You are on page 1of 20

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO CYBER-BULLYING INCIDENCE AMONG

STUDENTS IN BAGONG BARRIO NATIONAL HIGHSCHOOL - ANNEX

S.Y. 2018-2019

By:

Alfonso, Lynviel

Cruz, Danielle

Tomboc, Maria Leira

Sarte, Meagan

Perez, Kim

Nuevas, Veronica

Santos, Ken

August , 2018
Introduction

Background of the study

In every country, even in the most progressive ones, some people experience cyber-

bullying. Cyber-bullying as termed by the Webster dictionary, is defined as the use of

electronic communication to bully a person, typically by sending messages in intimidating

threatening nature. Likewise, bill bessey also gave the same definition about cyber-bullying,

he stated that, “Cyber-bullying involves the use of information and communication

technologies to support deliberate, repeated and hostile behavior by an individual or group

that is intended to harm others”

Involvement in bullying has been shown to result from a complex interplay between

individuals and their wider social environment. (Swearer and Espelage 2004-2011)

In the past decade the phenomenon of cyber-bullying among youth has led to

increasing concerns among psychologists, social workers and policy makers alike while the

general public has been alerted to a serious health threat (Centers for Disease Control and

Prevention, 2014)

There are thirty three million users who uses the internet in the Philippines and half of

it are teenagers. These teenagers are one of the most prone and vulnerable victims of cyber-

bullying, but, in these cases, it so hard to identify who is responsible for the crime committed

because you never find out who is the person behind that social media account used for
bashing and cyber-bullying due to the fact that sometimes, the perpetrators use dummy

accounts to bully their victims. (Bernardo,R. 2014). Internet and mobile marketing

association of the philippines.)

Cyber-bullying also happens through chatting, texting, video calling and/or blogging

or in websites that includes sending, posting, or sharing negative, harmful, false or mean

content about someone else. It can also include sharing personal problem and private

information about someone causing embarrassment and humiliation to the victim.

With the prevalence of social media, due to the ability of individuals to post anything

that can be viewed by anyone; ranging from your friend, strangers, as well as acquaintances

and other people... when you share a post, there might be irreversible damages that can be

done, because the post can be delete but the damaged or false public view of the people to the

victim will be permanent, and it might destroy the reputation of that certain person, which

might also be accessible by school, company, club, or any organization.

Because technology is up to date, it's probably the same thing they are using to

bully, is rapidly emerging from the traditional forms of bullying. And internet is the

battlefield. One of the most common reasons for cyber-bullying is an attitude of bullies that

they do not get caught unlike in bullying you will be easily caught by physical and verbal

.But traditional bullying pressure from friends can be a trigger for cyber-bullying too.
Some students do not appreciate posting online is a form of publishing they see the internet is

“not a real world” this feelings leads to children that they cannot be reprimanded for what

they do online so that cyber bullying may have serious effect on a child wellbeing.

Cyber-bullying tends to be more extreme to feel that the bullying is inescapable.

Thus, in light of the fact of these things, the researcher conducted this study, to

answer the questions regarding to the aforementioned details above and to know the views

and stand of the students of BBNHS-Annex about cyber-bullying, its cause and effect, and

how it affects their self-esteem.

Statement of the Problem

This study is undertaken with the purpose of exploring cyber-bullying. Particularly, the

following questions are raised:

1) What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

a) Gender

b) Age

2) What are the percentage and scales of the respondents in term of:

a) Students affected by cyber-bullying.

b) Possible factors that cause cyber-bullying

c) Possible effects of cyber-bullying

d) How bad and negatively did cyber-bullying affected the self –esteem of the

respondents.
Significance of the Study

This study will benefit the following groups of people:

Students. To be informed about the current status of cyber-bullying

incidence in the Philippines, specifically, in Bagong Barrio National Highschool-

Annex.

Future Researchers. As a raw material or background for future reference.

Society. To have better understanding on the situation of cyber-bullying

incidence and victims.

Government. The recommendations and information gathered by the

researchers would help the government recognize and create what countermeasures

are to be undertaken to the issue on the problem of cyber-bullying incidence to the

Philippines, specifically, in BBNHS-Annex.

Scope and Delimitation

This study will be conducted to know the effects of cyber-bullying incidence to


student’s emotional quotient and self-esteem. This research will tackle the cause and effect
of cyber-bullying to student and how it affects their confidence.

This Research will only be limited to the respondent and students affected by cyber-
bullying that is found in the premises of Bagong Barrio National High School-Annex. It
does not cover up other schools, and, is thus, only limited to a certain number of respondents.

