copy for your use, are also included in this manual. Utility managers and
supervisors and employees who have been assigned safety responsibilities will find
this information invaluable

M3

M3
MANUAL OF WATER SUPPLY PRACTICES

Sixth Edition

Advocacy
AWWA is the authoritative resource for knowledge, information and advocacy to improve the quality and supply of water in Communications
North America and beyond. AWWA is the largest organization of water professionals in the world. AWWA advances public Conferences
health, safety and welfare by uniting the efforts of the full spectrum of the entire water community. Through our collective Education and Training
strength we become better stewards of water for the greatest good of the people and the environment.   Science and Technology
Sections

2P-.25C-30003-5/05-LS
The Authoritative Resource on Safe Water SM
Safety Practices
for Water Utilities

AWWA MANUAL M3

Sixth Edition

AWWA unites the drinking water community by developing and distributing authoritative
scientific and technological knowledge. Through its members, AWWA develops industry
standards for products and processes that advance public health and safety. AWWA also
provides quality improvement programs for water and wastewater utilities.
MANUAL OF WATER SUPPLY PRACTICES—M3, Sixth Edition
Safety Practices for Water Utilities
Copyright © 2002 American Water Works Association

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information or retrieval system,
except in the form of brief excerpts or quotations for review purposes, without the written permission of
the publisher.

Project manager and copy editor: Melissa Christensen


Production editor: Carol Stearns

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been


applied for.

Printed in the United States of America

American Water Works Association


6666 West Quincy Avenue
Denver, CO 80235

ISBN 1-58321-190-X
Printed on recycled paper
Contents

List of Figures, v

List of Tables, vii

Foreword, ix

Acknowledgments, xv

Chapter 1 Safety Management Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


Safety Programs, 1
Overall Policy, 2
Safety Management Responsibilities, 3
Safety Practices and Inspections, 4
Communication Channels, 4
Education and Training, 10
Record Keeping and Accident Investigation, 14
References, 17

Chapter 2 Hazardous Materials and Worker Right-to-Know . . . . . . . 27


Hazard Communication Plan, 27
Chemical Hazards, 31
Other Hazardous Materials, 46
Reference, 50

Chapter 3 Confined Space and Hazardous Energy . . . . . . . . . . . 51


Confined Spaces, 51
Hazardous Energy and Lockout/Tagout (29 CFR 1910.147), 57
References, 63

Chapter 4 Personal Protective and Respiratory Equipment . . . . . . . 65


Personal Protective Equipment, 65
Respiratory Protection (29 CFR 1910.134, 29 CFR 1915.152, and 29 CFR
1926.103), 75
Reference, 77

Chapter 5 Vehicles and Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79


Platforms and Aerial Lifts (29 CFR 1926.453), 79
Fork Lifts (Powered Industrial Trucks 29 CFR 1910.178), 80
Motor Vehicles and Equipment (29 CFR 1926.601–602), 83
Tools (29 CFR 1910.241–144), 85
Welding (26 CFR 1926.350–354), 87
References, 90

Chapter 6 Construction Sites and Work Techniques . . . . . . . . . . 91


Signs, Signals, and Barricades (29 CFR 1926.200–203), 91
Materials Handling and Storage (29 CFR 1926.250–252), 94

iii
Scaffolds (29 CFR 1926.450–454), 99
Excavations and Underground Construction (29 CFR 1926.650–652), 102
References, 109

Chapter 7 Facilities and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111


General Facilities Safety, 111
Laboratories, 116
Reference, 122

Appendix A Sample Accident Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

Appendix B Appendix Sample Hazard Communication Program . . . 125

Appendix C Appendix Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) . . . . . 129

Appendix D Appendix Confined-Space Entry Permit . . . . . . . 139

Index, 143

List of AWWA Manuals, 151

iv
Figures

1-1 Job analysis form, 5


1-2 Job site inspection report form, 6
1-3 Safety information bulletin board, 9
1-4 Safety information center, 9
1-5 Safety suggestion form, 11
1-6 Telephone with emergency numbers near chlorine leak station and evacuation
plan, 12
1-7 Report of first-aid injury, 17
1-8 Supervisor’s Report of Accident form, 18
1-9 Vehicle or Equipment Accident or Damage Report form, 22
2-1 Library of MSDSs bound in notebooks, 28
2-2 MSDS sample page, 29
2-3 Quick drench and eye wash station, 33
2-4 Liquid aluminum sulfate storage and sign, 34
2-5 Carbon dioxide warning sign and detector, 36
2-6 Posted chlorine evacuation procedure, 38
2-7 Breathing apparatus, 39
2-8 Face shield and chlorine leak emergency kit, 40
2-9 Eye wash and shower station near chemical unloading facility, 42
2-10 Chlorine gas detector, 50
3-1 OSHA confined space poster, 52
3-2 Danger signs and barriers, 54
3-3 Lockout devices and tags, 58
3-4 Lockout/tagout center, 58
4-1 Workers wearing Class C hard hats, 67
4-2 “Hard hat area” signs, 69
4-3 “Splash protection required”, 70
4-4 Safety glasses dispenser, 72
4-5 “Ear protection required”, 72
4-6 Life jacket, 74
4-7 Respirator storage, 75
4-8 Respirator storage, 76
5-1 Aerial lift, 80

v
Figures

5-2 Unattended forklift with load lowered, 81


5-3 Welding screen, 89
6-1 Construction sites are complex and changing, 92
6-2 Construction traffic signs, 93
6-3 Hand truck and stacked materials, 95
6-4 Hydraulic spot bracing in trenching, 106
7-1 Fire extinguisher and chlorine leak evacuation plan, 112
7-2 Good housekeeping and use of guardrails, 114
7-3 Safety cage on fixed ladders, 115
7-4 Security camera, light, and wind sock, 117
7-5 Security gate, 118
7-6 Emergency bolt cutters, 118
7-7 First aid kit, 120
7-8 Chemical fume hood, 120

vi
Tables

1-1 Effectiveness of Safety and Health Programs, 1

vii
This page intentionally blank.
Foreword

Protecting the professionals that produce adequate supplies of high-quality


drinking water is of the utmost importance. Employees are a utility’s most valuable
resource, and their ability to work safely and in a safe environment is the main
reason for workplace safety programs. Safeguarding the general public from con-
struction sites and operations is another reason for the programs. To that end, the
American Water Works Association has created a safety policy. The policy will
guide the discussion of safety practices presented in this manual:

The American Water Works Association (AWWA) believes a safe work


environment is of the utmost importance for individuals in the water
industry. It is of paramount importance to protect those who safeguard
their community water supplies.
It is the duty of each utility manager, supervisor, and worker to
establish safety standards and to see that safety is an integral part
of their daily work process. Safety must take precedence over short-
cuts. As unsafe conditions are discovered, they should be addressed
and corrected.
Safety practices established by state, provincial, and federal agencies
should be regarded as minimum standards by all individuals in the
water industry.
The safety practices and management of safety programs in this manual repre-
sent general guidance. This manual cannot cover all situations and regulations. The
audience for this manual is primarily utility management and other employees who
have been assigned safety responsibilities, for example, a utility’s safety manager or
officer. Supervisors, who always have safety responsibilities to those they supervise,
will also find this manual beneficial.

Safety Principles and Practices


Four principles of occupational safety (Reese & Eidson, 1999) are
• All accidents are preventable.
• All levels of management are responsible for safety.
• All employees must be properly trained to safely perform every job task.
• All employees are responsible for their safety as well as their co-workers.
A safety practice is a combination of knowledge, action, and attitude. Knowl-
edge is understanding the principles or other features of a material (such as a haz-
ardous chemical), source of energy (such as electricity), or work technique (such as
trenching). Actions are properly putting that knowledge into use when working with
the material or energy or using a work technique. Attitude is a disposition toward
acquiring knowledge and performing appropriate actions. For example, a safe
trenching practice might include these components (simplified for this example):
Knowledge. The probability or risk of a trench collapse is a function of soil
type, depth and width of the trench, and adjacent loads (such as surcharge, build-
ings, and heavy machinery).

ix
Action. The recommended practice is if a trench is in a loose soil, depth 5
(1.5 m) to 10 ft (3.0 m), width up to 4 ft (1.2 m), use 4-in. by 4-in. (406 mm) bracing
at 6-ft spacing.
Attitude. Proper shoring cannot be reduced to a formula. Each trenching job
presents unique safety problems and must be considered under its own conditions.
No worker should take chances that may lead to injury.
This manual will address the three components (knowledge, action, and atti-
tude) for the main safety practices encountered in water utilities. After a discussion
of safety management, the manual presents safety practices related to hazardous
materials, confined spaces, hazardous energy, personal protective equipment, respi-
ratory equipment, vehicles, tools, construction sites, and facilities.
The safety practices presented in this manual represent best practices; how-
ever, they should be compared with any applicable regulations before a utility
implements them. The majority of the practices are taken from OSHA recommenda-
tions that would apply to water utilities; however, each utility must follow the
guidelines of their regulatory agency. In general, OSHA is a minimum standard and
any stricter regulation must be complied with. States cannot not have regulations
that are less stringent than federal OSHA, however, they can be more stringent.
Utilities and outside contractors have the right to exceed OSHA standards at their
choice, and these policies should be in writing to support the utility position.
This manual is a review of current regulations as they are at the time of publi-
cation. The reader should obtain the relevant Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and
keep up to date on amendments. This manual does not address any particular situa-
tion, rather it provides a general basis for utility safety. Specific circumstances may
need to be addressed through OSHA or local agencies. The advice of legal counsel
should always be sought whenever in doubt. Another good source for safety resources
is a utility’s worker's compensation insurance carrier, who may provide good advice,
sampling, training, and other services sometimes as part of the premium.

Occupational Safety and Health Laws: United States,


Canada, and Mexico
Occupational health and safety laws vary by country, state, and province. The
following summaries (US Labor Department, 1999) introduce the laws in the US,
Canada, and Mexico.
United States. In the US, the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act (Act),
administered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), is the
chief law regulating workplace safety and health in the US. Except for state and local
governments (including some utilities) and several particular industries, the act covers
all employers with employees. States may administer their own federally approved
workplace safety and health plans if they are as effective as the federal program.
Canada. In Canada, the federal government regulates a specific set of indus-
tries, whereas most sectors of the economy fall under provincial jurisdiction. Each
province regulates safety and health directly with broad similarity among provinces.
Both federal and provincial laws stress internal responsibility for improved safety
and health among workplace parties. The Government assists the parties in achiev-
ing these goals and initiates enforcement when internal efforts fail. The laws gener-
ally cover all employers and extend to other parties at the work site, such as
owners or suppliers.
Standards are developed by consensus committees representing employer and
employee interests. Authorities commonly rely on these consensus standards to set

x
protective goals. Compliance policy relies mainly on employer–employee joint com-
mittees and on employee representatives to identify and correct hazards. Employers
must comply with both specific standards and a general safe-workplace duty.
Employees and supervisors also bear enforceable duties.
With its reliance on workplace employees to reduce hazards, Canadian laws
feature a less adversarial governmental enforcement role, compared with US law.
Inspections may be carried out without warrants or prior notice, and inspectors
commonly issue abatement orders but do not give priority to levying fines. Viola-
tions of standards and abatement orders may be sanctioned by prosecution. Abate-
ment orders may be administratively appealed, but judicial oversight is minimal.
An important feature of Canada’s workplace safety and health policy is the
joint committee found in most workplaces. Often legally mandatory, joint commit-
tees are composed equally of employer and employee representatives. They play
various advisory roles in identifying and reducing hazards. Canadian law gives
employees strong rights against adverse treatment for refusing dangerous work.
Generally, workers with reasonable fear of danger may refuse work even if the risk
is not imminent.
Mexico. In Mexico, the relevant law is federal, though some enforcement is
administered at state and local levels. Recent reform initiatives attempt to improve
effectiveness and efficiency in both standard-setting and compliance policy.
Technical standards are issued through notice-and-comment rulemaking. After
hazard identification and expert discussion, draft standards are published for public
comments, which are considered in formulation of the final rule. Draft standards
must be accompanied by a regulatory impact statement, including a cost–benefit
analysis for standards involving substantial economic impact.
Employer safety and health duties stem from several legal sources. Important
among those duties are compliance with standards, operation of safety and health
programs, and support of legally mandatory joint safety and health committees
operating at the workplace level.
Compliance policy features three approaches: government inspection; private
sector verification units which may inspect and report on compliance; and joint com-
mittees charged with monitoring compliance, assisting inspectors, and improving
risk prevention. Unlike the US, Mexico seldom imposes first-violation penalties.
Penalties are mainly for imminent dangers and failures to abate previously high-
lighted violations. The severity of penalties depends on the gravity of offense, inten-
tional or repeated nature of violations, and company financial capacity. Maximum
penalties for violations of technical standards have been increased in recent
reforms. Employers enjoy certain due process right in penalty proceedings. They
may contest charges and secure administrative and judicial review of rulings.
Many standards have been incorporated from federal standards or voluntary
industry standards pre-dating the act. The contemporary standard-setting proce-
dure is to issue a notice and comment. Subsequent to hazard identification and
expert discussion, draft standards are published for public comments, which are
considered in development of the final rule. Standards must address significant
workplace risks, and compliance must be economically and technologically feasible
within the affected industry. Final standards may be and frequently are challenged
in federal appeals courts which review the legal and factual basis for regulation.
Employers may be penalized for violating specific standards or a general duty
under the Act. The chief enforcement mechanism is workplace inspection, which
under the US Constitution may not be performed without either employer consent
or a warrant (unless the activity is in the open or there is imminent danger.) Fines,

xi
which vary with severity of violation, along with employer size, good faith, and
history of noncompliance, may be levied for all violations except minor ones.
Employers may contest citations in an adversary hearing before an independent
administrative tribunal–Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission–whose
rulings are subject to judicial review.
Under the act, employers have a general duty to provide work and a workplace
free from recognized hazards. Citations may be issued by OSHA when violations of
standards are found, and for violations of the general duty clause, even if no OSHA
standard applies to the particular hazard. The employer also must display in a
prominent place the official OSHA poster that describes rights and responsibilities
under OSHA’s law.
The employer has a legal obligation to inform employees of OSHA safety and
health standards that may apply to their workplace. Upon request, the employer
must make available copies of those standards and the OSHA law itself. If more
information is needed about workplace hazard than the employer can supply, it can
be obtained from the nearest OSHA area office.
The OSH Act gives employees many rights and responsibilities (Kimball,
2000). They have the right to
• review copies of appropriate standards, rules, regulations, and requirements
that the employer should have available at the workplace.
• request information from the employer on safety and health hazards in the
workplace, precautions that may be taken, and procedures to be followed if
an employee is involved in an accident or is exposed to toxic substances.
• have access to relevant employee exposure and medical records.
• request the OSHA area director to conduct an inspection if they believe
hazardous conditions or violations of standards exist in the workplace.
• have an authorized employee representative accompany the OSHA compli-
ance officer during the inspection tour.
• respond to questions from the OSHA compliance officer, particularly if there
is no authorized employee representative accompanying the compliance
officer on the inspection “walk-around.”
• observe any monitoring or measuring of hazardous materials and see the
resulting records, as specified under the act, and as required by OSHA
standards.
• have an authorized representative, or themselves, review the Log and
Summary of Occupational Injuries at a reasonable time and in a reasonable
manner.
• be informed by posting of any citation issued by OSHA as part of an
inspection.
• object to the abatement period set by OSHA for correcting any violation in
the citation issued to the employer by writing to the OSHA area director
within 15 working days from the date the employer receives the citation.
• submit a written request to the National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health (NIOSH) for information on whether any substance in the

xii
workplace has potentially toxic effects in the concentration being used and
have names withheld from the employer, if that is requested.
• be notified by the employer if the employer applies for a variance from an
OSHA standard, testifies at a variance hearing, and appeals the final
decision.
• have names withheld from employer, upon request to OSHA, if a written and
signed complaint is filed.
• be advised of OSHA action regarding a complaint and request an informal
review of any decision not to inspect or to issue a citation.
• file a discrimination complaint if punished for exercising the above rights or
for refusing to work when faced with an imminent danger of death or serious
injury and there is insufficient time for OSHA to inspect.
The most up-to-date OSHA contact information, including hotline numbers,
can be found on the OSHA Web site at <http://www.osha.gov>.

This manual includes information primarily specific to US safety practices.


Persons in Canada, Mexico, and non-North American countries should contact the
appropriate authority having jurisdiction.

REFERENCES_______________________________________________________________
Kimball, C.T. 2000. Workplace Health and US Department of Labor. 1999. Occupa-
Safety Sourcebook. Detroit: Omni- tional Safety and Health Laws in the
graphics, Inc. United States, Mexico, and Canada:
Reese, C.D. and J.V. Eidson. 1999. Handbook An Overview. Washington, D.C.: US
of OSHA Construction Safety and Government.
Health. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers.

xiii
This page intentionally blank.
Acknowledgments

This manual was authored by Dr. Todd Shimoda of Colorado State University.
It was reviewed, revised, and approved by the AWWA Health and Safety Commit-
tee. The committee would like to thank Kevin Gertig and the City of Ft. Collins,
Colorado Utilities for their assistance and photographs. The committee had the fol-
lowing personnel at the time of approval:

D.J. Thorig (Chair), California-American Water Company, Chula Vista, Calif.


D.L. Braxton, Kentucky–American Water Company, Lexington, Ky.
R..L. Cariano, Lansing Board of Water & Light, Lansing, Mich.
M.P. Fahy, El Paso Water Utilities, El Paso, TX
J. C. Ihli, Pennsylvania–American Water Company, Hershey, Pa.
S. A. Keener, Pennsylvania-American Water Company, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Steve Korbelak, Palm Beach County Water Utilities, West Palm Beach, Fla.
W. H. Kreutzer, Los Angeles Water & Power, Los Angeles, Calif.
R.L. McAlister, San Diego Water Department, San Diego, Calif.
D.P. Minor,Kansas City Water Services Department, Kansas City, Mo.
Regina Mize-Joyner, United Water Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Ark.
Janis Morelli, Elizabeth Town Water, Westfield, N.J.
R. N. Mundy, West Virginia–American Water Co., Charleston, W.Va.
Steve Pappas, Indiana-American Water Company, Greenwood, Ind.
P.S. Puglionesi P.E., Duke Engineering and Services, Cherry Hill, N.J.
J.E. Taptich, Columbus Water Division, Columbus, Ohio
C.R. Van Arsdall, Safety Consultant, Portland, Ore.

xv
This page intentionally blank.
AWWA MANUAL M3

Chapter 1
Safety Management
Programs

All utilities, regardless of size, must have a proactive safety management program.
Effective safety management includes many activities, all of which should be
formally established in a formal safety program. The main components of a safety
program are introduced in this chapter.

SAFETY PROGRAMS___________________________________________________________________
Federal, state, and provincial regulations may mandate safety programs. The content
of these programs vary considerably in specifics but generally consist of several steps
that are designed to prevent accidents. Safety programs have been shown to be
effective in reducing numbers of accidents. For example, research conducted by the
Lincoln Nebraska Safety Council in 1981 (Reese & Eidson, 1999) surveyed over 140
national construction-related companies. The Council found that companies with
formal safety plans and established procedures had fewer accidents than companies
without plans and procedures. Table 1-1 (adapted from Reese & Eidson, 1999)
summarizes those results.

Table 1-1 Effectiveness of Safety and Health Programs

Safety plan component Percent increase in accident rate

Top management did not actively promote safety awareness 470%

No written safety program 130

No document/review accident reports and reviewers did not have safety


122
as part of their job responsibility

Table continued on next page

1
2 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Table 1-1 Effectiveness of Safety and Health Programs (continued)

Safety plan component Percent increase in accident rate

No established system to recognize safety accomplishments 81

No employee safety committees 74

No membership in professional safety organizations 64

No specific training for supervisors 62

No outside sources for safety training 59

No training for new hires 52

Safety programs not tailored to their company 43

No separate budget for safety 43

No safety inspections 40

Did not hold supervisor accountable for safety through merit salary
39
reviews

Formal, written safety programs establish a consistent approach to safety. The


goals of a safety program are to establish
• overall policy
• safety management responsibilities
• safety practices and inspections
• communication channels
• education and training
• record keeping and accident investigation procedures

OVERALL POLICY______________________________________________________________________
A safety management plan should be tailored to fit the utility’s characteristics and
meet regulatory requirements. The plan’s goals and objectives tell the employees that
the utility is committed to providing a safe working place for all employees. The plan
should clearly state the overall purpose of the safety program and that all employees
have a responsibility in maintaining a safe work environment.
A brief, written safety policy statement should be issued from the utility director
or manager. The statement defines upper management’s interest in employee welfare
as well as in the efficient operation of the utility. The policy should cover these issues
• the utility recognizes that safety is of highest priority
• a safe work environment is best for the employee’s welfare and morale,
highest work efficiency, and good customer relations
• the utility will provide proper equipment and working conditions
• all employees will be made aware of and trained in safe working practices
• all employees are responsible for safety and are expected to use safe
practices at all times
SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS 3

• all safety policies and procedures should be continually evaluated and


revised if necessary to maintain their effectiveness
A generic safety policy might be worded such as the following:
The Anytown Water Utility highly values a safe workplace for its employees and
the public. A safe work environment helps ensure an efficient workplace, and one that
our employees are proud to be associated with. Safety is the responsibility of all
employees, including the directors, managers, supervisors, and the crews. A safe
environment includes the use of proper equipment and procedures in all cases. Training
is a critical part of a safe working environment. Training should be taken seriously and
should provide many programs to ensure all employees have the knowledge and skills to
work safely. Another critical function is evaluation and revision of our safety program,
which includes all policies and procedures of Anytown Water Utility.

SAFETY MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES_________________________________


The safety management should designate employees who are responsible for
administration of the safety program. Larger utilities typically have a full-time safety
manager, while smaller utilities usually designate a manager with the knowledge,
experience, and training to perform the duties of the safety manager. The main
duties of a safety manager are to
• determine the safety needs of the utility
• plan, develop, and recommend safety programs
• evaluate the effectiveness of plans and programs
• generate safety information and conduct meetings
• conduct or assist in accident investigations
• prepare and maintain records and reports
Besides a safety manager, larger utilities may also have committees or working
groups such as a safety management committee, a safety working committee, and an
accident review board. The safety management policy should establish these
committees, and specify the membership and duties. The safety manager should be
aware of alcohol and drug testing requirements for hazardous materials drivers or
handlers, as well as other safety regulations, such as the US Department of
Transportation and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).

Management Committee
The management committee advises and assists in the development and implementation
of the safety program. The committee is typically composed of department directors, and
they usually meet two to four times a year. The committee sets policy, reviews accident
reports, supervises education and training, reviews the safety procedures and recom-
mends changes if necessary, among other administrative duties.

Working Committee
The working committee is usually composed of five or six supervisors who work
directly with employees in the situations where accidents can occur. This committee
meets regularly to report on unsafe conditions and practices, assist in the
investigation of accidents, make recommendations for improved safety practices,
discuss ways to improve compliance with safety practices, and other duties.
4 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Accident Review Board


The primary duties of the accident review board is to determine the cause and
responsibility of serious accidents or a pattern of accidents, and to make recommen-
dations that will prevent similar occurrences. The members of the board are typically
supervisor level employees appointed by management. Members must be objective in
performing their duties. The board may hold accident hearings, as discussed in the
section Record Keeping and Accident Investigation in this chapter.

SAFETY PRACTICES AND INSPECTIONS______________________________________


A safety management program establishes detailed safe working procedures for specific
jobs and tasks. Figure 1-1 is a generic form that can be used to analyze a job and the
proper and safe procedures to follow. As presented in this manual, the categories of
practices are hazardous materials, confined space, hazardous energy, personal protective
equipment, respiratory equipment, vehicles, tools, construction site safety, and facilities
safety. Specific safety practices are detailed in the following chapters of this manual.
Planned inspections help management identify unsafe practices and ensure the
workplace and equipment is properly maintained. Regulations may require these
inspections and designate who should conduct them. The inspections typically focus
on fire-fighting equipment, motor vehicles, heavy equipment, personal protective
equipment, housekeeping procedures, and other workplace conditions.
Besides these regularly planned inspections, the safety manager, the safety
committee, and supervisors should conduct spot inspections as necessary. Inspections
should be conducted with a checklist, and findings should be put in writing (Figure
1-2). When unsafe practices are observed during the inspections, immediate action
should be taken to correct the practice. A followup inspection should be made soon
after the incident to verify that the safe practice is being used.

COMMUNICATION CHANNELS__________________________________________________
The safety policies and practices that the utility has adopted in its safety management
program must be communicated to the employees. The safety management plan should
establish formal methods of communication, including creating and distributing a safety
manual, conducting regular safety meetings and talks, posting safety practices and
reminders, creating communication procedures that allow employees to point out unsafe
practices, and establishing emergency communication procedures. A hazard communica-
tion plan must also be established; the requirements of this plan are discussed in chapter 2.

Safety Manual
A safety manual is a written document that includes the utility’s policies and
practices. The utility’s safety manager is usually in charge of creating the manual
with input from the safety committees. New employees should be introduced to the
manual during their training session and given an incentive to read it carefully.

Safety Meetings and Talks


Safety meetings are typically scheduled during the year at regular intervals, often
monthly, with employees and supervisors working in hazardous areas. The safety
manager or the safety management committee usually conducts the meetings.
Outside guest speakers are often invited to share their expertise. Any accidents that
have occurred are discussed, and corrective measures are presented. Any changes to
the safety policy or safety manual are also discussed at the meetings. AWWA has a
series of safety videos that can be shown in the meetings.
SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS 5

JOB ANALYSIS Form 1

Date

JOB INFORMATION

Division/Section
Job analyzed
Effective date

WHAT TO DO

HOW TO DO IT

PROBLEMS AVOIDED

Prepared by
Reviewed by

Figure 1-1 Job analysis form


6 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

JOB SITE INSPECTION REPORT Form 2

Date

JOB SITE INFORMATION

District
Location
Foreman

WORK DESCRIPTION

Main installation yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]


Leak yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Service repair
yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
installation
Paving yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Other

EQUIPMENT

Condition and protection satisfactory?


Truck yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Dump truck yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Backhoe yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
End loader yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]

Remarks
Compressor yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Tamper yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Other yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Continued on next page

Figure 1-2 Job Site Inspection Report


SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS 7

EXCAVATION

Condition and protection satisfactory?

Shoring yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]


Remarks
Spoil dirt yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Ladder yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Other yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks

TRAFFIC CONTROL

Condition and protection satisfactory?


Barricades yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Cones yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Lights (flasher) yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Flagperson yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Other yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks

PUBLIC SAFETY

Condition and protection satisfactory?


Walkways clear yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Material stockpile yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Signs yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Other yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Continued on next page

Figure 1-2 Job Site Inspection Report (continued)


8 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

HOUSEKEEPING

Condition and protection satisfactory?


Job site yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Other yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks

PERSONAL PROTECTION

Condition and protection satisfactory?


Hard hats yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Eye protection yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Foot protection yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Ear protection yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Rainwear yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Gloves yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks
Other yes [ ] no [ ] not applicable [ ]
Remarks

Remarks

Inspector

Note: Copy of completed report shall be sent to district manager, district risk
manager, and division risk management director.

Figure 1-2 Job Site Inspection Report (continued)


SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS 9

Safety talks are usually short, informal meetings conducted by workplace


supervisors with their crews or crew members. These safety talks are particularly
effective in keeping employees motivated in using the correct safety practices. These
short meetings are best directed to the work being done the day of the talk or in the
near future. AWWA publishes a series of safety talks that can be used or adopted to
match a utility’s circumstances.

Posting Safety Practices


Safety posters are eye-catching, terse reminders of the importance of safe working habits.
The posters should be placed in areas where workers will see them daily and preferably
while they are working (Figure 1-3). A safety information center can also be set up
(Figure 1-4). They should be designed with few words and with graphics that have
immediate impact. They should be changed regularly so that they maintain their
effectiveness. AWWA publishes a series of safety posters for use by water utilities. OSHA
publishes a series, Fatal Facts (see appendix A for a sample), that describes a fatal
accident and why it occurred. These can be posted or included in a safety newsletter.

Figure 1-3 Safety information bulletin board

Figure 1-4 Safety information center


10 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

A safety newsletter is an effective way of reminding employees about safe working


practices, as well as communicating other safety-related information. The safety
manager is usually responsible for creating and publishing the newsletter. The
newsletter can be as a simple as a one-page flyer. The letter should be distributed to all
employees, as a separate publication or perhaps with paychecks or other newsletters.
The Web and e-mail also offer efficient ways of communicating safety practices. Not all
employees have computer access, so the information on the Web or distributed by e-mail
should be relevant to those employees with access. If a utility has an intranet (internal Web
site), an online version of the newsletter can be posted on the site. The online safety
newsletter should be updated regularly and designed to be easily read on a computer monitor.

Unsafe Practice Communication


All employees should be able to mention any unsafe working practice that they
observe. They should be told in training and safety talks that they will not be
penalized for reporting unsafe practices. The employees should be given a procedure
for reporting unsafe practices, such as first talking to the person doing the unsafe act,
then reporting it to the supervisor if corrective action is not taken. If a supervisor
fails to take the necessary action, employees should be told whom to contact.
Employees should also be told that they must report accidents without fear of
retribution; see the section on Record Keeping and Accident Investigation for more
information on this aspect of safety management.
A safety suggestion program is another way of raising issues about safety
practices. The typical program allows employees to submit written suggestions
(Figure 1-5) that are judged by a committee of employees with a diversified
knowledge of workplace practices. The persons offering the best suggestions are given
an award, such as a gift certificate, time off, etc. Suggestions can also be submitted
anonymously. Regardless if a suggestion wins an award or not, each suggestion
should receive some feedback. For example, if the suggestion is not implemented, the
employee should be told the reason.

Emergency Communication
Telephones or radios should be provided within a short distance in any workplace
setting (Figure 1-6). Emergency numbers, such as 911 or other emergency response,
should be posted as well as numbers for any designated utility emergency personnel.
An emergency plan should also be developed and referenced in the safety
management plan. See AWWA Manual M19—Emergency Planning for Water Utility
Management for further information on large-scale emergency planning, such as
earthquakes, hurricanes, and others.

EDUCATION AND TRAINING _____________________________________________________


Training is an essential part of every utility’s safety and health program. Statistics
show that those who are new on the job have a higher rate of accidents and injuries
than more experienced workers. Certain regulations explicitly require the employer
to train employees in the safety and health aspects of their jobs (e.g., OSHA, 1998).
Other standards make it the employer’s responsibility to limit certain job assign-
ments to employees who are “certified,” “competent,” or “qualified.” Often, evalua-
tions, including written quizzes or actual demonstration of skill or knowledge, are
performed to verify that the employees have met the requirements. If the established
goals and objectives of the training program are not achieved as expected, the employer
then should revise the training program to make it more effective, or conduct more
frequent refresher training, or some combination of these. The length and complexity of
training standards, such as OSHA’s, cannot be discussed in detail in this manual.
However, the main concepts proved to provide successful training will be discussed.
SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS 11

SAFETY SUGGESTION FORM Form 3

Date

EMPLOYEE INFORMATION

Employee
Employee #
Job title
Division/Section
Supervisor

SAFETY SUGGESTION

PROPOSED METHOD OF PLACING INTO EFFECT

Internal use only

Date judged
Notification by
Notification date
Action taken
Remarks

Judge
Committee Chair

Figure 1-5 Safety suggestion form


12 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Figure 1-6 Telephone with emergency numbers near chlorine leak station and evacuation plan

Training should be available to all new employees, especially on first aid,


equipment operation, and the utility’s safety policies before going to the field to work.
The utility’s safety manual provides the foundation of the training, and new
employees should be given the manual as part of a new employee orientation. The
manual should be reviewed as part of the orientation.
Besides new employee training, other formal training sessions should be
scheduled according to the utility’s needs. For example, when new equipment is
installed, employees who will be using the equipment need training. If a new
procedure is being implemented, such as a new disinfection technique, then a formal
safety training session should be held. These training sessions are different from the
safety talks or meetings, in that they are usually longer, more formal, and used to
introduce new or complex safety practices.
An effective training session needs to have a clear purpose and goals. The
trainer should prepare an agenda for the session that describes the purpose and
goals and what will be accomplished at the session. The training session must
include the three components of a safety practice as discussed in the Foreword of
this manual: knowledge, action, and attitude. For example, the knowledge that
chlorine gas is highly toxic and the damage it can do will define the appropriate
actions needed to reduce the risk of exposure, including the use of proper
respiratory equipment. This knowledge will only be effective if the employee is
motivated to follow the correct procedures at all times.
Utilities must keep a record of all safety and health training. Records can
provide evidence of the employer’s good faith and compliance with regulations.
Documentation can also answer one of the first questions an accident investigator
will ask: Was the injured employee trained to do the job?
There are several key steps in developing effective training (Kimball, 2000) that
cover knowledge, action, and attitude. These steps are discussed next, starting with
understanding the process of attitude toward safety practices.
SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS 13

Attitude and Motivation


Good safety and health behavior and work practices can be directly attributable to
employee motivation. Motivation, in the broadest sense, is self-motivation; that is, it
is internal and cannot be directly measured. However, it is usually manifested in a
behavior, such as always wearing eye protection when needed without being
reminded.
Goals are an integral part of the motivational process and tend to structure the
environment in which motivation takes place. Establishing goals is the most
important step in motivating employees toward safe work practices. An example of
these goals is reaching a target number of accident-free days. Rewards and other
incentives tend to reinforce the goals and employees’ motivation toward them.

Determine Training Needs


Training needs are defined as the skills and knowledge required by employees to
perform job tasks safely and efficiently. In this step, managers, trainers, supervisors,
and employees should identify where potential safety problems exist and what is the
most effective training. Employees who participate are more likely to take ownership
in the training program and support it.
The following activities are recommended for determining training needs and
planning the training:
• Conduct a workplace assessment using surveys, interviews, job observa-
tions, and document searches to identify these concerns.
• Review potential training programs to make sure they are current, relevant,
cost-effective, use sound instructional design principles, and are based on
conditions as similar to job conditions as possible.
• Develop effective instructors who can organize or develop materials,
facilitate the learning process, and conduct evaluations.
• Carefully select who will attend training.
• Win support from supervisors and have them help identify training needs.
• Prepare trainees in advance by describing what the course will cover and
why it is important to the company and to them, and distribute pre-course
material.

Training Procedures
Whether the utility performs the training itself or hires an outside firm, the training
procedures must be carefully and thoroughly planned and based on sound
instructional techniques. The following are important steps to take during training to
make sure it is as effective as possible:
• Demonstrate management commitment to training by having managers
speak at the training.
• Provide adequate training facilities that are comfortable and isolated from
disruptions.
• Provide adequate resources for the trainer, including technology and
materials.
• Evaluate the training with an assessment of learning.
14 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

• Show that the company values the employees’ participation in training by


providing them with a certificate of achievement.

Training Followup
Training classes are not the end of the learning and reinforcement process.
Recommended steps to insure that training will transfer to the workplace are
• Managers and supervisors should meet with trainees to reinforce how
important the training is and to clarify any misunderstandings about how
the training is to be applied.
• Provide opportunities to apply training with expert coaching.
• Provide feedback and support with evaluations.
• Provide resource material and job aids.
• Provide refresher training.

