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‫לזכות‬

1‫רמ‬1 1‫רנ‬1‫ פ‬1‫ננ‬1‫כ ״ ק אד‬


‫אור עולם‬
‫נזר ישראל ותפארתו‬
‫צ ד ק ת ד׳ ע ש ה‬
‫ומשפטיו עם ישראל‬
‫ורכים השיכ מעון‬
‫הגאון האלקי מרנא ורכנא‬

‫נ״ע‬ ‫עזזק‬ ' ‫כן הרכ הגאון החסיד המקוכל רכי א‬

‫ע ל ה השמימה מוצש״ק שלישי לחודש תמוז‬


‫שנת זז׳ ת ה א ש נ ת נפלאות דגולות‬
‫ליצירה‬

A v a i l a b l e i n the V e d i b a r t a B a m S e r i e s

*Bereishit (264 pp.) *Pirkei Avot (376 pp.)


*Shemot (256 pp.) Chanukah (226 pp.)
*Vayikra (222 pp.) Megillat Esther (208 pp.)
*Bamidbar (256 pp.) *Ki Yishalcha Bincha-Haggadah (256 pp.)
*Devarim (256 pp.) Tishrei (328 pp.)
* available also i n Spanish

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•••^•••••iH^ HAVDALAH CONCLUSION OF SHABBAT ^ • • : ^ ‫־‬
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Y o u shall draw water w i t h joy from the wellsprings of deliverance.
A n d you w i l l say on that day, "Offer thanks to Adonai, proclaim H i s
Name, make H i s deeds k n o w n among the nations; cause it to be 3 Foreword
remembered that H i s Name is exalted. S i n g to Adonai for He has
4 Shalom Aleichem / ‫שלום עליכם‬
done great things; this is k n o w n throughout the earth. Raise your
voice joyously and sing, you dweller i n Z i o n , for the Holy One of 6 Eishet Chayil / ‫אשת חיל‬
Israel is great i n your midst." O n that day [Israel] w i l l say, "Indeed,
10 Kiddush for Friday Evening / ‫קידוש לליל שבת‬
this is our G o d i n W h o m w e have hoped that He should deliver us;
this is Adonai i n W h o m we have hoped; let us be glad and rejoice i n 16 Azameir Bishvachin / ‫אזמר בשבחין‬
H i s deliverance."
20 Kiddush for the Shabbat Day / ‫קידוש ליום שבת‬
‫ ב ו ר א‬I create the speech of the lips, "Peace, peace for the far and
22 Asadeir Liseudatah / ‫אסדר לסעודתא‬
the near," said Adonai, "and I w i l l heal h i m . " A feeling enfolded
Amasai, the chief of the captains [and he said], "We are yours, D a v i d , 24 Order of Seudah Shelishit / ‫סעודת שלישית‬
on your side, son of Yishai; peace, peace be to you and peace to your
28 B'nei Heichala / ‫בני היכלא‬
helpers, for your G o d helps you." D a v i d received them and placed
them at the head of the brigade. A n d you shall say, "May it be so 30 Blessing After A Meal / ‫ברכת המזון‬
throughout life! May you be at peace, and your household at peace,
52 Concluding Blessing After Certain Foods / ‫ברכה אחרונה‬
and all that is yours at peace." Adonai w i l l give strength to H i s
people; Adonai w i l l bless H i s people w i t h peace." 54 Marriage Ceremony Blessings / ‫שבע ברכות‬
58 Circumcision / ‫ברית מילה‬
(ibid 2:2). Hence, "In the place where the ba'al teshuvah stands" — 62 Redemption of a Firstborn Son / ‫פדיון הבן‬
extremely to the right — "the tzaddik cannot stand" — since he
always has to be in the path which is in the middle. 64 Havdalah — Conclusion of Shabbat / ‫הבדלה‬
( ‫ו ק ך ו ת‬ ‫) א ו ך‬

‫״ה׳ יברך את עמו בשלום״‬ 66 Veyitein Lecha / ‫ויתן לך‬


"Hashem w i l l bless H i s people w i t h peace."
QUESTION: A t the beginning of Shabbat, the prayers start
with "shalom" (Shalom Aleichem) and the final word of the prayers
for the conclusion of Shabbat is "shalom." Why the emphasis on V E D I B A R T A B A M — A N D YOU SHALL SPEAK OF THEM
"shalom"? BIRKAT HAMAZON
ANSWER: Peace is the most important thing in the world
Published and Copyrighted © b y
and the greatest blessing for a home. Hashem promised that for Rabbi Moshe Bogomilsky
observing Torah, He will supply us with our material needs. 1382 P r e s i d e n t Street
B r o o k l y n , N e w Y o r k 11213
Furthermore, in a passage describing the rewards for mitzvah
observance, He concludes, " I will provide peace" (Vayikra 26:6). A l l rights reserved. N o part of this publication m a y be
reproduced i n any form or b y any means, including
Our sages (Torat Kohanim, Rashi ibid.) derived from this that even photo-copying, w i t h o u t permission i n w r i t i n g from the
if a person has food and drink, if there is no peace he has nothing! copyright holder or the publisher.

"Hashalom shakul keneged hakol" — "Peace is considered the


5765 • 2005
equivalent of everything." ( ‫ן ״ ל‬1‫)עי־׳ בסו־ף בתזמ׳׳ו עם פי־ח־שו־ של ׳ נו‬
‫ש פ ו ך א‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ך‬

I S B N 1-8808-8050-4

:
••i^y- ••i^Wy•• ‫ < ׳‬m 75 c^•; • ••i^r ••<WSi••••}^•,‫י‬ -•i*W>
‫ הודו‬.‫ ואמךתם ביום ההוא‬:‫ייני הישועה‬:!;)?)? ‫ושאבתם מים בששון‬
‫ב״ה‬ :‫ הזביךו ?י נשגב שמו‬.‫ליי קךאו בשמו הודיעו בעמים עלילותיו‬
FOREWORD ‫ צהלי ך נ י ישבת‬:‫ מודעת זאת בבל האךץ‬.‫ בי גאות עשה‬,‫זמךו יי‬
‫ הנה אלהינו‬.‫ ואמך ביום ההוא‬:‫ בי גדול בקךבך קדוש ישךאל‬.‫ציון‬
The current sefer in the Vedibarta Bam series is a compilation :‫ זה יי קוינו לו נגילה ונשמחה בישועתו‬.‫ קוינו לו ויושיענו‬.‫זה‬
of explanations of the Birkat Hamazon — Blessing after the Meal,
with additions for Sheva Berachot, Brit Milah, and Pidyon Haben. ‫ שלום ל ו ח ו ק ולקחיב אמך יי‬.‫ניב שפתים שלום‬ ‫מדא‬
T J ‫־־‬ T 11‫ ־ ־‬: l T T T T " T T :

Also included in this "bentcher" are the Kiddush, Havdalah, and ‫ לך דויד ועמך בן‬.‫ וךוח לבשה א ת עמשי ךאש השלישים‬:‫וךפאתיו‬
I ".‫״‬ T • *1 1 ‫ ־‬J T 1 ‫־‬ ‫־‬ 1‫־‬ ‫;־‬ T T ‫־‬

hymns sung at the Shabbat table as well as minhagim taken from ‫ ויקבלם דויד‬.‫ שלום ן שלום לך ושלום לעזךך ?י ?עזי־ך־ אלהיך‬,‫ישי‬
various sources.
‫ וביתך שלום‬,‫ ואתה שלום‬.‫ ואמךתם בה לחי‬:‫ויתנם בךאשי הגדוד‬
This "bentcher" was originally compiled as a means of :‫ יייי יבךך א ת עמו בשלום‬.‫ ייי עז ללךצמו ירנן‬:‫וכל ?^עזך ליך• שולום‬
offering blessing, praise, and song to Hashem for granting me
‫״שלום שלום לרחוק ולקרוב אמר ה׳״‬
and my wife Bracha the blissful opportunity of seeing our dear
"Peace, peace to the far and the near."
grandson, Eliyahu Akiva ‫ שיי‬Lipskar, become a Bar-Mitzvah. It is
QUESTION: Since Hashem first extends greetings to the one
being reprinted now so that the insights contained herein may be
who was "far" and repented and afterwards to the one who was
enjoyed by many. "near" all along, the Gemara (Berachot 34b) derives that, "Makom
This sefer follows the version of Nusach Ari edited by Rabbi sheba'alei teshuvah omdim tzadikim gemurim einam omdin" — "In the
Shneur Zalman of Liadi, founder of Chabad Chassidut and first place where the penitents stand, the completely righteous do not
Rebbe of the Lubavitch dynasty. In accordance with his ruling stand." Why are the penitents greater?
(Shulchan Aruch Harav 167:5), all berachot are translated in past ANSWER: The penitent soul, having been infinitely removed
tense. To avoid halachic controversy, (see Haggadah shel Pesach — from Hashem, now thirsts for Hashem even more than the soul of
Ki Yishalcha Bincha p. 14), for the Holy four lettered name the the righteous. This religious experience is unknown to the perfect
authentic pronunciation of Ad-onai is used. The name "Elokim" is tzaddik who never sinned, and who consequently has never
experienced the remorse and yearning of a repentant soul.
translated as "G-d," and the name "Keil" as "A-mighty." (‫)לקוטי אמרים — תניא פ״ז‬
M y endeavors to publish are materialized thanks to the
Alternatively, the Rambam (Dei'ot 1:4) says that a person
secretarial talents of my daughter, Yehudis Leiter, the
should avoid going to extremes and always conduct himself in the
meticulous editing of Dr. Binyamin Kaplan, the dexterity in way which is in "the middle of the road." For instance, one should
computer graphics of Yitzchok Turner, and the congenial not be exceedingly extravagant or excessively stingy. One should
disposition of Rabbi Yonah Avtzon, Director of Sichos In also not be very arrogant and conceited or totally removed from
English. To all of them, and to you dear readers whose worldly matters and extremely self effacing. A n exception to this
compliments are a source of encouragement, I extend sincere rule involves a person who was conducting a misguided lifestyle
appreciation and profuse thanks. and who was an extremist in his behavior. To correct himself, he
should go to the opposite extreme and eventually work his way
Rabbi Moshe Bogomilsky
back to the middle path.
7th MarCheshvan, 5761 Thus, while the tzaddik always conducts himself in the middle
path, the ba'al teshuvah who is mending his ways and was once ex¬
tremely on the "left," now has to go over extremely to the "right"

3
• ^ y • • ^ - , IIAVDAIAII CONCLUSION OF SHABBAT ^ * • • ^ W ‫־‬ :
•••>mi • ‫ליל שבת‬ '• ^iy• •^m,••
:

your sheep. Blessed shall you be i n your coming, and blessed shall
‫תקוני ש ב ת‬
you be i n your going. Adonai w i l l command the blessing to be w i t h
you i n your storehouses and i n all things to w h i c h you put your hand,
:‫ה כ נ ס ת ל ב י ת ו י א מ ר זה‬ ‫מבית‬ ‫כשבא‬
and He w i l l bless you i n the land w h i c h Adonai your G o d gives to
you. Adonai w i l l open for you H i s good treasure, the heavens, to give ‫ע ל י כ ם מ ל א כ י ה ש ך ת מ ל א כ י עליון מ מ ל ך מ ל כ י‬ ‫שלום‬
rain for your land at its proper time, and to bless all the works of your
hands; y o u w i l l lend to many nations but you w i l l not borrow. For
‫ ג פ‬:‫ה מ ל כ י ם ה ק ד ו ש בךוך הוא‬
Adonai your G o d has blessed y o u as He has promised you; y o u w i l l ‫ל ש ל ו ם מ ל א כ י ה ש ל ו ם מ ל א כ י עליון מ מ ל ך‬ ‫בואכם‬
make loans to many nations but you w i l l not require loans; you w i l l
dominate many nations, but they w i l l not rule over you. Fortunate are ‫ ג פ‬:‫מ ל כ י ה מ ל כ י ם ה ק ד ו ש בךוך הוא‬
you, Israel! Who is like you, a people delivered by Adonai, your ‫ל ש ל ו ם מ ל א כ י ה ש ל ו ם מ ל א כ י עליון מ מ ל ך‬ ‫בךכוני‬
helping shield and the sword of your glory; your enemies w i l l deny
their identity before you, and you shall tread upon their high places. ‫ ג פ‬:‫מ ל כ י ה מ ל כ י ם ה ק ד ו ש בךוך הוא‬
‫ י ש ר א ל‬Israel w i l l be delivered by Adonai w i t h an everlasting ‫ל ש ל ו ם מ ל א כ י ה ש ל ו ם מ ל א כ י עליון מ מ ל ך‬ ‫צאתכם‬
deliverance; y o u w i l l not be disgraced nor humiliated forever and
ever. Y o u w i l l eat and be satiated and praise the Name of Adonai, your ‫ ג פ‬:‫מ ל כ י ה מ ל כ י ם ה ק ד ו ש בךוך הוא‬
G o d , w h o has dealt w i t h you wondrously; and M y people w i l l never
be put to shame. A n d you w i l l k n o w that I am w i t h i n [the people of] ‫״שלום עליכם מלאכי השרת״‬
Israel, that I am Adonai your G o d , and there is none else; and M y "Peace unto you, ministering angels."
people w i l l never be put to shame. For you w i l l go out w i t h joy, and
QUESTION: Why do we greet angels when we come home
be led forth i n peace; the mountains and the hills w i l l burst into song
before you, and all the trees of the field w i l l clap hands. Indeed, the from shul?
A l m i g h t y is my deliverance; I am confident and shall not fear, for ANSWER: According to the Gemara (Shabbat 119b) two
my strength and song is G o d Adonai, and He has been a help to me. ministering angels, one good and one bad, escort a person from
the shul to his home on Shabbat night. When he comes home and
ANSWER: Prior to the "tochachah" — "admonition" —
finds the candles burning, the table set, and the bed made, the
which recounts the calamities that would, G-d forbid, occur for
violating Torah, the Jews were told of the blessings that will good angel says, "May it be the will of Hashem that it should be
occur for observing it. There the blessing of "pri bitnecha" is this way the next Shabbat as well." The bad angel is forced to
mentioned before the blessing of "tanacha," and in the curses answer, "Amein." If he comes home and the house is not set for
(28:17-18) the order is reversed: "tanacha" is mentioned first and Shabbat, the bad angel says, "May it be the will of Hashem that it
"pri bitnecha" follows after. should be this way the next Shabbat as well." The good angel
In some communities it is customary to include in the prayer must reluctantly answer "Amein."
of "Veyitein Lecha" passages which emphasize the transformation Thus, upon arriving home, we greet the angels and seek
of distress to relief, such as, "You have changed for me my their blessing that peace prevail in the home.
lament into dancing" (Psalms 30:12), and "Hashem your G-d
‫ בואכם לשלום מלאכי השלום״‬...‫״שלום עליכם מלאכי השרת‬
transformed for you the curses [of Bilaam] to a blessing"
"Peace unto you, ministering angels... May your
(Devarim 23:6).
coming be i n peace, angels of peace."
Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi did not include these verses in
QUESTION: In the first stanza we refer to them as "malachei
his Nusach Ari Siddur. Nevertheless, to allude the concept of
hashareit" — "ministering angels" — and thereon we refer to
transforming evil to good, the verses of "Blessed shall be your
them as "malachei hashalom" — "angels of peace" — why?
basket... Blessed shall be the fruit of your womb," are stated in
ANSWER: A l l angels in heaven are ministering angels. Their
this order so that they will be in exactly the opposite order
relative to the curses concerning of these items in the Torah. purpose is to minister in the heavenly spheres. When they are
(‫)שעך הכולל‬ dispatched to earth, they are given a specific mission. In this case
• ' ^ i • • • <^my ‫׳‬-^rFRIDAY
::
E V E N I N G ""' - -«^‫־‬
;
‫שבת‬ ‫ מוצאי‬- ‫הבדלה‬

H y m n s for F r i d a y E v e n i n g ‫ יצו יי א ת ך א ת‬:‫אתה בצאתך‬: ‫ ובךוך‬.‫ ב ת ך א ת ה בבאך‬:‫צאנך‬


U p o n r e t u r n i n g f r o m t h e S y n a g o g u e , t h e f o l l o w i n g is s a i d ‫ ובךכך באךץ אשך יי א ל ה י ך‬.‫הבךכה באסמיך ובכל משלח ידך‬
T - T T
‫״י‬ VI I V I I ‫״‬.‫״‬ TI : ‫־‬ •• ‫ד‬1 ‫ • ן‬T ‫־־‬ TI T ‫ ־‬: ‫־־‬ T T ‫־־‬
‫ ש ל ו ם‬Peace u n t o y o u , m i n i s t e r i n g a n g e l s , m e s s e n g e r s o f the ,
‫ ל ת ת מטך אךצך‬.‫ יפתח יי ל ך ;את אוצךו הטוב א ת השמים‬: ‫נתן לך‬
M o s t H i g h , of the supreme K i n g of k i n g s , the H o l y o n e
blessed be H e . Repeat three times
‫ והלויתיגוים ךבים ואתה 'לא‬.‫בעתו' ולבךך א ת ב ל מעשה יז־ך‬
‫בואכם‬ M a y y o u r c o m i n g b e i n peace, a n g e l s of peace, ‫ והעבטת גויים ךבים‬.‫ בבי ייי ^אליהזיך בךכך כאשך ד ב ך לך‬:‫תלוה‬
messengers of the M o s t H i g h , of the supreme K i n g of k i n g s , ‫ אשךיך‬:‫ ומשלת בגוים ךבים ובך ל א ימדשלו‬.‫ואתה ל א תעבט‬
the H o l y o n e b l e s s e d be H e . Repeat three times .‫ מגן עזךך ואשך חךב גאותך‬.‫ישךאל ממי כמוך עם נושע ביי‬
‫ברכוני‬ B l e s s m e w i t h peace, a n g e l s o f peace, m e s s e n g e r s o f :‫ד־ךך־‬I‫ ואתה עגל במותימו ר‬.‫ויכחשו איביך לך‬
the M o s t H i g h , o f t h e s u p r e m e K i n g o f k i n g s , t h e H o l y o n e
‫ ל א תבשו וליא ת כ ל מ ו עד‬.‫ישךאל נושע ביי תשועת עולמים‬
blessed be H e . Repeat three times
‫ ! ה ל ל ת ם א ת שם ייי אליהיכם‬.‫ ואכלתם ;אכול ושבוע‬:‫עולמי עד‬
‫צ א ת כ ם‬ M a y y o u r d e p a r t u r e b e i n peace, a n g e l s o f peace,
messengers of the M o s t H i g h , of the supreme K i n g of k i n g s ,
‫ וידעתם בבי‬:‫ וליא ייבשו עמי לעולם‬.‫אשך עשה עמכם להפליא‬
the H o l y o n e b l e s s e d be H e . Repeat three times
‫ וליא ייבשו עמי‬.‫ ואני יי אליהיכם ואין עוד‬.‫בקךב ישךאל אני‬
‫ הוהךים והגבעות יפצחו‬.‫ בבי בשמחה תצאו ובשלום תובלון‬:‫לעולם‬
they give the blessing that the home will have peace and
‫ הלנה א ל ישועתי אבטח‬:‫ ו כ ל עצי השדה ימחאו ככף‬.‫לפניכם ךנה‬
tranquility and that the spirit and aura of Shabbat will continue on
:‫ ויהי ללי לישועה‬.‫ בבי עזי וזמךת יה ייי‬.‫וליא אפחד‬
in this home without interruption. Hence, upon their entry they
are addressed by their general title and purpose — "malachei
hashareit" — "ministering angels" — and afterwards, since their ANSWER: The patriarch Yitzchak had two sons, Yaakov and
Eisav. Eisav was a skilled hunter and is described in the Torah as
specific mission involves peace, we address them by the title
"ish sadeh" — "a man of the field." On the other hand, Yaakov
"malachei hashalom" — "angels of peace" — beseeching them to be
was a Torah scholar and is described as "yosheiv ohalim" — "a
faithful to their mission and bless us with peace.
dweller in tents" — which means that he was an urbanite, a city
‫צאתכם לשלום״‬...‫״שלום עליכם‬ dweller (Bereishit 25:27).
"Peace unto you...May your departure be i n peace."
Originally, Yitzchak wanted to bless Eisav, but Yaakov
QUESTION: The angels have just arrived, why do we wish managed to obtain the blessing instead. In response to his heart-
rendering plea, Eisav was also blessed.
for their departure?
The Torah promises that for listening to Hashem and
ANSWER: If we wanted them to leave, we would say
observing His commandments one will merit all the blessings:
"tze'u," which is a command to leave. The word "tzeitechem"
both those of "ba'ir" which were given to Yaakov — the city
means "your leaving and departure." We are, i n a sense, saying
dweller — as well as those of "basadeh" — given to Eisav — the
to the angels, "We relish your company and hope it will be long
man of the field. ( ‫) ש ע ך ב ת ך ב י ם‬
lasting. However, we pray that during your entire stay, up to
tzeitechem — your departure — there should be a spirit of ‫ ברוך פרי בטנך״‬.‫״ברוך טנאך ומשארתך‬
'shalom' — 'peace' — in our home." "Blessed shall be your basket and your kneading-
(‫ ועי׳ המלך במסיבו ח״ב עמוד ל‬,‫)מחצית השקל או״ ח סי׳ ךס״ב‬ bowl. Blessed shall be the fruit o f your womb."
QUESTION: I n the Torah (Devarim 28:4-5), "Blessed be
Alternatively, according to the Zohar throughout the entire tanacha" — "your fruit basket" — i.e. property, is preceded by,
week heavenly angels are assigned to accompany and protect "Blessed be pri bitnecha" — "fruit of your womb" — i.e. children.
every Jew. On Shabbat there is a change of the guard and another Why in the prayer recited Motza'ei Shabbat is the order reversed?