This study does not cover up on ways on how to solve cyber-bullying, if further

studied, researched and explored, it might help in ways on how to solve it, but it does not in
any way, cover it up. Its only aim is to know the perspective of cyber-bullying victims, their

thoughts and their feeling on being affected by cyber-bullying and what they think is the

cause and effect of it.

Definition of Terms

Academic Performance. It is defined by students’ reporting of past semester CGPA/GPA

and their expected GPA for the current semester. The grade point average or GPA is now

used by most of the tertiary institutions as a convenient summary measure of the academic

performance of their students.

Awareness. It is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of

events. More broadly, it is the state of being conscious of something.

Anxiety. It is feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or

something with an uncertain outcome.

Anxious. It is Characterized by extreme uneasiness of mind or brooding fear about some

contingency.

Behavior. It is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms,

systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which

includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical

environment.

Blog. It is website that contains online personal reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks,

videos, and photographs provided by the writer.


Consciousness. It is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object

or something within oneself.

Cyberspace. It is interconnected technology. The term entered the popular culture from

science fiction and the arts but is now used by technology strategists, security professionals,

government, military and industry leaders and entrepreneurs to describe the domain of the

global technology environment.

Depressed. It is state of general unhappiness or despondency.

Social Media. It is websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or

to participate in social.

Stress. It is force exerted when one body or body part presses on, pulls on, pushes against, or

tends to compress or twist another body or body part.

Bandwagon. Gain popularity online due to desperite need for attention.


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

With the prevalence and continous rise of the internet and social media along with our
growing new generation, people, especially teenagers, inevitably get affected by cyber-
bullying.

Cyber-bullying or cyber harassment is defined as form of bullying or harassment using

electronic means. Cyber-bullying and Cyber harassment are also known as online bullying. It

has become increasingly common, especially among teenagers. (Smith, Peter K.; Mahdavi,

Jess; Carvalho, Manuel; Fisher, Sonja; Russell, Shanette; Tippett, Neil (2008). "Cyber-

bullying: its nature and impact in secondary school pupils". The Journal of Child Psychology

and Psychiatry.)

As aforementioned, cyber-bullying is stated as bullying done online to put it simply.

Cyber-bullying takes on many forms. Most common of which are usually through social

networks, online communities, online games and mobile phones. Cyber-bullies usually use

such means to spread rumors, posting or sharing embarrassing pictures of their victims such

as pornographic pictures or videos in which they are being humiliated, stalking, threatening

or even extortion.

Cyber-bullying can often be described as schoolyard bullying magnified through the use of

technology. The main reason behind this is the anonymity that cyber-bullying provides as

more often than not the victims of cyber-bullying do not even know their bullies. Another

reason is that technology has led an increase in speed in which offensive content can be
spread and shared amongst the online community. (Retrieved from

https://wiki.nus.edu.sg/display/cs1105groupreports/Cyber-harassment and cyber-bullying)

Internet trolling is a common form of bullying over the Internet in an online community

(such as in online gaming or social media) in order to elicit a reaction, disruption, or for

someone's own personal amusement (Diaz, Fernando L. (2016). "Trolling & the First

Amendment: Protecting Internet Speech in the Era of Cyberbullies & Internet Defamation".

University of Illinois Journal of Law, Technology & Policy: 135–160.)

According to Santos, there are two types of cyber-bullying in the Philippines: the cyber mob

(like what happened to Chris Lao and Jamie Paula Salvosa); and the day-to-day cyber-

bullying that remains under-reported.

Recently, one Devina DeDiva found herself the recipient of much vitriol after she called

Filipinos “poor, underprivileged, and smelly from cleaning toilets” after Megan Young

bagged this year's Miss World crown.

As an example of under-reported incidents, writer China Jocson wrote about her experience

as a target of cyber-bullying just for issues related to people she happened to be connected

with.
For defending her university's stand on the Reproductive Health Bill against a conservative

rival university, Nikki received numerous threats from students claiming to be from the latter

institution. Some even threatened her not to venture out of her own campus.

“Okay, anong gagawin (nila) paglabas ko?” said Nikki of her ordeal. However, she remained

unfazed: “I think magiging bullying lang ang cyber-bullying depende sa magiging reaction

mo as the one being 'bullied.'”

Also earlier this year, college instructor Karlo's Facebook timeline and WordPress blog were

swamped by angry students from a local university after he publicly questioned the

institution's high standing in a recent survey of Asian schools.

“My statements (were) public, and an understandable backlash from followed,” he added.