RECORD KEEPING AND ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION__________________


A proactive safety management program must collect and produce records, statistics,
and reports. This information may be useful in determining areas where more work
is needed to prevent accidents from occurring in the future. Safety records help
establish the safety management program, provide a basis for evaluating and
revising the program, and provide the information needed for preparing and
recording compensation costs.
The safety officer should analyze each accident report and classify it using a
systematic method. Occupational injuries should be divided into type, source, and cause.
Type refers to the kind of injury involved and usually falls into one of the following classes:
• cuts, bruises, contusions, and lacerations
• sprains–strains
• fractures–bones (broken)
• burns
• dog bites
• infections
• eye injuries
• miscellaneous
Source refers to those actions or objects usually leading to the accident,
including the following:
• handling objects
• falling objects
• falls
• stepping on or striking objects
• machinery
• heat (fire, steam, etc.)
• other
SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS 15

Cause refers to the action, the lack of action, or the defect that led to the
accident (these do not necessarily involve human injury). Usually causes can be
divided into the following three groups:
• unsafe acts–not using accepted safe procedures (operating or working at
unsafe speeds, working in incorrect or unsafe positions, using unsafe
equipment, failing to wear proper protective equipment, horseplay,
distractions)
• unsafe personal factors–mental or physical characteristics (improper attitude,
indifference, overconfidence, anger, disregard of instructions, lack of knowledge
or skill, inexperience, disregard for danger, fatigue, nervousness, intoxication)
• unsafe mechanical or physical conditions (improperly guarded equipment;
defects in tools and equipment; unsafe work areas or conditions; bad
housekeeping; hazardous arrangements of tools and equipment; improper
dress; unsafe mechanical or physical conditions; unsafe use of machines,
materials, or tools)
In analyzing a specific accident, determine the type of injury, source of injury,
and cause of injury. Frequently, substantial overlap among the three categories will
occur. Reports should be published frequently and systematically. A quarterly report
covering both occupational and fleet safety statistics is beneficial. These reports
should be cumulative during the year and should be distributed as soon as possible
after the completion of each quarter. Data for the calendar year to date as well as the
year preceding each report will provide comparative information on the status of the
safety program. The reports can include the following data:
• direct medical costs
• indirect costs (computed at one to five times the direct costs to include services,
supervisory costs, claim settlements, lost time, and reduced efficiency)
• total costs, which include direct and indirect costs
• number of lost-time injuries
• number of injuries requiring medical attention
• number of injuries or incidents requiring first aid
• number of lost-time days
The statistics can be divided according to the organizational structure of the
utility, including the names of the supervisors. The departments can then be
arranged in descending order from those having the highest cost of injuries to those
with the lowest.
Additional data that can be included in the report are the name of the injured
employee, medical costs, type of injury, and the name of the supervisor. Quarterly
reports on vehicle accidents should include a comparison between the current and the
previous year. The statistics should include the number of preventable, non-
preventable, and total accidents by department. Reports should be circulated to
management and the entire supervisory force. In addition, the reports can be used at
monthly safety meetings. Smaller utilities may not have sufficient data to publish
reports as frequently as every three months; other techniques can be used to bring
the information to the attention of the employee group. Specific records and reports
include employee accident records, occupational injury reports, vehicle accident
reports, and public injury reports.
16 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Among its many duties, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) performs
surveys of the incidence rates of accidents and injuries. Examples of how OSHA
calculates incidence rates follows:
Incidence Rates: Based on the exposure of 100 full-time workers using
200,000 employee-hours as the equivalent (100 employees working 40 hours per
week for 50 weeks per year):

or No. of Recordable Events × 200,000 = Recordable Rate


Total hours worked
by all employees during
period covered

or No. of Recordable Injuries


causing lost days × 200,000 = Lost Work Day Incident
Rate
Total hours worked
by all employees during
period covered

or No. of Lost Days × 200,000 = Severity Rate


Total hours worked
by all employees during
period covered

Employee Record
An individual employee’s safety record should include the employee’s name and date
of hire, a chronological listing showing the date, type of accident, and whether it was
the result of an unsafe act or condition. The training sessions and dates the employee
has attended should be included. The records can be maintained by the safety
manager or human resource personnel.

Occupational Injury Report


An occupational injury is defined as any personal injury sustained by an employee
during the course of work. All occupational injuries, regardless of their severity, should be
reported by an employee to his or her supervisor immediately after the incident. The
form used for reporting accidents and injuries should be simple but informative (Figures
1-7 and 1-8). Enough information should be secured from both the injured employee and
the supervisor to permit proper analysis of the accident, even at a much later date.
Two types of forms can be used to report personal injuries, depending on their
seriousness. One form would be used for accidents in which the injury does not require
a doctor’s attention but can be handled by first aid at the job site. This form provides
the necessary information in case the injury becomes more serious at a later date. The
second from is more detailed in nature and is used when a doctor’s attention is
required. The employee is responsible for reporting an injury, while the supervisor is
responsible for correctly preparing the proper forms. Serious accidents should be
investigated by the safety manager, who can determine the corrective actions.
An independent followup investigation by the safety manager ensures the
accuracy of the report. The investigation also provides an excellent opportunity for
the manager to speak with the employee and point out causes of the accident and the
importance of exercising care and caution. In addition, the safety officer can speak
with the supervisors, making them aware of the need to provide training and advice
to their employees on safe working habits.
SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS 17

Motor Vehicle Accident Report


Vehicle accident reports (including construction equipment, such as forklifts and
backhoes) should accurately describe the accident so that causes can be determined.
The report form (Figure 1-9 on page 22) should be prepared by the employee involved
in the accident and should include diagrams of the street situation, including
accurate description of how the accident occurred. The accident report should be
reviewed and signed by the employee’s supervisors, ensuring that the preparation is
complete and accurate. The safety manager can conduct a separate investigation,
where practical, at the scene of the accident. Reports from the local police
department or state patrol can also be used to provide information.

Public Injury Report


Detailed reports must be prepared whenever a person not employed by the utility is
injured during utility activities. An immediate and detailed investigation at the time
of the incident will provide valuable information should the injured individual
subsequently claim damages against the utility. The employees should make notes of
the accident on their work orders or other reporting forms, including names of those
involved and description of the accident. Water utilities are frequently subjected to
claims for personal injury or property damage on the part of the general public. The
more accurate the information and the sooner it is recorded, the better able the
utility will be to determine the fairness of the claim.

REFERENCES_______________________________________________________________________________
Kimball, C.T. 2000. Workplace Health and US Department of Labor, OSHA. 1998.
Safety Sourcebook. Detroit: Omnigraph- Training Requirements in OSHA Standards
ics, Inc. and Training Guidelines, Revised (OSHA
Reese, C.D. and J.V. Eidson. 1999. Handbook 2254),Washington, D.C.: US Govern-
of OSHA Construction Safety and Health. ment.
Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers.
18 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

REPORT OF FIRST-AID INJURY Form 4

Date

EMPLOYEE INFORMATION

Employee
Employee #
Division/Section

INJURY

Date of injury
Time of injury
Nature of injury

Cause of injury

ACTION TAKEN

Action taken

Internal
use only

Remarks

Reported by
Reviewed by

Figure 1-7 Report of first-aid injury


SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS 19

SUPERVISOR’S REPORT OF ACCIDENT Form 5

Date

EMPLOYEE INFORMATION

Employee
Employee #
Division/Section

ACCIDENT INFORMATION

Date of accident
Time of accident
Place of accident
Nature of injury
Name of doctor
Name of hospital
Witness names
Witness addresses
Witness phone #s

DESCRIPTION OF ACCIDENT

1. Job employee
was doing
2. Tools, materials, or
equipment used
3. Specific action
causing accident
4. Employee’s
contribution to
accident
5. Safety protection
used
6. Defective or unsafe
tools or materials
7. Work methods
causing accident

Figure 1-8 Supervisor’s Report of Accident


20 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

8. Safeguards
should have been
used
9. Preventive
steps for future
10. Additional steps
for prevention
11. Supervisor yes [ ] no [ ]
witness accident
Supervisor signature
and date

Reviewing
Authority

Remarks

Accident investigator

Division supervisor
signature and date

Department director
signature and date

INSTRUCTIONS

This report is to be completed on all injuries occurring on the job that


required treatment by a doctor. The immediate supervisor or foreman of
the injured employee should investigate the accident thoroughly, then
complete this report in detail. The completed report (original and one
copy) should be forwarded to the safety officer not later than the day
following the accident. Reports with incomplete information will be
returned.

The names of all witnesses to the accident should be listed. Should a


lawsuit result from the injuries, these persons’ statements would be
important.

In completing the report, the “Description of Accident” portion should be


specific and not generalized statements.

Figure 1-8 Supervisor’s Report of Accident (continued)


SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS 21

QUESTION EXAMPLES

Question 1 Describe exactly what job the injured employee was doing,
such as “Employee was loading water pump onto truck.”
Question 2 Describe what tools, materials, or equipment were being
used to accomplish work assignment.
Question 3 Describe what specific action caused the accident, such as
“Employee slipped and water pump hit his side.”
Question 4 Describe what act the employee did or did not do that
caused the injury, such as “Employee was not using hand
crane to load pump.”
Question 5 State what safety protection devices were provided and if
they were being used.
Question 6 Describe any defects in equipment, materials, or tools and
other unsafe conditions that existed at job site.
Question 7 Describe what was wrong with work methods being used or
other acts that caused the accident, such as “The hand
crane is provided to load and unload heavy items from the
truck. Employee was in a hurry and did not use the crane.”
Question 8 State what safeguards were being used and what
safeguards should have been used.
Question 9 State what steps will be taken to prevent similar injuries,
such as “Accident was discussed with crew at weekly safety
tailgate meeting.”
Question 10 State what else should be done to prevent recurrence, such
as “Foreman or helper should check loading and unloading
of equipment to ensure that safe procedures are followed.”
Question 11 Check if the accident was actually seen or not.

Safety Department Use

Remarks

Age of injured
Length of service
Date investigated
Investigated by
Signature

Figure 1-8 Supervisor’s report of accident (continued)


22 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

VEHICLE OR EQUIPMENT Form 6


ACCIDENT OR DAMAGE REPORT
Date

ACCIDENT INFORMATION

Date of accident
Time of accident
Supervisor
Reported to date
Reported to time
Insurance company
Reported to date
Reported to time

VEHICLE #1

Equipment #
License #
Make and model
Driver
Division/section
Supervisor
Speed before
accident
Speed limit
Damage to vehicle
Approx. cost
Disposition
of vehicle
Passengers
in vehicle

Figure 1-9 Vehicle or Equipment Accident or Damage Report


SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS 23

VEHICLE #2

License #
Make and
model
Driver
Age
Address
Phone #
Occupation
Employer
Insurance
company
Speed before
accident
Speed limit
Damage
to vehicle
Approx. cost
Disposition
of vehicle
Passengers
in vehicle
Other vehicle
involved

PROPERTY DAMAGE

Property damage
Other damage
Injured name
Injured address
driver [ ] passenger [ ] pedestrian [ ]

Figure 1-9 Vehicle or Equipment Accident or Damage Report (continued)


24 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Type of
injury
Disposition of
injured person
Witness
names
Witness
addresses
Witness
phone #s
Police investigation yes [ ] no [ ] Police report attached [ ]

ACCIDENT DESCRIPTION

Road gravel [ ] paved [ ] wet [ ] dry [ ]


Light conditions daylight [ ] dawn [ ] darkness [ ] dusk [ ]
Traffic control signal lights [ ] stop signs [ ]
yield signs [ ] unmarked [ ]
Road character straight [ ] curve [ ] level [ ] hillcrest [ ]
Describe fully
what happened
(refer to vehicles
by number)

Figure 1-9 Vehicle or Equipment Accident or Damage Report (continued)


SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS 25

Provide drawing of what happened, indicating north by an arrow.

Driver
Supervisor
Department director

Figure 1-9 Vehicle or equipment accident or damage (continued)


This page intentionally blank.
AWWA MANUAL M3

Chapter 2
Hazardous Materials
and Worker
Right-to-Know

At water utilities, workers have the potential to come into contact with hundreds of
chemicals and other hazardous materials. Accidental exposure may cause or contribute
to many serious health effects, such as heart ailments, kidney and lung damage, sterility,
cancer, burns, and rashes. Some chemicals also have the potential to cause fires and
explosions. Because of the seriousness of these safety and health problems, OSHA issued
in 1983 a rule called “Hazard Communication” (OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200) that
applied to employers in the manufacturing sector of industry. The scope of the rule was
expanded in 1987 to include employers in the nonmanufacturing sector as well. In 1994,
OSHA modified the rule to add and clarify certain exemptions from labeling and other
requirements; modified and clarified aspects of the written hazard communication
program and labeling requirements; clarified and slightly modified the duties of
distributors, manufacturers, and importers to provide material safety data sheets
(MSDSs) to employees; clarified certain provisions regarding MSDSs.
The basic goal of the standard is to ensure that employers and employees know
about chemical hazards in their workplaces and protective measures to be taken to
prevent harmful exposures. This knowledge, in turn, should help to reduce the
incidence of chemical source illnesses and injuries.

HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN___________________________________________


The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) establishes uniform require-
ments to assure that the hazards of all chemicals imported into, produced, or used in
US workplaces are evaluated. Hazard information and associated protective mea-
sures must be communicated using labels and material safety data sheets. In

27
28 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

addition, all covered employers must have a hazard communication program to


communicate this information to their employees.
This communication program ensures that all employers receive the information they
need to inform and train their employees properly and to design and put in place employee
protection programs. It also provides necessary hazard information to employees, so they
can participate in, and support, the protective measures in place at their workplaces.
The following steps will help utilities comply with the standard and in
developing a hazard communication program.

Read the Standard


• Make sure the provisions of the standard are understood. The requirements
of the standard that deal specifically with the hazard communication
programs are written hazard communication programs, labels and other
forms of warnings, MSDSs, and information and training.
• Know the responsibilities of an employer.
• Identify responsible staff.

List the Hazardous Chemicals in the Workplace


• Walk around the workplace, read all container labels, and list the identity of all
materials that may be hazardous; the manufacturer’s product name, location, and
telephone number; and the work area where the product is used. Be sure to
include hazardous chemicals that are used or generated in the work operation
but are not in a container (e.g., piping systems, welding, and exhaust fumes).
• Check with the purchasing department to ensure that all hazardous
chemicals purchased are included on your list.
• Review the list and determine whether any substances are exempt.
• Establish a file on hazardous chemicals used in the workplace, and include a
copy of the latest MSDSs, and any other pertinent information (Figure 2-1).
• Develop procedures to keep the list current. When new substances are used,
add them to your list.

Figure 2-1 Library of MSDSs bound in notebooks


HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WORKER RIGHT-TO-KNOW 29

Obtain MSDSs for All Chemical Substances


• If an MSDS is not available for a hazardous substance in the workplace,
request a copy from the chemical manufacturer, distributor, or importer as
soon as possible. An MSDS must accompany or precede the shipment and
must be used to obtain identifying information, such as the chemical name
and the hazards of a particular substance.
• Review each MSDS to be sure that it is complete and clearly written. Figure 2-2
shows a sample page from an MSDS; a full MSDS is found in the appendix
of this manual. The MSDS must contain the physical and chemical
properties of a substance, as well as the physical and health hazards, routes
of exposure, precautions for safe handling and use, emergency and first-aid
procedures, and control measures.
• If the MSDS is incomplete or unclear, contact the manufacturer or importer
to get clarification on the missing information.
• Make sure the MSDS is available to employees.
• If MSDSs are available electronically, be sure no access barriers exist and
that a backup system is in place.

FERROUS AMMONIUM SULFATE


MSDS Number: F1616 --- Effective Date: 11/17/99

1. Product Identification
Synonyms: Ammonium iron (II) sulfate (2:1:2); ammonium ferrous sulfate; ferrous
ammonium sulfate, hexahydrate
CAS No.: 10045-89-3 (Anhydrous)
Molecular Weight: 392.13
Chemical Formula: Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 6H2O
Product Codes:
J.T. Baker: 2054
Mallinckrodt: 5064

2. Composition/Information on Ingredients

Ingredient CAS No Percent Hazardous


--------------------------------------- ------------ ------- ---------

Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate 10045-89-3 90 - 100% Yes

3. Hazards Identification
Emergency Overview
--------------------------
WARNING! CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES AND RESPIRATORY
TRACT. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED.

J.T. Baker SAF-T-DATA(tm) Ratings (Provided here for your convenience)


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Health Rating: 1 - Slight
Flammability Rating: 0 - None
Reactivity Rating: 0 - None
Contact Rating: 1 - Slight

Figure 2-2 MSDS sample page


30 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Make Sure That All Containers Are Labeled


The manufacturer, importer, or distributor is responsible for labeling containers, but
the employer must adhere to the following:
• Ensure that all containers of hazardous substances in the workplace are
labeled, tagged, or marked and include the identity of the hazardous
chemical, and the appropriate hazard warnings. Container labels for
purchased chemicals must also include the name and address of the
chemical manufacturer, importer, or other responsible party.
• Check all incoming shipments of hazardous chemicals to be sure that they
are labeled.
• If a container is not labeled, obtain a label or the label information from the
manufacturer, importer, or other responsible party or prepare a label using
information obtained from these sources. Employers are responsible for
ensuring that containers in the workplace are labeled, tagged, or marked.
• Any employer who receives a package of hazardous material which is
required to be marked, labeled, or placarded in accordance with the US
Department of Transportation’s Hazardous Material Regulations must
retain those markings, labels, and placards on the package until the
packaging is sufficiently cleaned of residue and purged of vapors removing
any potential hazards.
• Do not remove or deface existing labels on containers unless the container is
immediately marked with the required information.
• Instruct employees on the importance of labeling portable receptacles into
which hazardous substances have been poured. If the portable container is
for immediate use, then the container does not have to be labeled.

Develop and Implement a Written Hazard Communication Program


This program must include:
• container labeling and other forms of warning
• MSDSs
• employee training based on the list of chemicals, MSDSs, and labeling
information
• methods for communicating hazards and protective measures to employees
and others
• methods the employer will use to provide employers at multi-employer
workplaces on-site access to MSDSs and any precautionary measures that
need to be taken to protect employees during normal operating conditions
and in foreseeable emergencies
• information for employees who travel between workplaces during a
workshift where the hazard communication program will be kept at the
primary workplace facility
Checklist. The following checklist provides a summary of a hazard communi-
cation program:
1. List all of the hazardous chemicals in the workplace.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WORKER RIGHT-TO-KNOW 31

2. Establish a file for information on hazardous chemicals.


3. Obtain an MSDS for each hazardous chemical in use.
4. Develop a system to ensure that all incoming hazardous chemicals are
labeled.
5. Review each MSDS to be sure it is complete.
6. Insure that MSDSs are immediately available where necessary.
7. Develop a written hazard communication program.
8. Develop a method to communicate hazards to employees and others.
9. Inform employees of protective measures for hazardous chemicals used in
the workplace.
10. Alert employees to other forms of warning that may be used.

A sample hazard communication program is in the Appendix of this manual.

CHEMICAL HAZARDS________________________________________________________________
Chemical hazards can occur in the form of solids, liquids, vapors, gases, dusts, fumes
or mists that can be inhaled, ingested or absorbed into the body. Chemicals that may
cause an adverse health effect are called toxic, although some chemicals, such as
corrosives, can harm the body without being toxic. Chemicals can also be irritants
that affect the respiratory system, the eyes, or the skin. Sensitizers produce allergic
reactions that cause dermatitis or affect the respiratory system or the eyes.
Chemicals can harm the nervous system by interfering with the body’s own chemicals
and slowing the transmission of nerve impulses. This slowing can result in
depression of the central nervous system, producing symptoms, such as headache,
light-headedness, drowsiness, and unconsciousness. Any chemical that interferes
with the supply of oxygen to the body is an asphyxiant, which can suffocate a person.
Knowledge of the physical states of hazardous chemicals is important to
understanding their health effects. The physical state of a chemical determines which
routes it may use to enter the body. For example, a gas may easily enter the body by
inhalation. Some liquids are more likely to be absorbed through the skin. The fact
that chemicals may change their state when subjected to work processes that involve
temperature and pressure changes makes it all the more important that all of the
possible states be taken into account.
Liquid and solid chemicals can become suspended in the air. The spraying or
splashing of a liquid chemical can produce a mist. A mist is an airborne cloud of tiny
liquid droplets. Some acids used in the workplace can produce airborne mists when
they are sprayed, shaken, or stirred. Paint spraying is another workplace activity
that produces mists.
A liquid becomes a vapor when it evaporates. The solvents used in paints, glues,
and cleaners are examples of hazardous chemicals that may evaporate readily and
rapidly at ordinary room temperature and pressure. Liquids that evaporate rapidly
are called volatile. Volatile chemicals that are left open to the workplace air may
become airborne and may be inhaled. Xylene, toluene, and some chlorinated solvents
are examples of hazardous chemicals that may become vapors. When a toxic liquid
chemical forms a mist or vapor, it becomes more hazardous and exposure may occur
through absorption, inhalation, or ingestion.
32 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Dust particles are created when a solid material is crushed, ground, or sanded,
as well as when materials break down, such as old plaster or insulation. Dust can
enter the lungs, or be ingested. Dust eventually settles out of the air and can rest on
clothing, skin, food, or a work surface.
Fumes are created when a solid substance melts. As it is heated, some of the
solid vaporizes and enters the surrounding air. As this vapor cools, it produces solid
particles that remain suspended in the air as fumes. Fume particles are usually very
small, less than one micron in diameter, and can be inhaled. Welding is an example
of a process that generates fumes.
The following examples are hazardous chemicals that are used in water utilities for
softening, disinfection, coagulation, scale and corrosion control, taste and odor control,
and prophylaxis. The information presented includes health effects, storing, handling,
labeling, first aid, fire control, and others. Similar information on other chemicals can be
found on their MSDS. Many chemicals have more than one name and the only sure way
to identify a chemical is by its Chemical Abstracts Service number (CAS).

Activated Carbon
Wet activated carbon removes oxygen from air causing a severe hazard to workers
inside carbon vessels and enclosed or confined spaces. Before entering such an area,
sampling and work procedures for low oxygen levels should be taken to ensure there
is ample oxygen availability, while observing all local, state, and federal regulations.
Potential health effects include mild irritation to the respiratory and gas-
trointestinal tract, mild skin irritation and redness, mild eye irritation and possible
reddening. Prolonged inhalation of excessive dust may produce pulmonary disorders.
The effects of long-term, low-level exposures to this product have not been
determined. Safe handling of this material on a long-term basis should emphasize
the avoidance of all effects from repetitive acute exposures.
First aid measures include moving the person into fresh air. Get medical
attention for any breathing difficulty. If ingested, give several glasses of water to
drink to dilute. If large amounts were swallowed, seek medical attention. For skin
contact, wash exposed area with soap and water and seek medical attention if
irritation develops. For eye contact, wash thoroughly with running water for at least
15 minutes. Seek medical attention if irritation develops.
Fire is possible at elevated temperatures or by contact with an ignition source.
Fine dust dispersed in air in sufficient concentrations, and in the presence of an
ignition source is a potential dust explosion hazard. Contact with strong oxidizers
such as ozone, liquid oxygen, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and permanganate may
result in fire. In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and National
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved, self-contained
breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other
positive pressure mode. Use water or water spray.
If activated carbon is accidentally released, remove all sources of ignition.
Ventilate area of leak or spill. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment.
Clean up spills in a manner that does not disperse dust into the air. Use non-
sparking tools and equipment. Reduce airborne dust and prevent scattering by
moistening with water. Pick up spill for recovery or disposal and place in a closed
container. Spent product may have absorbed hazardous materials.
When handling and storing, protect against physical damage. Store in a cool,
dry well-ventilated location, away from any area where the fire hazard may be acute.
Outside or detached storage is preferable. Separate from incompatibles, such as
liquid air and oxidizing materials, and strong oxidizers, such as ozone, liquid oxygen,
chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and permanganate. Containers should be bonded and
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WORKER RIGHT-TO-KNOW 33

grounded for transfers to avoid static sparks. Storage and use areas should be No
Smoking areas. Use nonsparking-type tools and equipment, including explosion proof
ventilation. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty because they
retain product residues (dust, solids); observe all warnings and precautions listed for
the product. A system of local or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee
exposures below the airborne exposure limits. Local exhaust ventilation is generally
preferred because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source,
preventing dispersion into the general work area.
For conditions of use where exposure to the dust or mist is apparent, a half-face
dust/mist respirator may be worn. For emergencies or instances where the exposure
levels are not known, use a full-face positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.
WARNING: Air-purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient
atmospheres. For skin protection, wear protective gloves and clean body-covering
clothing. For eye protection, use chemical safety goggles. Maintain an eye wash
fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area (Figure 2-3).
For disposal, whatever cannot be saved for recovery or recycling should be
managed in an appropriate and approved waste disposal facility. Processing, use, or
contamination of this product may change the waste management options. State and
local disposal regulations may differ from federal disposal regulations. Dispose of
container and unused contents in accordance with federal, state, and local requirements.

Figure 2-3 Quick drench and eye wash station


34 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Aluminum Sulfate (Alum)


Potential health effects include irritation to the respiratory tract. Symptoms may
include coughing and shortness of breath. The material causes irritation to the
gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. There
have been two cases of fatal human poisonings from ingestion of 30 grams of alum.
Alum causes irritation to skin with symptoms including redness, itching, and pain. It
also causes eye irritation, redness, and pain.
First aid measures include moving the person into fresh air. If the person is not
breathing, administer CPR. If breathing is difficult, give the person oxygen. Get
medical attention.
If alum is swallowed, do not induce vomiting, but do give the victim large
quantities of water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Wipe off
excess material from skin then immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least
15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical attention. Wash
clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. If alum comes into contact
with the eyes, immediately flush them with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes,
lifting upper and lower eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention.
While alum is not considered a fire hazard, use any means suitable for
extinguishing surrounding fire. Keep in mind that water can cause the formation of
sulfuric acid. In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved
self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure
demand or other positive pressure mode.
If alum is accidentally released, ventilate area of leak or spill. Keep unnecessary
and unprotected people away from area of spill. Wear appropriate personal protective
equipment. If alum is spilled, pick up and place in a suitable container for
reclamation or disposal, using a method that does not generate dust. Cover spill with
sodium bicarbonate or soda ash and mix.
Store in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area. Protect
against physical damage. Isolate from incompatible substances. Alum becomes a safety
hazard when spilled because it absorbs moisture and becomes slippery. Containers of this
material may be hazardous when empty because they retain product residues (dust,
solids); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product. Liquid aluminum
sulfate should also be stored properly to reduce potential of leaks or spills (Figure 2-4).

Figure 2-4 Liquid aluminum sulfate storage and sign


HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WORKER RIGHT-TO-KNOW 35

A system of local or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee


exposures below the airborne exposure limits. Local exhaust ventilation is generally
preferred because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source,
preventing dispersion of it into the general work area. If the exposure limit is
exceeded, a half-face dust/mist respirator may be worn for up to ten times the
exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate
regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-facepiece dust/
mist respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the maximum use
concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency, or respirator supplier,
whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not
known, use a full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. WARNING: Air-
purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres.
When handling alum, wear impervious protective clothing, including boots,
gloves, lab coat, apron, or coveralls, as appropriate, to prevent skin contact. Use
chemical safety goggles or full face shield where dusting or splashing of solutions is
possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.
Whatever cannot be saved for recovery or recycling should be managed in an
appropriate and approved waste disposal facility. Processing, use, or contamination of
this product may change the waste management options. State and local disposal
regulations may differ from federal disposal regulations. Dispose of container and
unused contents in accordance with federal, state, and local requirements.

Ammonia Sulfate
Potential health effects include irritation to the respiratory tract. Symptoms may
include coughing and shortness of breath. The material may cause irritation to the
gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The
chemical is not toxic unless large amounts are ingested, in which case, vomiting and
diarrhea are likely. Contact with skin and eyes causes irritation to redness, itching,
and pain.
First aid measures include moving the person into fresh air. If the person is not
breathing, administer CPR. If the person is having difficulty breathing, give oxygen.
Get medical attention. If ingested, induce vomiting immediately as directed by
medical personnel. If ammonia sulfate comes into contact with the eyes or skin,
immediately flush with water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing
and shoes.
The material is not considered a fire hazard, although flammable ammonia gas
may be released in a fire. The chemical may explode if mixed with oxidizers, such as
potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite, and potassium chlorate. Use any means
suitable for extinguishing surrounding fire. Water spray may be used to keep fire-
exposed containers cool. In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and
NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in
the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
If ammonia sulfate is accidentally released, ventilate the area of leak or spill
and wear appropriate personal protective equipment. If spilled, sweep up and
containerize for reclamation or disposal. Vacuuming or wet sweeping may be used to
avoid dust dispersal.
Keep in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area. Protect
against physical damage. Isolate from incompatible substances. Containers of this
material may be hazardous when empty because they retain product residues (dust,
solids); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product.
36 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

A system of local or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee


exposures as low as possible. Local exhaust ventilation is preferable because it
controls the emissions of the contaminant at its source, preventing dispersion of it
into the general work area. For conditions of use where exposure to the dust or mist
is apparent, a half-face dust/mist respirator may be worn.
For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-
face positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. WARNING: Air-purifying respirators do not
protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. Wear impervious protective clothing,
including boots, gloves, lab coat, apron, or coveralls, as appropriate, to prevent skin
contact. Use chemical safety goggles or full face shield where dusting or splashing of
solutions is possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.
Whatever cannot be saved for recovery or recycling should be managed in an
appropriate and approved waste disposal facility. Processing, use, or contamination of
this product may change the waste management options. State and local disposal
regulations may differ from federal disposal regulations. Dispose of container and
unused contents in accordance with federal, state, and local requirements.

Carbon Dioxide
In high concentrations, carbon dioxide can reduce oxygen necessary to support life.
Symptoms include shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, ringing in ear. Contact
with solid or liquid carbon dioxide produces burning sensation and frostbite occurs
within several seconds.
Do not attempt to remove the individual from scene of overexposure without
using proper rescue equipment. Provide victim with plenty of fresh air while keeping
the person warm, dry, and quiet. If the person has stopped breathing, administer
CPR. Get medical attention. If carbon dioxide comes into contact with the eyes,
flush with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes.
If material is accidentally released or spilled, evacuate area of spill or release, use
emergency first aid procedures, provide plenty of fresh air. Remove residual and allow to
sublime in secured, well-ventilated area and contact the manufacturer’s safety department.
To dispose of, allow carbon dioxide to release, sublime, or dissipate into the open
air. Avoid releasing into courtyards or indoors or any areas where heavy carbon
dioxide vapors can accumulate. Figure 2-5 shows a carbon dioxide warning sign and
detector system.

Figure 2-5 Carbon dioxide warning sign and detector


HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WORKER RIGHT-TO-KNOW 37

The liquid or vapor storage containers are under high pressure. Do not
mishandle or abuse them. Use only containers and equipment designed for carbon
dioxide. In storage areas, use floor-level openings to outdoors and fans from floor or
low areas that exhaust outdoors. Avoid direct skin contact. Use protective equipment
and clothing and get proper training before handling carbon dioxide. Avoid direct
skin contact. Use protective equipment and clothing and get proper training before
handling carbon dioxide. Hard hats and ear protection should be worn when working
with pressurized carbon dioxide. Persons handling carbon dioxide should be trained.

Chlorine
Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas with a characteristic pungent odor. It condenses to
an amber liquid at approximately –34 ° C (–29.2 ° F) or at high pressures. Cylinders of
chlorine may burst when exposed to elevated temperatures. Chlorine in solution
forms a corrosive material. Flammable gases and vapors form explosive mixtures
with chlorine.
Severe exposures have resulted from the accidental rupture of chlorine tanks.
These exposures have caused death, lung congestion, and pulmonary edema,
pneumonia, pleurisy, and bronchitis. The lowest lethal concentration is 430 ppm for
30 minutes. Exposure to a concentration of about 5 ppm causes irritation of the
respiratory system and inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose. Acute
exposure to low levels of chlorine results in eye, nose, and throat irritation, sneezing,
excessive salivation, general excitement, and restlessness. Higher concentrations
cause difficulty in breathing, violent coughing, nausea, vomiting, cyanosis, dizziness,
headache, choking, laryngeal edema, acute tracheobronchitis, and chemical pneumo-
nia. Contact with the liquid can result in frostbite burns of the skin and eyes.
Remove an incapacitated worker from further exposure and implement
appropriate emergency procedures. All workers should be familiar with emergency
procedures, the location and proper use of emergency equipment, and methods of
protecting themselves during rescue operations. If chlorine comes into contact with
the skin, workers should flush the affected areas immediately with plenty of water,
followed by washing with soap and water.
Clothing contaminated with chlorine should be removed immediately, and
provisions should be made for the safe removal of the chemical from the clothing.
Persons laundering the clothes should be informed of the hazardous properties of
chlorine, particularly its potential for causing severe irritation to the eyes, skin, and
mucous membranes. A worker who handles chlorine should thoroughly wash hands,
forearms, and face with soap and water before eating, using tobacco products, using
toilet facilities, applying cosmetics, or taking medication. Workers should not eat,
drink, use tobacco products, apply cosmetics, or take medication in areas where
chlorine or a solution containing chlorine is handled, processed, or stored.
Chlorine itself is not a combustible fire hazard. Fires involving chlorine should
be fought upwind from the maximum distance possible. Keep unnecessary people
away; isolate the hazard area and deny entry. For a massive fire in a cargo area, use
unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. If this is impossible, withdraw from the
area and let the fire burn. Emergency personnel should stay out of low areas and
ventilate closed spaces before entering. Containers of chlorine may explode in the
heat of the fire and should be moved from the fire area if it is possible to do so safely.
If this is not possible, cool fire-exposed containers from the sides with water until
well after the fire is out. Stay away from the ends of containers. Firefighters should
wear a full set of protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus when
fighting fires involving chlorine.
38 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Chlorine should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area in tightly sealed


containers that are labeled according to OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard [29
CFR 1910.1200]. Containers of chlorine should be protected from exposure to weather,
extreme temperatures changes, and physical damage. They should be stored separately
from flammable gases and vapors, combustible substances (such as gasoline and
petroleum products, hydrocarbons, turpentine, alcohols, acetylene, hydrogen, ammonia,
and sulfur), reducing agents, finely divided metals, arsenic, bismuth, boron, calcium,
activated carbon, carbon disulfide, glycerol, hydrazine, iodine, methane, oxomonosilane,
potassium, propylene, silicon, hydrogen sulfide and water, carbon monoxide and sulfur
dioxide, moisture, steam, and water. Workers handling and operating chlorine containers,
cylinders, and tank wagons should receive special training in standard safety procedures
for handling compressed corrosive gases. All pipes and containers used for chlorine
service should be regularly inspected and tested. Empty containers of chlorine should
have secured protective covers on their valves and should be handled appropriately.
In the event of a spill or leak involving chlorine, persons not wearing
protective equipment and fully-encapsulating, vapor-protective clothing should be
restricted from contaminated areas until cleanup has been completed. Figure 2-6
shows a posted chlorine leak evacuation procedure. The following steps should be
undertaken following a spill or leak:
1. Notify safety personnel. Responders to a chlorine leak must be HAZMAT
certified.
2. Remove all sources of heat and ignition.
3. Keep all combustibles (such as wood, paper, oil) away from the leak.
4. Ventilate potentially explosive atmospheres.
5. Evacuate the spill area for at least 50 ft in all directions.
6. Find and stop the leak with emergency leak kits if this can be done
without risk. If not, move the leaking container to an isolated area until
gas has dispersed. The cylinder may be allowed to empty through a
reducing agent, such as sodium bisulfide and sodium bicarbonate.
7. Use water spray to reduce vapors; do not put water directly on the leak or
spill area.