5 72
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•••^•••••iH^ HAVDALAH CONCLUSION OF SHABBAT ^ • • : ^ ‫־‬ ‫ל י ל שבת‬ **H*


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‫ ב ר ו ך‬Blessed shall y o u be i n the city, and blessed shall you be i n


:‫בבי נ)לואנ;יו יצוה לך לשמךך ב כ ל דךכיך‬
the field. Blessed shall be your basket and your kneading-bowl. Tl ".‫ ״‬T T 1 T‫־‬1:I J T "." ‫־־‬ T T ‫־־‬

Blessed shall be the fruit of your womb and the fruit of your land, the :‫יהוה ישמך צאתך ובואך מעתה ועד עולם‬
fruit of your livestock, the increase of your cattle and the offspring of
: ‫ ווךחק מ פ נ י נ י ם מ כ ך ה‬. ‫א ש ת דחייל מני י מ צ א‬
:‫ ו ש ל ל ליא יחסך‬. ‫ב ט ח ב ה ללב ב ע ל ה‬
When the Jewish people complained that Moshe set a
:‫ ב ל ימני חייה‬.‫ג מ ל ת ה ו ט ו ב וליא ךע‬
limitation on their blessing, he responded "Zeh-hu misheli" —
"The one-thousand that I am giving you is absolutely all that I :‫ ו ת ע ש ב ח פ ץ כ&יה‬. ‫ד ך ש ה צ מ ך ו פ ש ת י ם‬
possess. I am giving you everything that is included in my name, : ‫ מ מ ך ח ק ת ב י א ל ח ו ה‬.‫ה י ת ה כ א נ י ו ת סווחך‬
and may Hashem bless you according to His Divine powers." : ‫ ו ת ת ן ט ך ף ל ב י ת ה יוחק ל נ ע ך ת י ה‬. ‫ו ת ק ם ב ע ו ד ל י ל ה‬
(‫)של״ה‬

‫״ברוך אתה בעיר״‬ set of angels replace the weekday ones. Thus, on Friday night we
"Blessed s h a l l y o u be i n the city." say "shalom aleichem" to the Shabbat angels who have come to
QUESTION: In the Gemara (Bava Metzia 107a) Rav says that replace the weekday ones, and immediately thereafter we say
"tzeitechem l'shalom" to the weekday angels, who have been
this blessing means that one's house should be close to the shul.
relieved of their duty and are now leaving to return to their
Are all those who don't live close to the shul really lacking
heavenly base. ( ‫׳‬ )
this blessing? ‫ו י צ א‬ ‫ת פ‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ת א‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ש‬

ANSWER: There are many people whose Torah observance ‫״אשת חיל״‬
is limited to the confines of the shul. I n shul they conduct " A woman of valor."
themselves very piously and are very friendly and congenial QUESTION: Who is the "aishet chayil" — "woman of valor"
with all the people. Moreover, they insist that everything in shul — for whom this was composed?
be strictly i n accordance with halachah. ANSWER: "Aishet Chayil" was the eulogy our father
However, these same people's conduct at home leaves much Avraham made for his deceased wife Sarah, and the twenty-two
to be desired. A t times their kashrut standards are not the verses are related to different facets of her life.
highest, their Shabbat observance needs improvement, and i n (‫ חיי שךה‬,‫ בךאשית‬,‫)מדךש תנחומא‬

general the atmosphere prevailing in the home is not permeated It refers to the Shechinah — Divine Presence. The twenty-two
with Torah and mitzvot. verses correspond to the twenty-two Heavenly conduits which
Rav is teaching that when a person's home is "close" (in are currently open and through which there is an outpouring of
spiritual proximity) to the shul, i.e. he conducts himself so that b l e s s i n g s .
(‫ בסדוך שעך השמים‬,‫)של ׳ה‬
the holy atmosphere of the shul is also present in the home, he is It refers to Shabbat, which is the kallah — bride and mate — of
indeed blessed. K'lal Yisrael, and when the Shabbat — bride enters, it is proper to
(‫)מגד יךחים‬
sing her praise. ( . ‫״‬ ‫׳‬ ‫ן‬ ) ‫ח‬ ‫י א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫מ ד ך‬ ‫ו ע י‬ ‫נ ג‬ ‫מ ט י ב‬

‫״ברוך אתה בעיר ברוך אתה בשדה״‬ It refers to the Torah (Yalkut Shimoni, Proverbs). The word
"Blessed s h a l l y o u be i n the city and "chayil" (‫ )חיל‬has the numerical value of forty-eight, and alludes
blessed s h a l l you be i n the field." to the forty-eight attributes necessary to acquire Torah which are
QUESTION: Why doesn't it simply state "You shall be recorded in Pirkei Avot (6:6).
blessed everywhere"?

71 6
FRIDAY EVENING ‫שבת‬ ‫ מוצאי‬- ‫הבדלה‬

‫ כ י‬For He w i l l instruct H i s angels i n your behalf,


‫ בךוך‬:‫ בךוך טנאך ומשאךתך‬:‫אתה בשדה‬: ‫ ובךוך‬.‫אתה בעיך‬:‫בךוך‬
to guard you i n all your ways.
‫יי‬ Adonai w i l l guard your going and coming
‫ שגך ?^לככיך ועשתךות‬.‫נ)ךזך‬r‫ך‬:‫פךי בטנך וככי"י א ד מ ת ך ופךי ב‬
from now and for all time.
‫ א ש ת‬A w o m a n of valor, w h o can find? H e r v a l u e far exceeds Moshe's berachah was much greater: By saying "elef pe'amim"
that of gems. he meant that their number should be doubled one thousand
T h e heart of her h u s b a n d trusts i n her; he l a c k s no gain. times. In other words, starting with six hundred thousand, after
S h e treats h i m w i t h goodness, never w i t h e v i l , a l l the days of the first "adding to you as you are now" they w i l l be one million
her life. two hundred thousand, then when this is doubled, they will be
S h e seeks out w o o l a n d flax, a n d w o r k s w i l l i n g l y w i t h her two million four hundred thousand, then four million eight
hands. hundred thousand, etc. Thus, as this is repeated one thousand
S h e is l i k e the merchant ships; she b r i n g s her food from afar. times, the population will very quickly reach an astronomical
She rises w h i l e it is still night, a n d gives food to her f i g u r e .
(‫י ׳ג‬.‫ ועי׳ מד ׳ך דבךים א‬,‫)בינה לעתים‬
h o u s e h o l d a n d sets out the tasks for her maids.

In simple terms it is a tribute to the woman of the house who It is related that the king of Persia was very impressed with
toils to tend to the needs of her family. As akeret habayit — the person who created the game of chess and offered to grant
foundation of the home — she creates an ambiance of Torah and him any wish. The man said to the king, "There are 64 squares on
chesed i n the house. the chess board. I would be satisfied if you would put a grain of
The Midrash (Yalkut Shimoni, Proverbs) says that in this wheat in the first square and double it in the next, and so forth."
composition there are twenty-two verses. Each starts with The king laughed about this meager request, but soon realized
another letter of the alef-beit. Just as Hashem gave the Torah to that he would not have enough wheat in his country to fill the
the Jewish people by means of the twenty-two letters of the alef- request. In the second square there would be two grains, in the
beit, so Hashem praises the righteous woman with all the third square there would be four. In the tenth square there would
twenty-two letters of the alef-beit. be 512, in the twenty-first there would be over a million, and in
‫״ותקם בעוד לילה ותתן טרף לביתה״‬ the thirty-first there would be over a billion. ( ‫ת ו ך ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ש‬ ‫) מ ע י נ ה‬

"She rises while it is s t i l l night,


and gives food to her household."
‫״יוםף עליכם ככם אלף פעמים ויברך אתכם כאשר דבר לכם״‬
QUESTION: Night is the time for sleeping and not for "Make y o u so many more as y o u are now a thousand
eating, so what is so special about her providing food at night? times, a n d bless y o u as He promised you."
ANSWER: Night is an allusion to dark and difficult times. QUESTION: Rashi (Devarim 1:11) writes that the Jewish
The word "teref" (‫" — )טרף‬food" — has the numerical value of people complained to Moshe, asking why he had set a limit to his
two hundred and eighty-nine. The Hebrew word for good is blessing. Moshe responded, "The blessing of one-thousand times
"tov" (‫)טוב‬, which has the numerical value of seventeen. The is mine, but may He bless you infinitely as He promised you."
ultimate and highest degree of good is "tov" times "tov" Why did Moshe specify one-thousand times in his blessing?
(17 x 17), which adds up to two hundred and eighty-nine.
ANSWER: The name "Moshe" (‫ )משה‬has the numerical value
King Shlomo is saying in praise of the true aishet chayil — of three-hundred and forty-five, which is also the numerical value
dedicated Jewish mother — that even in times of "lailah" —
of ‫י‬-‫ד‬-‫ל ש‬-‫" — א‬A-mighty G-d." When the letters of these two
when the family is struggling with difficulties and hardships,
words are spelled out in full — ‫ יוד‬,‫ דלת‬,‫ שין‬,‫ למד‬,‫ — אלף‬the
she rises above it and with love and devotion provides "teref" —
numerical value, counting the entire statement as one (known in
the best of everything (according to her abilities) for her family.
(‫)בספך בכוךי אביב כ׳ בשם היהודי מפשיסחא דקאי על הגלות וגם אז עושה לנו הקב״ה טובות‬ Gematria as "im hakollel") is one-thousand.

7 70
•••^•••••iH^ HAVDALAH CONCLUSION OF SHABBAT ^ • • : ^ ‫־‬ ‫שבת‬ ‫ליל‬
¥JftWft¥A¥A¥A¥A¥A¥AVA¥A¥A¥JU¥A¥A¥A¥AWA¥A¥A¥JWA¥A¥A¥AWA¥A¥A¥JW^

‫המלאך‬ M a y the angel w h o has delivered m e from a l l e v i l bless :‫ מ פ ך י כ פ י ה נ ט ע ה בךם‬. ‫ז מ מ ה שדיה ו ת ק ח ה ו‬


the l a d s , a n d m a y m y n a m e a n d the n a m e of m y fathers A b r a h a m
:‫ ו ת א מ ץ זךועתיה‬. ‫ח ג ך ה בעוז מ ת נ י ה‬
and Isaac be called u p o n them, a n d m a y they increase a b u n d a n t l y
l i k e f i s h i n the m i d s t of the earth. Adonai, y o u r G o d , h a s :‫ ל א י כ ב ה ב ל י ל ה נךה‬. ‫ט ע מ ה פי ט ו ב ס ח ך ה‬
m u l t i p l i e d y o u , a n d y o u are today as n u m e r o u s as the stars i n the :‫ ו כ פ י ה תננכו פלך‬.‫ישוך‬:‫ידיה ש ל ח ה בנ‬
sky. M a y Adonai, G o d of y o u r fathers, m a k e y o u so m a n y more as
:‫ וידיה ש ל ח ה לאביון‬.‫ה פ ה פ ך ש ה לעני‬
y o u are n o w a t h o u s a n d times, a n d bless y o u as H e p r o m i s e d y o u .
:‫ בי כ ל בביתה ל ב ש שנים‬. ‫ליא ת י ך א ל ב י ת ה מ ש ל ג‬
:‫ ש ש ו א ך ג מ ן ללבושה‬.‫מ ך ב ד י ם ע ש ת ה ללה‬
Yaakov blessed his children to be capable and willing to
swim upstream and resist the temptation of running with the :‫ ב ש ב ת ו ע ם זקני אךץ‬. ‫נ ו ד ע ב ש ע ך י ם ב ע ל ה‬
herd and swimming with the tide. ( ‫) ה ך ב ד ו ב א ך י ׳ ז׳ ל ב ע ך ז א ן‬ :‫גוך נ ת נ ה לבנעני‬1‫ וח‬.‫ס ד י ן ע ש ת ה ותמביך‬

‫״והנכם היום ככוכבי השמים״‬


:‫ ו ת ש ח ק ליום אחךץ‬.‫עיז ו ה ד ך ללבושה‬
"And y o u are today as the stars i n the s k y " ‫״כפה פרשה לעני וידיה שלחה לאביון״‬
QUESTION: In what ways are the Jewish people like stars? "She holds out her hand to the poor
ANSWER: The stars twinkle in the high heavens. By their and extends her hands to the destitute."
light, even one who walks in the darkness of night will not QUESTION: Why does the phrase start with "kapah" — "her
blunder. Every Jew, man or woman, possesses enough moral hand" in singular, and conclude with "yadeha" — "her hands" — in
plural?
and spiritual light to influence friends and acquaintances and
ANSWER: Giving tzedakah is one of the greatest mitzvot of the
bring them out of the "darkness" into the "light." ( ‫ה ׳ ח ש ו ן‬, ‫י ו ם‬ ‫) ה י ו ם‬
Torah. It is even greater in the case where the giver himself is
struggling to make ends meet. For such giving the reward is much
When one stands on the ground and looks up to the sky, the greater. King Shlomo is alluding to this and says that the aishet
stars appear to be minute specks. In reality the stars are larger chayil — woman of valor — stretches out her hand to the poor even
when she cannot afford it. She would like to give much, but since
than the earth. As we approach them we can begin to appreciate
unfortunately she cannot, she gives only "kapah" — "one hand" —
their size and beauty.
and for this she will merit the blessing that she will ultimately be
The same is true of a Jew. Although, he may superficially able to give with "yadeha" — "two hands" — to the needy.
appear to be insignificant, as one becomes closer and gets to (‫)ך׳ בךוך מךדכי זצ ׳ל מקוידינוב‬
know more about him, one can perceive the great and beautiful ‫״ותשחק ליום אחרון״‬
"pintele Yid" (spark of Judaism) within him. ( ‫) ב ע ש ׳ ט‬
"She looks smilingly toward the very last day."
QUESTION: Which "very last day" is this referring to?
‫״יוםף עליכם ככם אלף פעמים״‬ ANSWER: The "last day" is the day when she will leave this
"Make y o u so many more as you are now world and come before the Heavenly Tribunal. Having lived an
a thousand times." accomplished life of Torah and mitzvot, she will come with
QUESTION: How big did Moshe bless the Jewish people to garments of strength and dignity. Thus, being well prepared, she
become? has no reason to fear the inevitable moment. Cognizant of what
ANSWER: If Moshe had said, "G-d make you so many more our sages say, "He who exerts himself [doing Mitzvot] on Erev
as you are elef pa'am — one thousand times," it would have meant Shabbat (Olam Hazeh — this world) will 'eat,' i.e. receive reward,
that the population of six hundred thousand should be multiplied on Shabbat" (Avodah Zara 3a, Rashi ), she confidently smiles.
by one thousand, making the Jews nation of six hundred million.

k¥iy- •-mv- -•!mi- ••i^Wy•• ‫׳‬ :


< m 69 • •••i^>•• ••?mi•• • -•^w> ^ :
' ‫־‬ 8 ‫ג‬:'^:,• • •• • ‫־‬ ‫י‬ i •••••^'>h
••-H<-••• ^Ji^ ‫־‬;
FRIDAY EVENING " :
- £ > $ ^ « :
^ ‫•־‬% ‫•־‬ ‫שבת‬ ‫ מוצאי‬- ‫הבדלה‬

S h e considers a field a n d b u y s it; from her earnings she plants ‫ ויקךא בהם‬.‫ יבךך א ת הנעךים‬.‫הגיאל אתי מ ב ל ךע‬ ‫המלאך‬
——
a vineyard. T •• IT • • T : ‫־־‬ 1• "‫״‬ ‫יי‬ I ‫יי‬ ‫יי‬ ‫־־‬ ; T 1
S h e girds her l o i n s w i t h strength, a n d flexes her arms. ‫ ייי‬:‫ וידגו לךב בקךב האךץ‬.‫שמי ושם אבתי אבךהם ויצחק‬
S h e realizes that her enterprise is profitable; her l a m p does not ‫ ייי אליהי‬:‫היום בכוכב״ השמים לךב‬: ‫ והנכם‬.‫אליהיכם הךבה אתכם‬
go out at night. ‫ ויבךך א ת כ ם באשך דבך‬.‫יככם בכם אלף פעמים‬7x‫אבותיכם יינזף ז‬ t

S h e puts her h a n d s on the spindle, a n d her p a l m s grasp the :‫לכם‬ ‫י‬

distaff.
‫״וידגו לרב בקרב הארץ״‬
S h e h o l d s out her h a n d to the poor, a n d extends her h a n d s to "May they increase abundantly
the destitute. in the midst of the earth."
S h e does not fear for her h o u s e h o l d i n the frost, for her entire
QUESTION: Rashi (Bereishit 48:16) says that Yaakov blessed
h o u s e h o l d is clothed [ w a r m l y ] i n scarlet.
them to multiply as the fish of the ocean. What was his motive in
S h e m a k e s her o w n tapestries; her garments are of fine l i n e n comparing them to fish?
a n d purple. Once the Roman government issued a decree forbidding
Her h u s b a n d is w e l l - k n o w n at the gates, as he sits w i t h the Torah study. Papus ben Yehudah saw Rabbi Akiva conducting
elders of the l a n d . Torah classes and asked him, "Do you not fear punishment by
S h e m a k e s l i n e n s a n d sells [them]; she provides the merchants law?" Rabbi Akiva answered with a parable: A fox was strolling
w i t h girdles. along the riverbank and noticed fish swimming swiftly from
Strength a n d dignity are her garb; she looks s m i l i n g l y toward place to place. He asked, "Why are you running?" They replied,
the very last day.
"We are afraid of the net that people set up to catch us." The fox
slyly said, "Perhaps it would be wise to ascend to the shore and
live together with me as my parents lived with your parents."
Once some people were at a funeral of a man who had lived The fish responded, "You speak foolishly; if we are afraid i n our
a long life, and one asked the other, "What did he die from?" native habitat, our fear will be even greater on land, where death
The other replied, " I do not know; he was healthy up to his last will be certain." Similarly, Torah is our source of life and may
day, and died suddenly." A third man, who was standing save us. Without it we will definitely perish (Berachot 61b).
nearby and overheard their conversation, interjected, "You are Yaakov was instructing his children to always remember
incorrect. Only the one who did not accumulate Torah and that just as a fish cannot live without water, so a Jew cannot exist
mitzvot dies suddenly, since he does not expect this day and without Torah; and he blessed them to "swim like a fish" i n the
comes before his Maker unprepared. However, the one who "Yam Hatalmud" — the ocean of Torah study.
readies himself throughout all his years for this day anticipates it (‫ ך׳ שאול בךאך ז״ל אב״ד קאשוי‬- ‫)בהיות הבקך‬
and does not die suddenly, but fully prepared."