“The whole shebang made me reevaluate my friends on Facebook, and I opted to deactivate

the account indefinitely, though the backlash continued on my blog. I got a barrage of

insinuations that I was bitter because none of the universities I graduated from or teach at got

into the list.

“I was called, among other rather uncreative insults, a 'loser.' Even my mother was mocked;

my Facebook banner photo featured her. The vast majority of the backlash, really, tried to

point out I had bad grammar.” Cruz, V. (2013). What can you do when you're cyber-

bullied? Retrieved from http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/hashtag/content/330151/what-

can-you-do-when-you-re-cyberbullied/story/ )
According to Abs-Cbn News aug. 24, 2016 retrieved 9/26/19
according to the new study “growing up online-connected kids conducted by karspersky lab
and iconkids and youth, involved an online survey of 3,780 families
4% of child respondents admitted to being bullied online as opposed to 12% in real life the
consequences were “traumatic” in seven out of cases, according to the study.
this percentage show how the child suffering in cyber bullying that we need to address.

“Cyber bullying is one of the most dangerous things that can confront a child on a the
internet because it can make a negative impact on their psyche and cause problems for the
rest of their lives “ said Andrei Mochala, head of consumer business at kaspersky Lab

a student who experienced cyber-bullying may experience low self-esteem poor academic
performanced and depression karspersky lab and iconkids and youth.

37% of the parents of the victims reported low self-esteem, 30% noticed poorer performance
in school, and 28% cited depression it is worrying that these events will further worsen the
youth that may lead to suicide “ Suicide is act of killing yourself most often a result of
depression or other illness.” According to the definition of blog of Psychology Today

26% had suicidal thoughts because of cyber-bullying versus 24% overall and 25% attempted
self-harm, versus 23% according to the Ditch the Label Study.

A children who experiencing cyber bullying also abused drugs and alcohol, and they might
develop mental and eating disorder.

Cyber-bullying on social media is linked to depression in teenagers, according to new


research that analyzed multiple studies of the online phenomenon.

Victimization of young people online has received an increasing level of scrutiny,


particularly after a series of high-profile suicides of teenagers who were reportedly bullied on
various social networks. In 2013, for example, a spate of suicides was linked to the social
network Ask.fm, where users can ask each other questions anonymously. The deaths of teens
who had been subject to abuse on the site prompted Ask.fm (which was acquired by Ask.com
in 2014) to launch new safety efforts. Twitter, likewise, announced plans in April to filter out
abusive tweets and suspend bullying users.

Social media use is hugely common among teenagers, said Michele Hamm, a researcher in
pediatrics at the University of Alberta, but the health effects of cyber-bullying on social
media sites is largely unknown. Regular, face-to-face bullying during the teen years may
double the risk of depression in adulthood, and bullying's effects can be as bad or worse than
child abuse, studies show.

In the new review, Hamm and her colleagues combed through studies on cyber-bullying and
social media, finding 36 that investigated the effects of cyber-bullying on health in teens ages
12 to 18. Although the studies examined different health outcomes and sometimes defined
cyber-bullying differently, one finding stood out.

"There were consistent associations between exposure to cyber-bullying and increased


likelihood of depression," Hamm told Live Science. [8 Tips for Parents of Teens with
Depression]

The studies covered a variety of social sites, but Facebook was the most common — between
89 percent and 97.5 percent of the teens who used social media had a Facebook account.
Seventeen of the 36 studies analyzed looked at how common cyber-bullying was, and the
researchers found that a median of 23 percent of teens reporting being targeted. About 15
percent reported bullying someone online themselves.

Two studies examined the prevalence of so-called "bully-victims," meaning teens who both
bully others and are bullied. Research on offline bullying shows these kids to be most at-risk
for mental health problems. One study found that 5.4 percent of teens were bully-victims,
while the other reported a prevalence of 11.2 percent.

Alarmingly, teens typically suffered cyber-bullying in silence. "Kids really are hesitant to tell
anyone when cyber-bullying occurs," Hamm said. "There seems to be a common fear that if
they tell their parents, for example, they'll lose their Internet access."

Therefore, it's important for parents to respond carefully if their kids are being bullied online,
and to teach teens safe Internet use rather than cutting off permission to use the Web, she
said.
"Parents need to address that this is happening and that the Internet and social media is here,"
Hamm said. "It's an important part of their kids' lives. But it needs to be a whole team
approach."