Figure 2-6 Posted chlorine evacuation procedure


HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WORKER RIGHT-TO-KNOW 39

Good industrial hygiene practice requires that engineering controls be used


where feasible to reduce workplace concentrations of hazardous materials to the
prescribed exposure limit. However, some situations may require the use of
respirators to control exposure. Respirators must be worn if the ambient concentra-
tion of chlorine exceeds prescribed exposure limits. Respirators may be used (1)
before engineering controls have been installed, (2) during work operations, such as
maintenance or repair activities that involve unknown exposures, (3) during
operations that require entry into tanks or closed vessels, and (4) during emergen-
cies. Workers should only use respirators that have been approved by NIOSH for the
purpose (Figure 2-7). See Chapter 4 for more information on respirators.
Workers should use appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment
that must be carefully selected, used, and maintained to be effective in preventing
skin contact with chlorine. The selection of the appropriate personal protective
equipment (PPE) (e.g., gloves, sleeves, encapsulating suits) should be based on the
extent of the worker’s potential exposure to chlorine. Splash-proof chemical safety
goggles or face shields (20 to 30 cm long, minimum, Figure 2-8) should be worn
during any operation in which a solvent, caustic, or other toxic substance may be
splashed into the eyes.

Ferrous Sulfate
Potential health effects include irritation to the respiratory tract. Symptoms may
include coughing and shortness of breath. If ingested, there is low toxicity in small
quantities, but larger dosages may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and black stool.
Pink urine discoloration is a strong indicator of iron poisoning. Liver damage, coma,
and death from iron poisoning have been recorded. Causes irritation to skin.
Symptoms include redness, itching, and pain. Causes eye irritation, redness, and
pain. Severe or chronic ferrous sulfate poisonings may damage blood vessels. Chronic
exposure may cause liver effects. Prolonged exposure to the eyes may cause eye
discoloration.

Figure 2-7 Breathing apparatus


40 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Figure 2-8 Face shield and chlorine leak emergency kit

First aid measures include moving the person into fresh air. If not breathing,
administer CPR. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention. If the
material is ingested, induce vomiting immediately as directed by medical personnel.
If in contact with skin, immediately flush area with plenty of soap and water for at
least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before
reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. If ferrous sulfate comes into contact with
the eyes, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting
lower and upper eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately.
The material is not considered a fire hazard. Use any means suitable for
extinguishing surrounding fire. Use protective clothing and breathing equipment
appropriate for the surrounding fire. If accidentally released, ventilate area of leak or
spill. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment. If material is spilled, pick up
and place in a suitable container for reclamation or disposal, using a method that
does not generate dust.
Keep in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area. Protect
against physical damage. Maintain a constant temperature not to exceed 24° C (75°
F). Fluctuating temperatures cause product oxidation. Do not use this product if
coated with brownish-yellow basic ferric sulfate. Isolate from incompatible sub-
stances. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty because they
retain product residues (dust, solids); observe all warnings and precautions listed for
the product.
A system of local or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee
exposures below the airborne exposure limits. Local exhaust ventilation is generally
preferred because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source,
preventing dispersion of it into the general work area. If the exposure limit is
exceeded, a half-face dust/mist respirator may be worn for up to ten times the
exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate
regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-face piece dust/
mist respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the maximum use
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WORKER RIGHT-TO-KNOW 41

concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency, or respirator supplier,


whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not
known, use a full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. WARNING: Air-
purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. Wear
impervious protective clothing, including boots, gloves, lab coat, apron, or coveralls,
as appropriate, to prevent skin contact. Use chemical safety goggles or full face shield
where dusting or splashing of solutions is possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and
quick-drench facilities in work area.
Whatever cannot be saved for recovery or recycling should be managed in an
appropriate and approved waste disposal facility. Processing, use, or contamination of
this product may change the waste management options. State and local disposal
regulations may differ from federal disposal regulations. Dispose of container and
unused contents in accordance with federal, state, and local requirements.

Quicklime (Calcium Oxide)


Quicklime causes severe irritation and burns to every area of contact. It is harmful if
swallowed and may cause serious alkali burns in the mouth and throat. Abdominal
pain, nausea, vomiting may result. Inhalation of dust is highly irritating and possibly
corrosive to the upper respiratory tract. May cause coughing, sneezing, labored
breathing, and possibly burns with perforation of the nasal septum. A severe irritant,
it may damage eye tissues, causing redness, tearing, blurred vision, pain.
For first aid, move the victim into fresh air. If the person is not breathing,
administer CPR. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention
immediately. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING! Give large quantities of water or milk if
available. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. For skin contact,
flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated
clothing and shoes. Call a physician, immediately. If quicklime comes into contact with
the eyes, wash thoroughly with running water. Get medical advice if irritation develops.
While not considered to be a fire hazard, lime and water can react exothermi-
cally with sufficient heat to ignite combustible materials in certain instances. The
combination of lime and water at high temperatures may be explosive. Use any
means suitable for extinguishing any surrounding fire. In the event of a fire, wear
full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus
with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
If material is accidentally released, ventilate area of leak or spill. Keep unnecessary
and unprotected people away from area of spill. Wear appropriate personal protective
equipment. If material is spilled, pick up and place in a suitable container for
reclamation or disposal, using a method that does not generate dust.
Keep in a tightly closed container. Protect from physical damage. Store in a cool,
dry, ventilated area away from sources of heat, moisture, and incompatibilities. This
strongly alkaline material will swell and generate heat when moistened and could
burst container. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty because
they retain product residues (dust, solids); observe all warnings and precautions
listed for the product. A system of local or general exhaust is recommended to keep
employee exposures below the airborne exposure limits. Local exhaust ventilation is
preferable because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source,
preventing dispersion of it into the general work area.
If the exposure limit is exceeded, a full facepiece respirator with dust/mist filter
may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration
specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is
lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a
full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. WARNING: Air purifying
42 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. Wear impervious


protective clothing, including boots, gloves, lab coat, apron, or coveralls, as
appropriate, to prevent skin contact. Use chemical safety goggles or full face shield
where dusting or splashing of solutions is possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and
quick-drench facilities in work area (Figure 2-9).
Whatever cannot be saved for recovery or recycling should be managed in an
appropriate and approved waste disposal facility. Processing, use, or contamination of
this product may change the waste management options. State and local disposal
regulations may differ from federal disposal regulations. Dispose of container and
unused contents in accordance with federal, state, and local requirements.

Ozone
Ozone is highly reactive and can explode on contact with organic substances,
especially strong reducing agents. Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent and oxidation
with ozone evolves more heat and usually starts at a lower temperature than
oxidation with oxygen. It reacts with nonsaturated organic compounds to produce
ozonides, which are unstable and may decompose with explosive violence. Ozone is an
unstable gas which, at normal temperatures, decomposes to biatomic oxygen. At
elevated temperatures and in the presence of certain catalysts, such as hydrogen,
iron, copper and chromium, this decomposition may be explosive.
If inhaled, ozone causes dryness of the mouth, coughing, and irritates the nose,
throat, and chest. May cause difficulty in breathing, headache, and fatigue. The
characteristic sharp, irritating odor is readily detectable at low concentrations
(0.01 to 0.05 ppm). Ozone is an irritant to the eyes causing pain, lacrimation, and
general inflammation.
If ozone is inhaled, move the victim into fresh air; if breathing is difficult, a
trained person should administer oxygen. If breathing stops, administer CPR. Get
medical attention. Wash skin thoroughly with soap and water. Immediately flush
eyes with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes, while forcibly holding
eyelids apart to ensure flushing of the entire eye surface. If irritation, pain, or other
symptoms persist seek medical attention.

Figure 2-9 Eye wash and shower station near chemical unloading facility
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WORKER RIGHT-TO-KNOW 43

Ozone is highly unstable and decomposes under all conditions and is not
encountered except at very small levels in the immediate vicinity where formed. If
ozone is accidentally released, evacuate danger area. If ozone is a liquid or solid,
allow material to evaporate and provide sufficient ventilation to dilute and disperse
small amounts into the outside atmosphere. Do not dispose of ozone off-gas into the
atmosphere without properly designed off-gas destruct unit. State and local disposal
regulations may differ from federal disposal regulations.
Ozone should be contained within a chemically compatible piping system.
General exhaust is recommended. Avoid working with ozone-generating equipment
in enclosed spaces. Respirators may be used when engineering and work practice
controls are not technically feasible, when such controls are in the process of being
installed, or when they fail and need to be supplemented. Respirators may also be
used for operations which require entry into tanks or closed vessels, and in
emergency situations. Only appropriate respirators shall be provided and used when
the use of respirators is the only means of controlling exposure for routine operations
or during an emergency. Positive pressure air line with mask or self-contained
breathing apparatus should be available for emergency use.

Soda Ash (Sodium Carbonate)


Soda ash may cause eye burns. It is harmful if swallowed or inhaled. It causes
irritation to skin and respiratory tract. Inhalation of dust may cause irritation to the
respiratory tract. Symptoms from excessive inhalation of dust may include coughing
and difficult breathing. Excessive contact is known to cause damage to the nasal
septum. Sodium carbonate is only slightly toxic, but large doses may be corrosive to
the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include severe abdominal pain, vomiting,
diarrhea, collapse, and death. Excessive skin contact may cause irritation with
blistering and redness. Solutions may cause severe irritation or burns. Contact may
be corrosive to eyes and cause conjuctival edema and corneal destruction. Risk of
serious injury increases if eyes are kept tightly closed. Other symptoms may appear
from absorption of sodium carbonate into the bloodstream via the eyes.
If inhaled, move the victim into fresh air. If the person is not breathing,
administer CPR. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention. If
swallowed, DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have the victim drink large quantities of
water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical
attention immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at
least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Immediately flush eyes
with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting lower and upper eyelids
occasionally. Get medical attention immediately.
Although it is not considered a fire or explosion hazard, sodium carbonate may
explode when applied to red-hot aluminum. Use any means suitable for extinguishing
surrounding fire. Use protective clothing and breathing equipment appropriate for the
surrounding fire. If material is accidentally released, ventilate area of leak or spill. Wear
appropriate personal protective equipment. Sweep up and containerize for reclamation
or disposal. Vacuuming or wet sweeping may be used to avoid dust dispersal.
Keep in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area. Protect
against physical damage. Isolate from incompatible substances. Containers of this
material may be hazardous when empty because they retain product residues (dust,
solids); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product. A system of local
or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee exposures as low as possible.
Local exhaust ventilation is preferable because it can control the emissions of the
contaminant at its source, preventing dispersion of it into the general work area. For
44 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

conditions of use where exposure to the dust or mist is apparent, a half-face dust/mist
respirator may be worn. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are
not known, use a full-face positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. WARNING: Air-
purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. Wear
protective gloves and clean body-covering clothing. Use chemical safety goggles or full
face shield where dusting or splashing of solutions is possible. Maintain an eye wash
fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.
Whatever cannot be saved for recovery or recycling should be managed in an
appropriate and approved waste disposal facility. Processing, use, or contamination of
this product may change the waste management options. State and local disposal
regulations may differ from federal disposal regulations. Dispose of container and
unused contents in accordance with federal, state, and local requirements.

Sodium Chlorite
Sodium chlorite is a strong oxidizer and contact with other material may cause fire.
Inhalation may cause irritation of the mucous membranes and respiratory tract.
Symptoms may include coughing, bloody nose, and sneezing. Severe overexposures
may cause lung damage. Direct contact may cause severe irritation or burns with
symptoms of redness, itching, swelling and possible destruction of tissue. Mist or
direct contact may cause severe irritation and possibly burns. Symptoms may include
tearing, redness, and in severe cases, eye damage caused by burns. Sodium chlorite
can cause gastroenteritis with any or all of the following symptoms: nausea,
vomiting, lethargy, diarrhea, bleeding, or ulceration. Acute ingestion of large
quantities may also cause anemia caused by the oxidizing effects of the chemical.
Move the victim to fresh air and monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or
difficulty in breathing develops, administer oxygen, and consult a physician
immediately. In the event that breathing stops, administer CPR and obtain
emergency medical assistance immediately. Remove contaminated clothing. Immedi-
ately flush exposed skin areas with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes.
Consult a physician if burning or irritation of the skin persists. Immediately flush
eyes with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes while frequently lifting the
upper and lower eyelids. Consult a physician immediately. DO NOT induce vomiting.
Have the victim drink large quantities of water. Consult a physician immediately. DO
NOT give anything by mouth if the person is unconscious or having seizures.
In case of fire in surrounding areas, approach from upwind to avoid hazardous
vapors and toxic decomposition products. Use flooding quantities of water as fog or
spray. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Extinguish fire using
agent suitable for surrounding fire. Firefighters should wear full protective clothing
(chemically impermeable, full encapsulated suit) and positive pressure self-contained
breathing apparatus. Evacuate all nonessential personnel. Hazardous concentrations
in the air may be found in local spill area and immediately downwind. Use
emergency response personal protective equipment prior to the start of any response.
This product may represent an explosion hazard, in the form of explosive chlorine
dioxide gas if it contacts acids or chlorine. Remove all sources of ignition, such as
flames, hot glowing surfaces, or electrical arcs. Stop source of spill as soon as
possible and notify appropriate personnel. This material is soluble in water. Notify all
downstream water users of possible contamination. Divert water flow around spill if
possible and safe to do so. Pick up, keep in closed container, and hold for waste
disposal. Do not place spill materials back in their original container. Decontaminate
all clothing and, if permitted, the spill area using strong detergent and flush with
large amounts of water.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WORKER RIGHT-TO-KNOW 45

Dry sodium chlorite is a strong oxidizing agent. Mix only into water.
Contamination may start a chemical reaction with generation of heat, liberation of
hazardous gases (such as chlorine dioxide, a poisonous, explosive gas), and possible
fire and explosion. Do not contaminate with moisture, garbage, dirt, organic matter,
household products, chemicals, soap products, paint products, solvents, acids, vinegar,
beverages, oils, pine oil, dirty rag, or any other foreign matter. Do not use moist or
damp utensils. Store in labeled, sealed containers in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.
Keep containers tightly closed when not in use. Do not store in open, unlabeled or
mislabeled containers. Do not remove or deface label. Do not expose to direct light. Do
not expose to moisture during storage. Do not store at temperatures above 125°F
(52°C). Local exhaust ventilation is recommended if vapors, mists, or aerosols are
generated. Otherwise, use general exhaust ventilation. Wear chemical goggles or a
face shield. Wear Neoprene gloves, boots, and apron. Emergency eye wash and safety
showers must be provided in the immediate work area. Wear NIOSH/MSHA
approved acid gas respirator plus dust/mist pre-filters if any exposure to dust or mist
is possible.

Sodium Fluoride
Sodium fluoride may be fatal if swallowed or inhaled. It can affect the respiratory
system, heart, skeleton, circulatory system, central nervous system, and kidneys. It
can cause irritation to skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Irritation effects may be
delayed. If inhaled or swallowed, this compound can cause fluoride poisoning. Early
symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weakness. Later effects include
central nervous system effects, cardiovascular effects, and death. It can cause severe
irritation to the respiratory tract, symptoms may include coughing, sore throat, and
labored breathing. Sodium fluoride may be absorbed through inhalation of dust.
Symptoms may parallel those from ingestion exposure. Irritation effects may not
appear immediately. It may cause salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and
abdominal pain. Symptoms of weakness, tremors, shallow respiration, cardopedal
spasm, convulsions, and coma may follow. It may cause brain and kidney damage. It
can affect heart and circulatory system. Death may occur from respiratory paralysis.
Estimated lethal dose is 5–l0 grams. Contact with skin and eyes causes irritation,
with redness and pain.
If inhaled, move the victim into fresh air. If the person is not breathing,
administer CPR. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Call a physician immedi-
ately. Administer milk, chewable calcium carbonate tablets, or milk of magnesia.
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Wipe off any excess
material from skin and then immediately flush skin with large amounts of soapy
water. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Apply bandages soaked in
magnesium sulfate. Immediately flush eyes with gentle but large stream of water for
at least 15 minutes, lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally. Call a physician
immediately.
In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-
contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand
or other positive pressure mode. If sodium fluoride is accidentally released, ventilate
area of leak or spill. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment. Pick up and
place in a suitable container for reclamation or disposal, using a method that does
not generate dust. US regulations require reporting spills and releases to soil, water,
and air in excess of reportable quantities.
Keep in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area. Protect
against physical damage. Separate from acids and oxidizing materials. Containers of
46 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

this material may be hazardous when empty because they retain product residues
(dust, solids); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product. A system
of local or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee exposures below the
airborne exposure limits. Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred because it
can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source, preventing dispersion of it
into the general work area.
If the exposure limit is exceeded, a half-face dust/mist respirator may be worn
for up to ten times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by
the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-
facepiece dust/mist respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the
maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency, or
respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the
exposure levels are not known, use a full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied
respirator. WARNING: Air-purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-
deficient atmospheres. Wear impervious protective clothing, including boots, gloves,
lab coat, apron, or coveralls, as appropriate, to prevent skin contact. Use chemical
safety goggles or full face shield where dusting or splashing of solutions is possible.
Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.
Whatever cannot be saved for recovery or recycling should be managed in an
appropriate and approved waste disposal facility. Processing, use, or contamination of
this product may change the waste management options. State and local disposal
regulations may differ from federal disposal regulations. Dispose of the container and
unused contents in accordance with federal, state, and local requirements.

OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS______________________________________________


There are other materials besides chemicals in water utilities that may present
hazards. Two of these are nonionizing radiation and compressed gases.

Nonionizing Radiation
Nonionizing radiation registers at the low end of the electromagnetic frequency
spectrum. It lacks the energy required to cause ionization but can cause molecules to
vibrate. The health effects depend on the particular wavelength of the radiation
involved. The types of nonionizing radiation include UV, infrared, laser, microwave,
and low-frequency radiation.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is given off by the sun and also by artificial sources,
such as sun lamps and welding equipment. It can burn the skin as in sunburn. Long-
term exposure can lead to aging of the skin and may cause skin cancer. UV radiation
can also damage the eye, forming lesions on the outer membrane. This is a particular
hazard for welders, who must wear eye protection. Welding areas should be isolated
so that other workers are not accidentally exposed to welding flashes.
Infrared radiation is experienced primarily as radiated heat. Heating and
warming equipment can cause an overexposure, leading to skin burns and eye
damage. Shielding and enclosures may be required along with proper eye protection.
Lasers produce a very intense beam of light. This light produces specific
electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet, infrared, and visible frequency ranges. Laser
radiation can be used surgically to destroy tissue. Lasers are also used in some industrial
applications. This type of radiation can potentially damage the eyes or skin.
Microwave and high radio frequency radiation are found in radar, communica-
tions, and cooking operations. Microwaves interact with the body by raising the
temperature of body organs. It is suspected that the brain, the eyes, and the
reproductive organs are vulnerable.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WORKER RIGHT-TO-KNOW 47

The longer wavelengths including power line transmission frequencies, broad-


cast radio, and shortwave radio can produce a general heating of the body. The
potential hazards are greatest for those working close to powerful radio transmitters.
Proper eye protection must be worn when working with sources, such as ultraviolet,
laser, and high-intensity visible light, which are capable of producing eye damage.
Protective clothing must be worn around sources, such as ultraviolet, that are
capable of producing skin burns. All UV sources capable of causing eye or skin burns
should be interlocked so that direct viewing or bodily exposure is not possible. The
total intensity of UV light from lamps and reflecting surfaces should not exceed the
levels specified. UV sources should be placed out of the direct line of sight, and highly
reflective surfaces should be painted with low reflectance paint.
Laser sources exist with outputs from the infrared to the UV. The eye is
generally the most sensitive organ and the one that must be protected. However,
ultraviolet and high-power lasers may also be hazardous to the skin. In addition,
high-powered lasers may become fire hazards. The eye is transparent to radiation
from 400 to 1,400 nm. This is termed the ocular hazard region because the radiation
incident on the cornea is focused on the retina.

Compressed Gases
Compressed gases expose users to both chemical and physical hazards. Gases
contained within compressed gas cylinders can be toxic, flammable, oxidizing,
corrosive, inert, or some combination thereof. Because the chemical is in gaseous
form and pressurized, it can quickly contaminate a large area in the event of a leak
in the cylinder, the regulator, or in the tubing coming off of the cylinder, therefore,
familiarity with the chemical hazards of the gas is necessary. In addition to the
chemical hazards, energy resulting from the compression of the gas makes a
compressed gas cylinder a potential rocket.
Appropriate care in the handling and storage of compressed gas cylinders is
essential. This safety guide contains the basic measures necessary to use compressed
gas cylinders safely. Additional information pertaining to each specific gas can be
found in the cylinder labeling and in MSDS.
Contents of the gas cylinder should be clearly identified. Color coding is NOT a
reliable means of identification. Do not deface or remove any markings, tags, or
stencil marks used for identification of contents attached by the vendor. Cylinders
that do not bear a legibly written, stamped, or stenciled identification of the contents
should not be used. They should be segregated and returned to the vendor as soon as
possible. Caps used for valve protection should be kept on the cylinder except when
the cylinder is in use. A cylinder’s cap should be screwed all the way down on the
cylinder’s neck and should fit securely. The cap is for valve protection only.
If a cylinder containing poisonous gas is leaking, immediately leave the room,
close the doors, pull the nearest fire alarm, evacuate the area, and report the
emergency. The supplier should be contacted for disposal of the cylinder once the
emergency situation is stabilized.
If a cylinder containing flammable or oxidizing gas is leaking, follow the same
steps as above, but turn off all sources of ignition in the room prior to leaving if the
shutoffs are accessible. Never attempt to extinguish a fire involving flammable gas
without shutting off the gas supply; an explosive atmosphere could be created. If the
leaking cylinder contains inert gases, place the cylinder in a well-ventilated location,
preferably an outdoor cylinder storage area, and contact the vendor for removal.
When moving cylinders, always use a suitable hand truck or similar device; the
cylinder must be firmly secured for transporting and unloading. DO NOT roll or drag a
48 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

cylinder or allow cylinders to strike each other or any other surface violently. Protective
valve caps must be secured when moving cylinders. DO NOT lift or move the cylinder by
the cap. Ropes or slings should be not be used to suspend cylinders unless the vendor has
made provisions for such lifting and attachment points are provided on the cylinder.
All cylinder storage areas must be prominently marked with the hazard class or
the name of the gases to be stored, e.g., “Flammable Gas Storage Area,” and “No
Smoking” signs posted where necessary. Always secure gas cylinders upright (with
valve end up) to a wall, cylinder hand truck, cylinder rack or post, unless the cylinder
is specifically designed to be stored otherwise. Where gases of different types are
stored at the same location, cylinders (empty or full) should be grouped by the type
of gas, e.g., flammable, oxidizer, or corrosive. Inert gases can be stored with any other
type of gas. Full cylinders should be stored separately from empty cylinders.
Cylinders should be used according to the “first in–first out” guideline.
Cylinders should be stored in a well-ventilated area away from sparks, flames, or
any source of heat or ignition. Cylinders may be stored outside on a slab, however,
where extreme temperatures prevail, cylinders should be stored so that they are
protected from the direct rays of the sun. Do not expose cylinders to temperatures above
125°F (50°C). Cylinders should not be exposed to continuous dampness or stored near
salt or other corrosive chemicals or fumes. Corrosion may damage cylinders and cause
their valve protection caps to stick. Cylinders containing corrosive chemicals should be
periodically checked to ensure that the valve has not corroded. Avoid prolonged storage
of cylinders in corridors. Never store cylinders in elevator lobbies, stair towers, or any
other location that could obstruct the safe exit pathway of the building occupants.
These general precautions should be followed:
• Do not use compressed gas cylinders for any purpose other than the
transportation and supply of gas.
• Never tamper with or attempt to repair or alter cylinders, valves, or any
safety relief devices. Return cylinders to the vendor for all repairs.
• Do not attempt to remove a stuck cap by using a lever in the cap ports. The
lever may accidentally open the valve when the cap turns.
• Do not place cylinders where they might become part of an electric circuit or
allow them to come into contact with an electrically energized system.
• Use “Snoop” (a commercial liquid leak dector), soapy water, or leak detection
equipment to verify that there are no leaks in the gas transport system.
• Use pressure regulators that are equipped with pressure relief devices.
When using compressed gases, these recommended steps should be followed:
1. Before using the gas, read all label information and the data sheets
associated with the use of that particular gas.
2. Before attaching cylinders to a connection, be sure that the threads on the
cylinder and the connection mate are of a type intended for gas service.
3. The threads and mating surfaces of the regulator and hose connections
should be cleaned before the regulator is attached. Wipe the outlet with a
clean, dry, lint-free cloth. Particulate can clog the regulator filter (if so
equipped) or cause the regulator to malfunction.
4. Always use the proper regulator for the gas in the cylinder. Always check
the regulator before attaching it to a cylinder. If the connections do not fit
together easily, the wrong regulator is being used.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WORKER RIGHT-TO-KNOW 49

5. Attach the regulator securely with the secondary valve closed and
preferably with the regulator flow backed off (counterclockwise) before
opening the cylinder valve wide.
6. Do not permit oil or grease to come in contact with cylinders or their
valves, especially cylinders containing oxidizing gases.
7. Always use a cylinder wrench or other tightly fitting wrench to tighten the
regulator nut and tube connections. Use “backup” wrenches to minimize
stress on tubing and fittings where appropriate.
8. Teflon™ tape should never be used on cylinder connections or tube-fitting
connections. Use Teflon tape only on pipe threads where the seal is made at the
threads. All other connections have metal to metal face seals or gasket seals.
9. Open cylinder valves SLOWLY. Point the valve opening away from yourself
and other persons. Never use a wrench or hammer to open or close a hand-
wheel-type cylinder valve. If the valve is frozen and cannot be operated by
hand, return the cylinder to the vendor.
10. Before a regulator is removed from a cylinder, close the cylinder valve and
release all pressure from the regulator.
11. Never completely empty a rented gas cylinder; rather, discontinue use of
the cylinder when it has at least 25 psi (172 kPa) remaining. Mark the
cylinder so that others know that it is nearly empty, e.g., write MT
(“empty”) on a piece of tape and stick it on the cylinder. Close the valve and
secure the cylinder valve protective cap and outlet cap or plug, if used.
The following measures also should be taken when handling flammable gases.
• Cylinders containing flammable gases (empty or full) should be separated
from cylinders containing oxidizing gases by a minimum distance of 20 ft
(6.1 m) or by a barrier at least 5 ft (1.5 m) high that has a fire-resistance
rating of at least one-half hour, e.g., a concrete block wall.
• Do not store flammable or oxidizing gases near highly flammable solvents,
combustible materials, or near unprotected electrical connections, gas
flames, or any other source of ignition.
• It is preferable to store flammable gases in a ventilated, fire-resistant
enclosure, e.g., an approved gas cabinet. If this is not possible, flammable
gas cylinders should be stored in a well-ventilated space.
• The quantity of flammable gas cylinders in a facility should be kept to a
minimum.
• It is preferable to use flow restrictors or surge protectors on flammable gas
cylinders so that there cannot be a sudden large flow of gas if a rupture or
other unexpected release happens in the system.
In addition to the general guidelines, the following measures should be taken
when handling poison gases:
• Poison gases must be stored in a ventilated enclosure, e.g., an approved gas
cabinet or a fume hood.
• Gas detection systems may be required in facilities that have poison gases
(Figure 2-10).
50 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Figure 2-10 Chlorine gas detector

• The quantity of poison gas cylinders in a facility should be kept to a minimum.


• Flow restrictors are required on most poison gas cylinders.
• Ensure that pressure-relief devices vent directly to an exhaust system.
In addition to the general guidelines, the following measures should be taken
when handling oxidizing gases:
Do not permit oil or grease to come in contact with cylinders or their valves,
especially cylinders containing oxidizing gases. Regulators and tubing used with
oxidizing gases must be specially cleaned to remove oil and other reducing agents.
Explosions may occur when pressurized oxidizers, e.g., oxygen, comes into contact
with grease or oil.
Cylinders containing oxygen or oxidizing gases, e.g., chlorine (empty or full),
should be separated from cylinders containing flammable gases by a minimum
distance of 20 ft (6.1 m) or by a barrier at least 5 ft (1.5 m) high having a fire-
resistance rating of at least one-half hour, e.g., a concrete block wall.
Do not store oxidizing gases near flammable solvents, combustible materials or
near unprotected electrical connections, gas flames, or other sources of ignition.

REFERENCE________________________________________________________________________________
US Department of Labor, OSHA. 1999.
Hazard Communication: A Compliance
Kit, Revised. Washington, D.C.: US
Government.
AWWA MANUAL M3

Chapter 3
Confined Space and
Hazardous Energy

Confined spaces and hazardous energy are two important safety concerns for water
utilities. OSHA has regulations that address these hazards, which are summarized in
this chapter. Included are definitions, descriptions of the hazards, and the procedures
for working in such conditions, including lockout/tagout procedures. Utilities should
refer to current applicable regulations to determine if a permit is required for
working in confined spaces.

CONFINED SPACES____________________________________________________________________
Confined spaces are generally those with open tops and with a depth that will
restrict the natural movement of air, and enclosed spaces with very limited openings
for entry (OSHA, 2001). OSHA uses the term “permit-required confined space”
(permit space) to describe those spaces that both meet the definition of “confined
space” and pose health or safety hazards. In either of these cases, the space may
contain mechanical equipment with moving parts. Any combination of these
parameters will change the nature of the hazards encountered. Access pits and
certain types of storage tanks may be classified as open-topped confined spaces that
usually contain no moving parts. However, gases that are heavier than air (butane,
propane, and other hydrocarbons) remain in depressions and will flow to low points
where they are difficult to remove. Open-topped water tanks that appear harmless
may develop toxic atmospheres, such as the formation of hydrogen sulfide from the
vaporization of contaminated water. Therefore, these gases (heavier than air) are a
primary concern when entering into a confined space. Other hazards may develop
because of the work performed in the confined space or because of corrosive residues
that accelerate the decomposition of scaffolding supports and electrical components.
Entering a confined space as part of the utility activity may be done for various
reasons. It is done usually to perform a necessary function, such as inspection, repair,
maintenance (cleaning or painting), or similar operations that would be an
infrequent or irregular function of the routine activity.

51
52 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Entering a confined space may also be done during new construction. Potential
hazards should be easier to recognize during construction because the confined space
has not been used. The types of hazards involved will be limited by the specific work
practices. When the area meets the criteria for a confined space, all ventilation and
other requirements should be enforced. One of the most difficult entries to control is
that of unauthorized entry, especially when there are large numbers of workers and
trades involved, such as welders, painters, electricians, and safety monitors. See
Figure 3-1 for the OSHA poster on confined-space danger.
A final and most important reason for entering a confined space would be for
emergency rescue. This, and all other reasons for entry, must be well planned before
initial entry is made, and the hazards must be thoroughly reviewed. The attendants,
entry supervisors, and all rescue personnel should be aware of the structural design
of the space, emergency exit procedures, and life support systems required.

Figure 3-1 OSHA confined space poster


CONFINED SPACE AND HAZARDOUS ENERGY 53

Confined-space permit. A confined space is a space that


• Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and
perform assigned work
• Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks,
vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may
have limited means of entry)
• Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy
• In addition to the criteria listed above, a permit-required confined space
(OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.146) means a confined space that has one or
more of the following characteristics:
• Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere
• Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant
• Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped
or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes
downward to a smaller cross section
• Contains any other recognized serious safety and health hazard
Each situation must be measured against these criteria to determine if it is a
permit-required confined space. The same space could change its status based on its
contents or ventilation. A pre-entry permit checklist that specifies acceptable entry
conditions is required (see appendix) and all confined spaces must be marked or
placarded as being a confined space.
Before an employee enters the space, the internal atmosphere shall be tested by
a trained employee using a calibrated direct-reading instrument. The atmosphere
should be tested for oxygen content, for flammable gases and vapors, and for
potential toxic air contaminants, in that order. Any employee who enters the space,
or that employee’s authorized representative, shall be provided an opportunity to
observe the pre-entry testing required by this paragraph. The atmosphere within the
space shall be periodically tested as necessary to ensure that the continuous forced
air ventilation is preventing the accumulation of a hazardous atmosphere.
Confined-space entry permits provide the details of the space and work in the
space. Specific details include
• procedures for entry
• equipment and training provided
• trained entry supervisors and attendants
• trained and available rescue personnel
• air monitoring
• warning signs (see Figure 3-2)
• barriers
• personal protective and rescue equipment
54 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Figure 3-2 Danger signs and barriers

The employer shall ensure that each attendant


• knows the hazards that may be faced during entry, including information on
the mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure
• is aware of possible behavioral effects of hazard exposure on authorized
entrants
• continuously maintains an accurate count of authorized entrants in the
permit space and ensures that the means used to identify authorized
entrants accurately identifies who is in the permit space
• remains outside the permit space during entry operations until relieved by
another attendant
• may enter a permit space to attempt a rescue if they have been trained and
equipped for rescue operations when the employer’s permit entry program
allows attendant entry for rescue
The employer shall ensure that each entry supervisor
• knows the hazards that may be faced during entry, including information on
the mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure
• verifies, by checking that the appropriate entries have been made on the
permit, that all tests specified by the permit have been conducted and that
all procedures and equipment specified by the permit are in place before
endorsing the permit and allowing entry to begin
• terminates the entry and cancels the permit
• verifies that rescue services are available and that the means for
summoning them are operable
• removes unauthorized individuals who enter or who attempt to enter the
permit space during entry operations
• determines, whenever responsibility for a permit space entry operation is
transferred and at intervals dictated by the hazards and operations
CONFINED SPACE AND HAZARDOUS ENERGY 55

performed within the space, that entry operations remain consistent with
terms of the entry permit and that acceptable entry conditions are
maintained

Safety Hazards
Potential hazards associated with confined spaces include mechanical hazards,
communication problems, entry and exit, and physical hazards.
Mechanical hazards. If activation of electrical or mechanical equipment
would cause injury, each piece of equipment should be manually isolated to prevent
inadvertent activation before workers enter or while they work in a confined space.
The interplay of hazards associated with a confined space, such as the potential of
flammable vapors or gases being present, and the buildup of static charge due to
mechanical cleaning, such as abrasive blasting, all influence the precautions that
must be taken.
To prevent vapor leaks, flashbacks, and other hazards, workers should
completely isolate the space. To completely isolate a confined space, the closing of
valves is not sufficient. All pipes must be physically disconnected or isolation blanks
bolted in place. Other special precautions must be taken in cases where flammable
liquids or vapors may recontaminate the confined space. The pipes blanked or
disconnected should be inspected and tested for leakage. Other areas of concern are
steam valves, pressure lines, and chemical transfer pipes.
Communication problems. Communication between the worker inside the
confined space and the attendent outside is of utmost importance. If the worker
should suddenly feel distressed and not be able to summon help, an injury could
become a fatality. Frequently, the body positions that are assumed in a confined space
make it difficult for the attendant to detect an unconscious worker. When visual
monitoring of the worker is not possible because of the design of the confined space
or location of the entry hatch, a voice or alarm-activated explosion-proof-type of
communication system will be necessary. An approved type of illumination is
required to provide sufficient visibility.
Entry and exit hazards. Entry and exit time is of major significance as a
physical limitation and is directly related to the potential hazard of the confined
space. The extent of precautions taken and the standby equipment needed to
maintain a safe work area will be determined by the means of access and rescue. The
following should be considered:
• type of confined space to be entered
• access to the entrance
• number and size of openings
• barriers within the space
• the occupancy load
• the time requirement for exiting in event of fire or vapor incursion
• the time required to rescue injured workers
Physical. Physical hazards include thermal effects (heat and cold), noise,
vibration, radiation, and fatigue while working in a confined space.
Four factors influence the interchange of heat between people and their
environment. They are: (1) air temperature, (2) air velocity, (3) moisture contained in
the air, and (4) radiant heat. Because of the nature and design of most confined
56 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

spaces, moisture content and radiant heat are difficult to control. As body
temperature rises progressively, workers will continue to function until the body
temperature reaches approximately 102° F (39°C). When this body temperature is
exceeded, the workers are less efficient and are prone to heat exhaustion, heat
cramps, or heat stroke.
In a cold environment, certain physiologic mechanisms come into play, which
tend to limit heat loss and increase heat production. The most severe strain in cold
conditions is chilling of the extremities so that activity is restricted. Special
precautions must be taken in cold environments to prevent frostbite, trench foot, and
general hypothermia. Protective insulated clothing for both hot and cold environ-
ments will add additional bulk to the worker and must be considered in allowing for
movement in the confined space and exit time.
Noise problems are usually intensified in confined spaces because the interior
tends to cause sound to reverberate and thus expose the worker to higher sound
levels than those found in an open environment. This intensified noise increases the
risk of hearing damage to workers, which could result in temporary or permanent
loss of hearing. Noise in a confined space, which may not be intense enough to cause
hearing damage, may still disrupt verbal communication with the attendant on the
exterior of the confined space. If the workers inside are not able to hear commands or
danger signals because of excessive noise, the probability of severe accidents can
increase.
Whole body vibration may affect multiple body parts and organs depending on
the vibration characteristics. Segmental vibration, unlike whole body vibration,
appears to be more localized in creating injury to the fingers and hands of workers
using tools, such as pneumatic hammers, rotary grinders, or other hand tools that
cause vibration.
Some physical hazards cannot be eliminated because of the nature of the
confined space or the work to be performed. These hazards include such items as
scaffolding, surface residues, and structural hazards. The use of scaffolding in
confined spaces has contributed to many accidents caused by workers or materials
falling, improper use of guardrails, and lack of maintenance to insure worker safety.
The choice of material used for scaffolding depends upon the type of work to be
performed, the calculated weight to be supported, the surface on which the
scaffolding is placed, and the substance previously stored in the confined space.
Surface residues in confined spaces can increase the already hazardous
conditions of electrical shock, reaction of incompatible materials, liberation of toxic
substances, and bodily injury caused by slips and falls. Without protective clothing,
additional hazards to health may arise because of surface residues.
Structural hazards within a confined space such as baffles in horizontal tanks,
trays in vertical towers, bends in tunnels, overhead structural members, or
scaffolding installed for maintenance constitute physical hazards, which are exacer-
bated by the physical surroundings. In dealing with structural hazards, workers
must review and enforce safety precautions to assure safety.