‫״שקר החן והבל היופי״‬ Alternatively, the life of a fish depends in a large measure on
"Grace is false and beauty is v a i n . " its vitality and ability to swim upstream. If it permits itself to be
QUESTION: Physical grace is not an attribute worthy of swept along by the current it will be in danger. It is only because
serious praise, and it has no great value, but why is it "false"? the Creator has endowed the fish with the precious instinct of
Why does it say "hachein" — "the grace"? "Chein" — "grace" — self-preservation, whereby it is able to swim upstream against
would be sufficient. the forces of the billowing waves, that it can survive.

9 68
AYA‫־‬T\AYA‫־‬TW*A‫־‬T\AYA^^^

• ^ y • • ^ - , HAVDALAH CONCLUSION OF SHABBAT ^ * • • ^ W ‫־‬ :


•••>mi • :
‫• <&&••׳‬ ‫שבת‬ ‫ליל‬ •^‫־‬-

A f t e r Havdalah, t h e f o l l o w i n g is s a i d :
‫ ו י ת ן‬M a y G o d give you of the dew of the heavens, of the fatness of
: ‫ ו ת ו ך ת ח ס ד ע ל ל ש ו נ ה‬. ‫ פ ת ח ה ב ח כ מ ה‬:‫?פיה‬
the earth and an abundance of grain and wine. Peoples shall serve : ‫ ו ל ח ם ע צ ל ו ת ליא ת א כ ל‬. ‫צ ו פ י ה ה ל י כ ו ת ב י ת ה‬
you and nations bow d o w n to you; be master over your brothers, and
:‫ ב ע ל ה ויהללה‬.‫ק מ ו בניה ויאשךוה‬
your mother's sons shall bow d o w n to you. Those w h o curse you ‫•י‬ : ‫־‬ : ‫־‬ ‫י‬ ‫־‬ : - T : ‫־‬ : ‫־‬ T •.• ‫י‬ IT
shall be cursed, and those who bless you, blessed. A n d may the
: ‫ ו א ת ע ל י ת ע ל ב ל נ ה‬.‫ך ב ו ת ב נ ו ת ע ש ו חיל‬
Almighty, the Omnipotent, bless you and make y o u fruitful and
numerous, so that you may become an assembly of peoples. May He : ‫ א ש ה יךאאת י ה ו ה ההיא ת ת ה ל ל‬.‫ש ק ך ה ח ן ו ה ב ל היפי‬
bestow upon you the blessing of Abraham, upon you and upon your
: ‫דתנו ללה מ פ ך י ?דיה• ו י ה ל ל ו ה ב ש ע ך י ם מ ע ש י ה‬
progeny w i t h you, that you may inherit the land where you dwell,
w h i c h G o d had given to Abraham. It is from the Almighty of your ‫ס ד ך קידוש ל ל י ל ש ב ת‬
‫ על כף הימנית כשהיא כפופה קצת‬,‫ מעמידין דרך הורדה מלמעלה למטה‬,‫ מוסרו לשמאלו‬,‫ לוקח בימינו‬,‫מוזגין הכוס‬
father w h o w i l l help you, from the Omnipotent One w h o w i l l bless
‫ והכוס מוגבה למעלה משלשה טפחים‬,‫ ומקדש מעומד‬,‫ די אצבעותיו מוגבהות והגודל מושכב מן הצד‬,‫כעין בית קבול‬
you w i t h blessings of heavens above, w i t h blessings of the deep that .(‫מעל גבי השלחן )ספר המנהגים‬
couches below, w i t h blessings of breast and womb. The blessings
[bestowed by God] upon your father have surpassed the blessings
‫ על‬.‫ בנאות דשא יךביצני‬:‫ יהוה ךעי ליא אחסך‬. ‫ל ח ד‬ ‫מזמיך‬
[bestowed upon] my parents to the utmost bounds of the eternal hills :‫ ינחני במעגלי צדק למען שמו‬.‫ נפשי ישובב‬:‫מי מנוחות ינהלני‬
— may they be upon the head of Joseph, upon the head of h i m w h o ‫ שבטך‬.‫ בבי א ת ה עמדי‬.‫גם בבי א ל ך בגיא צ ל מ ו ת ליא איךא ךע‬
was separated from his brothers. He w i l l love you and bless y o u and ‫ דשנת בשמן‬.‫ תעךך לפני שלחן נגד צךךי‬:‫ומשענתך ה מ ה ינחמני‬
multiply you; He w i l l bless the fruit of your w o m b and the fruit of
‫ ושבתי בבית‬.‫ אך טוב וחסד יךדפוני בל ימי חיי‬:‫ךאשי סוסי ךויה‬
your land, your grain, your w i n e and your oil, the offspring of your
cattle and the flocks of your sheep on the land w h i c h He swore to :‫יהוה ל א ך ך ימנים‬
your ancestors to give to you. Y o u shall be blessed more than all the :‫דא היא ס ע ד ת א דחקל תפוחין קדישין‬
nations; there shall be no barren male or female among you or among
your cattle. Adonai w i l l remove from you all illness; none of the ‫אתקינו סעודתא דמהימנותא ש ל מ ת א חדותא דמלבבא‬
severe maladies of Egypt w h i c h you k n e w w i l l He bring upon you, ‫ין‬r‫ דיא ההיא ס ע ד ת א דחקל ךנפוך‬, ‫ ךארזקןינו ס ע ד ת א ד מ ל ב א‬,‫קדישא‬
rather He w i l l inflict them u p o n all your enemies. :‫ ו^^ך אנפין ועתיקא קדישא ךאזרין ל ס ע ד א בהדה‬,‫קדישין‬
ANSWER: The name "Elokim" denotes "din" — Hashem i n ANSWER: Three mitzvot were given particularly to women:
His attribute of justice and severity. According to Kabbalists, Hadlakat Haneir — kindling the Shabbat candles, Niddah — the law
however, when a "hei" is added as a prefix the name represents of menstruation, Challah — separating a portion of the kneaded
"rachamim" — "mercy." dough.
This verse is from the blessings that Yitzchak gave to Yaakov
Had Chavah not caused Adam to sin by eating of the
(Bereishit 27:28). Yitzchak's intent was that even if, G-d forbid,
forbidden tree, he and everyone would have lived forever. Hence,
Yaakov was destined to experience Hashem's attribute of din, it
for extinguishing the candle (neshamah) of the world, she engages in
should be converted and turned into mercy.
the lighting of candles. For causing the shedding of his blood, she
Standing on the threshold of the new week, we recite
was assigned to observe the laws of menstruation. Adam was
passages of blessing and salvation to beseech Hashem that the
made of a portion of the earth, and is thus analogous to the challah,
coming week be blessed with success in abundant measure. By
which is a separated portion of the kneaded dough. For causing his
starting with this verse we allude that even if, G-d forbid,
eventual loss from the world, she is the one assigned the mitzvah of
something unpleasant was destined, His attribute of mercy
separating challah from the kneaded dough {Shabbat 32a, Rashi).
should prevail and transform everything to our benefit and give
us, "Of the dew of the heavens, and of the fatness of the earth." The acronym for these three mitzvot ‫ נדה‬,‫ חלה‬,‫ ה ד ל ק ת הנר‬spell
(‫ מיוסד על ספך התמונה המיוחס לך׳ ישמעאל כ״ג ולך׳ נחוניא בן הקנה‬,‫)ענף יוסף‬ the word "hachein" — "the grace" — (‫)החן‬.
:
•••g$% ‫ ^ ־ ׳‬% - • FRIDAY EVENING • ‫ ^ > • ־‬- •#$3<•‫•־‬

:‫אחר הבדלה אומרים ויתן לך‬


She opens h e r m o u t h w i t h w i s d o m , a n d the teaching of
k i n d n e s s i s o n her tongue. ‫ וךב דגן‬.‫ויתן ?לך האליהים מ ט ל השמים ומשמני האךץ‬
S h e watches the conduct of her h o u s e h o l d , a n d does n o t eat ‫יעבדוך עמים וישתחוו ל ך לאמים ה ו ה גביך לאחיך‬ :‫ותיךש‬
the bread of idleness.
‫ ואל שדי יבךך‬:‫ אךךיך אךוך ומבךכיך בךוך‬.‫וישתחוו ל ך בבני אמך‬
Her c h i l d r e n rise a n d acclaim her, h e r h u s b a n d — a n d he
praises her:
‫ ויתן ל ך א ת בךבת אבךהם‬:‫ והיית ל ק ה ל עמים‬.‫א ת ך ויפךך ויךבך‬
M a n y daughters have done worthily, but y o u surpass t h e m a l l . ‫ לךשתך א ת אךץ מגךיך א ש ך נתן אליהים‬. ‫ל ך ולזךעך א ת ך‬
G r a c e i s false a n d beauty i s v a i n ; a w o m a n w h o fears Adonai, ‫ מ א ל אביך ויעזךך ואת שוודי ויבךכך ב ך כ ת שמים מ ע ל‬:‫לךאבךהם‬
- ,
T " ‫־ ״‬ T 11,‫ ; ־ י‬T
,
‫־‬ ‫־‬ ™•."II ! ‫"י‬ ' " ‫״‬ . . . . ‫•ך •ך‬ -
is the one to be praised.
G i v e her praise for her accomplishments, a n d let her deeds ‫ ב ך כ ת וא^יך־ גבבךו על‬:‫ ב ך כ ת שדים וךחם‬.‫ב ך כ ת תהום ךבצת תחת‬
l a u d her at the gates. ‫ תהייןו לךאש יובסף וע'ו^ד*ק'ד ^זיך‬.‫ב ך כ ת הוךי עד ת א ו ת גבעת עולם‬
‫ ובךך פךי בטנך ופךי א ד מ ת ך ך־^ינוך‬.‫ ודאדד^ך• ובךכך וידדך־בןך‬:‫אחיו‬
Kiddush for Friday E v e n i n g
‫ותיךשך ויצהךך שגך אלפיך ועשתךת צאנך על ה א ד מ ה דאשך‬
-

The Kiddush is recited w h i l e standing. The cup is lifted w i t h the r i g h t hand, transferred t o the ‫־‬: T T ‫־‬: T ‫־־‬ ‫״ י ד‬.‫״‬ I I ! ‫יד‬ ‫״‬.‫ ״‬T ‫ ־‬: ‫־‬ T I ‫״‬.‫״‬ ‫•ד‬ TI

left hand, and then l o w e r e d into the p a l m of the right hand. The right hand should be slightly ‫ ל א יהייה בך‬.‫ בךוך תהייה מ ב ל העמים‬:‫נשבע ל א ב ת י ך ל ת ת לך‬
cupped to simulate a vessel, w i t h the four fingers raised, and the t h u m b held to the side.
Preferably, the cup should be held at least three handbreadths (approximately 10 inches) above ‫ והסיך ייי מ מ ך בבל חללי וככל מדוי מצךים‬:‫^דנ)ו^ך־‬:‫ב‬:‫עקך ועקךה וב‬
the table. (Sefer HaMinhagim) • ‫־‬ : •• : ‫־־‬ T: • T TI : T : ‫יד‬ I" ‫״ ״‬

‫מזמור‬ A Psalm b y David. Adonai is m y shepherd; I shall lack :‫הךעים אשך ידעת ל א ישימם בך ונתנם בבככל שנאיך‬ -
1‫י‬ T T T : :1 T T T : ‫־‬ T "." I " T T

n o t h i n g . H e m a k e s m e l i e d o w n i n green pastures; H e leads m e


to Come. One of them is one who recites Havdalah over a cup of
beside still waters. H e revives m y soul; H e directs m e i n the paths
of righteousness for the sake of H i s N a m e . E v e n i f I w a l k i n the
wine at the end of Shabbat. The Gemara explains that this means
v a l l e y of the s h a d o w of death, I w i l l fear no e v i l , for Y o u are w i t h
that he leaves over wine [in his cup] from Kiddush for Havdalah.
me; Y o u r rod a n d Y o u r staff — they w i l l comfort m e . Y o u w i l l (See Shulchan Aruch Harav 271:22.)
prepare a table for m e before m y enemies; Y o u h a v e anointed m y Why is this rewarded so greatly?
h e a d w i t h oil; m y cup i s f u l l . O n l y goodness a n d k i n d n e s s s h a l l ANSWER: In addition to the literal meaning, this can be
p u r s u e m e a l l the days of m y life, a n d I s h a l l d w e l l i n the H o u s e explained as an allegory. Kiddush introduces the holiness of
of Adonai for m a n y l o n g years. Shabbat, when one leaves his daily mundane activities and
ascends into a day of spiritual exaltation. Havdalah, on the other
‫ ד א‬T h i s is the meal of the holy Chakal Tapuchin.*
hand, brings one back to mundane, day-to-day life. Thus,
‫אתקינו‬ Prepare the m e a l of perfect faith, w h i c h is the delight of
Kiddush is a synonym for moments of spiritual elevation and
the h o l y K i n g ; prepare the m e a l of the K i n g . T h i s i s the m e a l of
Havdalah for ordinary day-to-day activities. Hence, the sages are
the h o l y Chakal Tapuchin, and Z'eir Anpin a n d the h o l y A n c i e n t
telling us that one who brings some of the spirit of holiness into
O n e come to j o i n her i n the m e a l .
* (ed.: K a b b a l i s t i c t e r m f o r a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f G o d ' s p r e s e n c e ) .
his daily mundane activities w i l l live so as to earn Olam Haba —
the World to Come.
(‫ בךאשית‬- ‫)הדךש והעיון‬
King Shlomo, the wisest of all men, is saying that "sheker
hachein" — if a woman falsifies and does not meticulously ob¬ ‫״ויתן לך האלקים״‬
serve her three mitzvot, which are alluded to by the word "May G - d give you."
"hachein," then "hevel hayofi" — regardless how beautiful she QUESTION: Why does the prayer recited after Havdalah start
may be physically, her beauty is vain and of no value or signifi¬ with this verse, and why does it say, "ha'Elokim" — "the G-d"
cance. The truly beautiful woman is the one who fears Hashem. and not just "Elokim" — "G-d"?
AVAWWAWWVAVAVAVAVAVAVAWAVAWWAWVA^VASWVAV^AVUfcVAVAV^