(Pappas, S. (2015). Cyber-bullying on Social Media Linked to Teen Depression,


https://www.livescience.com/51294-cyber-bullying-social-media-teen-depression.html)
Conceptual Framework

INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT

- Self-esteem

 Increase in
 Behavior in social
bullying
media
incidence
 Exposure to social

media  Effective

 Bandwagon students

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO CYBERBULLYING INCIDENCE AMONG

STUDENTS IN BAGONG BARRIO NATIONAL HIGHSCHOOL - ANNEX


Methodology

Quantitative methodology will be used to collect data in this study. A survey questionnaire
Method

A survey questionnaire consisting of dichotomous questions will be used to in this research


for easier tabulation and quantifying of data from the answers of all participants. Participants
will be students from Bagong Barrio National Highschool-Annex. The participants for the
study will involve grade 11 and grade 12 senior high school students that was affected by
cyber-bullying incidence.

Participants or respondents will be purposedly selected from the premises of the BBNHS-
ANNEX school. There will be 30 grade 11 students that will be studied in our research and ,
also, on the other hand, 30 students from the grade 12 level observed in the study during
the data analysis.

The survey questionnaire will consist of two components; part one where the subject will
report personal information (demographic information, grade level, name, etc.) and part two
where the subject will report experience related to cyber-bullying by answering the survey
questionnaires consisting of dichotomous questions.

Sampling technique

This research used the probability sampling out of the 2 types of sampling technique, more

specifically it used the stratified random sampling.

Purposive Sampling techniques, also known as judgmental, selective, or subjective sampling,


is a form of non-probability sampling in which researchers rely on their own judgment when
choosing members of the population to participate in their study.

This sampling method requires researchers to have prior knowledge about the purpose of
their studies so that they can properly choose and approach eligible participants.

Researchers use purposive sampling when they want to access a particular subset of people,
as all participants of a study are selected because they fit a particular profile.
Statistical Treatment

In order to save time and money, the researcher selected a small group from the population.

The small group used is referred to as a sample size, which is a subset of the population that

is used to represent the population.

To get the sample size the following formula is used: (slovin’s formula)
Result and Discussion

A B C

Q1. How old are you? 15 19 5

Q2. How often do you go on

social media? Ie: facebook, 27 9 3

twitter, and instagram never

Q3.What social media sites do 38 0 1

you use the MOST?

Q9. Based on your own

observation and experience, in 38 1 0

what platform does cyber-

bullying most often occur.

Table 1.1

According to the aforementioned data shown on the table above, 15 out of 39 of the

respondents or 38% of the respondents answered A and said that their age is 14-16, on the
other hand 19 or 13% of the respondents answered B and said that their age is 17-18,

meanwhile 5 or 13% of them answered C and said that their age is 19 and above.

Furthermore 27 out of 39 respondents or 69% of the respondents answered A on the second

question and said that they go and use social media for 2-4 hours a day, on the other hand, 9

or 23% answered B and said that they use social media for 5-8 hours, meanwhile 3 or 8% of

the respondents said that they use it for 9 hours and above.

On the third question that tackles what social media is mostly used by the respondents, 38 or

97% of the respondents said that they use facebook the most and the other 1 or 3% of the

respondent on the other hand, said that he/she uses twitter the most.

Meanwhile, on the ninth question that tackles which social media platform cyber bullying

most often occur , 38 or 97% of the respondents said that they think facebook is the platform

where cyberbullying most often happen and the other 1 or 3% of the respondent on the other

hand, said that he/she thinks that twitter is the most cyberbullying prone platform on the

internet.
YES NO

Q4. Have you ever had any negative experiences with 31 8

anyone on social media?

Q5. Do you know of anyone that has been bullied 31 8

online?

Q6. Have you ever been involved in any bullying 17 22

online?

Q7. Are you aware on what to do if you’re being 33 6

bullied online?

Q8. Have you ever own been peer pressured into 14 25

anything by someone, even a friend?

Q10. Have you noticed someone being bullied in 33 6

school or online?
Table 1.2

According to the data shown on the table above, 31 out of 39 of the respondents or 79% of

the respondents answered YES and said that they have encountered negative experience on

social media before, on the other hand 8 or 21% of the respondents answered NO and said

that they don’t experience negative things on social medias.

Furthermore 27 out of 39 respondents or 69% of the respondents answered A on the fifth

question and said that they go and use social media for 2-4 hours a day, on the other hand, 9

or 23% answered B and said that they use social media for 5-8 hours, meanwhile 3 or 8% of

the respondents said that they use it for 9 hours and above.

On the fifth question that tackles if someone knows anyone that has been bullied online, 31

or 79% of the respondents said YES and the other 8 or 21% of the respondent on the other

hand, said that NO.

On the sixth question that tackles if the respondents have ever been involved in any bullying

online. 17 or 44% of the respondents said YES and the other 22 or 56% of the respondent on

the other hand, said that NO.