Rescue
Over one half of the deaths in confined spaces are rescuers. Careful planning must be
given to the relationship between the internal structure, the exit opening, and the
worker. If the worker is above the opening, the system must include a rescue
arrangement operated from outside the confined space, if possible, by which the
employee can be lowered and removed without injury.
CONFINED SPACE AND HAZARDOUS ENERGY 57

HAZARDOUS ENERGY AND LOCKOUT/TAGOUT (29 CFR 1910.147)_


Workers may be exposed to hazardous energy in several forms and combinations
during installation, maintenance, service, or repair work. A comprehensive hazard-
ous energy control program should address all forms of hazardous energy including
• Kinetic (mechanical) energy in the moving parts of mechanical systems
• Potential energy stored in pressure vessels, gas tanks, hydraulic or
pneumatic systems, such as pipelines, and springs (potential energy can be
released as hazardous kinetic energy)
• Electrical energy from generated electrical power, static sources, or electrical
storage devices (such as batteries or capacitors)
• Thermal energy (high or low temperature) resulting from mechanical work,
radiation, chemical reaction, or electrical resistance
Utilities should establish a program consisting of energy control procedures,
employee training, and periodic inspections. The program should ensure that before
any employee does any servicing, construction, or maintenance on a machine,
equipment, pipelines, or other sources of hazardous energy where the unexpected
energizing, startup, or release of stored energy could occur and cause injury, the
machine, equipment, pipelines, or other sources of hazardous energy must be isolated
from the energy source and rendered inoperative (Reese & Eidson, 1999).
Utilities should develop, use, and implement energy control procedures,
including tagout/lockout, for the control of potentially hazardous energy. The
procedures shall clearly and specifically outline the scope, purpose, authorization,
rules, and techniques in controlling hazardous energy. The procedures will also detail
how compliance will be enforced, including
• A specific statement of the intended use or the procedure
• Specific procedural steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking, and securing
machines, equipment, or pipelines to control hazardous energy
• Specific procedural steps for the placement, removal, and transfer of lockout
devices or tagout devices, and the responsibility for them
• Specific requirements for testing a machine, equipment, pipelines, or other
sources of hazardous energy to determine and verify the effectiveness of
lockout devices, tagout devices, and other energy control measures

Lockout/Tagout Devices
Locks, tags, chains, wedges, key blocks, adapter pins, self-locking fasteners, or other
hardware shall be provided by the employer for isolating, securing, or blocking of
machines or equipment from energy sources. They shall be singularly identified; they
shall be the only device(s) used for controlling energy; and they shall not be used for
other purposes. Figure 3-3 and 3-4 show various lockout devices and tags.
These devices must be durable and capable of withstanding the environment to
which they are exposed for the maximum period of time that exposure is expected.
Tagout devices shall be constructed and printed so that exposure to weather conditions,
or wet and damp locations, will not cause the tag to deteriorate or the message on the tag
to become illegible. Tags and locking devices must not deteriorate when used in corrosive
environments, such as areas where acid and alkali chemicals are handled and stored.
Lockout and tagout devices shall be standardized within the worksite in at least
one of the following criteria: color, shape, or size, and additionally, in the case of
tagout devices, print and format shall be standardized.
58 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Figure 3-3 Lockout devices and tags

Figure 3-4 Lockout/tagout center

Lockout devices shall be substantial enough to prevent removal without the use
of excessive force or unusual techniques, such as with the use of bolt cutters or other
metal cutting tools. Tagout devices, including their means of attachment, shall be
substantial enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal. Tagout device
attachment means shall be of a non-reusable type, attachable by hand, self-locking,
and non-releasable, with a minimum unlocking strength of no less than 50 pounds
(222 N) and having the general design and basic characteristics of being at least
equivalent to a one-piece, all environment-tolerant nylon cable tie.
CONFINED SPACE AND HAZARDOUS ENERGY 59

Lockout and tagout devices shall indicate the identity of the employee applying
the devices. Tagout devices shall warn against hazardous conditions, if the machine
or equipment is energized, and must include a line such as the following: “Do Not
Start, Do Not Open, Do Not Close, Do Not Energize, Do Not Operate.” Tags may also
be printed in other languages if necessary.

Periodic Inspections
The utility should conduct a periodic inspection of the energy control procedure, at
least annually, to ensure that procedures and requirements are being followed. The
periodic inspection needs to be performed by an authorized employee, using the
energy control procedure being inspected. The periodic inspection should be
conducted to correct any deviations or inadequacies identified. Where lockout is used
for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a review, between the
inspector and each authorized employee, of that employee’s responsibilities under the
energy control procedure being inspected. Authorized employees are workers who
lockout or tagout machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or
maintenance on that machine, equipment, or pipeline. An affected employee becomes
an authorized employee when that employee’s duties include performing servicing or
maintenance covered by this section.
Where tagout is used for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a
review, between the inspector and each authorized and affected employee, of that
employee’s responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected.
Affected employees are those workers whose job requires them to operate or use a
machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under
lockout or tagout, or whose job requires them to work in an area in which such
servicing or maintenance is being performed.
The utility should certify that the periodic inspections have been performed. The
certification needs to identify the machine, equipment, pipelines, or other sources of
hazardous energy on which the energy control procedure was being used; the date of
the inspection; the employees included in the inspection; and the person performing
the inspection.

Training and Communication


The utility must provide training to ensure that the purpose and function of the
energy control program is understood by employees. The training should also inform
employees about the knowledge and skills required for the safe application, usage,
and removal of the energy controls are acquired by employees. The training shall
include the following:
• Each authorized employee shall receive training in the recognition of
applicable hazardous energy sources; the type and magnitude of the energy
available in the workplace; and the methods and means necessary for
energy isolation and control
• Each affected employee shall be instructed in the purpose and use of the
energy control procedure
• All other employees, whose work operations are or may be in an area where
energy control procedures may be used, shall be instructed about the
procedure, and about the prohibition relating to attempts to restart or
reenergize machines or equipment that are locked out or tagged out
60 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

When tagout systems are used, employees shall also be trained in the following
limitations of those tags:
• Tags are essentially warning devices affixed to energy isolating devices, and
they do not provide the physical restraint that is provided by a lock
• They are attached to an energy isolating means and are not to be removed
without authorization of the authorized person responsible for it
• They are never to be bypassed, ignored, or otherwise defeated
• They must be legible and understandable by all authorized employees,
affected employees, and all other employees whose work operations are, or
may be, in that area
• For tags to be effective, they must be made of materials that will withstand
the environmental conditions encountered in the workplace, including their
means of attachment
• They may evoke a false sense of security
• Their meaning needs to be understood as part of the overall energy control
program
• They must be securely attached to energy isolating devices so that they
cannot be inadvertently or accidentally detached during use
Retraining shall be provided for all authorized and affected employees whenever
there is a change in their job assignments or a change in machines, equipment, or
processes that present a new hazard, or when there is a change in the energy control
procedures. Additional retraining shall also be conducted whenever a periodic
inspection reveals or whenever the employer has reason to believe that there are
deviations in the employee’s knowledge or use of the energy control procedures. The
retraining shall reestablish employee proficiency and introduce new or revised
control methods and procedures, as necessary. The employer shall certify that
employee training has been accomplished and is being kept up to date. The
certification should contain each employee’s name and dates of training.

Energy Isolation
Lockout or tagout shall be performed only by the authorized employees who are
performing the servicing or maintenance. Affected employees are to be notified by the
employer or authorized employee of the application and removal of lockout devices or
tagout devices. Notification must be given before the controls are applied and after
they are removed from the machine, equipment, pipelines, or other sources of
hazardous energy.
Established procedure. The established procedures for the application of
energy control (the lockout or tagout procedures) need to cover the following elements
and actions and shall be done in the following sequence:
1. Before shutting down or turning off a machine, equipment, or other source
of hazardous energy, such as high-pressure hoses, the authorized or
affected employee, who will perform this task, must have knowledge of the
type and magnitude of the energy, the hazards of the energy to be
controlled, and the method or means to control the energy.
2. Machine or equipment shutdown must follow the procedures established
for the machine or equipment. An orderly shutdown must be used to avoid
CONFINED SPACE AND HAZARDOUS ENERGY 61

any additional or increased hazards to employees as a result of the


equipment stoppage. In the case of high-pressure sources, block the fluid
(gas or liquid) flow in hydraulic or pneumatic systems. Vent fluids from
pressure vessels, tanks, or accumulators, but never vent toxic, flammable,
or explosive substances directly into the atmosphere.
3. Machine or equipment must be separated far away from the energy
isolating devices that are needed to control the energy to the machine or
equipment. That is, they shall be physically located and operated so that
the machine or equipment is isolated from the energy sources.
Lockout or tagout device application. Lockout or tagout devices are to be
fixed to each energy isolating device by authorized employees. Lockout devices, where
used, shall be fixed in a manner that will hold the energy isolating devices in a “safe”
or “off” position. Tagout devices, where used, must be affixed in such a manner that
will clearly indicate that the operation or movement of energy-isolating devices from
the “safe” or “off” position is prohibited. Where tagout devices are used with energy-
isolating devices designed with the capability of being locked, the tag attachment
needs to be fastened at the same point at which the lock would have been attached.
Where a tag cannot be affixed directly to the energy-isolating device, the tag shall be
located as close as safely possible to the device and in a position that will be
immediately obvious to anyone attempting to operate the device.
Stored Energy. Following the application of lockout or tagout devices to
energy-isolating devices, all potentially hazardous stored or residual energy is to be
relieved, disconnected, restrained, and otherwise rendered safe. If there is a
possibility of reaccumulation of stored energy to a hazardous level, verification of
isolation shall continue until the servicing or maintenance is completed, or until the
possibility of such accumulation no longer exists.
The verification of isolation must be done by an authorized employee prior to
starting work on machines, equipment, or pipelines that have been locked out or
tagged out. The authorized employee must verify that isolation and deenergization of
the machine, equipment, pipelines, or other sources of hazardous energy have been
accomplished.

Release From Lockout or Tagout


Before lockout or tagout devices are removed and energy is restored to the machine,
equipment, pipelines, or other sources of hazardous energy, procedures are to be
followed and actions taken by the authorized employee(s) to ensure the following:
• The work area must be inspected to ensure that nonessential items have
been removed and components are operationally intact.
• The work area must be checked to ensure that all employees have been
safely positioned or removed. Before lockout or tagout devices are removed
and before machine, equipment, pipelines, or other sources of hazardous
energy are energized, affected employees shall be notified that the lockout
or tagout devices have been removed. After lockout or tagout devices have
been removed and before a machine, equipment, pipelines, or other sources
of hazardous energy is started, affected employees shall be notified that the
lockout or tagout device(s) have been removed.
• Each lockout or tagout device shall be removed from each energy-isolating
device by the employee who applied the device. There may be an exception
to this rule when the authorized employee, who applied the lockout our
62 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

tagout device, is not available to remove it; that device may be removed
under the direction of the employer, provided that specific procedures and
training for such removal have been developed, documented, and incorporat-
ed into the employer’s energy control program.

Testing or Positioning
When testing or positioning of machines, equipment, or components in situations in
which lockout or tagout devices must be temporarily removed from the energy-
isolating device and the machine or equipment energized to test or position the
machine, equipment, or component thereof, the following sequence of actions shall be
followed:
1. Clear the machine, equipment, pipelines, or other sources of hazardous
energy of tools and materials.
2. Remove employees from the area.
3. Remove the lockout or tagout devices.
4. Energize and proceed with testing or positioning.
5. Reenergize all systems and reapply energy control measures to continue
the servicing and maintenance.

Outside Personnel Including Subcontractors


Whenever outside personnel are to be engaged in activities covered by the scope and
application of the lockout/tagout procedure, the utility and the outside contractor
shall inform each other of their respective lockout or tagout procedures. The utility
shall ensure that their employees understand and comply with the restrictions and
prohibitions of the outside contractor’s energy control program.

Group Lockout or Tagout


When servicing or maintenance is performed by a crew, department, or other group,
they shall use a procedure that affords the employees a level of protection equivalent
to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device. Group
lockout or tagout devices are to be used according to the following primary
requirements:
1. Primary responsibility is vested in an authorized employee for a set
number of employees working under the protection of a group lockout or
tagout device (such as an operations lock).
2. Provision for the authorized employee to ascertain the exposure status of
individual group members with regard to the lockout or tagout of the
machine, equipment, pipelines, or other sources of hazardous energy.
3. When more than one crew or department is involved, assignment of the
overall job-associated lockout or tagout control should be given to an
authorized employee designated to coordinate affected work forces and
ensure continuity of protection.
4. Each authorized employee shall affix a personal lockout or tagout device to
the group lockout device, group lockbox, or comparable mechanism when
the employee begins work and shall remove those devices when he or she
stops working on the machine or equipment being serviced or maintained.
CONFINED SPACE AND HAZARDOUS ENERGY 63

Shift or personnel changes. Specific procedures shall be used during shift


or personnel changes to ensure the continuity of the lockout or tagout protection,
including provision for the orderly transfer of lockout or tagout device protection
between off-going and oncoming employees in order to minimize exposure to hazards
from the unexpected energization or startup of the machine or equipment or the
release of stored energy.

REFERENCES_______________________________________________________________________________
Reese, C.D. and J.V. Eidson. 1999. Handbook US Department of Labor, OSHA. 2001.
of OSHA Construction Safety and Confined Space Hazards. http://
Health. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers. www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/smallbusiness/
sec12.html
This page intentionally blank.
AWWA MANUAL M3

Chapter 4
Personal Protective and
Respiratory Equipment

Personal protective and respiratory equipment are designed to lessen the hazards
encountered by utility workers. The scope of this chapter is restricted to preventing
employee exposure to unsafe equipment and situations. Words such as “must,”
“shall,” “required,” and “necessary” indicate requirements according to the OSHA
standards (29 CFR 1910.132). Procedures indicated by “should,” “may,” “suggested,”
and “recommended” constitute generally accepted good practices.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT_________________________________________


Personal protective equipment should not be used as a substitute for engineering,
work practice, or administrative controls. Personal protective equipment should be
used in conjunction with these controls to insure employee safety and health in the
workplace. Personal protective equipment includes all clothing and other work
accessories designed to create a barrier against workplace hazards. An example of
engineering and administrative controls is the use of sound absorbing blankets in a
low lift, reducing the need for ear protection.
The basic element of any management program for personal protective
equipment should be an in-depth evaluation of the equipment needed to protect
against the hazards at the workplace. Management dedicated to the safety and
health of employees should use that evaluation to set a standard operating procedure
for personnel, then train employees on the protective limitations of personal
protective equipment, and on its proper use and maintenance.
Using personal protective equipment requires hazard awareness and training.
Employees must be aware that the equipment does not eliminate the hazard. If the
equipment fails, exposure will occur. To reduce the possibility of failure, equipment
must be properly fitted and maintained in a clean and serviceable condition.
Selection of the proper personal protective equipment for a job is important.
Employers and employees must understand the equipment’s purpose and its

65
66 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

limitations. The equipment must not be altered or removed even though an employee
may find it uncomfortable. Sometimes equipment may be uncomfortable simply
because it does not fit properly.
This chapter discusses the types of equipment most commonly used for
protection of the head, including eyes and ears, and the torso, arms, hands, and feet.
The use of equipment to protect against life-threatening hazards also is discussed.
Information on respiratory protective equipment may be found in Title 29, CFR, Part
1910.134. The standard should be consulted for information on specialized equip-
ment, such as that used by firefighters.
Hazard assessment. Utilities are required to assess the workplace to
determine if hazards that require the use of head, eye, face, hand, or foot protection
are present or are likely to be present. If hazards or likelihood of hazards are found,
employers must select and have affected employees use properly fitted personal
protective equipment suitable for protection from these hazards. Employers must
certify in writing that a workplace hazard assessment has been performed. Defective
or damaged personal protective equipment shall not be used.
Training. OSHA depends on the manufacturer to determine the proper PPE
necessary to protect the worker. Use the MSDS provided by the manufacturer to
determine the different types of PPE to wear.
Before doing work requiring use of personal protective equipment, employees
must be trained to know when personal protective equipment is necessary; what type
is necessary; how it is to be worn; and what its limitations are; as well as know its
proper care, maintenance, useful life, and disposal. In many cases, more than one
type of personal protective equipment will provide adequate protection. In those
instances employees should be given a choice.
Employers are required to certify in writing that training has been carried out
and that employees understand it. Each written certification shall contain the name
of each employee trained, the date(s) of training, and identify the subject of the
certification.

Head Protection
Prevention of head injuries is an important factor in every safety program. A survey
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) of accidents and injuries noted that most
workers who suffered impact injuries to the head were not wearing hard hats. The
majority of workers were injured while performing their normal jobs at their regular
worksites.
The survey showed that in most instances where head injuries occurred
employers had not required their employees to wear hard hats. Of those workers
wearing hard hats, all but 5 percent indicated that they were required by their
employers to wear them. It was found that the vast majority of those who wore hard
hats all or most of the time at work believed that hard hats were practical for their
jobs. According to the report, in almost half the accidents involving head injuries,
employees knew of no actions taken by employers to prevent injuries from recurring.
The BLS survey noted that more than one half of the workers were struck on
the head while they were looking down and almost three-tenths were looking straight
ahead. While a third of the unprotected workers were injured when bumping into
stationary objects, such actions injured only one eighth of hard hat wearers.
Elimination or control of a hazard that led to or might lead to an accident should, of
course, be given first consideration, but many accidents causing head injuries are of
a type difficult to anticipate and control. Where these conditions exist, hard hats
must be provided to eliminate injury.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE AND RESPIRATORY EQUIPMENT 67

Head injuries are caused by falling or flying objects or by bumping the head
against a fixed object. Hard hats must do two things: resist penetration and absorb
the shock of a blow. This is accomplished by making the shell of the hat of a material
hard enough to resist the blow and by using a shock-absorbing lining composed of
headband and crown straps to keep the shell away from the wearer’s skull. Hard hats
also are used to protect against electrical shock.
Selection. Each type and class of head protector is intended to provide
protection against specific hazardous conditions. An understanding of these condi-
tions will help in selecting the right hat for the particular situation. Hard hats are
made in the following types and classes:
1
• Type 1—helmets with full brim, not less than 1 /4 in. (31 mm) wide
• Type 2—brimless helmets with a peak extending forward from the crown.
For industrial purposes, three classes are recognized:
• Class A—general service, limited voltage protection
• Class B—utility service, high-voltage protection
• Class C—special service, no voltage protection
Hats and caps under Class A are intended for protection against impact
hazards. They are used in mining, construction, shipbuilding, tunneling, lumbering,
and manufacturing. Class B utility service hats and caps protect the wearer’s head
from impact and penetration by falling or flying objects and from high-voltage shock
and burn. They are used extensively by electrical workers.
The safety hat or cap in Class C is designed specifically for lightweight comfort
and impact protection. This class is usually manufactured from aluminum and offers
no dielectric protection. Class C helmets (Figure 4-1) are used in certain construction
and manufacturing occupations, oil fields, refineries, and chemical plants where
there is no danger from electrical hazards or corrosion. They also are used on
occasions where there is a possibility of bumping the head against a fixed object.

Figure 4-1 Workers wearing Class C hard hats


68 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Materials used in hard hats should be water resistant and slow burning. Each hard
hat consists essentially of a shell and suspension. Ventilation is provided by a space
between the headband and the shell. Each hard hat should be accompanied by instructions
explaining the proper method of adjusting and replacing the suspension and headband.
The wearer should be able to identify the type of hard hat by looking inside the
shell for the manufacturer, ANSI designation and class. For example:
Manufacturer’s Name
ANSI Z89.1-1969 (or later year)
Class A
Fit. Headbands are adjustable in 1/8-size increments. When the headband is
adjusted to the right size, it provides sufficient clearance between the shell and the
headband. The removable or replaceable type sweatband should cover at least the
forehead portion of the headband. The shell should be of one-piece seamless
construction and designed to resist the impact of a blow from falling material. The
internal cradle of the headband and sweatband forms the suspension. Any part that
comes into contact with the wearer’s head must not be irritating to normal skin.
Inspection and maintenance. OSHA does not allow paint or stickers on
hard hats. Manufacturers should be consulted about cleaning materials, such as
paint removers for their hard hats. Paint thinners may damage the shell and weaken
it or reduce electrical resistance.
A common method of cleaning shells is dipping them for at least a minute in hot
water [approximately 140°F (60°C)] that contains a good detergent. Shells should
then be scrubbed and rinsed in clear hot water. After rinsing, the shell should be
carefully inspected for any signs of damage.
All components, shells, suspensions, headbands, sweatbands, and any accesso-
ries should be visually inspected daily for signs of dents, cracks, penetration, or any
other damage that might reduce the degree of safety originally provided. Hard hats
should not be stored or carried on the rear-window shelf of an automobile because
sunlight and extreme heat may adversely affect the degree of protection.
Users are cautioned that if unusual conditions occur (such as higher or lower
extreme temperatures than described in the standards), or if there are signs of abuse or
mutilation of the hard hat or any component, the margin of safety may be reduced. If
damage is suspected, hard hats should be replaced or representative samples tested
according to ANSI standards that were adopted into OSHA regulations. Employers are
encouraged to use up-to-date national consensus standards that provide employee
protection equal to or greater than that provided by OSHA standards.
Hard hat area signs. In areas where head protection is required, signs
should be posted at entrances to the sites. Figure 4-2 shows pre-made signs that can
be used when necessary.

Eye and Face Protection


Eye and face protective equipment is required where there is a reasonable probability of
preventing injury when this equipment is used. Employers must provide a type of
protector suitable for the work to be performed, and employees must use the protectors.
These stipulations also apply to supervisors and management personnel and should
apply to visitors while they are in hazardous areas.
The BLS study found that about 60 percent of workers who suffered eye injuries
were not wearing eye protective equipment. When asked why they were not wearing
face protection at the time of the accident, workers indicated that face protection was
not normally used or practiced in their type of work, or it was not required for the
type of work performed at the time of the accident.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE AND RESPIRATORY EQUIPMENT 69

Figure 4-2 “Hard hat area” signs

Suitable eye protectors must be provided where there is a potential for injury to
the eyes or face from flying particles, molten metal, liquid chemicals, acids or caustic
liquids (Figure 4-3), chemical gases or vapors, potentially injurious light radiation, or
a combination of these. Protectors must meet the following minimum requirements:
• Provide adequate protection against the particular hazards for which they
are designed
• Be reasonably comfortable when worn under the designated conditions
• Fit snugly without interfering with the movements or vision of the wearer
• Be durable
• Be capable of being disinfected
• Be easily cleanable
• Be kept clean and in good repair
OSHA and the National Society to Prevent Blindness recommend that
emergency eyewashes be placed in all hazardous locations. First-aid instructions
should be posted close to potential danger spots because any delay to immediate aid
or an early mistake in treating an eye injury can result in lasting damage.
Selection. Each eye, face, or face-and-eye protector is designed for a particular
hazard. In selecting the protector, consider the kind and degree of hazard, and select
the protector accordingly. Where a choice of protectors is offered, and the degree of
protection required is not an important issue, worker comfort may be a deciding factor.
The BLS survey showed that few workers ever complained about poor vision or
discomfort with personal eye protection equipment. The survey also noted that the
typical injury was caused by flying or falling blunt metal objects. Lacerations,
fractures, broken teeth, and contusions were common types of injuries reported.
70 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Figure 4-3 “Splash protection required”

Persons who use corrective spectacles and those who are required by OSHA to
wear eye protection must wear face shields, goggles, or spectacles of one of the
following types:
• Spectacles with protective lenses providing optical correction
• Goggles or face shields worn over corrective spectacles without disturbing
the adjustment of the spectacles
• Goggles that incorporate corrective lenses mounted behind the protective
lenses
When limitations or precautions are indicated by the manufacturer, they should
be communicated to the user and strictly observed. Over the years, many types and
styles of eye and face-and-eye protective equipment have been developed to meet the
demands for protection against a variety of hazards. Many hard hats and nonrigid
helmets are designed with face and eye protective equipment.
Goggles come in a number of different styles, for example, eyecups, flexible or
cushioned goggles, and plastic eyeshield goggles. Goggles are manufactured in
several styles for specific uses, such as protecting against dusts and splashes, and in
chipper’s, welder’s, and cutter’s models. Safety spectacles require special frames.
Combinations of normal streetwear frames with safety lenses are not in compliance.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE AND RESPIRATORY EQUIPMENT 71

Fit. Fitting of goggles and safety spectacles should be done by someone skilled
in the procedure. Prescription safety spectacles should be fitted only by qualified
optical personnel.
Inspection and maintenance. The lenses of eye protectors must be kept
clean. Continuous vision through dirty lenses can cause eye strain, which is often
used as an excuse for not wearing the eye protectors. Daily inspection and cleaning
of the eye protector with soap and hot water, or with a cleaning solution and tissue,
is recommended. Pitted lenses, like dirty lenses, can be a source of reduced vision.
They should be replaced. Deeply scratched or excessively pitted lenses are apt to
break easily.
Slack, worn-out, sweat-soaked, or twisted headbands do not hold the eye
protector in proper position. Visual inspection can determine when the headband
elasticity is reduced to a point below proper function.
Goggles should be kept in a case when not in use. Spectacles, in particular,
should be given the same care as one’s own glasses, because the frame, nose pads,
and temples can be damaged by rough use.
Also, when each employee is assigned protective equipment for extended
periods, it is recommended that such equipment be cleaned and disinfected regularly.
Personal protective equipment that has been previously used should be disinfected
before being issued to another employee. Disposable safety glasses dispensers are
available (Figure 4-4) to provide immediate access to eye protection.
Several methods for disinfecting eye-protective equipment are acceptable. The
most effective method is to disassemble the goggles or spectacles and thoroughly
clean all parts with soap and warm water. Carefully rinse all traces of soap, and
replace defective parts with new ones. Swab thoroughly or completely and immerse
all parts for 10 min in a solution of germicidal deodorant fungicide. Remove parts
from solution and suspend in a clean place for air drying at room temperature or with
heated air. Do not rinse after removing parts from the solution because this will
remove the germicidal residue which retains its effectiveness after drying. The dry
parts or items should be placed in a clean, dust-proof container, such as a box, bag, or
plastic envelope, to protect them until reissue.

Ear Protection
Exposure to high noise levels can cause hearing loss or impairment. It can create
physical and psychological stress. Noise-induced hearing loss is permanent, so the
prevention of excessive noise exposure is the only way to avoid it. Specifically
designed protection is required, depending on the type of noise encountered and the
auditory condition of the employee. The noise reduction rating (NRR) is the
measurement of the effectiveness of ear protection in attenuating noise. The level of
noise entering a person’s ear, when hearing protection is worn as directed, is closely
approximated by the difference between the environmental noise level (at certain
frequencies and time durations) and the NRR. For example, if the environmental
noise level is measured at 88 decibels at the ear, and the NNR of the earplugs is 28,
then the level of noise entering the ear is approximately 60 decibels for a typical user.
When screening for noise exposures, sound level meter measurements and
estimates of exposure duration are sufficient. Spot readings over 80 decibels from a
sound level meter is generally sufficient for a more complete evaluation. OSHA
provides technical specifications and procedures for measuring environmental noise.
Sites where noise protection is required should be marked with a sign (Figure 4-5)
72 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Figure 4-4 Safety glasses dispenser

Figure 4-5 “Ear protection required”


PERSONAL PROTECTIVE AND RESPIRATORY EQUIPMENT 73

Preformed or molded earplugs should be individually fitted by a professional.


Waxed cotton, foam, or fiberglass wool earplugs are self-forming. When properly
inserted, they work as well as most molded earplugs. Some earplugs are disposable.
The nondisposable type should be cleaned after each use for proper protection. Plain
cotton is ineffective as protection against hazardous noise.
Earmuffs need to make a perfect seal around the ear to be effective. Glasses,
long sideburns, long hair, and facial movements, such as chewing, can reduce
protection. Special equipment is available for use with glasses or beards.

Torso Protection
Many hazards can threaten the torso, including heat, splashes from hot metals
and liquids, impacts, cuts, acids, and radiation. A variety of protective clothing is
available, such as vests, jackets, aprons, coveralls, and full body suits.
Selection. Refer to the manufacturers’ selection guides for the effectiveness of
specific materials against specific chemicals.
Wool and specially treated cotton are two natural fibers that are fire-resistant
and comfortable since they adapt well to changing workplace temperatures. Duck,
a closely woven cotton fabric, is good for light-duty protective clothing. It can
protect against cuts and bruises on jobs where employees handle heavy, sharp, or
rough material.
Heat-resistant material, such as leather, is often used in protective clothing to
guard against dry heat and flame. Rubber and rubberized fabrics, neoprene, and
plastics give protection against some acids and chemicals.
Disposable suits of plasticlike or other similar synthetic material are particularly
important for protection from dusty materials or materials that can splash. If the
substance is extremely toxic, a completely enclosed chemical suit may be necessary. The
clothing should be inspected to ensure proper fit and function for continued protection.

Arm and Hand Protection


Examples of injuries to arms and hands are burns, cuts, electrical shock, amputation,
and absorption of chemicals. A wide assortment of gloves, hand pads, sleeves, and
wristlets are available for protection against various hazardous situations.
Utilities need to determine what hand protection their employees need. The
work activities of the employees should be studied to determine the degree of
dexterity required, the duration, frequency, and degree of exposure to hazards, and
the physical stresses that will be applied. The performance characteristics of gloves
relative to the specific hazard anticipated should be determined, for example,
exposure to chemicals, heat, or flames. Gloves’ performance characteristics should be
assessed by using standard test procedures. Before purchasing gloves, the utility
should request documentation from the manufacturer that the gloves meet the
appropriate test standards for the hazards anticipated. The employee should become
acquainted with the limitations of the clothing used.
Certain occupations require special protection. For example, electricians need
special protection from shocks and burns. Rubber is considered the best material for
insulating gloves and sleeves from these hazards.
Selection. A number of factors need to be taken into account when choosing a
glove for a particular application. In the initial selection process, the following are of
primary importance:
• The toxic properties of the chemical or chemicals. In particular, the ability of
the chemical to cause local effects on the skin or to pass through the skin
and cause systemic effects should be known.
74 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

• The work activities being undertaken. These must be studied and account
taken of the degree of dexterity required, the duration, frequency and
degree of chemical exposure, and the physical stresses that will be applied.
• The performance characteristics of the gloves. These should be assessed
using standard test procedures. Characteristics to be considered include
chemical, puncture, tear, and abrasion resistance.

Foot and Leg Protection


According to the BLS survey, most of the workers who suffered foot injuries were not
wearing protective footwear. Furthermore, most of their employers did not require
them to wear safety shoes. The typical foot injury was caused by objects falling fewer
than 4 feet and the median weight was about 65 pounds. Most workers were injured
while performing their normal job activities at their worksites.
For protection of feet and legs from falling or rolling objects, sharp objects,
molten metal, hot surfaces, and wet slippery surfaces workers should use appropriate
footguards, safety shoes, or boots and leggings. Leggings protect the lower leg and
feet from molten metal or welding sparks. Safety snaps permit their rapid removal.
Aluminum alloy, fiberglass, or galvanized steel footguards can be worn over
usual work shoes, although they may present the possibility of catching on something
and causing workers to trip. Heat-resistant soled shoes protect against hot surfaces
like those found in the roofing, paving, and hot metal industries.
Safety shoes need to be sturdy and have an impact-resistant toe. In some shoes,
metal insoles protect against puncture wounds. Additional protection, such as
metatarsal guards, may be found in some types of footwear. Safety shoes come in a
variety of styles and materials, such as leather and rubber boots and oxfords. Safety
footwear is classified according to its ability to meet minimum requirements for both
compression and impact tests and need to meet ANSI standard Z41.

Life Jacket
A US Coast Guard-approved life jacket or buoyant work vest should be used if there is
danger of falling into water while working (Figure 4-6). For emergency rescue
operations, boats and ring buoys with at least 90 ft (27.4 m) of line must be provided.

Figure 4-6 Life jacket


PERSONAL PROTECTIVE AND RESPIRATORY EQUIPMENT 75

Reflective Vests
Night workers and flagmen who might be struck by moving vehicles need suits or
vests designed to reflect light.

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION (29 CFR 1910.134, 29 CFR


1915.152, AND 29 CFR 1926.103)___________________________________________
Respirators shall be provided by the utility when the equipment is necessary to
protect the health of the employee. The utility shall provide the respirators that are
applicable and suitable for the purposes intended.
Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances:
• where exposure levels exceed the permissible exposure limit (PEL), during
the time period necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and
work practice controls
• in those maintenance and repair activities and during those brief or
intermittent operations where exposures exceed the PEL and engineering
and work practice controls are not feasible or are not required
• in regulated areas
• where the employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work
practice controls and such controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to
or below the PEL
• in emergencies
Respirators must be located in areas or near areas where they will be used.
Figures 4-7 and 4-8 illustrate methods of storing respirators.

Figure 4-7 Respirator storage


76 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Figure 4-8 Respirator storage

The two main types of respiratory protection are air-purifying and atmosphere-
supplying respirators. Air-purifying respirators remove contaminants from the
atmosphere. Atmosphere-supplying respirators provide air from a source other than
the surrounding air. Combination air-purifying and atmosphere-supplying respira-
tors are also available. The US National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety
(NIOSH) issues specific requirements for respiratory protection.