11 66
• ^ y • • ^ - , HAVDALAH CONCLUSION OF SHABBAT ^ * • • ^ W ‫־‬ •••>mi • :
‫ליל שבת‬ •^m,••
Havdalah
[The wine cup is taken in the right hand and is held until after the berachah ‫( בורא פ ו י הגפן‬...Who created ‫ ויכל אליהים‬: ‫ וייכלו ה ש מ י ם ו ה א ך ץ ו כ ל ־ צ ב א ם‬:‫י ו ם הששי‬
the fruits of the vine.)] Then the cup is transferred to the left hand and the box w i t h aromatic spices is
held in the right for the berachah ‫( בורא מיני ב ש מ י ם‬... Who created various kinds of spices). [The spice - ‫ ו י ש ב ת ביום השביעי מ ב ל‬, ‫ מ ל א כ ת ו א ש ך ע ש ה‬,‫ב מ ם השביעי‬
box is set aside,] the wine cup is returned to the right hand for the berachah ‫( בורא מאורי ה א ש‬... Who
created the lights of fire), and then [is transferred to the left hand and] the fingernails [of the right ‫ ויקדש‬,‫ ויבךך אליהים א ת ־ י ו ם השביעי‬:‫מ ל א כ ת ו א ש ך עשה‬
hand] are looked at in the light of the candles, Then the wine cup is returned to the right hand for the
berachah ‫( ה מ ב ד י ל‬... Who made a distinction).
:‫ א ש ך ־ ב ך א אליהים לעשות‬, ‫ בי בו ש ב ת מ ב ל ־ מ ל א כ ת ו‬, ‫א ת ו‬
‫ ה נ ה‬Indeed, the Almighty is my deliverance; I am confident and
shall not fear, for my strength and song is, G o d , Adonai and He has :‫סבךי מךנן‬
been a help to me. Y o u shall draw water w i t h j o y from the :‫ב ך ו ך אתה יהוה אליהינו מלך העולם בוךא פךי הגפן‬ ‫ע ל היין‬
wellsprings of deliverance. Deliverance is Adonai's; may Your
blessing be upon Your people forever. Adonai of hosts is w i t h us, the :‫סבךי מךנן‬
G o d of Jacob is our everlasting stronghold. Adonai of hosts, happy is ‫ המוציא ל ח ם מן‬.‫ע ל ה פ ת ב ת ך א ת ה יהוה אליהינו מ ל ך העולם‬
the m a n w h o trusts i n You. Adonai help us; may the K i n g answer us : ‫ץ‬ ‫ך‬ ‫א‬ ‫ה‬

on the day w e call. For the Jews there was light and joy, gladness and
honor — so let it be w i t h us. I raise the cup of deliverance and invoke ‫קדשנו‬ ‫ א ש ך‬,‫העולם‬ ‫אלהינו מ ל ך‬ ‫יהוה‬ ‫בךוך אתה‬
the Name of Adonai.
Over the w i n e :
‫ זבךון‬, ‫ ו ש ב ת קד־שו ב א ה ב ה ו^ךצון ה נ ח י ל נ ו‬,‫במצותיו וךצה בנו‬
‫ ס ב ר י‬Attention, Gentlemen! ‫ בי‬.‫ זכך ל י צ י א ת מצךים‬,‫ ת ח ל ה ל מ ק ך א י קדש‬, ‫ל מ ע ש ה ב ך א ש י ת‬
Blessed are You, Adonai, our G o d , K i n g of the universe, Who
‫ברוך‬
created the fruit of the vine. ‫ ו ש ב ת ק ד ש ך ב א ה ב ה‬, ‫ ו א ו ת נ ו ק ד ש ת כנבל ה ע מ י ם‬, ‫בנו ב ח ך ת‬
— — —
: T1‫־‬T|‫־‬ ‫־‬ I : : • — T
Over the fragrant spices:
‫ ב ר ו ך‬Blessed are You, Adonai, our G o d , K i n g of the universe, Who
: ‫ מ ק ד ש ה ש ב ת‬.‫ בךוך א ת ה יהוה‬. ‫ו^ךצון ה נ ח ל ת נ ו‬
created various kinds of spices.
After the f o l l o w i n g berachah one s h o u l d fold his fingers over his t h u m b —
‫ ויכלו השמים״‬.‫״יום הששי‬
the t h u m b is not to be seen — and look at the four fingernails. "The s i x t h day. A n d the heavens were completed."
‫ ב ר ו ך‬Blessed are You, Adonai, our G o d , K i n g of the universe, Who QUESTION: Why does Kiddush start with the words "Yom
created the lights of fire. hashishi" — "the sixth day" — which are the two final words of
‫ ב ר ו ך‬Blessed. are You, Adonai, our G o d , K i n g of the universe, Who
the pasuk (Bereishit, 1:31) that precedes "Vayechulu hashamayim"
made a distinction between sacred and profane, between light and
darkness, between Israel and the nations, between the Seventh D a y
— "And the heavens were completed"?
and the six w o r k days. Blessed are Y o u , Adonai, Who made a ANSWER: With the words "Yom hashishi" added before
distinction between sacred and profane. "Vayechulu hashamayim," the first letters of these four words spell
For the C o n c l u d i n g Blessing over w i n e , etc., see p. 53. the holy four lettered name of Hashem, the Tetragrammaton, ‫)יום‬
Some also have a custom afterwards to open the hand and look (‫הששי ויכלו השמים‬. Also, together with these two words there are a
at the back of the nails (Shulchan Aruch Harav 298:6). total of seventy-two words in the Kiddush.
The reason for first closing the hand and then opening it is to The connection of the number seventy-two with the
say that till now the hands were, so to say, tied and unable to do Tetragammaton is that according to a certain way of writing out
any work due to Shabbat restrictions. Now that it is after Shabbat, the the four letters of His Name, the numerical value is seventy-two
hands are "released" and it is permitted for them to do work. (‫ הי‬,‫ ויו‬, ‫ ה י‬,‫)יוד‬. In Kabbalah this is known as the "shem ayin beit,"
(‫)שו״ת הך״ם מךוטענבוךג ועי׳ ךשימות כ״ק אדמו״ך חובךת קפ״א‬
and with this composition of the Tetragrammaton, Hashem
‫״המבדיל בין קדש לחול״‬ created the world.
"Who made a distinction between sacred and profane." Out of respect to His Name, even those whose custom is to
QUESTION: In the Gemara (Pesachim 113a) Rabbi Yochanan says recite Kiddush sitting down, stand while reciting the first four
that there are three who are among those who will inherit the World w o r d s .
(‫ מטה משה סי׳ תל״ו‬,‫ מג״א סקכ״ב‬,‫)ךמ״א סי׳ ךע״א סעי׳ י׳‬
:
•••g$% ‫ ^ ־ ׳‬% - • FRIDAY EVENING • ‫ ^ > • ־‬- •#$3<•‫•־‬

‫ י ו ם‬T h e s i x t h d a y . A n d the h e a v e n s a n d the earth a n d a l l ‫סדך הבדלה‬


their hosts w e r e completed. A n d on the seventh day God ‫בשעת ברכת בורא מיני בשמים צריך לאחוז הכוס בשמאלו והבשמים בימינו ובשעת ברכת בורא‬
c o m p l e t e d the w o r k w h i c h H e h a d m a d e , a n d H e r e s t e d o n the :‫ ויחזור ויאחז הכוס בימינו בברכת הבדלה‬.‫ ואח״כ יביט בצפרנים‬.‫מאורי האש צריך לאחוז הכוס בימינו‬

seventh day from all H i s w o r k w h i c h H e had made. A n d G o d ‫ ויהי‬,‫ בבי עזי וזמךת יה ייי‬,‫ ו ל א אפחד‬,‫הנה א ל ישועתי אבטח‬
b l e s s e d the s e v e n t h d a y a n d m a d e it h o l y , for o n it G o d rested ,‫ ליי הישועה‬.‫ ממעיני הישועה‬,‫ ושאבתם נמים בששון‬.‫ללי לישועה‬
f r o m a l l H i s w o r k , w h i c h G o d created to m a k e . .‫ ייי צ באות עמנו משגב לנו אליהי יעקב וסלה‬.‫על עמך בךכתך הזלה‬
O n wine:
‫ ה מ ל ך יעננו בביום‬,‫ ייי הושיעה‬:‫ייי צבאות אשךי אדם בטח בך‬
‫סברי‬ Attention, gentlemen: ‫ברוך‬ B l e s s e d are Y o u , Adonai, our G o d ,
K i n g of the u n i v e r s e , W h o created the f r u i t of the v i n e .
.‫ בן תהיה לנו‬.‫ וששון ויקך‬.‫ ליהודים הייתה אוךה ושמחה‬:‫קךאנו‬
O n bread: :‫ ובשם ייי אקךא‬,‫אשא‬: ‫בוס ישועות‬
‫סברי‬ Attention, gentlemen: ‫ברוך‬ B l e s s e d are Y o u , Adonai, our G o d , :‫סבךי מךנן‬
K i n g of the u n i v e r s e , W h o b r o u g h t f o r t h b r e a d f r o m the earth.
:‫ בוךא פךי הגפן‬.‫א ת ה ייי אליהינו מלך העולם‬ ‫ע ל היין בךוך‬
‫ברוך‬ Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, King of the
:‫ בורא מניני בשמים‬,‫א ת ה ייי אליהינו מ ל ך העולם‬ ‫ע ל הבשמים בךוך‬
universe, W h o has sanctified us w i t h H i s commandments, has T : T/ •1 :•• •

:‫ ולא יראה האגודל‬,‫בברכת בורא מאורי האש יביט בדי צפרניו והמה יהיו כפוים ע ל האגודל‬
desired us, and has g i v e n us, i n love and goodwill, H i s holy
Shabbat as a h e r i t a g e , i n r e m e m b r a n c e of the w o r k of creation;
:‫ בורא ננאורי הנאש‬.‫א ת ה ייי אליהינו מ ל ך העולם‬
•• T ‫״‬ T
‫ע ל הנר בךוך‬
:T T :1 • /

the first of the h o l y F e s t i v a l s , c o m m e m o r a t i n g the E x o d u s f r o m ,‫ המבדיל בין קדש לחול‬,‫יי אלהינו מלך העולם‬ ‫בךוך א ת ה‬
Egypt. For Y o u have chosen us and sanctified us from a m o n g ‫ בבין יום השביעי לששת ינני‬,‫ בבין ישךאל לעמים‬,‫בבין אוך לחשך‬
a l l the n a t i o n s , a n d w i t h l o v e a n d g o o d w i l l g i v e n u s Y o u r h o l y :
‫ י‬:‫ המבדיל נבין קודש לחול‬,‫ בךוך א ת ה יי‬.‫המעשה‬
Shabbat as a heritage. B l e s s e d are y o u Adonai, W h o sanctified :52 ‫ עמוד‬,‫ברכה מעין שלש‬
the Shabbat. ‫״בורא מאורי האש״‬
Incidentally, the word "vayechulu" (‫" — )ויכלו‬were "Who created the lights of fire"
completed" — has the numerical value of seventy-two, alluding QUESTION: What is the reason for looking at the fingernails?
that heavens, earth, and everything in it were completed ANSWER: When Hashem created Adam, his whole body was
covered with protecting nails. After he committed the sin of eating
through the combination of the Name which totals seventy-two.
from the Tree of Knowledge, the nail covering was removed from
(‫ג( ״חסד״ בגימטךיא ע״ב‬:‫ עולם חסד יבנה )תהלים פ״ט‬,‫ וךמז לדבך‬,‫)סידוך הגאונים והמקובלים ח״ה‬
his body and remained only on the fingertips.
‫מקדש השבת״‬...‫אשר קדשנו‬...‫ ברוך‬.‫לעשות‬...‫״יום הששי‬ Adam actually sinned on Friday, but in honor of the holy
"The s i x t h day...to make. Blessed...Who has Shabbat he was not punished till after Shabbat. From Friday morning
sanctified us...Who sanctified the Shabbat." till Motza'ei Shabbat there was light. When it suddenly became dark,
QUESTION: According to the Zohar (Shemot 207b) there are Adam took two stones, struck them together, brought forth fire, and
thirty-five words in the first part of Kiddush (from "vayechulu" recited the blessing borei me'orei ha'eish. He then saw that he
till "la'asot") and another thirty-five words i n the berachah of remained with nails only on his fingertips. As a remembrance of
Kiddush. How can our version of the berachah, which has forty- this, during Havdalah, which marks the end of Shabbat and the start
two words, be reconciled with the statement in the Zohar? of the weekdays, we look at our fingernails.
,‫ה‬:‫ פךי מגדים בא״א סי׳ ךצ״ח‬,‫סי׳ קפ״ט‬-‫עךך שבת‬-‫ ספך המטעמים‬,‫)עי׳ פךקי דך״א פי״ד‬
ANSWER: Some suggest omitting the seven words of, "Ki (‫א‬:‫ וצ״ע שלא כ ת ב כ״ז נמי בהל׳ שבת סי׳ שצ״ו‬,‫ה‬:‫ושו״ע אדמוה״ז תקכ״ב‬
vanu vacharta ve'otanu kidashta mikal ha'amim" — "For You have
chosen us and sanctified us from among all the nations" (Orach Since Adam's sinning and the subsequent punishment of
remaining with nails only on the fingertips was caused by the
Chaim 271:10, Magen Avraham). Obviously, since Rabbi Shneur
woman, it is the custom of many women not to look at the
Zalman of Liadi inserted them in the Kiddush, he does not favor
fingernails when they recite the berachah of borei me'orei ha'eish.
this approach. (‫)קצות השלחן סי׳ צ״ו בבדי השלחן י״ב‬
A V A V A ¥ A W1 V A Y A Y A Y A Y A V AVA1V1YA V A V A Y A V A V A V A V A Y A ' t A V A ' T V . V A V A V A V A Y A V A Y A ¥ A Y A V A V A Y A ¥ A Y A YA V

‫׳ ^־־‬ :
^K^, R E D E M P T I O N OF FIRSTBORN S O N ^ :
- • 0^‫־־‬ ‫ל י ל שבת‬

T h e L a w s C o n c e r n i n g the R e d e m p t i o n o f a F i r s t b o r n S o n :‫מ ב ר ך ת י כ ף ב ר כ ה זו‬ ‫בסוכה‬ ‫חול המועד סוכות כשמקדש‬ ‫בשבת‬

It is a positive mitzvah for each Israelite to redeem his son w h o is firstborn to his Israelite mother :‫ אשך קדשנו במצותיו רצונו לישב בסבה‬,‫ב ח ך אתה יהוה אליהינו מלך והעולם‬
after the thirtieth day from his birth, i.e., on the thirty-first day, w i t h five sela'im. If he redeemed
h i m before, he is not redeemed; i f after, he has transgressed a positive mitzvah. Five sela'im is
equivalent to the w e i g h t of eight lot of pure silver i n the royal w e i g h t of our country [102 grams of
The opening seven words of the berachah, "Baruch atah Hashem
pure silver]. This amount may be given to the Kohen i n silver or the equivalent thereof i n anything Elokeinu melech ha'olam asher" are a general introduction to many
except land, servants or a note [ o f a debt o w e d to the father]. If he redeemed w i t h any of these, he
is not redeemed.
berachot. I n the berachah of Kiddush we are accentuating the
O R D E R OF THE R E D E M P T I O N sanctity of the Jews and the glory of Shabbat. Thus, the
T h e f a t h e r b r i n g s t h e f i r s t b o r n b e f o r e t h e Kohen, a n d f i v e sela'im o f silver o r its thematically unique part of the berachah begins with the words,
e q u i v a l e n t , a n d i n f o r m s h i m t h a t t h e c h i l d is a f i r s t b o r n , t h e f i r s t issue o f t h e w o m b o f "kideshanu bemitzvotov" — "sanctified us with His
h i s I s r a e l i t e m o t h e r , a n d says t o h i m :
commandments." Counting from the word "kideshanu" till the
‫אשתי‬ M y Israelite wife has borne me this firstborn son. The Kohen
conclusion of the beracha "mekadeish haShabbat" there are a total of
asks him: W h i c h w o u l d you rather have — your firstborn son or the five
sela'im w h i c h you are obligated to give me for the redemption of this
thirty-five words.
your firstborn son. The father replies: I want this my firstborn son, and
(‫ ועי׳ ךשימות כ״ק אדמו״ך חובךת צ״ ו סעי׳ ד׳‬.‫ ובהשמטות‬,‫ד׳‬:‫)שעך הכולל פי״ח‬
here y o u have five sela'im w h i c h is required of me for the
Redemption. ‫״ויברך אלקים את יום השביעי״‬
A s t h e f a t h e r g i v e s t h e Kohen t h e r e d e m p t i o n - m o n e y , t h e f a t h e r says:
"And G - d blessed the seventh day."
‫ברוך‬ Blessed are You, Adonai, our G o d , K i n g of the universe, Who
QUESTION: What special blessing did Shabbat receive?
has sanctified us w i t h H i s commandments, and commanded us
ANSWER: Shabbat is a day when it is forbidden to work, yet
concerning the Redemption of a son.
one spends more money for Shabbat than for any other day of the
‫ברוך‬ Blessed are You, Adonai, our G o d , K i n g of the universe, Who week. A person may think that celebrating Shabbat properly w i l l
has granted us life, sustained us and enabled us to reach this occasion.
run him into poverty. Hashem, however, has given a special
Some observe the custom of preparing a meal i n honor of the redemption of the firstborn. I f there
is w i n e , the Redemption ceremony is performed d u r i n g the meal after the berachah over bread. The
blessing to the Shabbat day: the more one spends for the sake of
Kohen recites a berachah over w i n e immediately after the Redemption. If there is no w i n e , the Shabbat, the more he w i l l earn during the week.
Redemption is performed before the meal, and the Kohen recites a berachah over another beverage.
This meal is considered a Seudat Mitzvah.
The Gemara (Beitza 16a) says that the money a person w i l l
have for his expenses throughout the entire year is allotted on
Rosh Hashanah. Exempted from this are his expenses for Shabbat
they sat down to eat and then noticed a caravan of Ishmaelites
and Yom Tov. If a person spends freely for Shabbat and Yom Tov,
enroute to Egypt. Yehudah advised selling him, they agreed, and
Hashem w i l l provide him with additional sources of income to
Yosef was sold for twenty pieces of silver (Bereishit 37:13-28).
cover his expenditures. ( ‫ל‬ )
On the tenth of Nissan, prior to the Jews' departure from ‫ו ם‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ב ך י ת‬

Egypt, Hashem instructed the Jews to prepare a lamb to be Another blessing that Shabbat possesses is "tasty dishes." The
slaughtered on the afternoon of the fourteenth and eaten at Gemara (Shabbat 119a) relates that Caesar once asked Rabbi
Yehoshua ben Chananya, "Why is it that the food cooked for
night. Hashem also told the Jews, " I shall go through Egypt on
Shabbat has such a penetrating aroma?" Rabbi Yehoshua told
this night, and I shall strike every firstborn i n the land of Egypt"
him, "We have one spice which is called Shabbat; we throw it
(Shemot 12:3-12).
into the food and it creates a penetrating aroma." When Caesar
Since the redeeming of the firstborn is connected with two asked for some of it, Rabbi Yehoshua said to him, "Whoever
events which took place while the Jews were in the midst of a observes the Shabbat — for him the spice is effective, but it is not
meal, the pidyon haben is customarily held after the assembled sit effective for one who does not observe the Shabbat."
d o w n t ot h e m e a l .
( ‫ מך׳ פינחס זלמן הכהן ע״ה שוואך‬,‫)לקוטי פינחס סי׳ ש״ה אות נ״ג‬
‫ץ‬ (‫ד‬:‫)עי׳ מד״ך בךאשית י״א‬
FRIDAY EVENING ‫הבן‬ ‫פדיון‬
V.Vi'A* AV.^V.Vi.'.V.^V'.'.V.Vr.'.V.'.V.*.

T h e f o l l o w i n g berachah is a d d e d o n Shabbat Chol HaMo'eid Succot ‫דיני פדיון הבן‬


i m m e d i a t e l y after m a k i n g Kiddush i n the Succah.
‫ברוך‬Blessed are You, Adonai, our G o d , K i n g of the universe, Who has ‫מצות עשה לפדות כ ל איש ישראל את בנו שהוא בכור לאמו הישראלית מיום שלשים ולמעלה דהיינו‬

sanctified us w i t h His commandments, and commanded us to dwell i n ‫ וחמש סלעים הם משקל‬.‫ביום ליא בחמשה סלעים ואם פדאו קודם אינו פדוי מכאן ואילך עובר בעשה‬
‫שמונה לוט כסף נקי )שקורין פייין זילביר( במשקל הקיסר דמדינתנו ואלו חמשה סלעים נותן לכהן‬
the Succah. :‫בכסף או בשוה כסף מ כ ל דבר שירצה חוץ מקרקעות ושטרות ואם פדה בהם אינו פדוי‬

‫״ויברך אלקים את יום השביעי ויקדש אותו״‬ ‫והא לך סדר פדיון הבן‬
"And G - d blessed the seventh day and made it holy." ‫האב מייתי ליה לבכור קמיי כהן ומייתי כסף חמשה סלעים‬

QUESTION: According to the Midrash Rabbah (Bereishit 11:2) :‫ומודיע לכהן שהוא בכור פטר רחם לאמו הישראלית ואומר לו‬

He blessed the seventh day with the manna. Of what relevance :‫אשתי הישךאלית ילדה ללי בן זה הבכוך‬
‫הכהן שואל אותו ואומר‬
is this blessing in contemporary times, when there is no manna? ‫במאי בעית טפי בבנך בכוךך או בחמש סלעים דמחיבת לתן ללי‬
ANSWER: According to the Gemara (Yoma 75b) the manna
‫ האב אומר בעינא בבני בכוךי זה והילך חמשה‬:‫בפדיון בנך בכוךך זה‬
was a very refined food and it contained absolutely no waste
material. It was absorbed totally in the person, and there was no :‫סלעים בפדיון דמחיבנא גביה‬
:‫וכשנותן האב לכהן הפדיון מברך האב‬
need to defecate. Thus, the Jews were physically elevated and
refined through the manna. .‫ דאשך קדשנו במצותיו‬.‫ךאתה יהו ה אליהינו מלך העולם‬
T T J 1• ‫ ־‬: T ‫יי‬ V •1 ‫יי‬ I ‫יי‬ -
‫בךוך‬
I• T

It is stated in the Jerusalem Talmud (Demai 4:1) that the :‫וצונו על פפד־יון הבן‬
holiness of Shabbat permeates the person to the extent that out of
fear of Shabbat even a wicked person will not say a lie. Hence, the ‫ שהחינו וקימנו ודדגיענו‬.‫ךאתה ידוה אליהינו מלך העולם‬
1• : T:T • • : T ‫״‬.‫״ !״‬.‫״‬ ‫״‬.‫״‬ ‫יי‬ ‫יי‬ 1 •
‫בךוך‬
V I T
I T -
!1

Shabbat has manna quality in it and it too elevates and refines :‫לזמן הזה‬
‫יש שנהגו לעשות סעודה ואם יש שם יין עושה הפדיון בתוך הסעודה אחר המוציא ומברך הכהן ע ל‬
physical man in this mundane world. Even in contemporary times ‫היין מיד אחר הפדיון ואם אין שם יין עושה הפדיון ש ל א בתוך הסעודה ואז מברך הכהן ע ל שאר‬
the seventh day — Shabbat — is blessed with a "manna" quality. :‫משקים וסעודה זו היא סעודת מצוה‬
(1035 ‫)לקוטי שיחות ח״ד ע׳‬
‫ ושבת קדשך באהבה וברצון הנחלתנו״‬...‫״ושבת קדשו באהבה וברצון הנחילנו‬ ‫פדיון הבן‬
"And has given us, in love and goodwill, H i s holy Redemption o f firstborn son
Shabbat as a heritage...And w i t h love and goodwill QUESTION: A wedding meal follows the chupah, and a meal
Y o u have given us Y o u r holy Shabbat a s a heritage." at a brit follows the brit, so why is a pidyon haben usually done in
QUESTION: Why the redundancy?
the middle of the meal?
ANSWER: The Yom Tov Kiddush starts "Asher bachar banu
ANSWER: There are two reasons given for the requirement
mikol am" — "He chose us from among all peoples" — but the
of redeeming the firstborn.
Shabbat one does not. The Beit Yosef (271) explains that Shabbat
1) The Torah states, "For every firstborn is Mine: On the day
was first given to the Jews in Marah prior to the giving of the
Torah on Mount Sinai (Sanhedrin 56b). Until the receiving of the I struck down every firstborn in the land of Egypt, I sanctified
Torah, we did not yet entirely have the status of being the every firstborn in Israel for Myself" (Bamidbar 3:13).
chosen people. Yom Tov, on the other hand, was given only at 2) The brothers sold Rachel's firstborn, Yosef, for twenty
Sinai, and, therefore, the Kiddush begins "Asher bachar banu." pieces of silver (Bereishit 37:28), which was equivalent to five
Hence, in our Kiddush the first mention of receiving the Shabbat sela'im. Therefore, our firstborn must be redeemed for that
(without mentioning that we are a chosen people) refers to the Shab- amount as an atonement for the misdeeds of our ancestors
bat He commanded us at Marah. The second reference to receiving (Shekalim 2:3).
Shabbat, which follows the statement that we were chosen from among Yosef's brothers were pasturing Yaakov's flock, and Yaakov
all peoples, refers to the commandment of Shabbat at Mount Sinai, sent Yosef to them. When they saw h i m from afar, they
when we received it for a second time and became His chosen conspired against him to kill him. Upon Reuven's request to
p e o p l e .
(‫)ך׳ צבי יחזקאל ז״ל מיכלזאהן בספך אוך החכמה בשם החוזה זצ״ל מלובלין‬ shed no blood, they threw him into a pit. The Torah relates that
; ;
:
c$% - •'•^y- ‫ ־‬- ^ r -•^H ‫ < ׳ ׳‬m 15 •••i^>•• ••;m••'•^•:: • ••iSH
A ' f A ¥ A ¥ A W1 V A Y A Y A Y A Y A V AVA1V1VA ¥A V A Y A Y A V A V A V A V A ' t A V A ' T V . V A V A V A V A Y A V A V A W A Y A V A V A Y A . ¥ A V A V A V

•••g$% ‫׳‬ :
CIRCUMCISION ;
‫׳ ^ ׳‬ ;
‫שבת‬ ‫ליל‬
‫ ובראשי החרוזים יאני יצחק לוריא בן שלמהי‬,‫שיר זה חיבר האריי זיל‬
‫הרחמן‬ M a y the M e r c i f u l O n e s e n d u s H i s Mashiach who
:‫ דאנון קדישין‬.‫ דבחקל תפוחין‬.‫ למיעל גו פתחין‬.‫ין‬r‫אאזבמך ^ששבך‬
w a l k s i n perfection, i n m e r i t of the g r o o m s b l o o d s h e d of
‫ דנהךא על‬.‫ ובמנךתא טבתא‬.‫ בפתוךא חדתא‬.‫^זפדין לה השתא‬
c i r c u m c i s i o n , to b r i n g g o o d t i d i n g s a n d c o n s o l a t i o n s to t h e ‫־־‬ T T : T : ‫! י י‬ -
T : - : • ‫י י‬ - -
! ‫יי‬ I" ‫י‬ ‫י‬ ! -
T I • ‫־‬ ;

:‫ךישין‬
one n a t i o n d i s p e r s e d a n d scattered a m o n g the nations.
:‫ ומאנין ולבושין‬.‫ ^קןשובזין אזלא‬.‫ ובניהו כלה‬.‫יננינא ושמאלא‬
‫הרחמן‬ May the Merciful One send us [Elijah] the :‫ יהא בתיש בתישין‬.‫ דעביד ניחא לה‬.‫ וביסודא דילה‬.‫יחבק לה בעלה‬
righteous priest, w h o w a s taken into concealment, u n t i l h i s ‫ וךוחין עם‬.‫ בךם ךא^פפין חדתין‬.‫ בטלין ושביתין‬.‫^ ^ י ן אף עקתין‬
seat r e s p l e n d e n t as the s u n a n d p r e c i o u s stones is p r e p a r e d

for him; who covered his face with his mantle and :‫ ובךכאן דנפישין‬.‫ נהוךא לה ימטי‬.‫ ועל חדא תךתי‬.‫חדו סגי ייתי‬
e n w r a p p e d h i m s e l f , w i t h w h o m w a s m a d e M y c o v e n a n t of :‫ ו־נו^ין עם ךחשין‬.‫ לאפשא זינין‬.‫ עבידו תקונין‬.‫קךיבו שושבינין‬
life a n d peace. :‫ ובתלתא ^בב^ין‬.‫רך־ךדין ו^רזלרגין‬:‫ ךי‬.‫ וךוחין חדתין‬.‫למעבד נשמתין‬
O n w e e k d a y s c o n t i n u e ‫ ( ה ר ח מ ן‬M a y t h e M e r c i f u l O n e . . . ) , p . 53; ‫ בקדיש‬.‫ דיתעטך בלא‬.‫ ומלבא דלעלא‬.‫טוך*ין שבעין ולה‬:‫וע‬
o n Shabbat, F e s t i v a l s , o r Rosh Chodesh c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e ‫ ה ר ח מ ן‬, p . 5 1 .
:‫קדישין‬
‫ ה ל א בטיש‬.‫ בךם עתיק יוננין‬.‫ יבגו בל־עלמין‬.‫^*^יננין וךזרזינ)ין‬
redemption but Hashem may decide "achishenah" — "to hasten" :‫בטישין‬
— the redemption before the preordained time. If the Jews are ‫ במתיקין‬.‫ דויירזךנ^ג לשמה‬.‫ דתשךיה על עמה‬.‫ידדא ךעוא קמיה‬
deserving, then, "Achishenah" — " I will hasten it." If they are not :‫ודובשין‬
deserving, then, "Be'itah" — "[It will occur] in its time."
:‫ בצפונאאךשין‬.‫ <ישזילחן עם נןדמא‬.‫ מנךתא דסתימא‬.‫אסדך לדךומא‬
Commentaries explain that the Rambam is not disputing :‫ להתקפה חלשין‬.‫ לאךוס ךאךוסה‬.‫ וננדאני אסא‬.‫בחמךא גו כסא‬
what is commonly accepted about Eliyahu and Mashiach, but
:‫ דעל גבי חמשין‬.‫;נין עטוךין‬:‫ ךישזב‬.‫ במלין י?ןיי־ין‬.‫נעביד להון בתךין‬
rather that there are two ways in which the revelation of
Mashiach may take place and this determines whether Eliyahu
‫״ושלחן עם נהמא בצפונא ארשין״‬
will precede or follow the coming of Mashiach.
"And a table w i t h bread s h a l l I place i n the north."
Should we have to wait for the redemption to happen i n the QUESTION: Why is the table placed i n tzafon — the north?
preordained time, then it will be heralded by Eliyahu. However, ANSWER: The "bread" on the table is a medium by which
if it is hastened, then all established decorum will be negated one exhibits his wealth and success. The word "tzafona" (‫ )צפונא‬is
and Mashiach will arrive unexpectedly and unannounced. not only the northward direction, but can also mean "hidden."
Thus, our prayer (in the fifth Harachaman) is that Hashem On the night of Pesach, for instance, the afikoman we eat at the
end of the meal is called "tzafun" (‫ )צפון‬because it is hidden
redeem us hastily and send Mashiach instantaneously even
throughout the entire seder.
without being heralded by Eliyahu. However if, G-d forbid, we
Putting the table in tzafon — north — is a reminder to keep
do not merit it, then we ask Hashem (in the sixth Harachaman) to
one's wealth and success concealed. A person should pursue a
send Eliyahu to inform us that the preordained time for our modest lifestyle and avoid flaunting his wealth and success i n the
redemption has arrived. eyes of others. Otherwise, animosity and jealousy may be aroused
,‫)שו״ת בית יחזקאל מך׳ צבי יחזקאל ז״ל מיכלזון‬ and also an "evil eye," which may have an adverse effect.
(‫כךתי ופלתי יו״ד סוף סי׳ ק״י‬ (‫ד‬-‫ג‬:‫)עי׳ כלי יקך דבךים ב‬

61
A ' f A "T" A ¥ A W1 V A Y A Y A Y A V A V AVA1V1VA V A V A Y A V A > " A V A V A V A V A V A ' T V . V A V A V A V A Y A V A V A W A YA V A V A Y A ¥ A V A V A V

:
•••g$% ‫ ^ ־ ׳‬% - • FRIDAY EVENING : ;
••&»k • - ‫^<״‬r ••>j^•-• ‫־‬->^•• ‫ברית מילה‬ ••^< •• ;
» A ¥ A ¥ A ¥ V 1 A ¥ A ¥ A V A ¥ A ¥ A ^ ^ ^ ^

A Kabbalistic poem w r i t t e n b y the Arizal, Rabbi Isaac Luria.


It contains an acrostic of his name, A n i Yitzchak Luria ben Shlomo
‫ בזכות חתן‬,‫הוא ישלח לנו משיחו הולך תמים‬ ,‫מן‬r‫הךיד‬
‫ א ז מ ר‬I w i l l cut a w a y [the forces of evil] w i t h songs of praise, i n
order to enter the h o l y gates of Chakal Tapuchin.
‫אחד‬ ‫ ל ע ם‬, ‫ ל ב ש ך ב ש ח מ ת ט ו ב ו ת ו נ ח ו מ י ם‬,‫ל מ ו ל ו ת דננים‬
W e h e r e w i t h invite her [the Shechinah] to the festive table, :‫מ פ ז ך ו מ פ ו ך ד בין ודךגפ)ים‬
w i t h the beautiful c a n d e l a b r u m s h i n i n g on our heads. • ‫־‬ T I T T •..

B e t w e e n right a n d left the B r i d e approaches, adorned i n ‫ ע ד‬, ‫ה ו א י ש ל ח ל נ ו בדדן צ ד ק א ש ך ללןח ל ע י ל ו ם‬ ,‫הךחמן‬


ornaments, j e w e l s a n d robes.
‫ בךיתי‬,‫ וילט פניו ב א ד ך ת ו ויגלום‬,‫ה ו כ ן ב ס א ו ב ש מ ש ויהלום‬
Her h u s b a n d embraces her; through this gathering w h i c h
brings her joy, the [forces of evil] w i l l be utterly crushed. :‫הייתה א ת ו דדךןי־•ים והשלום‬
T h e y cry a n d despair, yet they are made n u l l a n d v o i d ; but the (52 ‫וגומרים ברכת המזון )עמוד‬
faces [of Israel] are r e n e w e d , souls a n d spirits too.
‫( וגומרים ברהמיז‬50 ‫ ביויט ובריח אומרים ׳הרחמן׳ )עמוד‬,‫בשבת‬
[The Shabbat soul] brings her great j o y , double i n measure,
b e s t o w i n g u p o n her light a n d a b u n d a n t blessing.
...‫״הרחמן הוא ישלח לנו משיחו‬
B r i d e s m e n , go forth a n d m a k e preparations of delicacies of
‫הרחמן הוא ישלח לנו כהן צדק אשר לקח לעילום״‬
m a n y k i n d s , fish as w e l l as fowl.
"May the Merciful One send us His Mashiach...
It is to form n e w souls a n d spirits, [to fathom] the thirty-two May the Merciful One send us [Eliyahu] the
paths [of w i s d o m ] a n d the three branches [of Scripture]. righteous priest who was taken into concealment"
S h e has seventy crowns; the s u p e r n a l K i n g becomes c r o w n e d
w i t h most sacred [songs of praise].
QUESTION: The Kohen Tzedek — righteous priest — refers to
[The Shabbat] is engraved a n d i n s c r i b e d w i t h i n all w o r l d s Eliyahu. Originally he was Pinchas, whom Hashem rewarded
[ w h i c h were brought forth by] the " A n c i e n t of D a y s " through with priesthood for his zealousness, and in the end was taken
c o m b i n i n g [the four pristine elements]. into concealment when he ascended to Heaven in the whirlwind
M a y it be H i s w i l l that H i s presence rest u p o n H i s people w h o (II Kings 2:11).
w i l l delight for the sake of H i s N a m e i n sweet things a n d honey. Since it is Eliyahu who will herald the coming of Mashiach,
I place to the south the mystical c a n d e l a b r u m ; I set i n the why is Mashiach mentioned in the fifth Harachaman and Eliyahu
north the table w i t h the loaves;
in the sixth?
W i t h w i n e i n the goblet a n d boughs of myrtle for the B r i d e
and G r o o m , to invigorate the w e a k . ANSWER: Though it is commonly accepted that Eliyahu w i l l
We fashion for t h e m crowns from precious w o r d s ; seventy herald the coming of Mashiach, nevertheless, the Rambam
crowns w h i c h transcend the fifty [Gates]. (Melachim 12:2) says that "Among the chachamim — wise men —
some say that Eliyahu w i l l appear prior to the coming of
‫״נעביד להון כתרין במלין יקירין בשבעין עטורין דעל גבי חמשין״‬ Mashiach. However, man will not know this clearly until it
"We fashion crowns for them from precious actually happens...and therefore there are disputes about this."
words; seventy crowns w h i c h transcend the fifty."
QUESTION: What are the "seventy," and what are the Regarding the redemption the Prophet says, "Be'itah
"fifty," and what is the connection between them and "milin achishenah" — "In its time I w i l l hasten i t " (Isaiah 60:22). The
yakirin" — "precious words"? phrase "in its time," i.e. at its predetermined time, apparently
ANSWER: According to the Gemara (Arachin 15b) lashon hara contradicts the phrase " I w i l l hasten i t " which implies that the
— evil talk — causes nega tzara'at — plague of leprosy. The word redemption will come earlier. The Gemara (Sanhedrin 98a)
"nega" — "plague" — has i n it the letter "nun," which has the explains that there is "be'itah" — "a preordained time" — for the

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•••g$% ‫׳‬ :
CIRCUMCISION :
••&*k •
;
- ‫^<״‬r ‫ליל שבת‬

A d d i t i o n s to t h e B l e s s i n g A f t e r a M e a l ‫ןסיא בווין‬.‫ בווין תתקטך‬.‫ בשית נהמי לסטך‬.‫שכינתא תתעטר‬


Following a Circumcision :‫ בשית נהמי לסטח וזינין דכנישין‬,‫תתקטר‬
The following is recited after the paragraph beginning ‫( מ מ ר ו ם ילמדו‬From O n High..., p. 51) ‫ יוכל זיני‬.‫ חבילין דמעיקין‬.‫ מסאבין דרחיקין‬.‫שביתין ושביקין‬
‫הרחמן‬ May the Merciful One bless the father and mother of the child; :‫חבושין‬
may they merit to raise him, to train him, and to educate him to be a
scholar. From the eighth day onward his blood is accepted; may Adonai, ‫ סתימין‬.‫ תךין יודין נקטא‬.‫ בזיתא וכביעתא‬.‫למבצע על ךפתא‬
his God, be with him. :‫ופךישין‬
‫הרחמן‬ May the Merciful One bless the sandek at the circumcision, :‫ה בלחישין‬-‫ בגו‬.‫ ונגדין נחליא‬.‫ דטחנין ךחיא‬.‫משח זיתא דכיא‬
who happily performed this good deed in joy. May He reward his deed
:‫ טמיךין וכבישין‬.‫ דליתהון מתחזין‬.‫ ומלין דגניזין‬.‫הלא נימא ךזין‬
and double his recompense and exalt him higher and higher.
‫הרחמן‬ May the Merciful One bless the tender infant who has been :‫ דעירין קדישין‬.‫ בגו דדאי ההלולא‬.‫ ךבך־ןין דלעלא‬.‫אתעטךת בלה‬
circumcised on the eighth day; may his hands and heart be faithful to the ‫ וטמיךא דכל־טמיךין‬.‫ויהא רעוא מן־קדם עתיקא קדישא דכל־קדישין‬
t t
Almighty, and may he merit to behold the Divine Presence three times a ‫סתימא דכלא דיתמשך טלא עלאה מנינה ק ך)ק יא ךישיה חעיך ךאננ^ין ולהטיל‬
year. :‫?ןל תפוחין ךק^י^ין בנהירו ך־ךא^בפין בךעוא ובחדותא דכלא‬r‫ךד‬ c

‫הרחמן‬ May the Merciful One bless the mohel who performed the
circumcision, the periah and metzitzah. If a timid or faint-hearted man numerical value of fifty, and the letter "ayin," which has the
fails to perform these three parts of the mitzvah, his service is invalid. numerical value of seventy.
On Shabbat there is a mitzvah of oneg — delight. The words
QUESTION: A t a brit it is customary for all present to "(nega"‫ " —)נגע‬o n e g "(plague"— and " ‫" — ) ע נ ג‬
proclaim: "Just as he is entered into the covenant, so may he spelled with the same three letters. The only difference is that in
enter into Torah, and into marriage, and into good deeds." one the "nun" is at the beginning and the "ayin" is later, and in
Why do we associate these three things with the brit? the other the "ayin" is at the beginning and the "nun" comes
ANSWER: The circumcision done at the brit is permanent. later. (When the words are written vertically in ‫ ענג‬the "ayin" is
Once it is performed, it cannot be changed in any way. Those on top and the "nun" is beneath while i n ‫ נגע‬the "nun" is above
present at the brit express a threefold blessing and prayer for the and the "ayin" is beneath.)
child. First, just as the brit is permanent, likewise his connection On Shabbat, a day of rest from mundane activities, a person
to Torah should be everlasting. Second, the person he marries has much free time and should keep busy with milin yakirin —
should be his companion for life. The third and concluding precious words — i.e. Torah study and davening. Unfortunately,
blessing is that throughout his lifetime he should constantly some do not use their time properly and engage in idle talk, and
p e r f o r m g o o d d e e d s .
(‫)לקוטי בתך לקוטי‬ the conversation may ultimately turn to lashon hara.
* * * Thus, the Arizal is saying that on Shabbat one should make
Alternatively, the first mitzvah in which the child is involved " — "precious words" — and avoidcr
is a brit. Due to his young age, his parents must take an active role ," in whichspe
in planning and preparing. When it comes to Yiddishkeit, many " (50) is above the "ayin" (70), one w i l lexperie
parents have a tendency to say, "When our child becomes older, " t r a n s c e n d s the "nun) 50" (oneg," i n
he will make his own decisions." Therefore, all present at the brit (‫)סידוך מונקאטש‬
call to the attention of the parents: "Kesheim shenichnas labrit" —
‫״שכינתא תתעטר בשית נהמי למטר בווין תתקטר״‬
just as at the brit the parents were actively involved — "kein "May the Shechinah be surrounded w i t h the six
yikaneis leTorah ulechupa ulema'asim tovim" — so too, when the son loaves on each side. A n d may they correspond
reaches the age of Torah study, marriage and good deeds, the to the two sets of s i x loaves."
parents should be actively involved in all of his decisions. QUESTION: What are the "vavin"?