Air-Purifying Respirators
Air-purifying respirators protect wearers against specific vapor and gas contami-
nants. Vapor- and gas-removing respirators typically remove the contaminant by
adsorbing molecules with a granular porous material called the sorbent. Other
respirators use catalysts that react with the contaminant to produce a less toxic gas
or vapor. Particulate-filtering respirators are used for protection against dusts,
fumes, or mists. Air-purifying respirators can be powered or non-powered.

Air-Supplying Respirators
The two basic types of atmosphere-supplying respirators are supplied-air respirators
and self-contained breathing apparatuses. Supplied-air respirators consist of either a
helmet or facepiece, covering the nose and mouth, to which air can be supplied
through a hose from an uncontaminated source. The air can be supplied by a
mechanical air compressor with pressure reducer, a low-pressure hand blower, or the
lung action of the wearer. A supplied-air respirator is suitable for use in tanks or
other close spaces where work can be done near the air source.
The self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) is not connected to a stationary
breathing gas source, such as an air compressor. Instead, enough air, for up to four
hours, depending on the design, is carried by the wearer. A great advantage of an
SCBA is that it allows comparatively free movement over an unlimited area. The
disadvantages are bulk and weight as well as the limited service.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE AND RESPIRATORY EQUIPMENT 77

Respiratory Protection Plan


The utility should have a respiratory protection plan and may be required to have
one depending on applicable regulations. A respiratory protection plan includes
• Definitions of technical and regulatory terms
• Objective and scope of the plan
• Responsibilities of management and employees
• Medical evaluation requirements for employees who will use respiratory
equipment
• Education and training in the use of respiratory equipment
• Respirator selection for various situations
• Operating procedures for the respirators
• Fit testing procedures of respirators
• Maintenance and care
• Record keeping of training, maintenance, and use

REFERENCE________________________________________________________________________________
US Department of Labor, OSHA. 1995.
Personal Protective Equipment, Re-
vised (OSHA 3077). Washington, D.C.:
US Government.
This page intentionally blank.
AWWA MANUAL M3

Chapter 5
Vehicles and Tools

All vehicles and tools used in water utility operations are potential hazards. The
hazards are typically caused by improper use and lack of maintenance. The vehicles
and tools covered in this chapter include platforms and aerial lifts, forklifts, motor
vehicles and equipment, tools, and welding.

PLATFORMS AND AERIAL LIFTS (29 CFR 1926.453)___________________


An aerial platform or lift is any vehicle-mounted device that is used to raise
personnel to some height to perform a task (Figure 5-1). Aerial devices include the
following types of vehicle-mounted equipment used to elevate personnel to job sites
aboveground:
• extensible boom platforms
• aerial ladders
• articulating boom platforms
• vertical towers
• a combination of any of the above
Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood, fiberglass reinforced plastic
(FRP), or other material, may be powered or manually operated, and are deemed to
be aerial lifts whether or not they are capable of rotating about a substantially
vertical axis.

Work Near Power Lines


When work incorporates aerial devices near power lines, the lines must be de-
energized or the device must be adequately insulated. When using the devices, the
following clearances to power lines must be maintained:
For lines rated at 50 kV or less, the minimum clearance between the lines and
any part of the aerial lift must be at least 10 ft (3.0 m).

79
80 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

When the lines are rated in excess of 50 kV, the minimum clearance between
the lines and any part of the aerial lift must be at least 10 ft plus 0.4 in. for each
kilovolt in excess of 50 kV (or twice the length of the line insulator) but never less
than 10 ft.

Figure 5-1 Aerial lift

Operating Procedures
The following procedures are required or recommended:
• Lift controls must be tested each day prior to use to determine that they are
in safe working condition.
• Only trained persons may operate an aerial lift.
• Belting off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from
an aerial lift must not be permitted.
• Employees must always stand firmly on the floor of the basket and may not
sit or climb on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices
for a work position.
• A full body harness must be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or
basket when working from an aerial lift.
• Boom and basket load limits specified by the manufacturer must not be exceeded.
• The brakes must be set, and outriggers, when used, must be positioned on
pads or a solid surface. Wheel chocks must be installed before using an
aerial lift on an incline.

FORKLIFTS (POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS 29 CFR 1910.178)______


Approved trucks must bear a label or some other identifying mark indicating
approval by the testing laboratory, and the user must see that all nameplates and
markings are in place and maintained in a legible condition. Modifications and
additions that affect capacity and safe operation may not be performed by the user.
High Lift Rider trucks must be fitted with an overhead guard, unless operating
conditions do not permit. If the type of load presents a hazard, the user must equip
fork trucks with a vertical load backrest extension.

Batteries
Battery-charging installations must be located in areas designated for that purpose.
Reinstalled batteries must be properly positioned and secured in the truck. When
VEHICLES AND TOOLS 81

charging batteries, acid must be poured into water; water must not be poured into
acid. Facilities must be provided for flushing and neutralizing spilled electrolyte, for
fire protection, for protecting charging apparatus from damage by trucks, and for
adequate ventilation for dispersal of fumes from gassing batteries.
A conveyor, overhead hoist, or equivalent material-handling equipment must be
provided for handling batteries. A carbon filter or siphon must be provided for
handling electrolyte. Batteries are required to have protective caps over the
terminals to prevent accidental grounding.
Trucks must be properly positioned and brakes applied before attempting to
change or charge batteries. Care must be taken to assure that vent caps are
functioning. The battery (or compartment) cover must be open to dissipate heat.
Smoking must be prohibited in the charging area. Precautions must be taken to
prevent open flames, sparks, or electric arcs in battery-charging areas. Tools and
other metallic objects must be kept away from the top of uncovered batteries.
Lighting. Where general lighting is less than 2 lumens/ft2 (22 lumens/M2),
auxiliary directional lighting must be provided on the truck.

Operator Training
Methods must be devised to train operators in the safe operation of powered industrial
trucks, and only trained and authorized operators may be permitted to operate such
trucks. Initial and annual retraining should be provided.

Operations
Trucks may not be driven up to anyone standing in front of a bench or other fixed object.
No person may be allowed to stand or pass under the elevated portion of any truck,
whether loaded or empty. Unauthorized personnel must not be permitted to ride on
powered industrial trucks; a safe place to ride must be provided where riding on trucks
is authorized. The employer must prohibit arms or legs from being placed between the
uprights of the mast or outside the running lines of the truck.
When a powered industrial truck is left unattended, load engaging means must
be fully lowered, controls neutralized, power shut off, and brakes set (Figure 5-2).
Wheels must be blocked if the truck is parked on an incline. (A powered industrial
truck is unattended when the operator is 25 ft (7.6 m) or more away from the vehicle

Figure 5-2 Unattended fork lift with load lowered


82 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

that remains in his or her view, or whenever the operator leaves the vehicle, and it is
not in view.) When the operator of an industrial truck is dismounted and within 25 ft
(7.6 m) of the truck still in his or her view, the load engaging means must be fully
lowered, controls neutralized, and the brakes set to prevent movement.
A safe distance must be maintained from the edge of ramps or platforms while
on any elevated dock, or platform or freight car. Trucks must not be used for opening
or closing freight doors.
The brakes of highway trucks must be set and wheel chocks placed under the
rear wheels to prevent the movement of trucks, trailers, or railroad cars while
loading or unloading. Fixed jacks may be necessary to support a semitrailer during
loading or unloading when the trailer is not coupled to a tractor. The flooring of
trucks, trailers, and railroad cars must be checked for breaks and weakness before
they are driven onto.
There must be sufficient headroom under overhead installations, lights, pipes,
or sprinkler system. An overhead guard must be used as protection against falling
objects. An overhead guard is intended to offer protection from the impact of small
packages, boxes, and bagged material, representative of the job application, but not
to withstand the impact of a falling capacity load. A load backrest extension must be
used whenever necessary to minimize the possibility of the load or part of it from
falling rearward.
Whenever a truck is equipped with vertical only or vertical and horizontal
controls used to elevate the lifting carriage or forks for lifting personnel, the following
additional precautions must be taken for the protection of personnel being elevated:
• use of a safety platform firmly secured to the lifting carriage or forks
• means provided whereby personnel on the platform can shut off power to
the truck
• necessary protection from falling objects provided, as indicated by the
operating conditions
• fire aisles, access to stairways, and fire equipment kept clear
If at any time a powered industrial truck is found to be in need of repair,
defective, or in any way unsafe, it must be taken out of service until restored to safe
operating condition. No truck may be operated with a leak in the fuel system until
the leak has been corrected.
Fuel tanks must not be filled while the engine is running. Spillage of oil or fuel
must be carefully washed away or completely evaporated and the fuel tank cap
replaced before restarting the engine. Open flames may not be used for checking
electrolyte level in storage batteries or the gasoline level in fuel tanks. When filling
gas cans in trucks with vinyl bed liners, the can should be grounded to the pump
handle or gas pump to prevent spark from static electricity generated by the vinyl
liner in the truck.
Traveling. All traffic regulations must be observed, including authorized
plant speed limits. A safe distance must be maintained (approximately three truck
lengths from the truck ahead), and the truck must be kept under control at all times.
Other trucks traveling in the same direction at intersections, blind spots, or other
dangerous locations may not be passed. The right of way must be yielded to
ambulances, fire trucks, or other vehicles in emergency situations.
The driver must be required to look in the direction of, and keep a clear view of,
the path of travel. Stunt driving and horseplay must not be permitted, and running
over loose objects on the roadway surface must be avoided.
VEHICLES AND TOOLS 83

The driver must be required to slow down and sound the horn at cross aisles
and other locations where vision is obstructed. If the load being carried obstructs
forward view, the driver must be required to travel with the load trailing. Railroad
tracks must be crossed diagonally wherever possible. Parking closer than eight feet
from the center of railroad tracks is prohibited.
Grades must be ascended or descended slowly. When ascending or descending
grades in excess of ten percent, loaded trucks must be driven with the load upgrade.
On all grades the load and load-engaging means must be tilted back, if applicable,
and raised only as far as necessary to clear the road surface.
Under all travel conditions the truck must be operated at a speed that will
permit it to be brought to a stop in a safe manner. The driver must be required to
slow down for wet and slippery floors. While negotiating turns, speed must be
reduced to a safe level by means of turning the hand steering wheel in a smooth,
sweeping motion. Except when maneuvering at a very low speed, the hand steering
wheel must be turned at a moderate, even rate.
Dockboard or bridgeplates must be properly secured before being driven over;
they must be driven over carefully and slowly, and their rated capacity never
exceeded. Elevators must be approached slowly and then entered squarely after the
elevator car is properly leveled. Once on the elevator, the controls must be
neutralized, power shut off, and the brakes set. Motorized hand trucks must enter
elevators or other confined areas with load end forward.
Loading. Trucks may handle only stable or safely arranged loads within their
rated capacity. Caution must be exercised when handling off-center loads that cannot
be centered. Long or high (including multiple-tiered) loads which may affect capacity
must be adjusted.
A load-engaging means must be placed under the load as far as possible; the
mast must be carefully tilted backward to stabilize the load. Extreme care must be
used when tilting the load forward or backward, particularly when high tiering.
Tilting forward with load-engaging means elevated must be prohibited except to pick
up a load. An elevated load must not be tilted forward except when the load is in a
deposit position over a rack or stack. When stacking or tiering, only enough tilt may
be used to stabilize the load. Trucks equipped with attachments must be operated as
partially loaded trucks when not handling a load.

MOTOR VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT


(29 CFR 1926.601–602) ______________________________________________________________
Motor vehicles as covered by this part are those vehicles that operate within an off-
highway job site, not open to public traffic. All vehicles shall have a service brake
system, an emergency brake system, and a parking brake system. These systems
may use common components and shall be maintained in operable condition.

Lights
Whenever visibility conditions warrant additional light, all vehicles, or combinations
of vehicles, in use shall be equipped with at least two headlights and two taillights in
operating condition. All vehicles, or combination of vehicles, shall have brake lights
in operating condition regardless of light conditions.

Warning Device
All vehicles shall be equipped with an adequate audible warning device at the
operator’s station and in an operable condition. No employer shall use any motor
84 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

vehicle equipment having an obstructed view to the rear unless the vehicle has a
reverse signal alarm audible above the surrounding noise level, or the vehicle is
backed up only when an observer signals that it is safe to do so.

Windshields and Canopies


All vehicles with cabs shall be equipped with windshields and powered wipers.
Cracked and broken glass shall be replaced. Vehicles operating in areas or under
conditions that cause fogging or frosting of the windshields shall be equipped with
operable defogging or defrosting devices.
All haulage vehicles, whose pay load is loaded using cranes, power shovels,
loaders, or similar equipment, shall have a cab shield or canopy adequate to protect
the operator from shifting or falling materials.

Tools and Materials


Tools and material shall be secured to prevent movement when transported in the
same compartment with employees. Vehicles used to transport employees shall have
seats firmly secured and adequate for the number of employees to be carried. Seat
belts and anchorages meeting requirements shall be installed in all motor vehicles.

Dump Bodies
Trucks with dump bodies shall be equipped with appropriate structural support,
permanently attached, and capable of being locked in position to prevent
accidental lowering of the body while maintenance or inspection work is being
done. Operating levers controlling hoisting or dumping devices on haulage bodies
shall be equipped with a latch or other device that will prevent accidental
starting or tripping of the dumping mechanism. Trip handles for tailgates of
dump trucks shall be so arranged that, in dumping, the operator will be clear of
the tailgate.

Fenders and Tires


All rubber-tired motor vehicle equipment manufactured shall be equipped with
fenders. Mud flaps may be used in lieu of fenders whenever motor vehicle equipment
is not designed for fenders.
A safety tire rack, cage, or equivalent protection shall be provided and used
when inflating, mounting, or dismounting tires installed on split rims, or rims
equipped with locking rings or similar devices.

Vehicle Inspection
All vehicles in use shall be checked at the beginning of each shift to assure that the
following parts, equipment, and accessories are in safe operating condition and free
of apparent damage that could cause failure while in use: service brakes, including
trailer brake connections; parking system (hand brake); emergency stopping system
(brakes); tires; horn; steering mechanism; coupling devices; seat belts; operating
controls; and safety devices. All defects shall be corrected before the vehicle is placed
in service. These requirements also apply to equipment such as lights, reflectors,
windshield wipers, defrosters, fire extinguishers, etc., where this equipment is
necessary.
VEHICLES AND TOOLS 85

Parking and Storing


All equipment left unattended at night, adjacent to a highway in normal use or
adjacent to construction areas where work is in progress, shall have appropriate
lights or reflectors or barricades equipped with appropriate lights or reflectors, to
identify the location of the equipment. Whenever the equipment is parked, the
parking brake shall be set. Equipment parked on inclines shall have the wheels
chocked and the parking brake set.
Heavy machinery, equipment, or parts thereof, which are suspended or held
aloft by use of slings, hoists, or jacks shall be substantially blocked or cribbed to
prevent falling or shifting before employees are permitted to work under or between
them. Bulldozer and scraper blades, end-loader buckets, dump bodies, and similar
equipment shall be either fully lowered or blocked when being repaired or when not
in use. All controls shall be in a neutral position, with the motors stopped and brakes
set, unless work being performed requires otherwise.

TOOLS (29 CFR 1910.241–144) __________________________________________________


There are several basic safety practices that can help prevent accidents and unsafe
use of hand and portable power tools. These include (Kimball, 2000):
• Keeping all tools in good working condition and regularly maintained
• Using the right tool for the job
• Examining each tool for damage before use
• Operating a tool according to the manufacturer’s instructions
• Providing and using the right protective equipment
Hand tools are nonpowered tools including axes, hammers, screwdrivers,
wrenches. Injuries associated with hand tools most often occur with misuse or
improper maintenance.

Power Tools
Power tools include electric, pneumatic, gasoline-powered. Hazards include electrocu-
tion and injury caused by accidental startup or improper use or transport.
Electrical tools. Along with injury caused by improper use, accidental
electrocution is the primary hazard associated with electrical tools. To reduce hazard
potential, electrical tools must be properly grounded, as with a three-prong plug.
Safeguards and safe practices that should be followed when using tools of this type
include
• operate tools within their design limitations
• use appropriate personal protective equipment
• inspect cords regularly
• keep work locations clean and dry
• use safety guards
Pneumatic tools. Pneumatic tools are powered by compressed air including
drills, sanders, nailers, staplers, and hammers. Hazards associated with the use of
these tools include flying parts and dropped attachments and noise. Use positive
86 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

locking devices for attachments, safety clips or retainers to prevent attachments from
being unintentionally shot from the tool barrel and hearing protection.
Gasoline-powered tools. Gasoline-powered tools include mowers, trimmers,
and generators. Hazards include exhaust fumes, the handling and transport of
gasoline, and injury. If a tool is used in a closed area, proper ventilation or the use of
respirators is required. Fire extinguishers must be kept in the area.
Hydraulic power tools. Hydraulic power tools are powered by a fluid, the
same as hydraulic jacks and lifts. The fluid must be an approved fire-resistant fluid
and must retain its operating characteristics at the most extreme temperatures to
which it will be exposed. Hazards associated with these tools include material
slippage, hose failure, and overloading. Safeguards and safe practices include
blocking up the load once it is lifted; ensuring that the base of the tool rests on a firm
and level surface; following manufacturer’s recommendation of safe operating
pressure; and ensuring proper inspection and maintenance of hoses, valves, pipes,
filters, and other fittings.

Machine Safety
Hazards associated with machines and equipment include rotating, reciprocation,
and transversing motions; cutting, punching, shearing, and bending actions; and
splashing of chemicals. These hazards can be eliminated by using guards, safety
and control devices, and splash protection. In addition, training on how to operate
and maintain the machinery is an important part of any safety program.
Guards. Guards on machines keep workers and their clothing from contacting
moving parts. They prevent particles from injuring a worker. They also reduce noise
or dust. Typical guards include
• Fixed guards for protecting the operator from moving parts and other
hazards
• Interlocked guards for preventing operation of a machine if the guard is
raised
• Adjustable guards allow for a variety of production operations while
maintaining hazard protection
• Self-adjusting guards that “float” or self-adjust to allow for movement of
materials while safeguarding the person operating the machine
Other machine features that offer protection include moveable barriers,
automatic feed systems, presence-sensing devices, emergency stop control, hand
control devices and mechanisms, such as pull-out devices, restraint devices, and two-
hand control. Reduced speed control is used during setup, cleaning, and maintenance.
Other safety mechanisms include antikickback devices, run controls, and foot
controls.
Splash protection. Splash protection includes enclosure guarding with
chemical-resistant panels, automatic feed and ejection systems to minimize the
operator’s exposure to the chemicals, use of proper personal protective equipment,
and automatic shutoff controls at a convenient location.
Training. Training on proper equipment use, guarding, safety controls, proper
clothing, and required personal protective equipment should be provided to each
employee who will use machines and tools. All training should be given by a
competent person and before any work is performed. In industrial facilities,
equipment-operating procedures are often used as a basis for training, as well as
manufacturer’s information and information from other sources.
VEHICLES AND TOOLS 87

WELDING (26 CFR 1926.350–354)_____________________________________________


Gas and arc welding are the two main types of welding. General welding, cutting, and
heating not involving hazardous conditions or materials may be done without
mechanical ventilation or respiratory protective equipment. But where, because of
unusual physical or atmospheric conditions, an unsafe accumulation of contaminants
exists, suitable mechanical ventilation or respiratory protective equipment shall be
provided. Employees performing any type of welding, cutting, or heating shall be
protected by suitable eye protective equipment.

Hot Work Permits


Jobs that include electric arc welding, brazing, gas soldering, and oxygen-acetylene
cutting and welding should require hot work permits. These permits are issued by a
utility’s safety engineer or other designated person before work begins. The permits
are issued for a specific job, for a specific time frame, and to a specific person. All
necessary equipment must be on site and in good working order before work begins.
A fire watch must be present for the duration of hot work and for at least 30 min
after work is done. A fire inspection must be conducted by the person doing the hot
work before leaving the job site. Permits are to be returned to the person who issued
them.

Gas Welding and Cutting


Compressed gas cylinders are used in gas welding. Except for the two cylinders on
the welding cart, the oxygen and gas cylinders must be stored in separate areas. See
chapter 2 for compressed gas cylinder safety.
Hoses. All hose in use, carrying acetylene, oxygen, natural or manufactured
fuel gas, or any gas or substance that may ignite or combust or be in any way
harmful to employees, shall be inspected at the beginning of each working shift.
Defective hose shall be removed from service. Hose which has been subject to
flashback, or that shows evidence of severe wear or damage, shall be tested to twice
the normal pressure to which it is subject, but in no case less than 300 psi
(2068 kPa). Defective hose or hose in uncertain condition, shall not be used.
Hose couplings shall be of the type that cannot be unlocked or disconnected by
means of a straight pull without rotary motion. Boxes used for the storage of gas hose
shall be ventilated. Hoses, cables, and other equipment shall be kept clear of
passageways, ladders, and stairs.
Torches. Clogged torch tip openings shall be cleaned with appropriate
cleaning wires, drills, or other devices designed for the purpose. Torches in use
shall be inspected at the beginning of each working shift for leaking shutoff valves,
hose couplings, and tip connections. Defective torches shall not be used. Torches
shall be lighted by friction lighters or other approved devices and not by matches or
from hot work.
Regulators. Oxygen and fuel gas pressure regulators, including their related
gauges, shall be in proper working order while in use.
Oil and grease hazards. Oxygen cylinders and fittings shall be kept away
from oil or grease. Cylinders, cylinder caps and valves, couplings, regulators, hose,
and apparatus shall be kept free from oil or greasy substances and shall not be
handled with oily hands or gloves. Oxygen shall not be directed at oily surfaces,
greasy clothes, or within a fuel oil or other storage tank or vessel.
88 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Arc Welding
Only manual electrode holders that are specifically designed for arc welding and
cutting, and are of a capacity capable of safely handling the maximum rated current
required by the electrodes, shall be used. Any current-carrying parts passing through
the portion of the holder that the arc welder or cutter grips in his hand and the outer
surfaces of the jaws of the holder shall be fully insulated against the maximum
voltage encountered to ground.
Welding cables and connectors. All arc welding and cutting cables shall be
of the completely insulated, flexible type, capable of handling the maximum current
requirements of the work in progress, taking into account the duty cycle under which
the arc welder or cutter is working.
Only cable free from repair or splices for a minimum distance of 10 ft (3.0 m)
from the cable end to which the electrode holder is connected shall be used, except
cables with standard insulated connectors or with splices whose insulating quality is
equal to that of the cable are permitted.
When it becomes necessary to connect or splice lengths of cable one to another,
substantial insulated connectors of a capacity at least equivalent to that of the cable
shall be used. If connections are effected by means of cable lugs, they shall be
securely fastened together to give good electrical contact, and the exposed metal
parts of the lugs shall be completely insulated.
Cables in need of repair shall not be used. When a cable, other than the cable
lead, becomes worn to the extent of exposing bare conductors, the exposed portion
shall be protected using rubber and friction tape or other equivalent insulation.
Grounding. A ground return cable shall have a safe current-carrying capacity
equal to or exceeding the specified maximum output capacity of the arc welding or
cutting unit that it services. When a single ground return cable services more than
one unit, its safe current-carrying capacity shall equal or exceed the total specified
maximum output capacities of all the units that it services. Pipelines containing
gases or flammable liquids or conduits containing electrical circuits shall not be used
as a ground return. All ground connections shall be inspected to ensure that they are
mechanically strong and electrically adequate for the required current.
When a structure or pipeline is employed as a ground return circuit, it shall be
determined that the required electrical contact exists at all joints. The generation of
an arc, sparks, or heat at any point shall cause rejection of the structures as a ground
circuit. When a structure or pipeline is continuously employed as a ground return
circuit, all joints shall be bonded, and periodic inspections shall be conducted to
ensure that no condition of electrolysis or fire hazard exists because of this use.
The frames of all arc welding and cutting machines shall be grounded either
through a third wire in the cable containing the circuit conductor or through a
separate wire that is grounded at the source of the current. Grounding circuits, other
than by using the structure, shall be checked to ensure that the circuit between the
ground and the grounded power conductor has resistance low enough to permit
sufficient current to flow to cause the fuse or circuit breaker to interrupt the current.
Operating instructions. Employers shall instruct employees in the safe practice
of arc welding and cutting. When electrode holders are left unattended, the electrodes
shall be removed, and the holders shall be placed or protected so that they cannot make
electrical contact with employees or conducting objects. Hot electrode holders shall not
be dipped in water; to do so may expose the arc welder or cutter to electric shock.
When the arc welder or cutter has occasion to leave his work or to stop work for
any appreciable length of time, or when the arc welding or cutting machine is to be
moved, the power supply switch to the equipment shall be opened. Any faulty or
defective equipment shall be reported to the supervisor.
VEHICLES AND TOOLS 89

Shielding and fire. Whenever practicable, all arc welding and cutting
operations shall be shielded by noncombustible or flameproof screens that will
protect employees and other persons working in the vicinity from the direct rays of
the arc (Figure 5-3).
When practical, objects to be welded, cut, or heated shall be moved to a designated
safe location or, if the objects to be welded, cut, or heated cannot be readily moved, all
movable fire hazards in the vicinity shall be taken to a safe place or otherwise protected.
If the object to be welded, cut, or heated cannot be moved and if all the fire
hazards cannot be removed, positive means shall be taken to confine the heat,
sparks, and slag, and to protect the immovable fire hazards from them.
No welding, cutting, or heating shall be done where the application of flammable
paints, or the presence of other flammable compounds, or heavy dust concentrations
creates a hazard. Suitable fire extinguishing equipment shall be immediately available
in the work area and shall be maintained in a state of readiness for instant use.
When the welding, cutting, or heating operation is such that normal fire
prevention precautions are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned to
guard against fire while the actual welding, cutting, or heating operation is
performed and for a sufficient period of time after completion of the work to ensure
that no possibility of fire exists. The personnel shall be instructed as to the specific
anticipated fire hazards and how the firefighting equipment provided is to be used.
When welding, cutting, or heating is performed on walls, floors, and ceilings,
because direct penetration of sparks or heat transfer may introduce a fire hazard to
an adjacent area, the same precautions shall be taken on the opposite side as are
taken on the side on which the welding is being performed.
For the elimination of possible fire in enclosed spaces as a result of gas escaping
through leaking or improperly closed torch valves, the gas supply to the torch shall
be shut off at some point outside the enclosed space whenever the torch is not in use
or whenever the torch is left unattended for a substantial period of time, such as
during lunch. Overnight and at the change of shifts, the torch and hose shall be
removed from the confined space. Open-end fuel gas and oxygen hoses shall be
immediately removed from enclosed spaces when they are disconnected from the
torch or other gas-consuming devices.

Figure 5-3 Welding screen


90 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Except when the contents are being removed or transferred, drums, pails, and
other containers that contain or have contained flammable liquids shall be kept
closed. Empty containers shall be removed to a safe area apart from hot work
operations or open flames.
Drums, containers, or hollow structures that have contained toxic or flammable
substances shall, before welding, cutting, or heating is undertaken on them, either be
filled with water or thoroughly cleaned of such substances and ventilated and tested.
Prior to welding, cutting, and heating on steel pipelines containing natural gas, the
line should be purged with inert gas. (See API Standard 2201, Welding or Hot
Tapping on Equipment Containing Flammables). Before heat is applied to a drum,
container, or hollow structure, a vent or opening shall be provided for the release of
any built-up pressure during the application of heat.
Confined space. Where a welder must enter a confined space through a
manhole or other small opening, means shall be provided for quick removal of the
worker in case of emergency. When safety belts and lifelines are used for this
purpose, they shall be attached to the welder’s body so that it cannot be jammed
in a small exit opening. An attendant with a pre-planned rescue procedure shall
be stationed outside to observe the welder at all times and be capable of initiating
rescue operations.

REFERENCES_______________________________________________________________________________
Kimball, C.T. 2000. Workplace Health and US OSHA. 2001. Construction Resource
Safety Sourcebook. Detroit: Omni- Manual. http://www.osha-slc.gov/Pub-
graphics, Inc. lications/Const_Res_Man/
Woodside G. and D. Kocurek. 1997. Environ-
mental, Safety, and Health Engineering.
New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
AWWA MANUAL M3

Chapter 6
Construction Sites and
Work Techniques

Construction sites are particularly hazardous because worksites are constantly


changing (Figure 6-1). Several subcontractors may be working at once; construction
workers frequently change worksites and employers; safety regulations may vary
by job site. Safety and health factors typical to construction include (Reese &
Eidson, 1999)
• physical hazards, such as walls being erected improperly or equipment
being operated incorrectly
• environmental hazards, such as toxic atmospheres, oxygen deficiency, noise,
radiation, and dust
• human factors, such as a supervisor’s or worker’s failure to follow safe work
practices
• lack of or poorly designed safety standards for situations, such as confined
space entry or chemical use
• failure to communicate
This chapter discusses these hazards and how they can be reduced. In
particular, this chapter addresses signs, signals, and barricades; material storage and
handling; scaffolds; and excavations and underground construction.

SIGNS, SIGNALS, AND BARRICADES (29 CFR 1926.200–203) ____


Signs and symbols shall be visible at all times when work is being performed and
shall be removed or covered promptly when the hazards no longer exist.

91
92 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Figure 6-1 Construction sites are complex and changing

Danger Signs
Danger signs shall be used only where an immediate hazard exists. Danger signs
shall have red as the predominant color for the upper panel; black outline on the
borders; and a white lower panel for additional sign wording.

Caution Signs
Caution signs shall be used only to warn against potential hazards or to caution
against unusual conditions. Caution signs shall have yellow as the predominant
color; black upper panel and borders: yellow lettering of “caution” on the black panel;
and the lower yellow panel for additional sign wording. Black lettering shall be used
for additional wording.

Exit Signs
Exit signs, when required, shall be lettered in legible red letters, not less than 6 in.
(152 mm) high, on a white field, and the principal stroke of the letters shall be at
least 3/4 in. (19 mm) wide.

Safety Instruction Signs


Safety instruction signs, when used, shall be white with green upper panel with
white letters to convey the principal message. Any additional wording on the sign
shall be black letters on the white background.

Directional Signs
Directional signs, other than automotive traffic signs, shall be white with a black
panel and a white directional symbol. Any additional wording on the sign shall be
black letters on the white background.
CONSTRUCTION SITES AND WORK TECHNIQUES 93

Traffic Signs
Construction areas shall be posted with legible traffic signs at points of hazard
(Figure 6-2). All traffic control signs or devices used for protection of construction
workers shall conform to American National Standards Institute D6.1, Manual on
Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways.

Accident-Prevention Tags
Accident-prevention tags shall be used as a temporary means of warning employees
of an existing hazard, such as defective tools, equipment, etc. They shall not be used
in place of, or as a substitute for, accident-prevention signs.

Flagmen
When operations are such that signs, signals, and barricades do not provide the
necessary protection on or adjacent to a highway or street, flagmen or other
appropriate traffic controls shall be provided. Signaling directions by flagmen shall
conform to American National Standards Institute D6.1, Manual on Uniform Traffic
Control Devices for Streets and Highways. Hand signaling by flagmen shall be by use
of sign paddles or red flags at least 18 in. (457 mm) square (note that the Manual of
Uniform Traffic Control Devices restricts use of these flags to emergencies), and in
periods of darkness, red lights. Flagmen shall be provided with and shall wear a red
or orange warning garment while flagging. Warning garments worn at night shall be
made of reflecting material.

Crane and Hoist Signals


Regulations for crane and hoist signaling can be found in applicable American
National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards.

Figure 6-2 Construction traffic signs


94 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Barricades
Barricades for protection of employees shall conform to the portions of the ANSI
D6.1, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, relating
to barricades. Check with the state department of transportation for requirements
and proper configurations.

MATERIALS HANDLING AND STORAGE


(29 CFR 1926.250–252) ______________________________________________________________
Handling and storing materials involves diverse operations, such as hoisting tons of
steel with a crane, driving a truck loaded with concrete blocks, manually carrying
bags or materials, or using hand trucks (Figure 6-3). The safe and efficient handling
and storing of materials is vital to utilities. These operations provide continuous flow
of materials, parts, and assemblies through the workplace, and ensure that materials
are available when needed. Improper handling and storing of materials can cause
costly injuries.
Back injuries accounted for more than 20 percent of all occupational injuries.
Workers can be injured by falling objects, improperly stacked materials, or by various
types of equipment. When manually moving materials, workers should be aware of
potential injuries, including the following:
• strains and sprains from improperly lifting loads or from carrying loads that
are either too large or too heavy
• fractures and bruises caused by being struck by materials or by being
caught in pinch points
• cuts and bruises caused by falling material that have been improperly
stored or by incorrectly cutting ties or other securing devices.

Handling Materials
General safety principles can help reduce workplace accidents. These include work
practices, ergonomic principles, and training and education. Whether moving
materials manually or mechanically, employees should be aware of the potential
hazards associated with the task at hand and know how to control their workplaces
to minimize the danger.
When manually moving materials, employees should seek help when a load is so
bulky it cannot be properly grasped or lifted, when they cannot see around or over it,
or when they cannot safely handle the load.
When placing blocks under a raised load, an employee should ensure that the
load is not released until his or her hands are removed from under the load. Blocking
materials and timbers should be large and strong enough to support the load safely.
Materials with evidence of cracks, rounded corners, splintered pieces, or dry rot
should not be used for blocking.
Handles or holders should be attached to loads to reduce the chances of fingers
being pinched or smashed. Workers also should use appropriate protective equip-
ment. For loads with sharp or rough edges, wear gloves or other hand and forearm
protection. In addition, to avoid injuries to the eyes, use eye protection. When the
loads are heavy or bulky, the mover also should wear steel-toed safety shoes or boots
to prevent foot injuries if he or she slips or accidentally drops the load.
CONSTRUCTION SITES AND WORK TECHNIQUES 95

Figure 6-3 Hand truck and stacked materials

When mechanically moving materials, avoid overloading the equipment by


letting the weight, size, and shape of the material being moved dictate the type of
equipment used for transporting it. All materials-handling equipment has rated
capacities that determine the maximum weight the equipment can safely handle and
the conditions under which it can handle that weight. The equipment-rated capacity
must be displayed on each piece of equipment and must not be exceeded except for
load testing.
When picking up items with a powered industrial truck, the load must be
centered on the forks and as close to the mast as possible to minimize the potential
for the truck tipping or the load falling. Never overload a lift truck because it would
be hard to control and could easily tip over. Do not place extra weight on the rear of
a counterbalanced forklift to allow an overload. The load must be at the lowest
position for traveling and the truck manufacturer’s operational requirements must be
followed. All stacked loads must be correctly piled and cross-tiered, where possible.
Precautions also should be taken when stacking and storing material.
Stored materials must not create a hazard. Storage areas must be kept free
from accumulated materials that cause tripping, fires, or explosions, or that may
contribute to the harboring of rats and other pests. Stored materials inside buildings
must not be placed within 6 ft (1.8 m) of an exterior wall. When stacking and piling
materials, it is important to be aware of factors such as the materials’ height and
weight, how accessible the stored materials are to the user, and the condition of the
containers where the materials are being stored. Noncompatible material must be
96 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

separated in storage. Employees who work on stored materials in silos, hoppers, or


tanks must be equipped with lifelines and safety belts.
All bound material should be stacked, placed on racks, blocked, interlocked, or
otherwise secured to prevent it from sliding, falling, or collapsing. A load greater than
that approved by a building official may not be placed on any floor of a building or
other structure. Where applicable, load limits approved by the building inspector
should be conspicuously posted in all storage areas.
When stacking materials, height limitations should be observed. For example,
lumber must be stacked no more that 16-ft (4.9-m) high if it is handled manually;
20 ft (6.1 m) is the maximum stacking height if a forklift is used. For quick reference,
walls or posts may be painted with stripes to indicate maximum stacking heights.
Used lumber must have all nails removed before stacking. Lumber must be
stacked and leveled on solidly supported bracing. The stacks must be stable and self-
supporting. Stacks of loose bricks should not be more than 7 ft (2.1 m) in height.
When these stacks reach a height of 4 ft (1.2 m), they should be tapered back 2 in.
(51 mm) for every foot of height above the 4-ft (1.2-m) level. When masonry blocks are
stacked higher than 6 ft (1.8 m), the stacks should be tapered back one-half block for
each tier above the 6-ft (1.8-m) level.
Bags and bundles must be stacked in interlocking rows to remain secure.
Bagged material must be stacked by stepping back the layers and cross-keying the
bags at least every ten layers. To remove bags from the stack, start from the top row
first. Baled paper and rags stored inside a building must not be closer than 18 in.
(457 mm) to the walls, partitions, or sprinkler heads. Boxed materials must be
banded or held in place using cross-ties or shrink plastic fiber.
Drums, barrels, and kegs must be stacked symmetrically. If stored on their
sides, the bottom tiers must be blocked to keep them from rolling. When stacked on
end, put planks, sheets of plywood dunnage, or pallets between each tier to make a
firm, flat, stacking surface. When stacking materials two or more tiers high, the
bottom tier must be chocked on each side to prevent shifting in either direction.
When stacking, consider the need for availability of the material. Material that
cannot be stacked because of its size, shape, or fragility can be safely stored on
shelves or in bins. Structural steel, bar stock, poles, and other cylindrical materials,
unless in racks, must be stacked and blocked to prevent spreading or tilting. Pipes
and bars should not be stored in racks that face main aisles; this could create a
hazard to passers-by when removing supplies.