59
Y \ A Y A V W T ‫ ־‬A ¥ A Y A W A Y A ‫^ ־‬

FRIDAY EVENING ‫ברית מילה‬


V.VfAVAVA >‫־‬.+,‫־•׳‬# ‫\׳‬+.¥A¥A¥A¥. ¥Aft‫־‬A¥A¥A¥AYA¥A¥A¥A

May the Shechinah be surrounded by the six loaves on each side


‫הרחמן לברית מילה‬
[of the table]; and may they correspond to the two sets of six loaves
and the other articles [of the Beit Hamikdash]. ‫ ויזבו לגדלו לחנכו‬,‫ הוא יבךך אבי הילד ואמו‬,‫הרחמן‬
The impure powers who are far from holiness, the angels of :‫ ויהי יי אליהיו עמו‬,‫ מיום השמיני והלאה יךצה דמו‬,‫ולחבמו‬
destruction who oppress [man] and all those confined [ i n Purgatory]
rest and have respite [on Shabbat]. ‫ אשך שש לעשות צדק‬,‫ הוא יבךך בעל בךית המילה‬,‫הרחמן‬
To slice the challah, the size of a n olive or of an egg, :‫ ויתנהו ל מ ע ל ה למעלה‬,‫ וישלם פעלו ומשבךתו בפולה‬,‫בגילה‬
[interpreting] the two yuds either according to its simple or phonetic
reading. ‫ ויהיו ידיו ולבו ל א ל‬,‫ הוא יבךך ךך הנמול לשמונה‬,‫הרחמן‬
Olives [have w i t h i n them] pure oil w h i c h w h e n pressed i n a :‫ שלש פעמים בשנה‬,‫ ויזבה לךאות נגני השכינה‬,‫אמונה‬
millstone flow i n a stream; so the bread contains w i t h i n it divine
secrets.
‫ ופךע ומצץ דמי‬,‫הךיןךמן׳ הוא יבךך ה מ ל בשר העךלה‬
Let us discuss secrets of Torah, w h i c h are not revealed, hidden ‫ אם שלש ואליה ל א‬.‫ איש ךדיךא ורך הלבב עבודתו פיסולה‬,‫המילה‬
and concealed. :‫יעשה לה‬
May the Bride be crowned w i t h supernal mysteries at this joyous
feast of the holy angels. ANSWER: Before eating a fruit that grows on a tree, one
‫ ו י ה א‬May it be the w i l l of the most holy Ancient One, the most must recite the berachah "Borei peri ha'eitz." On the juice of the
hidden of all hidden ones and the most recondite of all, that there may
fruit one recites the berachah "Shehakol niheyah bidevaro," which is
issue from Him supernal dew to fill the head of Z'eir Anpin and to bestow
it upon the holy Chakal Tapuchin with joyous countenance, goodwill and lower in the ranking of berachot. The only exception to this rule is
great delight. in the case of grapes. While the fruit itself has the berachah "Borei
peri ha'eitz," the juice is kovei'a berachah le'atzmo — acquires a
ANSWER: On the table i n the Beit Hamikdash were the berachah for itself — "Borei peri hagafen" — which is considered
"lechem hapanim" which consisted of twelve challot, six on each higher in the hierarchy of berachot than "Borei peri ha'eitz."
side of the table. The challot would stay on the table the entire The originators of a family are the parents, who are
week, and every Shabbat the old challot would be removed and analogous to the vine, and the offspring are compared to the
replaced with fresh ones. grapes. Our sages are telling us that a marriage in which there is
To commemorate this, some people place twelve challot on a "mingling of grapes" and which produces wine, i.e. the
the Shabbat table. (See Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim 274, Sha'arei children accomplish even more than their parents— is "davar
Teshuva.) Others place two oblong shaped challot lengthwise na'ah umitkabeil" — something beautiful and acceptable.
before them, so that they look like two "vavim" (‫)״ו״‬, each with
the numerical value of six, for a total of twelve. ‫״ברית מילה״‬
(‫ ויקךא‬,‫)עיטוךי תוךה‬ "Circumcision"
In light of the above, it may be explained that the Arizal is QUESTION: Why is the circumcision ceremony called brit
referring to the custom of the Kabbalists who place twelve chalot milah?
on their Shabbat table and who thereby merit that the shechinah ANSWER: In the Torah there are 613 mitzvot and one of
unites itself with them. them is circumcision. On the eighth day, the child has properly
Even ordinary Jews who are not versed in the secrets symbol¬ fulfilled the mitzvah of milah and still has 612 mitzvot to fulfill.
ized by the twelve challot achieve unification with the Shechinah The word "brit" (‫ )ברית‬numerically adds up to 612, reminding the
because they put two oblong shaped challot that each resemble a child of all the remaining mitzvot.
"vav" (‫)״ו״‬, which is one of the letters of the Tetragrammaton, and ‫כד דמצות מילה מקיים הקטן‬:‫ שמות ד‬,‫)עי׳ פךדס יוסף‬
(45 ‫ ועי׳ לקוטי שיחות חי״א ע׳‬,‫ודאי׳ מךש״י חולין מ״ז ע״ב ד״ה המתינו‬
two "vavin" together have the numerical value of twelve. ( ‫י ח ז ק א ל‬ ‫) ד ב ך י‬
* * *

19 58
‫יום ש ב ת‬
A Y A ¥ A Y A T W * A Y A Y A Y A Y A ¥ A Y A T \ A Y A ‫ ־‬T ^ ^ ^ ^
:
• ^ y • • ^ - , M A R R I A G E C E R E M O N Y BLESSINGS ^ * • • ^ W ‫־‬ •••<mi • T
•^m,••
¥A¥AYAYAWAYAYAYA/YAYA¥A¥AfYA¥AYAY AWAY'AYAYjVYA¥AYA¥AWA¥AYAYAJ¥AYAYAYAWA¥A¥A.YAfir'AYA¥A¥Ai

‫ ש מ ח‬Grant abundant joy to these loving friends, as Y o u bestowed


‫ס ד ר קידוש ליום ש ב ת‬
gladness upon Your created being i n the Garden of E d e n of old.
(‫מקדש מעומד גם ביום שיק )ראה יהתקשרותי חוברת ציד‬
Blessed are You, Adonai, Who gladdens the groom and bride.
‫ברוך‬ Blessed are You, Adonai, our G o d , K i n g of the universe, Who ‫ על‬.‫ בנאות דשא ירביצני‬:‫ יהוה רעי ליא אחסך‬.‫לדוד‬ ‫מזמיר‬
created joy and happiness, groom and bride, gladness, jubilation, :‫ ינחני במעגלי צדק למען ששמו‬.‫ נפשי ישובב‬:‫מי מנוחות ינהלני‬
cheer a n d delight, love a n d friendship, harmony and fellowship.
‫ שבטך‬.‫ בבי א ת ה עמדי‬.‫גם בבי א ל ך בגיא צ ל מ ו ת ל א איךא ךע‬
Adonai, our G o d , let there speedily be heard i n the cities of Judah and
in the streets of Jerusalem the sound of joy and the sound of ‫ דשנת בשמן‬.‫ תערך לפני שלחן נגד צךךי‬:‫ומשענתך ה מ ה ינחמני‬
happiness, the voice of a groom and the voice of a bride, the sound of ‫ ושבתי בבית‬.‫ אך טוב וחסד יךדפוני ב ל ימי חיי‬:‫ראשי בוסי ךויה‬
exultation of grooms from under their chupah, and youths from their
:‫יהוה ל א ך ך ימנים‬
joyous banquets. Blessed are Y o u , Adonai, Who gladdens the groom
w i t h the bride.
‫אתקינו ס ע ו ד ת א ד מ ה י מ נ ו ת א ש ל מ ת א ח ד ו ת א ד מ ל ב א‬
Make the blessing over the cup of w i n e :
‫ברוך‬ Blessed are You, Adonai, our G o d , K i n g of the universe, Who ‫ ד־א דדיא ס ע ו ד ת א דעתיקא‬, ‫ אתקינו ס ע ו ד ת א ד מ ל ב א‬,‫קדישא‬ — -
l T " ‫־‬ : TT J ' " I T :

created the fruit of the vine. :‫ ״ ע ר ךאנפין אתין ל ס ע ד א בהדה‬,‫קדישא וחקןל תפוחין קדישץ‬
The g r o o m and bride drink.

daughter of a king — i.e. Jewish woman, is to be within the


‫ לעשות א ת ה ש ב ת לדרתם‬.‫בני ישךאל א ת השבת‬ ‫וישזנ)ךו‬
confines of her abode and not go outside and mingle with the ‫ בבי ששת ימנים‬,‫ ביני ובבין בני ישךאל אות היא לעולם‬:‫בךית עולם‬
people (Yevamot 87b). Why, then, does the prophecy say that "kol :‫ ובביום השביעי ש ב ת ךינפש‬.‫עשה יהוה א ת השמים ואת דזואוךץ‬
kallah" — "the voice of a bride" — will be heard in the streets of
Jerusalem, which is contrary to the laws of modesty? ‫ וקראת‬.‫ עשור חפצך בביום קדשי‬,‫אם תשיב מ ש ב ת רגלך‬
T ‫ז‬ ‫זו‬ ; : IT : T I ‫״‬.‫״‬ T ‫ ־‬: ‫ ־‬: ‫״ י ד‬.‫״‬ : ‫־‬ T ‫־‬ T

ANSWER: The Gemara (Makkot 24b) quotes the prophecy of ‫ וכבדתו מ ע ש ו ר דוו־ככיך• ממצוא‬.‫ל ש ב ת ענג לקדוש יהוה מכבד‬
Zechariah, "Old men and old women will yet sit in the streets of
.‫ אז תתענג ע ל יהוה והרבבתיך ע ל במתי ארץ‬:‫חפצך ודבר ודובר‬
Jerusalem" (8:4). Tosafot explains that this applies to the period of I ‫״‬.‫״‬ T
•• T ; T ‫־־‬ ‫ד‬ ‫י‬ • : ‫־‬ : • : T ‫־־‬ - -
I " ‫יי‬ ‫" י י י‬ ‫"״‬ -
I TI

Olam Haba — the World to Come. Similarly, this prophecy of


:‫ בבי פפי יהוה דבר‬.‫ודזן^^ע'ךניך־ נ ח ל ת יעקב אביך‬
Jeremiah refers to life in the World to Come.
Olam Haba follows techiyat hameitim — the Resurrection —
‫״לעשות את השבת לדרתם״‬
and it is a period when "gam oyevav yashlim imo" — "even his
"To make the Shabbat for their generations."
foes will make peace with him" (Proverbs 16:7). A t that time the
QUESTION: Why is the word "ledorotam" (‫" — )לדרתם‬for
Jews' arch enemy, the yeitzer hara — evil inclination — will make
peace with the Jew and no longer endeavor to interfere with his their generations" — written without a ‫?״ו״‬
service of Hashem. Thus, the provision that women remain ANSWER: The word "ledorotam" (‫ )לדרתם‬without the ‫ ״ו״‬can
inside will be unnecessary, and the prophecy that "the voice of a be read "ledirotam" (‫)לדרתם‬, meaning "their dwelling places." The
bride will be heard i n the streets of Jerusalem" will be fulfilled. Torah is teaching that "la'asot et haShabbat" — the Jewish people
(379 ‫)לקוטי שיחות חכ״א ע׳‬ should strive to make the Shabbat beautiful and majestic,
‫״בורא פרי הגפן״‬ "ledirotam" — i n their dwelling places. Their homes should be
"Who created the fruit of the vine." permeated with a Shabbat spirit. ( ‫ת ו ך ה‬ ‫) ע י ט ו ך י‬

QUESTION: Regarding the appropriate marriage our sages ‫״אם תשיב משבת רגלך עשות חפציך ביום קדשי״‬
(Pesachim 49a) comment, "Invei hagefen be'invei hagefen davar na'ah " I f you restrain your feet because of Shabbat
umitkabeil" — "The mingling of the grapes of the vine with the from attending to your needs on My holy day."
grapes of the vine is beautiful and acceptable." QUESTION: Why the emphasis "raglecha" — "your feet" —
Why the analogy to grapes and not another fruit? wouldn't the same apply to attending one's needs with one's hands?
• •£my• ‫׳‬ SHABBAT D A Y • • - - o < ^ •

Kiddush for the Shabbat D a y ‫ ב ש מ ח ך יצירך בגן עדן‬. ‫שמח ת ש מ ח רעים ה א ה ו ב י ם‬


The Kiddush is recited while standing : ‫ ברוך א ת ה י ה ו ה מ ש מ ח ח ת ן ו כ ל ה‬.‫מוןדם‬
A Psalm by D a v i d . Adonai is my shepherd; I shall lack
‫מזמור‬
‫ א ש ר ב ר א ששון‬. ‫בךוך א ת ה י ה ו ה אליהינו מ ל ך ה ע ו ל ם‬
nothing. He makes me lie down i n green pastures; He leads me beside
I T T T ‫־‬: T T/ ‫־‬T T :1 • ;
still waters. He revives my soul; He directs me i n the paths of
‫ א ה ב ה ואחוה‬.‫ גילה רנה דיצה וחדוה‬.‫ חתן וכלה‬.‫ושמחה‬
righteousness for the sake of H i s Name. Even if I w a l k i n the valley of —
T:T — —
: —
‫י‬ I V I 1
" ‫י‬ 1
" ‫י‬ 1
" ‫י‬ T —
: I T T T : ‫־‬ :

the shadow of death, I w i l l fear no evil, for Y o u are w i t h me; Your rod ‫ ננדזךה י ה ו ה אליהינו י ש מ ע בעךי ייהודה‬.‫ש ל ו ם וךעות‬
and Your staff — they w i l l comfort me. Y o u w i l l prepare a table for me
‫ ק ו ל ח ת ן וקול‬. ‫ ק ו ל ששון וקול ש מ ח ה‬.‫ו ב ח ו צ ו ת ירושלים‬
before my enemies; Y o u have anointed my head w i t h oil; my cup is
full. O n l y goodness and kindness shall pursue me all the days of my
. ‫ ק ו ל מ צ ה ל ו ת ח ת נ י ם מ ח פ ת ם ונערים מ מ ש ת ה נ ג י נ ת ם‬. ‫ב ל ה‬
life, and I shall dwell i n the House of Adonai for many long years. : ‫ברוך א ת ה י ה ו ה מ ש מ ח ח ת ן ע ם ה ב ל ה‬
:‫ומברך ע ל הכוס‬
‫אתקינו‬ Prepare the meal of perfect faith, w h i c h is the delight of the
holy K i n g ; prepare the meal of the K i n g . T h i s is the meal of the holy
:‫א ת ה י ה ו ה א ל ה י נ ו מ ל ך ה ע ו ל ם ב ו ך א פרי הגפן‬ ‫ברוך‬
‫ושותין החתן והכלה‬
Ancient One and the holy Chakal Tapuchin, and Z'eir Anpin come to
Through such a lifestyle, there will be (the fourth berachah) a
j o i n H i m i n the meal.
salvation for Jewry at large — the ingathering of the Jews and
‫ושמרו‬ A n d the children of Israel shall observe the Shabbat, the rebuilding of Jerusalem. The young couple too will merit the
establishing the Shabbat throughout their generations as an
fulfillment of the final two berachot — enjoy success throughout
everlasting covenant. It is a sign between Me and the children of
their marriage, and joy and happiness all the days of their lives.
Israel for all time, for i n six days Adonai made the heavens and the
(‫ ובךש״י‬,‫א‬:‫ ועי׳ כתובות ח‬,‫)ךשימות כ״ק אדמו״ך חובךת ב‬
earth, and on the seventh day He ceased from w o r k and rested.
‫״שמח תשמח רעים האהובים כשמחך יצירך בגן עדן מקדם״‬
‫ א ם‬If you restrain your feet because of the Shabbat from attending "Grant abundant joy to these loving friends, as You bestowed
to your affairs on M y holy day, and y o u call the Shabbat, "delight," gladness upon Your created being in the Garden of Eden of old."
the day made holy by Adonai, "honored," and you honor it by not QUESTION: What happiness did Hashem cause Adam to
following your customary ways, refraining from pursuing your experience?
affairs and from speaking profane things, then y o u shall delight i n ANSWER: According to an opinion in the Gemara (Berachot
Adonai, and I w i l l make you ride on the h i g h places of the earth, and I 61a), Adam and Chava were created together as one, back to back.
w i l l nourish y o u w i t h the heritage of Jacob your father; thus the
Hashem afterwards separated them, and they became two indi¬
mouth of Adonai has spoken.
viduals.
Strife and suffering occur when people "turn their backs" on
ANSWER: The rabbis of the Talmud (Megillah 29b)
each other and refuse to communicate. People experience happi¬
suspended the performance of three mitzvot when a Holiday falls
ness when they "see" each other face to face.
on Shabbat: Shofar blowing, taking the lulav on Succot, and
The blessing to the chatan and kallah is that, throughout the
reading the Megillah on Purim. The reason is concern that one
years of their married life, they should always communicate
may take one of the three items used for these mitzvot to an
"face to face" and never "turn their backs" on each other.
expert to learn how to properly perform the mitzvah and
inadvertently carry it four amot through a public domain, which ‫קול חתן וקול כלה״‬...‫״ישמע בערי יהודה ובחוצות ירושלים‬
"Let there speedily be heard i n the cities of
is a violation of Biblical law. J u d a h and the streets ofJerusalem...the voice of
One who observes this decree is not lacking a mitzvah, a groom and the voice of a bride."
because in merit of the extra stringency in the observance of QUESTION: From the pasuk "Kol kevudah bat melech penimah"
Shabbat, the Shabbat itself accomplishes for him what he would — "The very honor of a princess is within" (Psalms 45:14) the
have achieved for himself from the fulfillment of these mitzvot. sages derived that the dignified behavior for a bat melech —

21
fi¥A¥A¥V.¥A¥A¥J

M A R R I A G E C E R E M O N Y BLESSINGS ‫יום שבת‬


VAVA¥ftVAW¥A¥A¥A¥fi¥A¥AVAV1W^

On Shabbat:May it please You to strengthen us on this Shabbat day.


Remember us for good on this day of: O n
On Rosh Chodesh, Festivals and Chol HaMo'eid: :‫דא היא ס ע י ד ת א דעתיקא קדישא‬
Rosh Chodesh: Rosh Chodesh. O n Rosh Hashanah: Remembrance. O n Pesach: the Festival of ‫ ששת ימנים תעבוד ןעשית בל‬.‫זכור א ת יום השבת לקדשו‬
Matzot. O n Shavuot: the Festival of Shavuot. O n Succot: the Festival of Succot. O n Shemini
Atzeret: Shemini Atzeret, the Festival. ‫ ל א תעשה כ ל ממלאכה‬,‫ ויום השביעי שבת ליהוה אליהיך‬.‫מלאכתך‬
For You, Adonai, are good and do good to all, ‫ בבי ששת‬.‫ וגךך אשר בשעךיך‬,‫אתה ובנך ובתך עבדך ואמתך ובהמתך‬
and we offer thanks to You for the land and for:
After food prepared After After grapes, figs ,‫ נאת הזים ואת בל אשר בם‬,‫ימנים עשה יהוה נאת השמים ואת הארץ‬ T T T T T T
T ".‫ ־ ״‬: T "."I T ‫־‬ •/ I ".‫״‬ V I ‫־ ״‬ T ‫־‬ ".‫״‬ I "
from the five kinds of grain: wine: pomegranates, olives or dates:
the sustenance. the fruit of the vine. the fruits. :‫וינח בביום השביעי‬
Blessed are You, Adonai, for the land and for :‫על בן בךך יהוה א ת יום השבת ויקדשהו‬
After food prepared After After grapes, figs
from the five kinds of grain: wine: pomegranates, olives or dates: :‫סברי מרנן‬
the sustenance. the fruit of the vine. the fruits.
Concluding blessing after other foods and drinks :‫א ת ה י ה ו ה אליהינו מ ל ך ה ע ו ל ם ב ו ך א פרי הגפן‬ ‫ברוך‬ ‫ע ל היין‬

‫ ב ר ו ך‬Blessed are You, Adonai, our G o d , K i n g of the universe, Creator


:‫סברי מרנן‬
of numerous living beings and their needs, for all the things You have
created with which to sustain the soul of every living being. Blessed is He ‫ ה מ ו צ י א לחום מנן‬. ‫א ת ה י ה ו ה אליהינו מ ל ך ה ע ו ל ם‬ ‫ברוך‬ ‫ע ל ה פ ת‬
Who is the Life of the worlds.

Sheva Berachot :‫מ ב ר ך ת י כ ף ב ר כ ה זו‬ ‫בסוכה‬ ‫חול המועד סוכות כשמקדש‬ ‫בשבת‬
‫ברוך‬ Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, K i n g of the universe, Who
,‫ברו! אתה יהוה אליהינו מלך העולם‬
has created all things for H i s glory.
:‫אשך קדשנו במצותיו וצונו לישב בסבה‬
‫ברוך‬ Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, K i n g of the universe, Who
formed man. ‫שיר זה חיבר האריי זיל‬
‫ברוך‬ Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, K i n g of the universe, Who ‫ ךאזמין בה השתא עתיקא‬.‫ בצפךא דשבתא‬.‫אסדר לסעודתא‬
created m a n i n H i s image, i n the image [of His] likeness [He
:‫קדישא‬
fashioned] h i s form, and prepared for h i m from h i s o w n self an
everlasting edifice. Blessed are Y o u , Adonai, Who formed man. :‫ דבה ו ח ד י ניכשא‬.‫ ובחמךא טבא‬.‫ בקידושא ךבא‬.‫נהוךיה ישךי בה‬
‫ ש ו ש‬May the barren one [Jerusalem] rejoice and be happy at the ‫ דאתאמר‬.‫זי לן סתךה‬m‫ ן‬.‫ ^!וזי ביקךיה‬.‫ישדך לן שופךיה‬
ingathering of her children to her midst i n joy. Blessed are Y o u , :‫בלחישא‬
Adonai, Who gladdens Z i o n w i t h her children. :‫ בבככילא וקלישא‬.‫ ידאאינון א ת בשמיה‬.‫סך נןדנני‬1‫זרו־י‬:‫ ךוב‬.‫יגלה לן טעמי‬
Hashem w i l l not build the home, its builders labor on it vainly." :‫ ותיסק עד ורישא‬.‫רב;י ךוילא‬1‫ <י?ר‬.‫ דביה ךויי כלא‬.‫צרוךא דלעילא‬
(Psalms 127:1) :‫ מתיקא בבדובבשא‬.‫ ומללו נמלה‬.‫ בדבור ובקלא‬.‫ךךדו חצדי חקלא‬
The berachah "Yotzer ha'adam" — "Who formed man" — calls
to the couples attention that man is titled "Adam" because of The word "mishavat" (‫ )משבת‬has the numerical value of seven
"Adamah Le'elyon" — man must strive to emulate Him — and be hundred and forty-two, as do the words "shofar, lulav, megillah"
attached to Him (Isaiah 14:14, Shelah p. 3a, Sotah 14a).
(‫ מגילה‬,‫ לולב‬,‫)שופר‬. Thus, the prophet is saying, "If you will restrain
Being concerned only with oneself, however, is insufficient.
mishavat — from doing the three mitzvot alluded by the numerical
One must improve also the world around him. Thus, he is told
value of mishavat [because of] raglecha — concern that you may
that "Vehitkin lo mimenu binyan adei ad" — "prepared for him from
inadvertently 'walk' with them in a public domain — be assured
his o w n self an everlasting edifice." Man cannot claim
that you will not lose by this. On the contrary, Hashem will reward
incompetence to influence others since he was formed "Betzalmo"
you: ' I will make you ride on high places of the earth, and I will
— "in His image" — and the Midrash (Bereishit 98:3) says, "Just as
Hashem builds worlds, the Jews do so too." nourish you with the heritage of Yaakov your father.' " ( ‫ק‬ . ) ‫ו ב‬ ‫ס ט ך י‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ז ך‬

55 22
AY A ¥ A VA ¥ A ¥ AY A WAY A V AYA¥\A VA ¥ A ¥ A YA V A Y AVAVAYAY A Y AYA V AV A V A WAY A V A t'A'fft'f A>"A V A ‫י‬

SHABBAT D A Y •••<^••‫ ׳ ־‬£4%••


;
‫ש ב ע ברכות לנשואין‬ ••.#‫^׳‬:• -:-<^-•
‫ ד א‬T h i s is the meal of the holy Ancient One. ‫ בראש חדש וזכרונו ׳לטובה ביום ראש החדש‬:‫בשבת ורצה והחליצנו ביום השבת הזה‬
‫ ז כ ו ר‬Remember the Shabbat day to sanctify it. Six days you shall ‫ בפסח וז^ךרנו לטובה ביום חג המצות‬:‫ בראש השגה !זכרנו לטובה ביום דדזברון דזו^ה‬:‫הזה‬
labor, and do all your work, but the seventh day is Shabbat for Adonai, ‫ בשבועות ה כ ו נ ו לטובה ביום חוג השבעות הזה בסוכות וזכרנו לטובה ביום חוג‬:‫הזה‬
your God; you shall not do any work — you, your son and your ‫ בשמע* וזכרנו לטובה ביום שמיני עצרת החג הזה‬:‫הכזבות הזה‬
daughter, your slave and your maidservant, your cattle, and the stranger
‫בי א ת ה יהוה טוב ומטיב לבל ונודה ילך על האךץ ועל‬
within your gates. For [in] six days Adonai made the heavens, the earth,
:‫על פירות משבעת המיגים‬ :‫על היין‬ :‫על חמשה מיגי דגן‬
the sea, and all that is i n them, and He rested on the seventh day.
‫ ע ל‬Therefore Adonai blessed the Shabbat day and made it holy. .‫הפרות‬ .‫פרי הגפן‬ .‫המחיה‬
On wine: ‫ברוך אתה יהוה על האךץ ועל‬
‫סברי‬ Attention, gentlemen: ‫ברוך‬ B l e s s e d are Y o u , Adonai, o u r G o d , :‫על פירות משבעת המיגים‬ :‫על היין‬ :‫על חמשה מיגי דגן‬
K i n g of the u n i v e r s e , W h o created the fruit of the v i n e . .‫הפרות‬ .‫פרי הגפן‬ .‫המחיה‬
O n bread:

‫סברי‬ Attention, gentlemen: ‫ברוך‬ B l e s s e d are Y o u , Adonai, o u r G o d , ‫א ת ה יהוה !אלידדינו מ ל ך העולם בוךא נפשות ךבות‬ ‫ברוך‬
K i n g of the u n i v e r s e , W h o bro u g h t f o r t h b r e a d f r o m the earth. ‫ ברוךך ךוי‬.‫וחסרונן על בל נמה ש ב ר א ת להחיות בהם נפש בל חי‬
" ! T T T T 1 ‫־‬: ‫־‬

T h e f o l l o w i n g berachah is a d d e d o n Shabbat Chol HaMo'eid Succot :‫העולמים‬


i m m e d i a t e l y after m a k i n g Kiddush i n the Succah.
‫ברוך‬B l e s s e d are Y o u , Adonai, o u r G o d , K i n g of the ‫ס ד ר ש ב ע ב ר כ ו ת לנשואין‬
universe, W h o has sanctified us w i t h H i s command¬ ‫בךא‬ ‫שהבל‬ ‫העולם‬ ‫מלך‬ ‫אליהינו‬ ‫יהוה‬ ‫אתה‬ ‫ברוך‬
m e n t s , a n d c o m m a n d e d u s to d w e l l i n the Succah.
:‫לכבודו‬
A Kabbalistic song composed by the Arizal
‫ א ס ד ר‬I shall offer praise at the Shabbat morning meal, and shall herewith : ‫א ת ה יהו ה אליהינו מ ל ך ה ע ו ל ם יוצר ה א ד ם‬ ‫בךוך‬
T T T T ‫י‬ V T
•1 ‫יי‬ —
"I T
invite the holy Ancient One.
May the supernal light shine thereon through the great Kiddush and ‫א ת ה י ה ו ה אליהינו מ ל ך ה ע ו ל ם א ש ך יצר א ת‬ ‫ברוך‬
good wine that gladdens the soul. ‫ יידדרגקןין ל ו מ מ נ ו בנין‬. ‫ ב צ ל ם ד מ ו ת ת ב נ י ת ו‬. ‫ב צ ל מ ו‬ ‫האדם‬
May He send to us its resplendence and we shall behold its glory; may
He reveal to us His hidden things which are said in secret. :‫ ב ת ך א ת ה ידוה יוצרהאדם‬. ‫ע ד י ע ד‬
May He disclose to us the reason for the twelve breads which symbolize .‫תשיש ותגל העקרה בקבוץ בניה ל ת ו כ ה בשמ חה‬ ‫שוש‬
1 ‫ ־‬: • :
a letter of His Name — both in the combined and the single form.
T
T T ‫״‬.‫ ״‬T I I" I ‫ז‬ IT ‫;־‬ ‫ז‬ ‫״‬ ‫י‬ I ‫״‬

May we be united with the Supreme One in whom is the life of all :‫ב ר ו ך א ת ה י ה ו ה מ ש מ ח צ י ץ בבניה‬
things; may our strength be increased, and may [our prayer] ascend and ‫ משמח ציון בבניה״‬...‫ יוצר האדם‬...‫״שהכל ברא לכבודו‬
become [a diadem] upon His head. "Who has created a l l things for H i s glory... Who
Field laborers [Torah scholars], rejoice with speech and voice, and speak formed man... W h o gladdens Z i o n w i t h her children."
the words [of Torah] which are sweet as honey.
QUESTION: What connection do the first four berachot have
‫״ומלילו מלה מתיקא כדובשא״‬ with a wedding?
"And speak the words [of Torah] which are sweet as honey." ANSWER: Just as Hashem created the world at large, a
QUESTION: What is the significance of comparing Torah to young couple who join in marriage are undertaking the building
honey?
of a world. First and foremost they must always remember that
ANSWER: The bee which makes the honey is a forbidden
Hashem "created everything for His glory." The entire purpose of
creature. Nevertheless, the honey which originates from a source
which is tamei — contaminated — is halachically pure for human creation was His desire to have a dwelling place in this world,
consumption (see Bechorot 6b). which is accomplished by the Jews' study of Torah and
Torah is compared to honey because of its power to elevate observance of Mitzvot. The world the young couple is erecting
and purify even one who has fallen, G-d forbid, into a state of will be everlasting if it is built according to His desire and blue¬
spiritual contamination. ( ‫א פ ך י ם‬ ‫) ע ו ל ל ו ת‬ prints — Torah and Yirat Shamayim. Otherwise, King David said, "If
:
‫^•'• י‬y- '•<^; 23 c^:;• • ••^y ‫ ^ •י‬: ‫ ׳‬, ‫' ־ ־‬2^: ‫י‬ ^ :
' ‫־‬ ‫־‬ ‫־‬ ^ y ' 5 4 ‫־‬ Jm,• •
‫'&^־‬ ::
>M>^ CONCLUDING BLESSING AFTER CERTAIN FOODS ‫׳‬V9# ‫שלישית‬ ‫סעודת‬

‫ ה ר ח מ ן‬May the Merciful One grant us the privilege of reaching the


days of Mashiach and the life of the World to Come. He gives great
:‫ <ירניננךון ךודושא‬.‫ תגלון פתגמין‬.‫ במלין סתימין‬.‫קדם רב ין עלמין‬
salvations (on Shabbat, Festivals, Rosh Chodesh and Chol HaMoeid substitute: He is a tower :‫ ולאו ננלתא ךאושא‬.‫ ענניקא וטמירא‬.‫ ברזא יקירא‬.‫לעטר פתורא‬
T : ‫־‬ ‫י‬ I ‫י‬ -
I T
" I I T • -
: T 1• ‫־‬ T T : T : " -
I
of salvations) for His king and bestows kindness upon His anointed, to
David and his descendants forever. He Who makes peace in His heights, :‫ ה ל א ההוא שמשא‬.‫ ותמן נמאן שריא‬.‫ יהון לרקיעיא‬.‫ואלין מליא‬
may He make peace for us and for all Israel, and say: Amein.
‫ י ר א ו‬Fear Adonai, you His holy ones, for those who fear Him suffer no :‫ דןדות פךישא‬.‫ ויסב בת זוגה‬.‫ לעילא מן דךגה‬.‫ריבו יתיך יסגי‬
want. Young lions are in need and go hungry, but those who seek Adonai
shall not lack any good. Give thanks to Adonai for He is good, for His
kindness is everlasting. You open Your hand and satisfy the desire of
‫ס ד ר ס ע ו ד ת שלישית‬
every living being. Blessed is the man who trusts in Adonai, and Adonai ‫ןשו־ע( )א( יהא זהיר מאד לקיים סעודת שלישית ואף אם הוא שבע הרי יכול לקיים אותה ביותר‬
w i l l be His security. ‫מכביצה מעט )ויש אומרים שאפילו בכזית יוצא ידי חובתו לכתחלה בכל אחד מג׳ סעודות ויש‬
If the Grace was recited over a cup of wine, the following berachah is n o w recited. ‫להחמיר לכתחלה כסברא הראשוגה אם אפשר לו( ואם אי אפשר לו לאכול כלל אין צריך לצער‬
‫ ב ר ו ך‬Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, K i n g of the universe, Who ‫את עצמו לאכול שסעודות השבת לעוגג גצטוו ולא לצער אבל החכם עיגיו בראשו שלא‬
‫ )ב( זמן סעודה ג׳ הוא משיגיע‬:‫למלאות בטגו בסעודת הבוקר כדי ליתן מקום לסעודה שלישית‬
created the fruit of the vine.
‫זמן מגחה גדולה עד הערב דהייגו משש שעות ומחצה ואילך ואם עשאה קודם לכן לא קיים‬
C o n c l u d i n g Blessing After Certain Foods ‫ )ג( ויש מקילין שאפ׳ בפירות יכול לקיימה ואין לסמוך כלל על כל זה‬:‫מצות סעודה שלישית‬
The following berachah is said after eating cooked [or baked] food prepared from the five species of ‫אלא אם כן אי אפשר כלל בעגין אחר כגון שהוא שבע ביותר ואי אפשר לו לאכול פת בלא‬
grain [wheat, barley, rye, oats or spelt], after wine, or after grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives or ‫ )ד( גשים חייבות בסעודה ג׳ כמו אגשים וכן‬:‫שיצער את עצמו וכן ערב פסח שחל להיות בשבת‬
dates. If one ate any of these fruits and also cake and d r a n k wine, he should combine three
blessings into one and say the following: Blessed are You... for sustenance and nourishment, for
:‫לבצוע על ב׳ ככרות בכל סעודה שלכל מעשה שבת איש ואשה שוין‬
the vine and the fruit of the vine, for the tree and the fruit of the tree, for the produce of the ‫״שלש מעודות״‬
field, and for the precious land... and we offer thanks to Y o u for the land, for the sustenance, for
the fruit of the vine and for the fruits. Blessed are You, Adonai, for the land, for the sustenance, "The third m e a l "
for the fruit of the vine and the fruits.
QUESTION: Why are Chabad Chassidim not stringent about
‫ ב ר ו ך‬Blessed are Y o u , Adonai, our G o d , K i n g of the universe, for:
After prepared foods After After grapes, figs eating a full meal with challah for the third meal, and suffice with
from the five kinds of grain: wine: pomegranates, olives or dates: just tasting some food?
the sustenance and the vine and the the tree and the
the nourishment, fruit of the vine, fruit of the tree, ANSWER: The Torah relates regarding the manna, "Moshe
for the produce of the field, and for the precious, good and spacious land said, 'Eat it hayom — today — for hayom — today — is Shabbat for
which You have graciously given as a heritage to our ancestors, to eat of Hashem; hayom — today — you shall not find it in the field' "
its fruit and be satiated with its goodness. Have mercy, Adonai, our G o d , (Shemot 16:25). The Gemara (Shabbat 117b) derives from the thrice
on Israel Your people, on Jerusalem Your city, on Zion the abode of Your
glory, on Your altar and on Your Temple. Rebuild Jerusalem, the holy repeated word "hayom" — "today" — that three meals should be
city, speedily in our days, and bring us up to it and make us rejoice in it, eaten on Shabbat. Nevertheless, halachically there is leniency
and we w i l l bless You in holiness and purity.
regarding the need to eat bread at the third meal (see Orach
‫״כי אין מחמור ליראיו״‬ Chaim 291). The reason is that the manna was described as
"Those w h o fear H i m suffer no want." "lechem" — "bread" (Shemot 16:15), and after the third "hayom"
QUESTION: Do those who fear Him have so much? — "today" — the verse reads, "Lo timza'uhu basadeh" — "You
ANSWER: When Yaakov met Eisav and presented him with a gift, shall not find it in the field." Hence, the phenomenon of not
Eisav said, "Yeish li rav" — " I have plenty." Yaakov continued urging
finding the bread is commemorated by not eating a meal with
him to take the gift and said, "Please accept my gift because yeish li kol
bread for the third meal.
— I have everything" (Bereishit 33:9-11). ( ‫ך צ ״ ה ס ״ ה‬ ‫ס י מ ן‬ ‫) ל ב ו ש‬

The reason that Yaakov stated " I have everything" while Eisav said
Moreover, the Bach (Tur, Orach Chaim 291) writes that the
" I have plenty" is that the wicked are never fully satisfied. They are not
first meal of Shabbat corresponds to the first Shabbat of creation,
content with what they have and always want more. On the other hand,
the righteous are happy with whatever Hashem gives them, which they the second to the Shabbat of the giving of the Torah, and the third
consider to be "everything." Hence, the G-d fearing suffer no want, for to the Shabbat of the World to Come. Since the Gemara (Berachot
they are happy with what Hashem has allotted them and they do not tor¬ 17a) says that in the World to Come there is no eating or
ment themselves over any perceived deficiency. ( ‫י‬ ‫ף‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ע‬ ‫׳‬ ‫י‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ל‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ך‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א‬ ‫ך‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ס‬ ) drinking, a regular meal with bread is omitted.