Ergonomics
Ergonomics is based on the principle that the job should be adapted to fit the person,
rather than forcing the person to fit the job. Ergonomics focuses on the work
environment, such as its design and function, and items, such as design and function
of work stations, controls, displays, safety devices, tools, and lighting to fit the
employees’ physical requirements and to ensure their health and well being.
Ergonomics includes restructuring or changing workplace conditions to make
the job easier and reducing stressors that cause cumulative trauma disorders and
repetitive motion injuries. In the area of materials handling and storing, ergonomic
principles may require controls, such as reducing the size or weight of the objects
lifted, installing a mechanical lifting aid, or changing the height of a pallet or shelf.
Although no approach has been found for totally eliminating back injuries
resulting from lifting materials, a substantial number of lifting injuries can be
prevented by implementing an effective ergonomics program and by training
employees in appropriate lifting techniques.
CONSTRUCTION SITES AND WORK TECHNIQUES 97

Handling Equipment
To reduce potential accidents associated with workplace equipment, employees need
to be trained in the proper use and limitations of the equipment they operate. This
includes knowing how to effectively use equipment, such as conveyors, cranes, and
slings.
Conveyors. When using conveyors, workers’ hands may be caught in nip
points where the conveyor medium runs near the frame or over support members or
rollers; workers may be struck by material falling off the conveyor; or they may
become caught on or in the conveyor, being drawn into the conveyor path as a result.
To reduce the severity of an injury, an emergency button or pull cord designed
to stop the conveyor must be installed at the employee’s work station. Continuously
accessible conveyor belts should have an emergency stop cable that extends the
entire length of the conveyor belt so that the cable can be accessed from any location
along the belt. The emergency stop switch must be designed to be reset before the
conveyor can be restarted. Before restarting a conveyor that has stopped because of
an overload, appropriate personnel must inspect the conveyor and clear the stoppage
before restarting. Employees must never ride on a materials-handling conveyor.
Where a conveyor passes over work areas or aisles, guards must be provided to
keep employees from being struck by falling material. If the crossover is low enough
for workers to run into it, the guard must be either marked with a warning sign or
painted a bright color to protect employees.
Screw conveyors must be completely covered except at loading and discharging
points. At those points, guards must protect employees against contacting the moving
screw; the guards are movable, and they must be interlocked to prevent conveyor
movement when not in place.
Cranes. Employers must permit only thoroughly trained and competent
persons to operate cranes. Operators should know what they are lifting and what it
weighs. For example, the rated capacity of mobile cranes varies with the length of the
boom and the boom radius. When a crane has a telescoping boom, a load may be safe
to lift at a short boom length or a short boom radius but may overload the crane when
the boom is extended and the radius increases.
All movable cranes must have boom angle indicators; those cranes with
telescoping booms must have some means to determine boom lengths, unless the load
rating is independent of the boom length. Load rating charts must be posted in the
cab of cab-operated cranes. All mobile cranes do not have uniform capacities for the
same boom length and radius in all directions around the chassis of the vehicle.
Always check the crane’s load chart to ensure that the crane will not be
overloaded for the conditions under which it will operate. Plan lifts before starting
them to ensure that they are safe. Take additional precautions and exercise extra
care when operating around powerlines.
Some mobile cranes cannot operate with outriggers in the traveling position.
When used, the outriggers must rest on firm ground, on timers, or be sufficiently
cribbed to spread the weight of the crane and the load over a large area. This will
prevent the crane from tipping during use.
Hoisting chains and ropes must always be free of kinks or twists and must
never be wrapped around a load. Loads should be attached to the load hook by slings,
fixtures, and other devices that have the capacity to support the load on the hook.
Sharp edges of loads should be padded to prevent cutting slings. Proper sling angles
must be maintained so that slings are not loaded in excess of their capacity.
All cranes must be inspected frequently by persons thoroughly familiar with the
crane, the methods of inspecting the crane, and what can make the crane
98 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

unserviceable. Crane activity, the severity of use, and environmental conditions


should determine inspection schedules. Critical parts, such as crane operating
mechanisms, hooks, air, or hydraulic system components and other load-carrying
components, should be inspected daily for any maladjustment, deterioration, leakage,
deformation, or other damage.
Slings. When working with slings, employers must ensure that the slings are
visually inspected before use and during operation, especially if used under heavy
stress. Riggers or other knowledgeable employees should conduct or assist in the
inspection of a sling because they are aware of how it is used and what makes it
unserviceable. A damaged or defective sling must be removed from service.
Slings must not be shortened with knots or bolts or other makeshift devices;
sling legs that have been kinked also are prohibited. Slings must not be loaded
beyond their rated capacity. Suspended loads must be kept clear of all obstruction,
and crane operators should avoid sudden starts and stops when moving suspended
loads. Employees also must remain clear of loads about to be lifted and suspended.
Powered industrial trucks. Workers who must handle and store materials
often use fork trucks, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and other specialized
industrial trucks powered by electrical motors or internal combustion engines. Affected
workers, therefore, should be aware of the safety requirements pertaining to fire
protection, and the design, maintenance, and use of these trucks. See chapter 5 of this
manual for safety information about this equipment and vehicles.

Fire and Other Precautions


In addition to using ergonomic controls, there are some basic safety principles that
can be employed to reduce injuries resulting from handling and storing materials.
These include taking general fire safety precautions and keeping aisles and
passageways clear.
In adhering to fire safety precautions, employees should note that flammable
and combustible materials must be stored according to their fire characteristics.
Flammable liquids, for example, must be separated from other material by a fire
wall. Also, other combustibles must be stored in an area where smoking and use of
an open flame or a spark-producing device is prohibited. Dissimilar materials that
are dangerous when they come into contact with each other must be stored apart.
When using aisles and passageways to move materials mechanically, sufficient
clearance must be allowed for aisles at loading docks, through doorways, wherever
turns must be made, and in other parts of the workplace. Providing sufficient
clearance for mechanically moved materials will prevent workers from being pinned
between the equipment and fixtures in the workplace, such as walls, racks, posts, or
other machines. Sufficient clearance also will prevent the load from striking an
obstruction and falling on an employee.
All passageways used by employees must be kept clear of obstructions and
tripping hazards. Materials in excess of supplies needed for immediate operations
should not be stored in aisles or passageways, and permanent aisles and passage-
ways must be marked appropriately.

Training
A training program allows employees to recognize and avoid materials-handling
hazards. Instructors should be well versed in matters that pertain to safety
engineering and materials-handling and storing. The content of the training should
emphasize those factors that will contribute to reducing workplace hazards including
the following:
CONSTRUCTION SITES AND WORK TECHNIQUES 99

• alerting the employee to the dangers of lifting without proper training


• showing the employee how to avoid unnecessary physical stress strain
• teaching workers to become aware of what they can comfortably handle
without undue strain
• instructing workers on the proper use of equipment
• teaching workers to recognize potential hazards and how to prevent or
correct them
A training program to teach proper lifting techniques should cover the
following topics:
• awareness of health risks to improper lifting—citing organizational case
histories
• knowledge of the basic anatomy of the spine, the muscles, and the joints of
the trunk, and the contributions of intra-abdominal pressure while lifting
• awareness of individual body strengths and weaknesses–determining one’s
own lifting capacity
• recognition of the physical factors that might contribute to an accident and
how to avoid the unexpected
• use of safe lifting postures and timing for smooth, easy lifting and the
ability to minimize the load-moment effects
• use of handling aids, such as stages, platforms, or steps, trestles, shoulder
pads, handles, and wheels
• knowledge of body responses—warning signals—to be aware of when lifting
A campaign using posters to draw attention to the need to address potential
accidents, including lifting and back injuries, is one way to increase awareness of safe
work practices and techniques. The plant medical staff and a team of instructors
should conduct regular tours of the site to look for potential hazards and allow input
from workers.

SCAFFOLDS (29 CFR 1926.450–454) _________________________________________


This section does not apply to aerial lifts presented in chapter 5 of this manual.
Other than a few exceptions, each scaffold and scaffold component shall be capable of
supporting without failure, its own weight and at least 4 times the maximum
intended load applied or transmitted to it. The details of scaffold design and
construction is complex and regulated. Design considerations not included in this
manual because of length and complexity are connections, suspension rope, decking,
platforms, walkways, finishes, guys, ties, braces, footings, supports, counterweights,
outrigger beams, tiebacks, and hoists. Refer to OSHA regulations 1926.451 of other
appropriate standards for scaffold design.

Braking, Ladders, Stairways, Ramps


Critical safety features of scaffolds include braking mechanisms, ladder and stair
access, and ramps and walkways.
Braking. Braking devices or locking pawls that engage automatically with an
instantaneous change in momentum or an accelerated overspeed shall be installed.
100 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Ladders and stairways. When scaffold platforms are more than 2 ft (0.6 m)
above or below a point of access, portable ladders, hook-on ladders, attachable
ladders, stair towers (scaffold stairways/towers), stairway-type ladders (such as
ladder stands), ramps, walkways, integral prefabricated scaffold access, or direct
access from another scaffold, structure, personnel hoist, or similar surface shall be
used. Crossbraces shall not be used as a means of access.
Portable, hook-on, and attachable ladders shall be positioned so as not to tip the
scaffold. Hook-on and attachable ladders shall be positioned so that their bottom
rung is not more than 24 in. (61 cm) above the scaffold supporting level.
Stairway-type ladders shall be positioned such that their bottom step is not
more than 24 in. (61 cm) above the scaffold supporting level. Provided rest platforms
at 12-ft (3.7-m) maximum vertical intervals; a minimum step width of 16 in. (41 cm),
except that mobile scaffold stairway-type ladders shall have a minimum step width
of 11 1/2 in. (30 cm). Have slip-resistant treads on all steps and landings.
Stair towers (scaffold stairway/towers) shall be positioned such that their
bottom step is not more than 24 in. (61 cm.) above the scaffold supporting level. A
stair rail consisting of a top rail and a mid-rail shall be provided on each side of each
scaffold stairway. The top rail of each stair rail system shall also be capable of serving
as a handrail, unless a separate handrail is provided.
Handrails and top rails that serve as handrails shall provide an adequate
handhold for employees grasping them to avoid falling. Stair rail systems and
handrails shall be surfaced to prevent injury to employees from punctures or
lacerations and to prevent snagging of clothing.
The ends of stair rail systems and handrails shall be constructed so that they do
not constitute a projection hazard. Handrails and top rails that are used as handrails
shall be at least 3 inches (7.6 cm) from other objects. Stair rails shall be not less than
28 in. (71 cm) nor more than 37 in. (94 cm) from the upper surface of the stair rail to
the surface of the tread, in line with the face of the riser at the forward edge of the
tread.
A landing platform at least 18-in. (45.7-cm) wide by at least 18-in. (45.7-cm)
long shall be provided at each level. Each scaffold stairway shall be at least 18-in.
(45.7-cm) wide between stair rails. Treads and landings shall have slip-resistant
surfaces. Stairways shall be installed between 40° and 60° angles from the
horizontal floor.
Approved guardrails shall be provided on the open sides and ends of each
landing. Riser height shall be uniform, within 1/4 in. (0.6 cm) for each flight of stairs.
Greater variations in riser height are allowed for the top and bottom steps of the
entire system, not for each flight of stairs. Tread depth shall be uniform, within 1/4 in.
(0.6 cm) for each flight of stairs.
Ramps and walkways. Ramps and walkways 6 ft (1.8 m) or more above
lower levels shall have approved guardrail systems. No ramp or walkway shall be
inclined more than a slope of 1 vertical to 3 horizontal (20° above the horizontal). If
the slope of a ramp or a walkway is steeper than 1 vertical in 8 horizontal, the ramp
or walkway shall have cleats not more than 14 in. (35 cm) apart that are securely
fastened to the planks to provide footing.

Erecting and Dismantling


Scaffolds shall be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered only under the supervision
and direction of a competent person qualified in scaffold erection, moving, disman-
tling, or alteration. These activities shall be performed only by experienced and
trained employees selected for the work by the competent person.
CONSTRUCTION SITES AND WORK TECHNIQUES 101

The employer shall provide safe means of access for each employee erecting or
dismantling a scaffold where the provision of safe access is feasible and does not
create a greater hazard. The employer shall have a competent person determine
whether it is feasible or would pose a greater hazard to provide, and have employees
use a safe means of access. This determination shall be based on site conditions and
the type of scaffold being erected or dismantled. Hook-on or attachable ladders shall
be installed as soon as scaffold erection has progressed to a point that permits safe
installation and use.
When erecting or dismantling tubular welded frame scaffolds, (end) frames,
with horizontal members that are parallel, level and are not more than 22 in.
(59.9 cm) apart vertically may be used as climbing devices for access, provided they
are erected in a manner that creates a usable ladder and provides good hand-hold
and foot space. Cross braces on tubular welded frame scaffolds shall not be used as a
means of access or egress.

Use
Scaffolds and scaffold components shall not be loaded in excess of their maximum
intended loads or rated capacities, whichever is less. Platforms shall not deflect more
than 1/60 of the span when loaded.
Scaffolds and scaffold components shall be inspected for visible defects by a
competent person before each work shift and after any occurrence which could affect
a scaffold’s structural integrity. Any part of a scaffold damaged or weakened such
that its strength is less than that required shall be immediately repaired or replaced,
braced to meet those provisions, or removed from service until repaired.
Scaffolds shall not be moved horizontally while employees are on them, unless
they have been designed by a registered professional engineer specifically for this
movement or for approved mobile scaffolds. The clearance between scaffolds and
power lines shall be as follows: scaffolds shall not be erected, used, dismantled,
altered, or moved such that they or any conductive material handled on them might
come closer to exposed and energized power lines. Refer to appropriate regulations
for safe distances.
Employees shall be prohibited from working on scaffolds covered with snow,
ice, or other slippery material except as necessary for removal of such materials.
Where swinging loads are being hoisted onto or near scaffolds such that the loads
might contact the scaffold, tag lines or equivalent measures to control the loads
shall be used.
Suspension ropes supporting adjustable suspension scaffolds shall be of a
diameter large enough to provide sufficient surface area for the functioning of brake
and hoist mechanisms. Suspension ropes shall be shielded from heat-producing
processes. When acids or other corrosive substances are used on a scaffold, the ropes
shall be shielded, treated to protect against the corrosive substances, or shall be of a
material that will not be damaged by the substance being used.
Work on or from scaffolds is prohibited during storms or high winds unless an
authorized person has determined that it is safe for employees to be on the scaffold
and those employees are protected by a personal fall arrest system or wind screens.
Wind screens shall not be used unless the scaffold is secured against the anticipated
wind forces.
Debris shall not be allowed to accumulate on platforms. Makeshift devices, such
as but not limited to boxes and barrels, shall not be used on top of scaffold platforms
to increase the working level height of employees.
102 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Ladders shall not be used on scaffolds to increase the working level height of
employees, except on large area scaffolds where employers have satisfied the
following criteria:
• When the ladder is placed against a structure which is not a part of the
scaffold, the scaffold shall be secured against the sideways thrust exerted by
the ladder
• The platform units shall be secured to the scaffold to prevent their
movement
• The ladder legs shall be on the same platform or other means shall be
provided to stabilize the ladder against unequal platform deflection
• The ladder legs shall be secured to prevent them from slipping or being
pushed off the platform.
Fall protection. Each employee on a scaffold more than 10 ft (3.1 m) above a
lower level shall be protected from falling to that lower level. The types of fall
protection to be provided to the employees depend on the type of scaffold. The
employer should refer to appropriate regulations for the type of scaffold being used.
The employer shall have an authorized person determine the feasibility and safety of
providing fall protection for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds.
Employers are required to provide fall protection for employees erecting or
dismantling supported scaffolds where the installation and use of such protection is
feasible and does not create a greater hazard.
Falling object protection. In addition to wearing hardhats each employee
on a scaffold shall be provided with additional protection from falling hand tools,
debris, and other small objects through the installation of toeboards, screens, or
guardrail systems, or through the erection of debris nets, catch platforms, or canopy
structures that contain or deflect the falling objects. When the falling objects are too
large, heavy, or massive to be contained or deflected by any of the above-listed
measures, the employer shall place these potential falling objects away from the edge
of the surface from which they could fall and shall secure those materials as
necessary to prevent their falling.

EXCAVATIONS AND UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION (29 CFR


1926.650–652) __________________________________________________________________________
This section applies to all open excavations made in the earth’s surface, including
trenches.

Underground installations
The estimated location of utility installations, such as water lines or any other
underground installations that may be encountered during excavation work, shall be
determined before opening an excavation.
Utility companies or owners shall be contacted within established or customary
local response times, advised of the proposed work, and asked to establish the
location of the utility underground installations prior to the start of actual
excavation. When excavation operations approach the estimated location of under-
ground installations, the exact location of the installations shall be determined by
safe and acceptable means. While the excavation is open, underground installations
shall be protected, supported, or removed as necessary to safeguard employees.
CONSTRUCTION SITES AND WORK TECHNIQUES 103

Access and Egress


Structural ramps that are used solely by employees as a means of access or egress
from excavations shall be designed by an authorized person. Structural ramps used
for access or egress of equipment shall be designed by an authorized person qualified
in structural design and shall be constructed in accordance with the design.
Ramps and runways constructed of two or more structural members shall have
the structural members connected together to prevent displacement. Structural
members used for ramps and runways shall be of uniform thickness. Cleats or other
appropriate means used to connect runway structural members shall be attached to
the bottom of the runway or shall be attached in a manner to prevent tripping.
Structural ramps used in lieu of steps shall be provided with cleats or other surface
treatments on the top surface to prevent slipping.
A stairway, ladder, ramp, or other safe means of egress shall be located in trench
excavations that are 4 ft (1.22 m) or more in depth so as to require no more than 25 ft
(7.62 m) of lateral travel for employees.

Traffic and Loads


Employees exposed to public vehicular traffic shall be provided with and shall wear
warning vests or other suitable garments marked with or made of reflectorized or
high-visibility material.
No employee shall be permitted underneath loads handled by lifting or digging
equipment. Employees shall be required to stand away from any vehicle being loaded
or unloaded to avoid being struck by any spillage or falling materials. Operators may
remain in the cabs of vehicles being loaded or unloaded when the vehicles are
equipped to provide adequate protection for the operator during loading and
unloading operations.
When mobile equipment is operated adjacent to an excavation or when such
equipment is required to approach the edge of an excavation, and the operator does
not have a clear and direct view of the edge of the excavation, a warning system shall
be used, such as barricades, hand or mechanical signals, or stop logs. If possible, the
grade should be away from the excavation.

Hazardous Atmospheres
Where oxygen deficiency (atmospheres containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen) or a
hazardous atmosphere exists or could reasonably be expected to exist, such as in
excavations in landfill areas or excavations in areas where hazardous substances are
stored nearby, the atmospheres in the excavation shall be tested before employees
enter excavations greater than 4 ft (1.22 m) in depth.
Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent employee exposure to atmo-
spheres containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen and other hazardous atmospheres.
These precautions include providing proper respiratory protection or ventilation.
Adequate precaution shall be taken such as providing ventilation, to prevent
employee exposure to an atmosphere containing a concentration of a flammable gas
in excess of 20 percent of the lower flammable limit of the gas. When controls are
used that are intended to reduce the level of atmospheric contaminants to acceptable
levels, testing shall be conducted as often as necessary to ensure that the atmosphere
remains safe.
104 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Emergency Rescue Equipment


Emergency rescue equipment, such as breathing apparatus, a safety harness and
line, or a basket stretcher, shall be readily available where hazardous atmospheric
conditions exist or may be expected to develop during work in an excavation. This
equipment shall be attended when in use.
Employees entering bell-bottom pier holes or other similar deep and confined
footing excavations shall wear a harness with a lifeline securely attached to it. The
lifeline shall be separate from any line used to handle materials and shall be
individually attended at all times while the employee wearing the lifeline is in the
excavation.

Protection From Hazards Associated with Water


Accumulation.
Employees shall not work in excavations in which there is accumulated water or in
excavations in which water is accumulating unless adequate precautions have been
taken to protect employees against the hazards posed by water accumulation. The
precautions necessary to protect employees adequately vary with each situation but
could include special support or shield systems to protect from cave-ins, water
removal to control the level of accumulating water, or use of a safety harness and
lifeline. If water is controlled or prevented from accumulating by using water removal
equipment, the water removal equipment and operations shall be monitored by an
authorized person to ensure proper operation.
If excavation work interrupts the natural drainage of surface water (such as
streams), diversion ditches, dikes, or other suitable means shall be used to prevent
surface water from entering the excavation and to provide adequate drainage of the
area adjacent to the excavation. Excavations subject to runoff from heavy rains will
require an inspection by an authorized person.

Stability of Adjacent Structures


Where the stability of adjoining buildings, walls, or other structures is endangered by
excavation operations, support systems, such as shoring, bracing, or underpinning
shall be provided to ensure the stability of these structures for the protection of
employees.
Excavation below the level of the base or footing of any foundation or retaining
wall that could be reasonably expected to pose a hazard to employees shall not be
permitted except when one of these conditions is met:
• when a support system, such as underpinning, is provided to ensure the
safety of employees and the stability of the structure
• the excavation is in stable rock
• a registered professional engineer has approved the determination that the
structure is sufficiently removed from the excavation so as to be unaffected
by the excavation activity
• a registered professional engineer has approved the determination that the
excavation work will not pose a hazard to employees
Sidewalks, pavements, and appurtenant structure shall not be undermined
unless a support system or another method of protection is provided to protect
employees from the possible collapse of these structures.
CONSTRUCTION SITES AND WORK TECHNIQUES 105

Protection of employees from loose rock or soil. Adequate protection shall be


provided to protect employees from loose rock or soil that could pose a hazard by falling or
rolling from an excavation face. Such protection shall consist of scaling to remove loose
material; installation of protective barricades at intervals as necessary on the face to stop
and contain falling material; or other means that provide equivalent protection.
Employees shall be protected from excavated or other materials or equipment
that could pose a hazard by falling or rolling into excavations. Protection shall be
provided by placing and keeping such materials or equipment at least 2 ft (0.61 m)
from the edge of excavations, or by the use of retaining devices that are sufficient to
prevent materials or equipment from falling or rolling into excavations, or by a
combination of both if necessary.

Inspections
Daily inspections of excavations, the adjacent areas, and protective systems shall be
made by an authorized person for evidence of a situation that could result in possible
cave-ins, indications of failure of protective systems, hazardous atmospheres, or other
hazardous conditions. An inspection shall be conducted by this person prior to the
start of work and as needed throughout the shift. Inspections shall also be made after
every rainstorm or other hazard-increasing occurrence. These inspections are only
required when employee exposure can be reasonably anticipated.
Where the authorized person finds evidence of a situation that could result in a
possible cave-in, indications of failure of protective systems, hazardous atmospheres, or
other hazardous conditions, exposed employees shall be removed from the hazardous
area until the necessary precautions have been taken to ensure their safety.

Fall Protection
Walkways shall be provided where employees or equipment are required or permitted
to cross over excavations. Approved guardrails shall be provided where walkways are
6 ft (1.8 m) or more above lower levels.

Protection of Employees in Excavations


Each employee in an excavation shall be protected from cave-ins by an approved
protective system. Systems may not have to be installed in one of these conditions
• Excavations are made entirely in stable rock
• Excavations are less than 5 ft (1.5 m) in depth and examination of the
ground by an authorized person provides no indication of a potential cave-in
Protective systems shall resist without failure all loads that are intended or
could reasonably be expected to be applied or transmitted to the system. The slopes
and configurations of sloping and benching systems shall be selected and constructed
by the employer or his designee according to OSHA or other appropriate regulations.
Excavations shall be sloped at an angle not steeper than one and one-half
horizontal to one vertical (34° measured from the horizontal), unless an expert
determines that a design option applies.

Support systems
Support systems (such as the hydraulic spot bracing shown in Figure 6-4) must be
designed by an authorized person using the appropriate site factors, design
standards, and manufacturer’s recommendations.
106 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Figure 6-4 Hydraulic spot bracing in trenching

Deviation from the specifications, recommendations, and limitations issued or


made by the manufacturer shall only be allowed after the manufacturer issues
specific written approval. Manufacturer’s specifications, recommendations, and
limitations, and manufacturer’s approval to deviate from the specifications, recom-
mendations, and limitations shall be in written form at the job site during
construction of the protective system.

Materials and Equipment


Materials and equipment used for protective systems shall be free from damage or
defects that might impair their proper function. Manufactured materials and
equipment used for protective systems shall be used and maintained in a manner
that is consistent with the recommendations of the manufacturer and in a manner
that will prevent employee exposure to hazards.
When material or equipment used for protective systems is damaged, an
authorized person shall examine the material or equipment and evaluate its
suitability for continued use. If this person cannot assure the material or equipment
is able to support the intended loads or is otherwise suitable for safe use, then this
material or equipment shall be removed from service and shall be evaluated and
approved by a registered professional engineer before being returned to service.

Installation and Removal of Support


Components of support systems shall be securely connected together to prevent
sliding, falling, kickouts, or other predictable failures, such as cave-ins, structural
collapses, or injury caused by falling components. Individual components of support
systems shall not be subjected to loads exceeding those which those parts were
designed to withstand.
CONSTRUCTION SITES AND WORK TECHNIQUES 107

Before temporary removal of individual components begins, additional precau-


tions shall be taken to ensure the safety of employees, such as installing other
structural components to carry the additional loads. Removal shall begin at and
progress from the bottom of the excavation. Components shall be released slowly so
any indication of possible failure of the remaining members of the structure or
possible cave-in of the sides of the excavation can be noted. Backfilling shall progress
together with the removal of support systems from excavations.
Excavation of material to a level no greater than 2 ft (0.61 m) below the bottom
of the components of a support system shall be permitted, but only if the system is
designed to resist the forces calculated for the full depth of the trench, and there are
no indications while the trench is open of a possible loss of soil from behind or below
the bottom of the support system. Installation of a support system shall be closely
coordinated with the excavation of trenches.
Employees shall not be permitted to work on the faces of sloped or benched
excavations at levels above other employees except when employees at the lower
levels are adequately protected from the hazard of falling, rolling, or sliding material
or equipment.

Underground Construction
This section applies to the construction of underground tunnels, shafts, chambers,
and passageways. This section also applies to cut-and-cover excavations that are both
physically connected to ongoing underground construction operations within the
scope of this section and covered in such a manner as to create conditions
characteristic of underground construction.
The employer shall provide and maintain safe means of access and egress to all
work stations. Employees shall be provided access and egress in such a manner that
they are protected from being struck by excavators, haulage machines, trains, and
other mobile equipment.
The employer shall control access to all openings to prevent unauthorized entry
underground. Unused chutes, manways, or other openings shall be tightly covered,
bulkheaded, or fenced off and shall be posted with warning signs indicating “Keep
Out” or similar language. Completed or unused sections of the underground facility
shall be barricaded.
Check-in/check-out. The employer shall maintain a check-in/check-out proce-
dure that will ensure that aboveground personnel can determine an accurate count of
the number of persons underground in the event of an emergency. However, this
procedure is not required when the construction of underground facilities designed for
human occupancy has been sufficiently completed so that the permanent environmen-
tal hazard or structural failure within the facilities has been accounted for.
Safety instruction. All employees shall be instructed in the recognition and
avoidance of hazards associated with underground construction activities including,
where appropriate, the following subjects:
• Air monitoring
• Communications
• Flood control
• Mechanical equipment
• Personal protective equipment
• Explosives
108 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

• Fire prevention and protection


• Emergency procedures, including evacuation plans and check-in/check-out
systems
Communications and emergency response. When natural, unassisted
voice communication is ineffective, a power-assisted means of voice communication
shall be used to provide communication between the work face, the bottom of the
shaft, and the surface. Communication systems shall be tested upon initial entry of
each shift to the underground, and as often as necessary at later times, to ensure that
they are in working order.
Two effective means of communication, at least one of which shall be voice
communication, shall be provided in all shafts that are being developed or used either
for personnel access or for hoisting. Powered communication systems shall operate on
an independent power supply and shall be installed so that the use of or disruption
of any one phone or signal location will not disrupt the operation of the system from
any other location.
When a shaft is used as an egress, the employer shall make advance
arrangements for power-assisted hoisting capability to be readily available in an
emergency, unless the regular hoisting means can continue to function in the event of
an electrical power failure at the job site. These hoisting means shall be designed so
that the load hoist drum is powered in both directions of rotation and so that the
brake is automatically applied upon power release or failure.
The employer must provide approved self-rescuers. Respirators must be
immediately available to all employees at work stations in underground areas where
employees might be trapped by smoke or gas.
At least one designated person shall be on duty aboveground whenever any
employee is working underground. This designated person shall be responsible for
securing immediate aid and keeping an accurate count of employees underground in
case of emergency.
Each employee underground shall have an acceptable portable hand lamp or cap
lamp in his or her work area for emergency use, unless natural light or an emergency
lighting system provides adequate illumination for escape.
On job sites where 25 or more employees work underground at one time, the
employer shall provide (or make arrangements in advance with locally available
rescue services to provide) at least two 5-person rescue teams: one on the job site or
within 1/2-hr travel time from the entry point, and the other within 2-hr travel
time. The employer shall ensure that rescue teams are familiar with conditions at
the job site.
On job sites where less than 25 employees work underground at one time, the
employer shall provide (or make arrangements in advance with locally available
rescue services to provide) at least one 5-person rescue team to be either on the job
site or within 1/2-hr travel time from the entry point.
Rescue team members shall be qualified in rescue procedures, the use and
limitations of breathing apparatus, and the use of firefighting equipment. Qualifica-
tions shall be reviewed not less than annually.
On job sites where flammable or noxious gases are encountered or anticipated
in hazardous quantities, rescue team members shall practice donning and using self-
contained breathing apparatus monthly.
CONSTRUCTION SITES AND WORK TECHNIQUES 109

REFERENCES_______________________________________________________________________________
Reese, C.D. and J.V. Eidson. 1999. Handbook US Department of Labor, OSHA. 1998.
of OSHA Construction Safety and Materials Handling and Storage, Re-
Health (pp 13–16, 33–35, 59–65, 69– vised (OSHA 2236), (pp 1–18). Wash-
70, 71–73, 73–79, 697–705). Boca Ra- ington, DC: US Government.
ton: Lewis Publishers. US OSHA. 2001. Construction Resource
Manual. http://www.osha-slc.gov/Pub-
lications/Const_Res_Man/
This page intentionally blank.
AWWA MANUAL M3

Chapter 7
Facilities and
Maintenance

Facilities, and their maintenance, present many safety hazards. This chapter
discusses general facility and laboratory safety.

GENERAL FACILITIES SAFETY_____________________________________________________


This sections discusses the many safety hazards and preventive procedures that
reduce the potential hazards in general facilities.

Fire extinguishers, alarm systems, and procedures


(29 CFR 1926.24)
All buildings should be equipped with one or more types of fire extinguishers (Figure
7-1) and fire alarm systems. All employees should be familiar with the location, type,
and use of extinguishers, as well as the location and operation of fire alarm pull
stations.
There are four classes of fires based generally on the fuel but, in one case, on the
ignition source, and four corresponding classes of extinguishers. The four types of
fires are
Class A—General combustible, such as wood, paper, cloth
Class B—Flammable liquids, such as gasoline, solvents
Class C—Energized electrical equipment
Class D—Metals, such as magnesium, sodium
The extinguishers appropriate to a particular type of fire are given the same
letter classification as of the fire. All extinguishers should be inspected monthly.
Annual and periodic hydrostatic tests are performed according to the NFPA
guidelines. Should anyone discharge an extinguisher or notice one with the safety
seal broken, it should be recharged or repaired.

111
112 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Figure 7-1 Fire extinguisher and chlorine leak evacuation plan

Employees should be properly trained to use fire extinguishers. If the fire is


small, contact the fire department and use the correct extinguisher. Special training
and equipment are required to successfully fight an established structure fire.

Egress (29 CFR 1926.34)


If a fire occurs in a building, the occupants should be evacuated promptly and safely.
Other emergencies requiring prompt evacuation are chemical spills and leaking
compressed gas cylinders. Obstruction to passageways can create serious hazards in
case of fire, explosion, loss of light, or other emergency situations. Corridors are
specifically constructed to retard the spread of fire and to provide a protective envelope
to allow people to evacuate; therefore, flammable materials should not be stored in
corridors.
Exit areas, corridors, aisles, and passageways must be kept clear at all times
with no obstructions that could create a hazard. The proper maintenance of aisles,
corridors, and exits is extremely important. Some examples of the most common
items found in hallways are carts, boxes, laboratory equipment, and furniture. Exit
doors should not be obscured or concealed in any way. A door designed for fire block
purposes must be kept closed and not secured in an open position.
Space under stairs is prohibited from use for any purpose, especially storage,
unless the items are noncombustible. Storage of any kind of material on a stairway is
prohibited.

Office Safety
Falls are the most common source of disabling injury in the office environment. To
minimize exposure
• avoid thick carpeting; have frayed or loose carpeting repaired or replaced
FACILITIES AND MAINTENANCE 113

• have loose or broken floor tiles repaired


• have tracked-in rain, spilled drinks, and other out-of-place liquids mopped
up immediately
• pick up dropped pencils, paper clips, rubber bands, and paper
• keep cords from telephones, typewriters, computers, and other office
machines out of traffic areas and knee wells of desks
• use appropriate ladders and step stools to reach high objects, not chairs or
other items
• close file and desk drawers immediately after completing a task
• use the handrail when climbing and descending stairs
• move quickly enough to be efficient, slowly enough to be cautious
Back injuries are also caused by improper lifting and ergonomically incorrect
office chairs. To avoid these injuries, employees should be instructed in proper lifting
techniques and provided with ergonomically correct office equipment.
Extension cords should be used for temporary service only. Arrange for additional
permanent electrical service, if necessary. Keep all cords out of traffic paths. Unsecured
multiple outlet power strips with surge protection (for VDTs or PCs) should be secured
to a wall, desk, or table. Unplug coffee makers and hot plates when not in use.
Ensure file cabinets (front or side loading) are mechanically secured to prevent
tipping when more than one drawer is opened. Installations of multiple cabinets side-
by-side should be mechanically tied together. Desk chairs and file or desk drawers
should be in good mechanical repair; arrange to have any defects corrected. Desk
chairs with five or six wheel bases are more stable. Any bookcase four or more tiers
in height must be secured to prevent tipping.
Noise above 85 dB is temporarily detrimental to health; above 80 dB, it is
disturbing to office work; above 70 dB, it is distracting; above 60 dB, it can interfere
with conversation (receiving instructions). Normal office environment noise ranges
from 60–70 dB.
Light for routine office work should be 40–80 footcandles (430-860 lumens/m 2). For a
video display terminal, less light is needed in order to maximize contrast of the displayed
data and to minimize glare on the screen. Individual task lighting may be needed to
provide enough light to read printed copy. Large bright windows should be sufficiently
covered with shades or curtains. Wall finish should be dark or matte material.

Computers
Unfortunately not all computer work areas can be tailored to individuals. There
are a few simple, inexpensive adjustments that can be made to almost any
computer work area. In general, a worker’s legs and the back should be at a 90°
angle. The back of the chair should lift and support the lower back. The head
should remain erect.
While sitting, the arm from the elbow to the heel of the palm should remain
level while allowing the use of the computer keyboard. The heel of the palm should
be level with the tabletop where the keyboard is placed or level with the keyboard
itself. Feet should be flat on the floor.
While in the proper sitting posture, you should be able to look straight out at
the top of your computer screen and be able to drop your eyes (not your head) to look
at the bottom of the screen. Any work you are transcribing or referencing should
114 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

ideally be in this same line of sight either slightly to the right or to the left of the
computer screen.
Take frequent short breaks to stretch or walk around your desk before sitting
back down. These breaks should occur every hour or so. If you have trouble
remembering set a timer to remind you.
Signs of eye strain include headache; blurry or double vision; tired, burning or
irritated eyes; and stiff, aching neck and shoulder muscles. Use a quality, 17-inch
(43.2-cm) monitor and increase the type’s font size to avoid strain. Eliminate glare by
shading windows and reducing overhead lighting. Reduce overall room lighting by
about half; in an office, turning off fluorescent lights in favor of desk lamps may help.
Make sure the monitor is slightly below eye level and the screen brightness closely
matches the level of room lighting.

Walking and Working Surfaces


Buildings should be kept clean, orderly, and in sanitary condition (Figure 7-2).
Fires and accidents are often caused by poor housekeeping. Permanent aisles
must be sufficiently wide to allow for proper emergency egress. Open pits, vats,
tanks, ditches, and drop-offs must have covers or guardrails to protect personnel.
A standard guardrail consists of top rails, mid-rail, and toe kick board. The top
rail must be 42-in. (107-cm) high. The guardrail structure must be able to
withstand a force of 200 lb (890 N) exerted in any direction at any point.

Ladders (29 CFR 1926.1053)


The use of step or platform ladders longer than 12 ft (3.6 m) , extension ladders longer
than 17 ft (5.2 m) working length, or straight ladders longer than 20 ft (6.1 m) is
discouraged. Ladders will be maintained in good condition at all times: the joint
between the steps and side rails will be tight, the safety feet and other hardware and
fittings securely attached, and the movable parts will operate freely without binding or
undue play. The height of kick boards or plates should be 4 in (102 mm).

Figure 7-2 Good housekeeping and use of guardrails


FACILITIES AND MAINTENANCE 115

Users are responsible for inspecting every ladder they use prior to its use. If any
defects, including broken parts, are found, the ladder will be removed from service for
repair and tagged “Dangerous—Do Not Use.” Aluminum ladders once bent cannot be
repaired because the integrity of the metal has been damaged, and the ladder should
be destroyed.
The minimum live load design for a ladder will be at least 200 lb (890 N)
exerted to provide maximum stress. Metal rungs will be a minimum of 1-in.
(25 mm) diameter by 16 in. (40.6 cm) long. The distance between rungs will not
exceed 12 in. (30.5 cm) Rungs, cleats, and steps will be free of splinters, sharp
edges, burrs, or other projections. All ladders will be inspected regularly.
The clearance for fixed ladders on the climbing side will range from a
minimum of 36 in. (91 cm) on a 76° ladder slope to 30 in. (76 cm) on a 90° ladder
slope. A clear way at least 15 in. (38 cm) on each side of the center line will be
maintained, except where cages or wells are necessary. The clearance from the rung
to the nearest object back will be at least 7 in. (179 cm).
All fixed ladders between 20 ft (6.1 m) and 30 ft (9.1 m) in unbroken lengths will
have cages that extend between 7 ft (2.1 m) and 8 ft (2.4 m) from the ladder base
(Figure 7-3), or a fixed rail climbing system. Side rails of through or sidestep
ladders will extend 3 1/2 ft (1.1 m) above parapets or landings. Ladder lengths greater
than 20 ft (6.1 m) should also be fitted with a safety climb that hooks to the body
harness of the climber.

Figure 7-3 Safety cage on fixed ladders


116 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

The preferred pitch for fixed ladders will be within 75° and 90° from the
horizontal. All portable ladders must be the proper length for the job; no attempt will
be made to artificially extend a portable ladder by splicing or by placing it on a box,
barrel, or other object.
A ladder must be placed so that it has firm footing and its feet are level.
The feet of a straight or extension ladder must be set back a safe distance from
the vertical—one-fourth the working length of the ladder. Ladders used to access a
walking surface or roof must extend at least 36 in. (91 cm) above the landing.
Both rails at the top of an extension or straight ladder must rest against a firm
and stationary object. The ladder will be tied off at the top or otherwise secured while
being used. Extension ladder locks must be securely hooked over rungs before
climbing. Step or platform ladders must be fully opened with their spreaders locked
before climbing. Folded step or platform ladders will not be used in lieu of extension
or straight ladders. Users must be sure their shoes are free of grease, oil, mud, paint,
snow, or other slippery substances.
Users must face the ladder when ascending or descending, taking one step at a time.
Users must keep both hands on the ladder while ascending or descending it.
Small tools or other items may be carried in pockets, or tool pouches, or attached to
a tool belt. Larger items may be raised or lowered by the use of a bucket or hand line.
Users must never overextend their body on a ladder. The ladder must be moved
so work can be accomplished without reaching too far to one side, otherwise the user
may fall. Only one person will be on a ladder at one time. Users must never stand on
the top two steps of a stepladder.
Ladders that project into doorways or other areas of personnel/vehicular traffic
must be protected by barricades or by someone posted to stop or direct traffic. Metal
or wet wood ladders conduct electricity and will not be used for electrical work or in
areas where they could contact energized conductors. Ladders will not be used as
supports for planks or in the horizontal position for any purpose. Under no
circumstances may cable trays be used as ladders. “Homemade” ladders of ordinary
lumber should not be used.

Security
Building security can be enhanced by using adequate locks, window security, and
lighting. Install intrusion prevention devices such as electronic keys, identification-
car checkers, 10-key code units, joint card/10-key checkers, and other such devices.
Install security cameras and other alarm systems. Figure 7-4 shows a security
camera on a roof next to a light and a wind sock (for use in case of chlorine leaks).
Figure 7-5 and 7-6 show a security gate with emergency bolt cutters.

LABORATORIES__________________________________________________________________________
Utility laboratories have hazards that are discussed in the following section.
Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories is covered in 29 CFR
1910.1450.

Storage
All incoming containers of chemicals must have appropriate labels that are not
removed or defaced. Each container should be labeled with the date it was received
and the date it was opened, as some chemicals form unstable products or explosives
when stored for relatively short periods. Chemicals in the laboratory shall be
segregated by compatibility. Acids, bases, flammables, reactives requiring separate
FACILITIES AND MAINTENANCE 117

Figure 7-4 Security camera, light, and wind sock

and special storage, highly toxic compounds, and general nonhazardous chemical
storage shall be separated from each other. The higher shelves shall be used for
containers containing chemicals that present the lowest hazard. Open shelves used
for the storage of hazardous chemicals shall be well-anchored, painted, or made of, or
covered with, chemical-resistant materials. Work areas should not be used for long-
term storage. Storage of glass chemical containers on the laboratory work area floor
shall be strictly prohibited. The total allowable quantities of flammable liquids,
including waste, in laboratories should be limited.

Safe Work Practices


General precautions for handling all laboratory chemicals previously outlined in this
manual should be adopted, along with specific guidelines for particular chemicals.
Exposure to hazardous chemicals should be minimized. For work with substances
that present special hazards, special precautions shall be taken. One should assume
that any mixture will be more hazardous than its most hazardous component and
that all substances of unknown hazard are hazardous. Refer to the material safety
data sheet (MSDS) for specific information about a chemical or product containing
hazardous chemicals.
The best way to prevent exposure to airborne substances is to prevent their escape
into the working atmosphere by use of fume hoods and other local ventilation devices. All
individuals handling hazardous chemicals in the laboratory shall be trained in the proper
operation and use of fume hoods and other local ventilation devices.
Develop and encourage safe habits and avoid unnecessary exposure to
chemicals. Do not smell or taste chemicals. Vent any apparatus that may discharge
particularly hazardous chemicals into local exhaust devices. Chemicals shall be
properly stored and used to prevent exposure. Appropriate personal protective
equipment (PPE) shall be provided to employees working in areas where hazardous
substances are in use. Employees shall be trained in the safe use and maintenance of
PPE provided in the laboratory. Test positive pressure glove boxes for leaks before
use. Do not allow release of toxic substances into any building area, only into an
appropriate local exhaust device ducted to the outdoors.
118 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Figure 7-5 Security gate

Figure 7-6 Emergency bolt cutters


FACILITIES AND MAINTENANCE 119

Eating, drinking, smoking, or application of cosmetics is not allowed in


laboratories that use hazardous agents. Hands shall be washed before conducting
these activities outside of the laboratory. No food or product intended for consumption
shall be stored in areas where chemicals are stored or in laboratory refrigerators.
Glassware or utensils that are also used for laboratory operations shall not be used
with food or beverages.

Glassware
Handle and store laboratory glassware with care to avoid damage; do not use
damaged glassware. Use extra care with Dewar flasks and other evacuated or
pressurized glass apparatus; shield or wrap them to contain chemicals and fragments
should implosion occur.

Personal Hygiene
Thoroughly wash hands immediately after working with chemicals. Liquid rather
than bar soap and paper towels, appropriately protected from contamination, are to
be supplied at hand washing areas. Laboratory employees should not put pens or
pencils into their mouths.

First Aid
Each laboratory facility should have a well supplied first aid kit readily available
(Figure 7-7). The kit should be checked regularly and supplies replenished. It is
recommended that any injury occurring in a laboratory be checked out by a
physician.
Chemical fume hood use. Fume hoods (Figure 7-8) should be kept clean and
uncluttered. Work within the hood should be carried out at least 6 in. (152 mm) back
from the front opening. Electrical receptacles or other spark sources shall be protected
from flammable vapors. No permanent electrical receptacles shall be permitted in the
hood.
No chemical fume hood shall be used for the storage of chemicals or equipment
unless they are a component of the operation for which the hood is being used or the
hood is for the sole purpose of storage. Hood sashes should be closed as much as
possible. The slots in the hood baffle shall be kept free of obstruction by apparatus or
containers. Measures should be taken to prevent Kimwipes, tissues, or other articles
from being drawn up into the exhaust duct. Bench coat surface protectors or other
materials shall not obstruct hood air foils. Laboratory doors opening into main
corridors shall be kept closed unless specifically designed and permitted by codes to
be left open. The heating of perchloric acid in any hood other than a special purpose
perchloric acid hood shall be prohibited. No cutting of holes or other unauthorized
alteration of a chemical fume hood or its duct work shall be performed. Hoods that
are malfunctioning or posted with a Danger—Inadequate Air Flow sign shall not be
used for any operation using hazardous chemicals. Any signs of reduced flow or other
problems shall be promptly reported to a supervisor.

Housekeeping, Maintenance, and Inspections (29 CFR 1926.25)


Laboratory aisles must be maintained unobstructed and work stations should be
uncluttered. Inspections should be conducted by laboratory safety personnel on a
regular basis.
Emergency showers and eyewash stations shall be tested monthly. Eyewash
stations should be flushed on a weekly basis by laboratory personnel. Other safety
120 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

equipment (e.g., gloves, guards, goggles, glasses, carriers, etc.) should be inspected by
lab personnel prior to use.

Figure 7-7 First aid kit

Figure 7-8 Chemical fume hood

Stairways and hallways shall not be used as storage areas. Access to exits,
emergency equipment, and utility controls shall never be blocked or obstructed.
Doors that open into exit corridors or enclosures must be kept closed unless
permitted by fire codes to be kept open.
FACILITIES AND MAINTENANCE 121

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


All laboratories should have signs posted requiring employees and visitors to wear
eye protection. See chapter 4 for more information about PPE.

Records
A hazardous chemical list for each laboratory will be maintained by the lab
supervisor, who may update it periodically and make it accessible to laboratory
personnel. The chemical inventory database will provide information regarding
chemicals purchased and delivered to the labs and should serve as the basis for the
hazardous chemical list.
All laboratories using hazardous chemicals should develop specific chemical
standard operating procedures as provided for in the chemical-specific, right-to-know
training (see chapter 2).

Signs and Labels


Laboratory corridor doors shall display approved CAUTION door signs. Emergency
telephone numbers of emergency personnel/facilities, supervisors, and laboratory
workers should be posted by a central phone. Areas where hazardous materials are
stored should be posted with proper hazard warning signs. All chemicals and other
materials shall be labeled according to regulations (i.e., MSDS).

Spills and Other Laboratory Accidents


The laboratory supervisor should see that all serious injuries that require medical
attention be reported by calling emergency response. All incidents that result in an
injury or property damage are to be reported using an accident report form.
Promptly flush eyes with water for a prolonged period (15 min is recommended
by hospitals) and seek medical attention. For ingestion, contact the local poison
control center or hospital. If spilled on skin, promptly flush the affected area with
copious amounts of water and seek medical attention. Remove any clothing that may
have chemical contamination to prevent further exposure.
All laboratories that handle hazardous chemicals shall have an appropriate
supply of spill cleanup kits. The supply must be capable of containing or cleaning up
small, known chemical releases. Laboratory personnel should not attempt to clean up
a spill of hazardous chemicals if appropriate spill cleanup supplies and protective
equipment are not available or if the chemical or level of exposure hazard is
unknown. In these cases, contact ESD for assistance. Laboratory sinks should be
periodically inspected for leaks, and traps should be kept full of water to prevent
drain vapors from entering the laboratory.

Electrical Safety
All electrical equipment and apparatuses must be double insulated or grounded. The
following instructions are mandated by fire departments. The use of extension cords
should be avoided. When extension devices (an enclosure with multiple sockets) must
be temporarily used, the wire gauge of the device must be equal to or larger than the
cord on the item being operated. No extension device shall be attached to building
surfaces (using staples, nails, etc.) Extension devices equipped with surge protectors
may be permanently used with equipment that contains microprocessors (e.g., to
connect computer equipment). Surge protectors should not be used in areas subject to
moisture, physical or chemical damage, or flammable vapors. Surge protectors must
be UL 1449 approved.
122 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Mechanical Hazards
Mechanical hazards in the laboratory shall be evaluated by the supervisor and
appropriate safety precautions implemented. Safety precautions shall be adopted in
accordance with equipment manufacturer’s recommendations. Mechanical hazards
shall be minimized by guarding exposed moving mechanisms, such as belts and
pulleys, or placing equipment in areas that protect workers from moving mecha-
nisms. If flying particles are produced, shatter-resistant safety glasses shall be
provided and worn. Hearing protection may also be required if 85 dB is exceeded for
any 8-hr period; if so, a hearing conservation program shall be implemented.
Standard operating procedures should be developed for any equipment that may
represent mechanical hazards.

Hazardous Chemical and Waste Disposal


All hazardous chemicals and chemical waste shall be disposed of according to
appropriate regulations. See chapter 2 for more information.

General Laboratory Ventilation


The ventilation system shall provide a source of air for breathing and for input to
local ventilation devices. It should ensure that laboratory air is continually
replaced, preventing increase of air concentration of toxic substances during the
day. It should direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out
to the exterior of the building. It should not be relied on for protection from toxic
substances released into the laboratory. Any alteration of the ventilation system
should be made only if thorough testing indicates that worker protection from
airborne toxic substances will continue to be adequate.

REFERENCES_______________________________________________________________________________
Petrocelly, K.L. and A. Thumann. 2000.
Facilities Evaluation Handbook: Safe-
ty, Fire Protection and Environmental
Compliance, Second Edition. Lilburn,
GA: The Fairmont Press, Inc.
AWWA MANUAL M3

Appendix A
Sample Accident Report

U.S. Department of Labor


Occupational Safety
and Health Administration
No. 23

ACCIDENT SUMMARY
Accident Type: Fall from Tower
Weather: Clear
Type of Operation: Painting Contractor
Crew Size: N/A
Collective Bargaining: No
Competent Safety Monitor on Site?: Yes
Safety and Health Program in Effect?: Yes
Was the Worksite Inspected Regularly?: Yes
Training and Education Provided?: No
Employee Job Title: Painter
Age/Sex: 24/M
Experience at this Type of Work: 3 years
Time on Project: 3 months

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF ACCIDENT


Employees were sand blasting and painting a water tower. A worker was spray painting the inside of the riser of the tower. He was
standing on a fixed ladder 40 feet above the riser floor without wearing any fall protection gear. Apparently he slipped and fell
through an opening in the floor of the riser onto a standpipe.
INSPECTION RESULTS
Following its inspection, OSHA issued one serious citation for four violations and one other than serious citation listing three
violations of its construction standards. Had the required fall protection been worn by the employee, his death could have been
prevented.
ACCIDENT PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Employees must be provided and required to wear fall protection equipment such as a safety belt and lanyard attached to
a lifeline with rope grab (29 CFR 1926.28(a)).
2. Employees must be instructed to recognize and avoid unsafe conditions associated with their work (29 CFR 1926.21
(b)(2)).
SOURCES OF HELP
• Construction Safety and Health Standards (OSHA 2207) which contains all OSHA job safety and health rules and
regulations (1926 and 1910) covering construction.
• "Occupational Fatalities Related to Ladders as Found in Reports of OSHA Fatality/Catastrophe Investigations." available
from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Rd. Springfield, Va. 22161, (703) 4874650, publication
no. PB 80-153-471, $11.50, pre-paid.
• OSHA-funded free consultation services. Consult your telephone directory for the number of your local OSHA area or
regional office for further assistance and advice (listed under U.S Labor Department or under the state government
section where states administer their own OSHA programs).
NOTE: The case here described was selected as being representative of fatalities caused by improper work
practices. No special emphasis or priority is implied nor is the case necessarily a recent occurrence. The legal aspects of the incident
have been resolved, and the case is now closed.

123
This page intentionally blank.
AWWA MANUAL M3

Appendix B
Sample Hazard
Communication Program

GENERAL POLICY______________________________________________________________________
The purpose of this notice is to provide information that the utility is complying with
the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard, Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations
1910.1200, by compiling a hazardous chemicals list, by using MSDSs, by ensuring
that containers are labeled, and by providing training. This program applies to all
work operations in the utility where you may be exposed to hazardous substances
under normal working conditions or during an emergency situation.
The safety and health (S&H) manager, Roberta Jones, is the program
coordinator, acting as the representative of the utility manager, who has overall
responsibility for the program. Roberta Jones will review and update the program as
necessary. Copies of the written program may be obtained from Roberta Jones in the
administration building.
Under this program, the contents of the Hazard Communication Standard will
be provided, the hazardous properties of chemicals that are used, safe handling
procedures, and measures to take to protect employees from these chemicals.
Information will also be provided on the hazards associated with nonroutine tasks,
such as the cleaning of reactor vessels and the hazards associated with chemicals in
unlabeled pipes.

List of Hazardous Chemicals


The safety and health manager will make a list of all hazardous chemicals and
related work practices used in the utility and will update the lists as necessary. The
list of chemicals identifies all of the chemicals used in our ten work process areas. A
separate list is available for each work area and is posted there. Each list also
identifies the corresponding MSDS for each chemical. A master list of these
chemicals will be maintained by and is available from Roberta Jones.

125
126 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)


MSDSs provide specific information on the chemicals in use. The safety and
health manager should maintain a binder in the office with an MSDS on every
substance on the list of hazardous chemicals. The MSDS will be a fully completed
OSHA Form 174 or equivalent. The utility manager will ensure that each work site
maintains an MSDS for hazardous material in that area. MSDSs will be made
readily available to employees at their work stations during their shifts.
The safety and health manager is responsible for acquiring and updating
MSDSs. This manager will contact the chemical manufacturer or vendor if additional
research is necessary or if an MSDS has not been supplied with an initial shipment.
All new procurements for the company must be cleared by the safety and health
manager. A master list of MSDSs is available from the manager.

Labels and Other Forms of Warning


The safety and health manager will ensure that all hazardous chemicals in the utility
are properly labeled and updated as necessary. Labels should list at least the
chemical identity, appropriate hazard warnings, and the name and address of the
manufacturer, importer, or other responsible party. The manager will refer to the
corresponding MSDS to assist you in verifying label information. Containers that are
shipped from the plant will be checked by the supervisor of shipping and receiving to
make sure all containers are properly labeled.
If there are a number of stationary containers within a work area that have
similar contents and hazards, signs will be posted on them to convey the hazard
information. On our stationary process equipment, regular process sheets, batch
tickets, blend tickets, and similar written materials will be substituted for container
labels when they contain the same information as labels. These written materials
will be made readily available to you during your work shift.
If chemicals are transferred from a labeled container to a portable container
that is intended only for immediate use, no labels are required on the portable
container. Pipes or piping systems will not be labeled but their contents will be
described in the training sessions.

Nonroutine Tasks
When hazardous nonroutine tasks (e.g., cleaning tanks, entering confined spaces,
etc.) are performed, a special training session will be conducted to inform the
employees regarding the hazardous chemicals to which they might be exposed and
the proper precautions to take to reduce or avoid exposure.

Training
Everyone who works with or is potentially exposed to hazardous chemicals will
receive initial training on the Hazard Communication Standard and the safe use of
those hazardous chemicals by the safety and health manager. A program that uses
both audiovisual materials and classroom-type training has been prepared for this
purpose. Whenever a new hazard is introduced, additional training will be provided.
Regular safety meetings will also be used to review the information presented in the
initial training. Supervisors will be extensively trained regarding hazards and
appropriate protective measures so they will be available to answer questions from
employees and provide daily monitoring of safe work practices.

The training plan will emphasize these items


APPENDIX B 127

• Summary of the standard and this written program


• Chemical and physical properties of hazardous materials (e.g., flash point,
reactivity) and methods that can be used to detect the presence or release of
chemicals (including chemicals in unlabeled pipes)
• Physical hazards of chemicals (e.g., potential for fire, explosion, etc)
• Health hazards, including signs and symptoms of exposure, associated with
exposure to chemicals, and any medical condition known to be aggravated
by exposure to the chemical
• Procedures to protect against hazards (e.g., personal protective equipment
required, proper use, and maintenance; work practices or methods to assure
proper use and handling of chemicals; and procedures for emergency
response)
• Work procedures to follow to assure protection when cleaning hazardous
chemical spills and leaks
• Where MSDSs are located, how to read and interpret the information on
both labels and MSDSs, and how employees may obtain additional hazard
information. If electronic systems are used, how employees access the
system and what to do if a backup system is required
The safety and health manager or designee will review the employee training
program and advise the plant manager on training or retraining needs. Retraining is
required when the hazard changes or when a new hazard is introduced into the
workplace, but it will be company policy to provide training regularly in safety
meetings to ensure the effectiveness of the program. As part of the assessment of the
training program, the safety and health manager will obtain input from employees
regarding the training they have received and their suggestions for improving it.

Contract Employers
The safety and health manager, Roberta Jones, upon notification by the responsible
supervisor, will advise outside contractors in person of any chemical hazards that
may be encountered in the normal course of their work on the premises, the labeling
system in use, the protective measures to be taken, and the safe handling procedures
to be used. In addition, Roberta Jones will notify these individuals of the location and
availability of MSDSs. Each contractor bringing chemicals onsite must provide us
with the appropriate hazard information on these substances, including the labels
used and the precautionary measures to be taken in working with these chemicals.

Additional Information
All employees or their designated representatives can obtain further information on
this written program, the hazard communication standard, applicable MSDSs, and
chemical information lists at the safety and health office.
This page intentionally blank.
AWWA MANUAL M3

Appendix C
Material Safety Data
Sheet (MSDS)

The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a detailed information bulletin prepared
by the manufacturer or importer of a chemical that describes the physical and
chemical properties, physical and health hazards, routes of exposure, precautions for
safe handling and use, emergency and first-aid procedures, and control measures.
Information on an MSDS aids in the selections of safe products and helps prepare
employers and employees to respond effectively to daily exposure situations as well
as to emergency situations.
The MSDSs are a comprehensive source of information for all types of
employers. There may be information on the MSDS that is not useful to you or not
important to the safety and health in your particular operation. Concentrate on the
information that is applicable to your situation. Generally, hazard information and
protective measures should be the focus of concern.

OSHA Requirements
Employers must maintain a complete and accurate MSDS of each hazardous
chemical that is used in the facility. They are entitled to obtain this information
automatically upon purchase of the material. When new and significant information
becomes available concerning a product’s hazards or way to protect against the
hazards, chemical manufacturers, importers, or distributors must add it to their
MSDS within three months and provide it to their customers with the next shipment
of the chemical. Employers must have an MSDS for each hazardous chemical used in
the workplace. If there are multiple suppliers of the same chemical, there is no need
to retain multiple MSDS for that chemical.
While MSDSs are not required to be physically attached to a shipment, they
must accompany or precede the shipment. When the manufacturer/supplier fails to
send an MSDS with a shipment labeled as a hazardous chemical, the employer must
obtain one from the chemical manufacturer, importer, or distributor as soon as

129
130 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

possible. Similarly, if the MSDS is incomplete or unclear, the employer should contact
the manufacturer or importer to get clarification or obtain missing information.
If an employer is unable to obtain an MSDS from a supplier or manufacturer,
he/she should submit a written complaint, with complete background information, to
the nearest OSHA area office. OSHA will then, at the same time, call and send a
certified letter to the supplier or manufacturer to obtain the needed information. If
the supplier or manufacturer still fails to respond within a reasonable time, OSHA
will inspect the supplier or manufacturer and take appropriate enforcement action.

Sections of an MSDS and Their Significance


OSHA specifies the information to be included on an MSDS but does not prescribe
the precise format for an MSDS. A nonmandatory MSDS form that meets the Hazard
Communication Standard requirements has been issued and can be used as is or
expanded as needed. The MSDS must be in English and must include at least the
following information.

Section I. Chemical Identity


• The chemical and common names(s) must be provided for single chemical
substances.
• An identity on the MSDS must be cross-referenced to the identity found on
the label.

Section II. Hazardous Ingredients


• For a hazardous chemical mixture that has been tested as a whole to
determine its hazards, the chemical and common names of the ingredients
that are associated with the hazards, and the common name of the mixture
must be listed.
• If the chemical is a mixture that has not been tested as a whole, the
chemical and common names of all ingredients determined to be health
hazards and comprising 21 percent or greater of the composition must be
listed.
• Chemical and common names of carcinogens must be listed if they are
present in the mixture at levels of 0.1 percent or greater.
• All components of a mixture that have been determined to present a
physical hazard must be listed.
• Chemical and common names of all ingredients determined to be health
hazards and comprising less than 1 percent (0.1 percent for carcinogens) of
the mixture must also be listed if they can still exceed an established
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) or Threshold Limit Value (TLV) or
present a health risk to exposed employees in these concentrations.

Section III. Physical and Chemical Characteristics


• The physical and chemical characteristics of the hazardous substance must
be listed. These include items, such as boiling and freezing points, density,
vapor pressure, specific gravity, solubility, volatility, and the product’s
general appearance and odor. These characteristics provide important
information for designing safe and healthful work practices.
APPENDIX C 131

Section IV. Fire and Explosion Hazard Data


• The compound’s potential for fire and explosion must be described. Also, the
fire hazards of the chemical and the conditions under which it could ignite
or explode must be identified. Recommended extinguishing agents and fire-
fighting method must be described.

Section V. Reactivity Data


• This section presents information about other chemicals and substances
with which the chemical is incompatible, or with which it reacts. Informa-
tion on any hazardous decomposition products, such as carbon monoxide,
must be included.

Section VI. Health Hazards


• The acute and chronic health hazards of the chemical, together with signs
and symptoms of exposure, must be listed. In addition, any medical
conditions that are aggravated by exposure to the compound must be
included. The specific types of chemical health hazards defined in the
standard include carcinogens, corrosives, toxins, irritants, sensitizers, muta-
gens, teratogens, and effects on target organs (i.e., liver, kidney, nervous
system, blood, lungs, mucous membranes, reproductive system, skin, eyes,
etc.).
• The route of entry section describes the primary pathway by which the
chemical enters the body. There are three principal routes of entry:
inhalation, skin, and ingestion.
• This section of the MSDS supplies the OSHA PEL, the ACGIH TLV, and
other exposure levels used or recommended by the chemical manufacturer.
• If the compound is listed as a carcinogen by OSHA, the National Toxicology
Program (NTP), or the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC),
this information must be indicated on the MSDS.

Section VII. Precautions for Safe Handling and Use


• The standard requires the preparer to describe the precautions for safe
handling and use. These include recommended industrial hygiene practices,
precautions to be taken during repair and maintenance of equipment, and
procedures for cleaning up spills and leaks. Some manufacturers also use
this section to include useful information not specifically required by the
standard, such as USEPA waste disposal methods and state and local
requirements.

Section VIII. Control Measures


• The standard requires the preparer of the MSDS to list any generally
applicable control measures. These include engineering controls, safe
handling procedures, and personal protective equipment. Information is
often included on the use of goggles, gloves, body suits, respirators, and face
shields.
132 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Employer Responsibilities
Employers must ensure that each employee has a basic knowledge of how to find
information on an MSDS and how to properly make use of that information.
Employers also must ensure the following:
• Complete and accurate MSDSs are made available during each work shift to
employees when they are in their work areas
• Information is provided for each hazardous chemical

Material Safety Data Sheet Checklist


In addition to using OSHA Form 174, ANSI’s, or any other format, each MSDS must
contain the following information:
• Product or chemical identity used on the label
• Manufacturer’s name and address.
• Chemical and common names of each hazardous ingredient
• Name, address, and phone number for hazard and emergency information
• Preparation or revision date
• The hazardous chemical’s physical and chemical characteristics, such as
vapor pressure and flashpoint
• Physical hazards, including the potential for fire, explosion, and reactivity
• Known health hazards
• OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL), ACHIG threshold limit value
(TLV), or other exposure limits
• Emergency and first-aid procedures
• Whether OSHA, NTP, or IARC lists the ingredient as a carcinogen
• Precautions for safe handling and use
• Control measure such as engineering controls, work practices, hygienic
practices, or personal protective equipment required
• Primary routes of entry
• Procedures for spills, leaks, and cleanup
APPENDIX C 133

FERROUS AMMONIUM SULFATE


MSDS Number: F1616 --- Effective Date: 11/17/99

1. Product Identification
Synonyms: Ammonium iron (II) sulfate (2:1:2); ammonium ferrous sulfate; ferrous
ammonium sulfate, hexahydrate
CAS No.: 10045-89-3 (Anhydrous)
Molecular Weight: 392.13
Chemical Formula: Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 6H2O
Product Codes:
J.T. Baker: 2054
Mallinckrodt: 5064

2. Composition/Information on Ingredients

Ingredient CAS No Percent Hazardou


--------------------------------------- ------------ ------- --------

Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate 10045-89-3 90 - 100% Yes

3. Hazards Identification
Emergency Overview
--------------------------
WARNING! CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES AND RESPIRATORY
TRACT. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED.

J.T. Baker SAF-T-DATA(tm) Ratings (Provided here for your convenience)


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Health Rating: 1 - Slight
Flammability Rating: 0 - None
Reactivity Rating: 0 - None
Contact Rating: 1 - Slight
134 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Lab Protective Equip: GOGGLES; LAB COAT


Storage Color Code: Orange (General Storage)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Potential Health Effects


----------------------------------

Inhalation:
Causes irritation to the respiratory tract. Symptoms may include coughing, shortness of
breath.
Ingestion:
Causes irritation to the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting and
diarrhea. Low toxicity in small quantities but larger dosages may cause nausea, vomiting,
diarrhea, and black stool. Pink urine discoloration is a strong indicator of iron poisoning.
Liver damage, coma, and death from iron poisoning has been recorded.
Skin Contact:
Causes irritation to skin. Symptoms include redness, itching, and pain.
Eye Contact:
Causes irritation, redness, and pain.
Chronic Exposure:
No information found.
Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions:
Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems, or impaired liver, kidney or
respiratory function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance.

4. First Aid Measures


Inhalation:
Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult,
give oxygen. Get medical attention.
Ingestion:
Induce vomiting immediately as directed by medical personnel. Never give anything by
mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical attention.
Skin Contact:
Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated
clothing and shoes. Get medical attention. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean
shoes before reuse.
Eye Contact:
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting upper and lower
eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention.

5. Fire Fighting Measures


Fire:
Not considered to be a fire hazard. Irritating and toxic ammonia gas may form in fires.
Explosion:
Not considered to be an explosion hazard. Sealed containers may rupture when heated.
APPENDIX C 135

Fire Extinguishing Media:


Use any means suitable for extinguishing surrounding fire.
Special Information:
Use protective clothing and breathing equipment appropriate for the surrounding fire.

6. Accidental Release Measures


Ventilate area of leak or spill. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment as specified
in Section 8. Spills: Sweep up and containerize for reclamation or disposal. Vacuuming or
wet sweeping may be used to avoid dust dispersal. Small amounts of residue may be
flushed to sewer with plenty of water. US Regulations (CERCLA) require reporting spills
and releases to soil, water and air in excess of reportable quantities. The toll free number
for the US Coast Guard National Response Center is (800) 424-8802.

7. Handling and Storage


Keep in a tightly closed light-resistant container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area.
Protect against physical damage. Containers of this material may be hazardous when
empty since they retain product residues (dust, solids); observe all warnings and
precautions listed for the product.

8. Exposure Controls/Personal Protection


Airborne Exposure Limits:
-ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV):
1 mg/m3 (TWA) soluble iron salt as Fe
Ventilation System:
A system of local and/or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee exposures
below the Airborne Exposure Limits. Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred
because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source, preventing dispersion
of it into the general work area. Please refer to the ACGIH document, Industrial
Ventilation, A Manual of Recommended Practices, most recent edition, for details.
Personal Respirators (NIOSH Approved):
If the exposure limit is exceeded, a half-face dust/mist respirator may be worn for up to ten
times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate
regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-face piece dust/mist
respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the maximum use
concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency, or respirator supplier,
whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not
known, use a full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. WARNING: Air-
purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres.
Skin Protection:
Wear impervious protective clothing, including boots, gloves, lab coat, apron or coveralls,
as appropriate, to prevent skin contact.
Eye Protection:
Use chemical safety goggles and/or full face shield where dusting or splashing of solutions
is possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.
136 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

9. Physical and Chemical Properties


Appearance:
Pale blue-green crystals.
Odor:
Odorless.
Solubility:
26.9 g/100cc water @ 20C (68F)
Specific Gravity:
1.86
pH:
No information found.
% Volatiles by volume @ 21C (70F):
0
Boiling Point:
Not applicable.
Melting Point:
100 - 110C (212 - 230F)
Vapor Density (Air=1):
> 1.0
Vapor Pressure (mm Hg):
No information found.
Evaporation Rate (BuAc=1):
No information found.

10. Stability and Reactivity


Stability:
Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Slowly oxidizes in moist air.
Hazardous Decomposition Products:
May emit ammonia, oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and oxides of carbon.
Hazardous Polymerization:
Will not occur.
Incompatibilities:
Sulfuric acid
Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, light, moisture.

11. Toxicological Information

Oral rat LD50: 3250 mg/kg


--------\Cancer Lists\------------------------------------------------------
---NTP Carcinogen---
Ingredient Known Anticipated IARC Category
------------------------------------ ----- ----------- -------------
Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate No No None
(10045-89-3)
APPENDIX C 137

12. Ecological Information


Environmental Fate:
No information found.
Environmental Toxicity:
No information found.

13. Disposal Considerations


Whatever cannot be saved for recovery or recycling should be managed in an appropriate
and approved waste disposal facility. Processing, use or contamination of this product may
change the waste management options. State and local disposal regulations may differ
from federal disposal regulations. Dispose of container and unused contents in accordance
with federal, state and local requirements.

14. Transport Information


Not regulated.

15. Regulatory Information


--------\Chemical Inventory Status - Part 1\---------------------------------
Ingredient TSCA EC Japan Australia
----------------------------------------------- ---- --- ----- ---------
Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate (10045-89-3) Yes Yes No Yes

--------\Chemical Inventory Status - Part 2\---------------------------------


--Canada--
Ingredient Korea DSL NDSL Phil.
----------------------------------------------- ----- --- ---- -----
Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate (10045-89-3) Yes Yes No Yes

--------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 1\----------------


-SARA 302- ------SARA 313------
Ingredient RQ TPQ List Chemical Catg.
----------------------------------------- --- ----- ---- --------------
Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate (10045-89-3) No No No No

--------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 2\----------------


-RCRA- -TSCA-
Ingredient CERCLA 261.33 8(d)
----------------------------------------- ------ ------ ------
Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate (10045-89-3) 1000 No No

Chemical Weapons Convention: No TSCA 12(b): No CDTA: No


SARA 311/312: Acute: Yes Chronic: No Fire: No Pressure: No
Reactivity: No (Mixture / Solid)

Australian Hazchem Code: No information found.


Poison Schedule: No information found.
138 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

WHMIS:
This MSDS has been prepared according to the hazard criteria of the Controlled Products
Regulations (CPR) and the MSDS contains all of the information required by the CPR.

16. Other Information


NFPA Ratings: Health: 2 Flammability: 0 Reactivity: 0
Label Hazard Warning:
WARNING! CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES AND RESPIRATORY TRACT.
HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED.
Label Precautions:
Avoid breathing dust.
Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing.
Wash thoroughly after handling.
Keep container closed.
Use only with adequate ventilation.
Label First Aid:
In case of contact, immediately flush eyes or skin with plenty of water for at least 15
minutes. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. If inhaled,
remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give
oxygen. If swallowed, induce vomiting immediately as directed by medical personnel.
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. In all cases, get medical
attention.
Product Use:
Laboratory Reagent.
Revision Information:
No changes.
Disclaimer:
*************************************************************************
***********************
Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc. provides the information contained herein in good faith but
makes no representation as to its comprehensiveness or accuracy. This document is
intended only as a guide to the appropriate precautionary handling of the material by
a properly trained person using this product. Individuals receiving the information
must exercise their independent judgment in determining its appropriateness for a
particular purpose. MALLINCKRODT BAKER, INC. MAKES NO
REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE WITH
RESPECT TO THE INFORMATION SET FORTH HEREIN OR THE PRODUCT
TO WHICH THE INFORMATION REFERS. ACCORDINGLY,
MALLINCKRODT BAKER, INC. WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR
DAMAGES RESULTING FROM USE OF OR RELIANCE UPON THIS
INFORMATION.
*************************************************************************
Prepared by: Strategic Services Division
Phone Number: (314) 539-1600 (U.S.A.)
AWWA MANUAL M3

Appendix D
Sample Confined-Space
Entry Permit
Confined Space Entry Permit
Date and Time Issued: _______________ Date and Time Expires: ________
Job site/Space I.D.: ________________ Job Supervisor:________________
Equipment to be worked on: __________ Work to be performed: _________

Stand-by personnel: __________________ ________________ _____________

1. Atmospheric Checks: Time ________


Oxygen ________%
Explosive ________% L.F.L.
Toxic ________PPM

2. Tester's signature: _____________________________

3. Source isolation (No Entry): N/A Yes No


Pumps or lines blinded, ( ) ( ) ( )
disconnected, or blocked ( ) ( ) ( )

4. Ventilation Modification: N/A Yes No


Mechanical ( ) ( ) ( )
Natural Ventilation only ( ) ( ) ( )

5. Atmospheric check after


isolation and Ventilation:
Oxygen __________% > 19.5 %
Explosive _______% L.F.L < 10 %
Toxic ___________PPM < 10 PPM H(2)S
Time ____________
Testers signature: _____________________________

6. Communication procedures: ________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________

7. Rescue procedures: _______________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8. Entry, standby, and back up persons: Yes No


Successfully completed required
training?
Is it current? ( ) ( )

9. Equipment: N/A Yes No


Direct reading gas monitor -
tested ( ) ( ) ( )
Safety harnesses and lifelines
for entry and standby persons ( ) ( ) ( )
Hoisting equipment ( ) ( ) ( )
Powered communications ( ) ( ) ( )
SCBA's for entry and standby
persons ( ) ( ) ( )

139
140 SAFETY PRACTICES FOR WATER UTILITIES

Protective Clothing ( ) ( ) ( )
All electric equipment listed
Class I, Division I, Group D
and Non-sparking tools ( ) ( ) ( )

10. Periodic atmospheric tests:


Oxygen ____% Time ____ Oxygen ____% Time ____
Oxygen ____% Time ____ Oxygen ____% Time ____
Explosive ____% Time ____ Explosive ____% Time ____
Explosive ____% Time ____ Explosive ____% Time ____
Toxic ____% Time ____ Toxic ____% Time ____
Toxic ____% Time ____ Toxic ____% Time ____

We have reviewed the work authorized by this permit and the


information contained here-in. Written instructions and safety
procedures have been received and are understood. Entry cannot be
approved if any squares are marked in the "No" column. This permit is
not valid unless all appropriate items are completed.

Permit Prepared By: (Supervisor)________________________________________


Approved By: (Unit Supervisor)__________________________________________
Reviewed By (Cs Operations Personnel) :
_________________________________ ____________________________________
(printed name) (signature)

This permit to be kept at job site. Return job site copy to Safety
Office following job completion.

Copies: White Original (Safety Office)


Yellow (Unit Supervisor)
Hard(Job site)

Appendix D - 2

ENTRY PERMIT

PERMIT VALID FOR 8 HOURS ONLY. ALL COPIES OF PERMIT WILL REMAIN AT
JOB SITE UNTIL JOB IS COMPLETED

DATE: - - SITE LOCATION and DESCRIPTION ______________________________


PURPOSE OF ENTRY ______________________________________________________
SUPERVISOR(S) in charge of crews Type of Crew Phone #
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES ______________________________________________
RESCUE PROCEDURES (PHONE NUMBERS AT BOTTOM) ___________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
* BOLD DENOTES MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS TO BE COMPLETED AND REVIEWED
PRIOR TO ENTRY*

REQUIREMENTS COMPLETED DATE TIME


Lock Out/De-energize/Try-out ____ ____
Line(s) Broken-Capped-Blanked ____ ____
Purge-Flush and Vent ____ ____
Ventilation ____ ____
Secure Area (Post and Flag) ____ ____
Breathing Apparatus ____ ____
APPENDIX D 141

Resuscitator - Inhalator ____ ____


Standby Safety Personnel ____ ____
Full Body Harness w/"D" ring ____ ____
Emergency Escape Retrieval Equip ____ ____
Lifelines ____ ____
Fire Extinguishers ____ ____
Lighting (Explosive Proof) ____ ____
Protective Clothing ____ ____
Respirator(s) (Air Purifying) ____ ____
Burning and Welding Permit ____ ____
Note: Items that do not apply enter N/A in the blank.

**RECORD CONTINUOUS MONITORING RESULTS EVERY 2 HOURS


CONTINUOUS MONITORING** Permissible _________________________________
TEST(S) TO BE TAKEN Entry Level
PERCENT OF OXYGEN 19.5% to 23.5% ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT Under 10% ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
CARBON MONOXIDE +35 PPM ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Aromatic Hydrocarbon + 1 PPM * 5PPM ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Hydrogen Cyanide (Skin) * 4PPM ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Hydrogen Sulfide +10 PPM *15PPM ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Sulfur Dioxide + 2 PPM * 5PPM ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Ammonia *35PPM ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
* Short-term exposure limit: Employee can work in the area up to 15
minutes.
+ 8 hr. Time Weighted Avg.: Employee can work in area 8 hrs (longer
with appropriate respiratory protection).
REMARKS:_____________________________________________________________
GAS TESTER NAME INSTRUMENT(S) MODEL SERIAL &/OR
& CHECK # USED &/OR TYPE UNIT #
________________ _______________ ___________ ____________
________________ _______________ ___________ ____________

SAFETY STANDBY PERSON IS REQUIRED FOR ALL CONFINED SPACE WORK


SAFETY STANDBY CHECK # CONFINED CONFINED
PERSON(S) SPACE CHECK # SPACE CHECK #
ENTRANT(S) ENTRANT(S)
______________ _______ __________ _______ __________ _______
______________ _______ __________ _______ __________ _______
SUPERVISOR AUTHORIZING - ALL CONDITIONS SATISFIED____________________
DEPARTMENT/PHONE ___________________________
AMBULANCE 2800 FIRE 2900 Safety 4901 Gas Coordinator 4529/5387

[58 FR 4549, Jan. 14, 1993; 58 FR 34846, June 29, 1993]


This page intentionally blank.
Index
NOTE: f. indicates a figure; t. indicates a table.

Abatement orders, xi, xii Braking, 84, 85, 99–100


Access, 103, 107 Breathing apparatus, 39f., 43, 104
Accident-prevention tags, 93 NIOSH-approved self-contained, 41, 45
Accident reports, 3, 15, 121 self-contained, 76, 108
analyzing/classifying, 14 See also Respirators
motor vehicle, 17 Bricks, stacked, 96
sample, 123 Bridgeplates, 83
Accident review boards, 3 Building inspectors, 96
Accidents
analysis of, 15, 16 Canopies, 84, 102
investigating, 2, 4, 10, 14–17 Carbon dioxide, hazards with, 36–37
laboratory, 121 Carbon dioxide warning sign, 36, 36f.
preventing, ix, 1, 94, 97 Carbon monoxide, 131
safety plans and, 1 Carcinogens, 130, 131
serious, 14, 16 Carpeting, 112–13
Activated carbon, hazards with, 32–33 CAS. See Chemical Abstract Service
Administrative controls, 65 Caution signs, 92
Aerial lifts, 79–80, 80 f., 99 Cave-ins, 105, 107
Air monitoring, 53, 107 Certification, 60, 66
Aisles, 82, 98, 112 CFRs. See Code of Federal Regulation
Alarm systems, 111, 116 Chambers, construction of, 107
Aluminum sulfate (alum), hazards with, Check-in/check-out procedures, 107, 108
34–35 Checklists, 4, 30–31
American National Standards Institute Chemical Abstract Service (CAS), 32
(ANSI), 74, 132 Chemical fume hoods, 119, 120f.
hard hats and, 68 Chemical manufacturers, MSDS from, 129
Ammonia sulfate, hazards with, 35–36 Chemicals, 130
ANSI. See American National Standards hazards of, 27, 127
Institute inventory database of, 121
Arm protection, 73–74 labeling, 116, 129
Asphyxiation, 31, 53 liquid/solid/volatile, 31
Atmospheres nonhazardous, 117
hazardous, 53, 103, 104 storing, 116, 117, 119
testing, 53 See also Hazardous chemicals
Attendants, 108 Chemical suits, 73
confined space, 53, 54 Chlorine, 31
Attitude, x, 12 hazards with, 37–39
Automatic feed systems, 86 Chlorine evacuation procedures, 38f., 112f.
Chlorine gas detectors, 50f.
Backfilling, 107 Chlorine leaks, 116
Back injuries, 94, 96, 99, 113 emergency kit, 40f.
Backup systems, 29 station, telephone/numbers at, 12f.
Barricades, 29, 53, 54f., 85, 91, 91–94, 103 Clothing
installation of, 105 contaminated, 35, 37, 40, 45, 121
moveable, 86 fiber-resistant, 73
Basket loads, limits with, 80 insulated, 56
Batteries, changing/charging, 80–81 protective, 33, 35, 37, 38, 41–47, 73, 103
Behavior, health/safety, 12, 54 Code of Federal Regulation (CFRs), x
BLS. See US Bureau of Labor Statistics Committees, decisions by, xi
Body temperature, increase in, 56 Communication, 2, 91, 107
Bolt cutters, 118f. channels of, 4, 9–10
Booms, 79, 80, 97 emergency, 10

143
144 SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURES FOR WATER EXAMINATION

problems with, 55 Electrolysis, 88


testing, 108 Electrolytes, flushing/neutralizing, 81
training and, 59–60 E-mail, safety on, 10
unsafe practice, 10 Emergency exits, 52
voice, 108 Emergency leak kits, 38
Compliance, xi, xii, 3 Emergency Planning for Water Utility
Computer work areas, 113–14 Management (AWWA), 10
Confined space entry permit, sample, 139–41 Emergency procedures, 37, 108, 132
Confined spaces, x MSDS and, 129
entering, 52, 126, 139–41 Emergency response, 102, 108, 121, 127
hazards with, 51–55 Employee records, 16
ventilation of, 52 Energy control procedure, 59–62
welding in, 90 Energy isolation, 60–61
Connectors, 49, 88 Entries
Construction sites, x, 4, 92f. confined space, 54, 55
safety at, 91–108 maintaining conditions for, 54, 55
Construction traffic signs, 93f. Equipment, 79, 83
Contaminated water, vaporization of, 51 digging, 103
Contract employers, 127 faulty/defective, 88
Conveyors, 81, 97 fire, 82
CPR, 34, 35, 36, 40, 42, 43, 44 handling, 81, 97–98
administering, 45 leak detection, 48
Cranes, 84, 93, 97–98 lifting, 103
Crossbraces, 100, 101 mechanical, 107
Cutting, 87, 88, 89, 90 mobile, 103
Cylinders overloading, 95
connections, 49 parking/storing, 85
damage to, 48 proper, 2, 99
labeling, 47 rescue, 53
leaking, 112 safety, 37, 84, 96, 104, 119
moving, 47–48 stationary process, 126
oxygen, 49, 50, 87 stoppage of, 61
poison gas, 50 training with, 86
storing, 48–49 Ergonomics, 96, 98, 113
Cylinder wrenches, 49 Evacuation, 108, 112
chlorine, procedures, 38f., 112f.
Damages, claiming, 17 Excavation, 91
Dangerous work, refusing, xi safety with, 102–8
Danger signs, using, 92, 119 slopped/benched, 107
Debris nets, 102 support systems and, 107
Dewar flasks, 119 Exit signs, 92
Directional signs, 92 Explosions, data on, 131
Discrimination complaints, xiii Exposure, 27, 29, 36, 37, 65, 121
Disposal regulations, 35, 43 behavioral effects of, 54
Dockboards, securing, 83 reducing, 75
Doors, fire block, 112 See also Permissible Exposure Limit
Drums, 90, 96 Extension cords, 113, 121
Dumping devices, 84 Eye protection, 46, 66, 68–71, 87, 120, 121
Eye strain, 114
Ear protection, 37, 65, 66, 71, 73, 122 Eye wash fountains, 33, 33f., 35, 36, 42, 42f.,
See also Hearing damage 44, 45, 46, 119
Ear protection required sign, 72f.
Education, 2, 3, 10, 12–14 Face protection, 68-71
Egress, 103, 107, 108, 112 Face shields, 39, 40f., 41, 45, 46, 70
Electrical power failures, 108 Facilities, x, 111–17, 119-22
Electrical safety, 57, 121 quick-drench, 33f., 35, 36, 42, 42f., 44, 45,
hard hats and, 67 46, 119
Electrical tools, 85 safety at, 111–16
Electrode holders, 88 waste disposal, 33, 35
INDEX 145

Fall protection, 101, 102, 105, 106 (OSHA), 27, 28, 38, 130
Fatal Facts (OSHA), 9 contents of, 125
Ferrous sulfate, hazards with, 39–41 training on, 126
Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP), 79 Hazardous chemicals, 32, 117, 130, 132
File cabinets, 113 common names of, 132
Filters, dust/mist, 41, 45 disposal of, 122
Fire alarm pull stations, 111 information on, 31
Fire extinguishers, 84, 89, 111, 112, 112f. listing, 28, 121, 125
Fire-fighting, 66, 131 shipping, 30
Fires, 87, 88, 131 spills/leaks, cleaning, 127
classes of, 111 storing, 117
prevention/protection, 98, 108 training with, 126
First aid, 12, 15, 29, 69 Hazardous energy, x, 59
kits, checking/replenishing, 119, 120f. concerns about, 51, 57
MSDS and, 129 lockout/tagout for, 57–63
Flagmen, 93 sources of, 59, 61
Flammable gases/liquids/solvents, 49, 50, 98, Hazardous Material Regulations
108 (US Department of Transportation),
Flammable Gas Storage Area, sign for, 48 30
Flashbacks, 55, 87 Hazardous materials, x, 39, 95
Flood control, 107 chemical/physical properties of, 127
Flooring, 82 dealing with, 30, 46–50
Flow restrictors, 49, 50 exposure to, 27
Foot protection, 74 list of, 125–26
Fork lifts, 79, 80–83, 81 f., 95 MSDS for, 29, 126
Frostbite, 56 storing, 103, 121
FRP. See Fiberglass reinforced plastic Hazards, xi, xii, 4, 12, 111
Fumes, 32, 86 acute/chronic, 131
assessing, 66
Gas detection systems, 49, 50f. chemical, 27, 31–46, 47
Gases confined spaces and, 53
compressed, 46, 47–48 communicating, 30, 31
flammable/noxious, 49, 50, 98, 108 environmental, 71, 91, 98
oxidizing, 49, 50 exit, 55
General duty clause, xii laboratory, 116–17, 119–22
Glassware, handling/storing, 117, 119 machine, 86
Gloves, 44, 73, 74 mechanical, 55, 121–22
Goggles, 33, 71 life-threatening, 66
chemical safety, 39, 41, 42, 45, 46 oil/grease, 87
flexible/cushioned, 70 physical, 29, 55–56, 91, 127, 130
lenses for, 70 protecting against, 63, 127
plastic eyeshield, 70 recognition/avoidance of, 99, 107-8
Grounding, welding/cutting machine, 88 safety, 53, 55–56, 111
Guards, adjustable/fixed, 85, 86 structural, 56
water accumulation, 104
Hand control devices, 86 HAZMAT, chlorine leaks and, 38
Handling, 91, 99 HCS. See Hazard Communication Standard
MSDS and, 129 Head protection, 66-68
procedures for, 127, 131 Health laws, x-xiii
Hand protection, 73–74 Health programs, xi, 1–2 (table)
Hand washing, 119 Hearing damage, 56, 71
Hard hat area signs, 68, 69f. See also Ear protection
Hard hats, 37, 66, 67f., 102 Heat, problems with, 56
electrical shock and, 67 Heating, 87, 90
inspection/maintenance of, 68 Hoisting devices, 84, 93, 97
Hazard communication plan, 27–31 Hoses, 86, 87, 89
developing/implementing, 28, 30–31 Hot work, 87, 90
sample, 125–27 Hot work permits, 87
Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) Housekeeping, 114, 114f., 119–20
146 SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURES FOR WATER EXAMINATION

Hydraulic spot bracing, 106f. stairway-type, 100


Hydraulic systems, 61 step, 115, 116
Hydrostatic tests, 111 straight/extension, 116
Hygiene Lasers, 46, 47
industrial, 39 Leg protection, 74
personal, 119 Lenses, 70, 71
Hypothermia, 56 Life jackets, 74, 74f.
Lifelines, 90, 104
IARC. See International Agency for Research Life support systems, 52
on Cancer Lifting
Incidence rates, 16 improper, 94, 113
Information, 127 safe, 97, 99
centers, 9, 9f. Lights, 81, 84, 85, 113, 117f.
hazard, 27, 129 vehicle, 83
labeling, 30 Liquid aluminum sulfate storage/sign, 34f.
safety-related, 10 Loads, 84, 103
Injuries, x, 16 safe, 82, 83, 86, 98
back, 94, 96, 99, 113 stacking, 95
eye, 69 upgrades, 83
foot, 94 Lockout devices, 58f.
head, 66 applying, 51, 61
reports on, 15, 17, 18f. effectiveness of, 57, 58
type/source/cause of, 14, 15 grouping, 62–63
Inspections, 2, 71, 98, 105, 119–20 hazardous energy, 57–63
energy control procedure, 59 removing, 60, 61–62
follow-up, 4 Lockout/tagout center, 58f.
hazardous energy, 57 Log and Summary of Occupational Injuries,
periodic, 60 xii
planned, 4 Loose rock/soil, protection from, 105
walk-around, xii Lost work days, 15, 16
Instructors, 12
International Agency for Research on Cancer Machines
(IARC), 131, 132 hazards with, 86
Intrusion prevention devices, 116 shutdown, 60–61
Investigations, followup, 16 testing/positioning, 62
Isolation, verification of, 61 Maintenance, 71, 111–17, 119–22
Isolation blanks, 55 Management, 13, 65
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control
Jacks, fixed, 82 Devices for Streets and Highways
Job analysis form, 5f. (ANSI), 93, 94
Job Site Inspection Report, 6–8 f. Manufacturer recommendations, deviation
from, 106
Keep Out signs, 107 Materials
Kegs, stacked, 96 bagged, 96
Kickouts, 106 blocking, 94
Kinetic energy, 57 chemical-resistant, 117
combustible, 50
Labeling, 30, 31, 32, 38, 47, 116, 121, 126, 129 handling/storing, 89, 91, 94–99
requirements for, 27 heat-resistant, 73
Ladders, 99–100, 103 noncompatible, 95–96
attachable, 100, 101 resource, 14
fixed, 115, 115f., 116 stacked, 95f., 96
homemade, 116 Material safety data sheet (MSDS), 28, 30,
hook-on, 100, 101 32, 47, 117, 121, 125, 127
load design for, 115 checklist, 132
platform, 102, 116 cross-referencing, 130
portable, 100, 116 described, 126, 129–32
safety with, 114–16 incomplete/unclear, 130
scaffolds and, 102 library of, 28f.
INDEX 147

obtaining, 29 Paint spraying, 31


OSHA and, 129–30 Passageways, 98, 107, 112
PPE and, 66 PEL. See Permissible Exposure Limit
providing, 27, 31 Perchloric acid, 119
sample, 29f., 133–38 Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL), 75, 130,
sections of, 130 131, 132
Mechanical energy, 57 Permits
Medical records, xii, 15 confined space, 51, 53-55, 139–41
Motivation, 12 hot work, 87
Motor vehicles, 79, 83 Personal factors, unsafe, 15
MSDS. See Material safety data sheet Personal protective equipment (PPE), x, 39,
41, 53, 65–71, 73–75,
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 85, 117, 127
3, 111 selecting, 65–66
National Institute for Occupational Safety using, 94, 120
and Health (NIOSH), Personnel changes, lockout/tagout protection
xiii, 32, 34, 39 and, 63
respirators and, 76 Pipes, 55, 126
National Society to Prevent Blindness, 69 Planning, 1, 10
National Toxicology Program (NTP), 131, 132 See also Hazard communication plan
Newsletters, 10 Platforms, 79–80, 82, 101, 116
NFPA. See National Fire Protection boom, 79
Association ladders and, 102
NIOSH. See National Institute for landing, 100
Occupational Safety and Health Pneumatic tools, 61
Noise, 113 safety with, 85-86
problems with, 56, 71 Poisonous gas, 47, 49–50
Noise reduction rating (NRR), 71 Policy statements, 2, 3
Nonroutine tasks, 126 Positive pressure glove boxes, 117
No Smoking signs, 48 Posters, xii, 52, 52f.
NTP. See National Toxicology Program using, 9, 99
Potential energy, 57
Occupational safety, x-xiii Power lines, 46
Occupational Safety and Health Act, x, xii working near, 79
Occupational Safety and Health Power strips, 113
Administration (OSHA), x, 69, 105 Power tools, safety with, 85–86
citations by, xii PPE. See Personal protective equipment
complaints to, xiii Practices, ix, 4, 86
confined space poster by, 52, 52f. posting, 9–10
eye protection and, 70 training in, 2
Fatal Facts series by, 9 Property damage, claims for, 17
hard hats and, 68 Protective measures, 27, 28, 30, 38, 70, 129
hazard issues and, 51 excavation, 105
HCS of, 27, 38 materials/equipment for, 106
incidence rate calculation by, 16 Purchasing department, hazardous
MSDS requirements by, 129–30 chemicals and, 28
PEL by, 131
PPE and, 66 Quick-drench facilities, 33f., 35, 36, 42, 42f.,
posters, xii 44, 45, 46, 119
standards by, xii, 65, 99 Quicklime (calcium carbonate), hazards
variances from, xiii with, 41–42
Occupational Safety and Health Review
Commission, xii Radiation, health problems from, 46–47
Office safety, 112–13 Radios, 10, 46
Operators, training, 80, 81 Railroad tracks, crossing, 83
OSHA. See Occupational Safety and Health Rails, guard, 100, 102, 105, 114, 114f., 115
Administration Ramps, 99–100
OSHA Form 174, 126, 132 access/egress and, 103
Ozone, hazards with, 42–43 Reactivity data, 131
148 SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURES FOR WATER EXAMINATION

Record keeping, 2, 4, 10, 14–17, 121 Shielding, 89, 104


Reflective vests, 75 Shift changes, lockout/tagout protection
Reflectors, 84, 85, 103 and, 63
Regulations, ix, x-xi, xii, 3 Showers. See Quick-drench facilities
Regulators, 48, 49, 87 Signs, 36, 48, 53, 54f., 68, 91–94, 103, 107,
Regulatory impact statements, xi 119, 121
Report of first-aid injury, 18f. photo of, 36, 69, 70, 72, 93
Rescue, 108 Slings, 97, 98
confined space, 52, 53, 56 Soda ash (sodium carbonate), hazards with,
Resources, training, 13, 14 43–44
Respirators, x, 12, 39, 43, 65, 108 Sodium chlorite, hazards with, 44–45
air-purifying, 35, 36, 41, 42, 44, 46, 76 Sodium fluoride, hazards with, 45–46
atmosphere-supplying, 76 Sound level meters, 71
full-facepiece dust/mist, 35, 40–41 Spectacles, 71
full-facepiece positive-pressure, 36, 42, Spills, 127
46, 51 cleanup kits for, 121
half-face dust/mist, 33, 35, 36, 40, 44, 46 evacuation for, 112
NIOSH/MSHA approved acid gas, 45 Splash protection, 86
particulate-filtering, 76 sign, 70f.
storing, 75, 75f., 76f. Sprinkler systems, 82
vapor-/gas-removing, 76 Stair towers, 100
See also Breathing apparatus Stairways, 99–100, 103
Respiratory protection, 66, 75–77, 87, 103 storage under, 112
Responsibility, ix, x, xi, 2, 28 Standards, ix, 91, 65
determining, 3 length/complexity of, 10
employer, 132 setting, xi
primary, 62 violations of, xi, xii
safety management, 3–4 Steel footguards, 74
Restraint devices, 86, 105 Stepladders, 116
Risk prevention, xi Storage, 94–99, 120
Rulemaking, xi, xii equipment, 85
laboratory, 116–17
Safe habits, 80, 99, 117 Stored energy, 61
Safety belts, 84, 90, 104 Structural components, 107
Safety cages, 115f. Subcontractors, 62, 91
Safety climbs, 115 Suggestion programs, 10
Safety glasses, 122 Supervisors, 121
dispenser, 72f. confined space, 53, 54
Safety instruction signs, 92 Supervisor's report of accident, 19–21 f.
Safety management, x, 1, 2, 3, 4, 14, 16 Support systems, 14, 105-6
Safety manuals, 4, 12 excavation and, 107
Safety programs, ix, 4, 9, 107–8 installation/removal of, 106, 107
components of, 1–2 water, 104
development/implementation of, 3 Surface residues, 56
effectiveness of, 1–2 t. Surface water, drainage of, 104
status of, 15 Surge protectors, 49, 113, 121
Safety shoes, 74, 94 Suspension ropes, 101
Safety suggestion form, 11f.
Scaffolds, 56, 91 Tagout devices, 58f.
erecting/dismantling, 99, 100–102 applying, 51, 61
ladders and, 102 effectiveness of, 57, 58
SCBA. See Self-contained breathing grouping, 62–63
apparatus hazardous energy, 57–63
Securing devices, 94 removal of, 60, 61–62
Security cameras, 116, 117f. Tanks, 51, 82
Security gates, 116, 118f. cleaning, 126
Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), Teflon tape, 49
76, 108 Telephone numbers, emergency, 12f., 121
Shafts, construction of, 107 Telephones, 10
INDEX 149

Thermal energy, 57 Vapors, 31


Threshold Limit Value (TLV), 130, 131, 132 leaks, preventing, 55
Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations storing, 37
(OSHA), 125 Vehicle inspection, 84
TLV. See Threshold Limit Value Vehicle or equipment accident or damage
Toluene, 31 report, 22–25 f.
Tools, x, 79 Ventilation, 33–36, 40, 41, 43, 45, 46, 90, 103,
backup, 49 117
injuries from, 85, 102 confined space, 52, 53
safety with, 84, 85–86 described, 122
Torches, problems with, 87 hard hat, 68
Torso protection, 73 mechanical, 87
Toxic substances, xii, xiii, 117 Vibration, segmental/whole body, 56
Traffic controls, 93, 103 Video display terminals (VDTs), 113
Training, ix, 2, 3, 10, 30, 98–99 Violations, xi
chemical-specific, right-to-know, 121 abatement period for, xii
classes for, 12, 14
communication and, 59–60 Walking surfaces, 100, 114
evaluating, 12, 13 Warning signs, 53, 54f., 121
procedures for, 12–13 Warning systems, 83–84, 103, 126
programs for, 12, 99, 126, 127 Waste management, 33, 35, 36, 42, 46, 122
resources for, 13, 14 Water lines, installing, 102
safety and health managers and, 127 Water removal equipment, 104
sessions, 4, 126 Welding, 32, 79
supervising, 3 confined space, 90
Traveling, 82–83 gas/arc, 87, 88–89
Trench foot, 56 grounding, 88
Trenching, ix, x instructions for, 88
Trucks shielding, 89
fork, 98 Welding or Hot Tapping on Equipment
hand, 95f. Containing Flammables (API Standard),
High Lift Rider, 80 90
powered industrial, 80–83, 95, 98 Welding screens, 89, 89f.
safety with, 82–83, 98 Wind screens, 101
training for, 81–82 Windshields, 84
traveling with, 82–83 Windshield wipers, 84
Tunnels, construction of, 107 Wind socks, 117f.
Worker's compensation, x
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 16 Work habits, 9, 16
eye protection and, 69 Working surfaces, safe, 114
survey by, 66, 74 Workplaces
U.S. Department of Transportation, 3 assessments of, 12
Hazardous Material Regulations of, 30 hazardous, 4
Ultraviolet light, 46, 47 restructuring/changing, 96
Underground construction, 91, 102–8 safe, ix, 2, 3
USEPA, 131 Work practices
Utensils, handling/storing, 119 construction site, 91–108
Utility directors/managers, ix, 2 safe, 117, 119

Valve caps, using, 47, 48, 49 Xylene, 31


Valves, 49, 50, 55, 87
AWWA Manuals
M1, Principles of Water Rates, Fees, and M27, External Corrosion Introduction to
Charges, Fifth Edition, 2000, #30001PA Chemistry and Control, First Edition,
M2, Instrumentation and Control, Third 1987, #30027PA
Edition, 2001, #30002PA M28, Cleaning and Lining Water Mains,
M3, Safety Practices for Water Utilities, Second Edition, 2001, #30028PA
Sixth Edition, 2002, #30003PA M29, Water Utility Capital Financing,
M4, Water Fluoridation Principles and Second Edition, 1998, #30029PA
Practices, Fourth Edition, 1995, M30, Precoat Filtration, Second Edition,
#30004PA 1995, #30030PA
M5, Water Utility Management Practices, M31, Distribution System Requirements for
First Edition, 1980, #30005PA Fire Protection, Third Edition, 1998,
M6, Water Meters—Selection, Installation, #30031PA
Testing, and Maintenance, Fourth M32, Distribution Network Analysis for Water
Edition, 1999, #30006PA Utilities, First Edition, 1989, #30032PA
M7, Problem Organisms in Water: M33, Flowmeters in Water Supply, First
Identification and Treatment, Second Edition, 1989, #30033PA
Edition, 1995, #30007PA M34, Water Rate Structures and Pricing,
M9, Concrete Pressure Pipe, Second Second Edition, 1999, #30034PA
Edition, 1995, #30009PA M35, Revenue Requirements, First Edition,
M11, Steel Pipe—A Guide for Design and 1990, #30035PA
Installation, Fourth Edition, 1989, M36, Water Audits and Leak Detection,
#30011PA Second Edition, 1999, #30036PA
M12, Simplified Procedures for Water M37, Operational Control of Coagulation
Examination, Second Edition, 1997, and Filtration Processes, Second
#30012PA Edition, 2000, #30037PA
M14, Recommended Practice for Backflow M38, Electrodialysis and Electrodialysis
Prevention and Cross-Connection Reversal, First Edition, 1995,
Control, Second Edition, 1990, #30038PA
#30014PA M41, Ductile-Iron Pipe and Fittings, First
M17, Installation, Field Testing, and Edition, 1996, #30041PA
Maintenance of Fire Hydrants, Third M42, Steel Water-Storage Tanks, First
Edition, 1989, #30017PA Edition, 1998, #30042PA
M19, Emergency Planning for Water Utility M44, Distribution Valves: Selection,
Management, Fouth Edition, 2001, Installation, Field Testing, and
#30019PA Maintenance, First Edition, 1996,
#30044PA
M20, Water Chlorination Principles and
Practices, First Edition, 1973, M45, Fiberglass Pipe Design, First Edition,
#30020PA 1996, #30045PA
M21, Groundwater, Second Edition, 1989, M46, Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration,
#30021PA First Edition, 1999, #30046PA
M22, Sizing Water Service Lines and Meters, M47, Construction Contract Administration,
First Edition, 1996, #30047PA
First Edition, 1975, #30022PA
M48, Waterborne Pathogens, First Edition,
M23, PVC Pipe—Design and Installation,
1999, #30048PA
First Edition, 1980, #30023PA
M49, Butterfly Valves: Torque, Head Loss,
M24, Dual Water Systems, Second Edition,
and Cavitation Analysis First Edition,
1994, #30024PA
2001, #30049PA
M25, Flexible-Membrane Covers and Linings M50, Water Resources Planning, First
for Potable-Water Reservoirs, Third Edition, 2001, #30050PA
Edition, 2000, #30025PA
M51, Air-release, Air/vacuum and
M26, Water Rates and Related Charges, Combination Air Valves, First Edition,
Second Edition, 1996, #30026PA 2001, #30051PA

To order any of these manuals or other AWWA publications, call the Bookstore toll-free at
1-(800)-926-7337.

151