53 24
. ¥ AYA WAYA V AVA1V1VA ¥A ¥ A YiA ¥ A ¥ AVAVAVAVA ¥ AWA V AY A ¥ A ¥W1¥ A V A VAVWi'f AVA V A '•
lWAYA^ifA¥AWAVA¥AYAVWfc '•
SEUDAH SHELISHIT
‫ברכה אחרונה‬
Before the Master of the worlds you w i l l reveal words i n the
secrets [of the Torah] and deliver new insights [in it];
‫ מ ג ד ל‬. ‫ה ו א יזבנו ל י מ ו ת ה מ ש י ח ולחיי ה ע ו ל ם ה ב א‬ ‫הרחמן‬
• : ‫־‬ T ‫־‬ T T •• ‫־‬ : ‫־‬ T ‫־‬ " -
I I T ‫! ־‬ ‫־‬ T

To adorn the table w i t h the precious secrets [of the Torah], ‫מגדל( ישועות מ ל ב ו ועשה‬ :‫ בראש חדש ובחול המועד‬,‫)בשבת וביום טוב‬
profound and hidden, w h i c h are ordinarily not to be revealed.
‫ עששה שלום במרומיו ה ו א‬:‫ח ס ד ל מ ש י ח ו ל ד ו ד ולזךעו ע ד עולם‬
A n d these words w i l l become firmaments. W h o w i l l abide
therein? None other than the [Shechinah w h i c h is allegorically called :‫יעשה שלום עלינו ויעל ב ל ־ י ש ך א ל ייאמרו אננן‬
the] sun.
He w i l l ascend to a more lofty level; and He w i l l take to Himself
‫ בפיךים ךשו‬:‫ואת־ י ד ו ה קדשיו בבי־ אאין מ ח ס ו ר ליראיו‬ ‫ייראו‬
His mate, [Israel,] from w h o m He was separated [during the week]. ‫ הודו ל י ה ו ה בי־טוב בבי‬:‫וךעבו ודרשי ידוה ליא־יחסרו כל־טוב‬
‫ ברוך ה ג ב ר‬:‫ פ ו ר ח א ת ־ י ד ך ומשביע ל כ ל ־ חי ךצון‬:‫ל ע ו ל ם חסדו‬
Order of Seudah Shelishit
:‫א ש ר יבטח ביהרה יהיה יהוה מבטחו‬
Shulchan Aruch HaRav: 1. One s h o u l d be s c r u p u l o u s i n the observance o f the Seudah
Shelishit. E v e n i f he is satiated, he can still discharge his o b l i g a t i o n b y e a t i n g [bread] s l i g h t l y :‫ומברך על הכוס‬
m o r e t h a n the size o f a beitzah. ( A c c o r d i n g t o some authorities, i t suffices e v e n i f one eats
b r e a d the size o f a zayit. T h i s applies t o each o f the three meals o f Shabbat. I f at a l l possible,
one s h o u l d f o l l o w the first, m o r e s t r i n g e n t v i e w . ) If, h o w e v e r , one finds i t d i f f i c u l t to partake :‫א ת ה יהוה אליהינו מ ל ך ה ע ו ל ם בוךא פרי הגפן‬ ‫ברוך‬
of b r e a d , he need n o t force himself, for the Shabbat meals w e r e enjoined u p o n u s t o b r i n g
d e l i g h t a n d n o t d i s c o m f o r t . O n e s h o u l d , h o w e v e r , be p r u d e n t a n d n o t overeat a t the n o o n
m e a l i n o r d e r to be able to eat the Seudah Shelishit. 2. T h e t i m e for the Seudah Shelishit is f r o m ‫נוסח ברכה אחרונה מעין שלוש‬
one h a l f h o u r after m i d d a y u n t i l sunset. I f one ate before t h a t t i m e , he d i d n o t f u l f i l l the ‫ ואם אכל פירות‬.‫ ותמרה‬,‫ זית‬,‫ ורמון‬,‫ תאגה‬,‫ ועל פירות משבעת המיגים שהם גפן‬,‫ של חמשה מיגי דגן‬,‫על תבשיל‬
o b l i g a t i o n o f Seudah Shelishit. 3. A c c o r d i n g to some a u t h o r i t i e s one m a y f u l f i l l the o b l i g a t i o n ‫ ועל הגפן‬- ‫ על המחיה ועל הכלכלה‬:‫ יכלול הכל בברכה אחת ויאמר כך‬,‫ ושתה יין‬,‫ ומיגי מזוגות‬,‫משבעת המיגים‬
of e a t i n g the Seudah Shelishit b y p a r t a k i n g o f fruit. H o w e v e r , one s h o u l d n o t f o l l o w this v i e w ‫ וחותם וגודה לך על הארץ ועל‬.‫ ועל תגובת השדה ועל ארץ חמדה וכוי‬- ‫ ועל העץ ועל פרי העץ‬- ‫ועל פרי הגפן‬
except w h e n he has n o a l t e r n a t i v e , e.g., i f he ate t o excess a n d c a n n o t p a r t a k e o f b r e a d :‫ והפירות‬- ‫ ועל פרי הגפן‬- ‫ ועל המחיה‬- ‫ ברוך אתה יי על הארץ‬- ‫ ועל הפירות‬- ‫ ועל פרי הגפן‬- ‫המחיה‬
w i t h o u t causing h i m s e l f p a i n , o r o n Erev Pesach w h i c h falls o n Shabbat. 4. Seudah Shelishit i s
an o b l i g a t i o n for w o m e n j u s t as for m e n . A l l l a w s o f Shabbat a p p l y e q u a l l y to b o t h m e n a n d ‫ ע ל‬. ‫א ת ה יהוה אליהינו מ ל ך ה ע ו ל ם‬ ‫ברוך‬
w o m e n — t h i s i n c l u d e s b r e a k i n g b r e a d o v e r t w o loaves o f challah a t each o f t h e three :‫על פירות משבעת המיגים‬ :‫על היין‬ :‫על חמשה מיגי דגן‬
Shabbat meals [or b e i n g i n c l u d e d i n someone else's berachah!]
‫העץ‬ ‫הגפן‬ ‫המחיה‬
:‫ועל פרי העץ‬ :‫ועל פרי הגפן‬ :‫ועל הבלבלה‬
However, how does one satisfy the stringent ruling of the
Alter Rebbe, Rabbi Shneur Zalman (see above), that bread should ‫ו ע ל תנובת השדה ועל אךץ וךננדה טובה וךחבה שךצית ה נ ח ל ת‬
be eaten at the meal? ‫ רחם נ א יהוה אלידזינו על ישראל‬,‫לאבותינו ל א כ ל מפריה ולשבוע מטובה‬
The purpose of eating tasty food on Shabbat is strictly to ,‫עמך ועל ירושלים עיךך ועל ציון משבן ב ב ודך ועל מזבחך ועל היכלך‬
1

experience "oneg" — "delight." If eating, however, is detrimental ‫ תוכה ועזנוחנו בה‬7 ‫גיך ךדקדיש במהךה בימינו והעלנו‬7 ‫ובנה ירושלים‬
to a person's health he does not have to agonize himself to eat, :‫ת ב ך כ ך בקדשה ובטהךה‬
but can accomplish his delight by fasting and avoiding to eat ‫״לימות המשיח״‬
(Rav Shulchan Aruch 288:2). Hence, one who has reached the level "The days of the Mashiach."
at which he truly feels the exalted spiritual aura prevailing QUESTION: Who is the Mashiach?
during the time of the third meal, that it is a period of rava ANSWER: I n the Gemara (Sanhedrin 98b) there are four
deravin — most favorable Supernal Will — with a resemblance of opinions regarding the identity of Mashiach. Some say his name
the World to Come, where there w i l l be no eating, to such a is Shiloh (‫)שילה‬, others say Yinon (‫)ינון‬, a third opinion is
person eating is a tza'ar — agony — and he accomplishes his Chaninah (‫)חנינה‬, and a fourth view is Menachem (‫)מנחם‬. The first
"delight" by refraining from eating. letter of each one of these four names spells "Mashiach" (‫)משיח‬.
The Rebbes of Chabad "felt" the spiritual light which shines Jewry eagerly awaits the revelation of the redeemer who w i l l
during the time designated for Shalosh Se'udot and therefore lead us out of galut. Not knowing definitely what his name w i l l
refrained from eating. Consequently, the Chasidim who are be, we call him "Mashiach," an acronym of the four different
attached to them follow i n their footsteps. names for the redeemer. (‫)צוף אמךים על הגש״פ‬

25 52
••-Ji^••• -<H^ ‫־‬ ;
B L E S S I N G 'A F T E R A M E A L
;
- ‫^<״‬r ‫סעודת שלישית‬

‫הרחמן‬ M a y the M e r c i f u l O n e send a b u n d a n t b l e s s i n g into this ‫ על‬.‫ בנאות דשא ירביצני‬:‫ יהוה רעי ל א אחסך‬.‫לדוד‬ ‫מזמיר‬
house a n d u p o n this table at w h i c h w e h a v e eaten.
:‫ ינחני במעגלי צדק למען ששמו‬.‫ ניכשי ישובב‬:‫מי מנוחות ינהלני‬
‫הרחמן‬ M a y the M e r c i f u l O n e s e n d u s E l i y a h u the Prophet, of
‫ שבטך‬.‫ בבי א ת ה עמדי‬.‫גם בי א ל ך בגיא צ ל ו מ ת ' ל א אאיךא ךע‬
blessed m e m o r y , a n d m a y he announce good tidings to us,
salvations, a n d consolations. ‫ דשנת בששמן‬.‫ תערך ל פני כשולחן נגד צךךי‬:‫ומשענתך דזמה ינחמני‬
M a n y o f t h e Chassidim, a d d t h e f o l l o w i n g (Sefer HaMinhagim). ‫ ןשבתי בבית‬.‫ אך טוב ח ס ד יךדפוני בל ימי ךויי‬:‫ראשי בוסי ךויה‬
‫הרחמן‬ M a y the M e r c i f u l O n e b l e s s our master, our teacher, :‫יהוה ל א ר ך ימנים‬
and our R e b b e .
T h e f o l l o w i n g is r e c i t e d e v e n i f o n e ' s p a r e n t i s d e c e a s e d .
‫דמלבא‬ ‫ש ל מ ת א ךוד־ ותא‬ ‫דמדדימנותא‬ ‫סעודתא‬ ‫אתקינו‬
‫הרחמן‬ M a y the M e r c i f u l O n e bless m y father, m y teacher, the ‫ ד א דזיא ס ע ו ד ת א דזער אנפין‬, ‫ אתקינו ס ע ו ד ת א ד מ ל ב א‬,‫קדישא‬
I • : -
" I " ‫" י י י‬ : ‫״‬ ‫יי‬ T : —
: T T J ' " I -
T • ‫־‬1

master of this h o u s e a n d m y mother, m y teacher, the mistress of :‫ אתין ל ס ע ד א בהדה‬,‫ין קדישץ‬r‫ועתיקא קדישא וחקל דנפוך‬
this h o u s e , t h e m , their h o u s e h o l d , their c h i l d r e n , a n d a l l that is
theirs; ourselves a n d a l l that is ours. Just as H e b l e s s e d our fathers
Avraham, Yitzchak, and Yaakov "with everything," "from A clarification is still necessary, if so, w h y do they taste some
everything," a n d w i t h "everything," so m a y H e b l e s s a l l of u s food at all?
( w h e n a g e n t i l e is p r e s e n t : the c h i l d r e n of the C o v e n a n t ) together w i t h a Chassidut accepts the opinion of Nachmanidies that the World
perfect b l e s s i n g a n d let u s say: A m e i n . to Come will follow the Resurrection, and at that time souls will
‫ממרום‬ F r o m O n H i g h , m a y there be i n v o k e d u p o n h i m a n d be clothed in physical bodies. Thus, though the Gemara states that
u p o n u s s u c h merit w h i c h w i l l b r i n g a n e n d u r i n g peace. M a y w e there will be no food or drink, there will be spiritual food to
receive b l e s s i n g from Adonai a n d j u s t k i n d n e s s from G o d our maintain the body from becoming extinct. Hence, to commemo¬
deliverer. M a y w e find grace a n d good u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n the eyes rate this aspect something is eaten, but in remembrance of the
of G o d a n d m a n . third mention of "hayom" — "today" — which corresponds to the
third meal, and which says, "It [manna-bread] shall not be
For " A d d i t i o n s t o the Blessing after a M e a l F o l l o w i n g a C i r c u m c i s i o n , " see p . 59
found" — a full meal with bread is omitted. ( ‫״ ׳‬ ‫)לק‬ 8 4 ‫ע‬ ‫א‬ ‫ח כ‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ח‬ ‫י‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ו ט י‬
(Some say the " A d d i t i o n s " after c o n c l u d i n g the Grace (Shaar H a k o l e l ) . )

On Shabbat:
‫הרחמן‬ May the Merciful One let us inherit that day which w i l l be all
‫״מזמור לדוד הי רועי לא אחםר״‬
"A P s a l m by David, H a s h e m is my shepherd,
Shabbat and rest for life everlasting.
I s h a l l lack nothing."
O n Rosh Chodesh:

‫הרחמן‬ May the Merciful One renew for us this month for good and
QUESTION: Hashem is "ro'eih Yisrael" — "the shepherd of
for blessing.
the Jewish people" (Psalms 80:2) and not just David's?
O n Festivals:
ANSWER: Indeed David was cognizant that Hashem is
‫הרחמן‬ May the Merciful One let us inherit that day which is all good. everyone's shepherd and it is He that provides man with his
On Succot: needs. The profundity of this prayer is that he beseeched that,
‫הרחמן‬ May the Merciful One let us inherit that day which is all good. "Hashem ro'i lo echsar" he would never lack the knowledge and
‫הרחמן‬ May the Merciful One restore for us the fallen succah of David. conviction that Hashem is his shepherd. Never should he
O n Rosh Hashanah: contemplate that, "My strength and the might of my hand made
‫הרחמן‬ May the Merciful One let us inherit that day which is all good. me all this wealth," but always remember that " i t was He Who
‫הרחמן‬ May the Merciful One renew for us this year for good and for gave [him] strength to make wealth" (Devarim 8:17-18).
blessing. (‫)ך׳ א ב ך ה ם דוד ז״ל מבוטשאטש בקונטךס ב ך כ ת אבךהם‬

51 26
. ¥ A V A 'tViYA V AVA1V1VA V"A ¥ A ViAV A V AVAVAVAVA ¥ A " T \ * . V A Y A ¥ A ¥W1¥ A V A VAVWi'f A V A V A '•
tt**V+¥AV>A¥A¥AVAW
SEUDAH SHELISHIT
‫ברכת המזון‬
‫מזמור‬ A Psalm by David. Adonai is m y s h e p h e r d ; I s h a l l l a c k ‫ה ו א י ש ל ח ב ך כ ה מ ך ב ה ב ב י ת וזה ועל שלךון זה‬ ‫הך ןךמן‬ <

n o t h i n g . H e m a k e s m e lie d o w n i n g r e e n pastures; H e l e a d s m e
:‫ש א כ ל נ ו עליו‬
b e s i d e s t i l l w a t e r s . H e r e v i v e s m y s o u l ; H e directs m e i n the
p a t h s of r i g h t e o u s n e s s for the s a k e of H i s N a m e . E v e n if I w a l k ‫ה נ ב י א זכור לטוב‬ ‫ה ו א ישלחו ל נ ו א ת א ל י ה ו‬ ‫הרחמן‬
T • T ‫־‬ T • ‫״‬ T ‫־‬ I T ‫!־‬ ‫־‬ T

i n the v a l l e y of the s h a d o w o f d e a t h , I w i l l fear n o e v i l , for Y o u


:‫ויבשך־לנו בשורות טובות ישועות ונחמות‬
are w i t h m e ; Y o u r r o d a n d Y o u r staff — t h e y w i l l comfort m e .
Y o u w i l l p r e p a r e a table for m e before m y e n e m i e s ; Y o u h a v e (‫כמה מהחסידים גוהגים לומר )ספר המגהגים‬

anointed m y head w i t h oil; m y cup is full. O n l y goodness a n d :‫ה ו א יבךך א ת ־ א ד ו ע ו מוךנו ורבנו‬ ‫הרחמן‬
k i n d n e s s s h a l l p u r s u e m e a l l the d a y s o f m y life, a n d I s h a l l
‫ה ו א יבךך א ת ־ א ב י מוךי ב ע ל ה ב י ת ה ז ה ו א ת ־ א מ י‬ ‫הרחמן‬
d w e l l i n the H o u s e of Adonai for m a n y l o n g y e a r s .
‫אתקינו‬ P r e p a r e the m e a l of perfect f a i t h , w h i c h is the d e l i g h t
‫מ ו ך ת י ב ע ל ת ה ב י ת הזזה א ו ת ם ו א ת ־ ב י ת ם ו א ת ־ ז ך ע ם ו א ת ־ ב ל ־‬
of the h o l y K i n g ; p r e p a r e the m e a l of the K i n g . T h i s is the m e a l ‫ ב מ ו ש ב ך ך א ת ־ א ב ו ת י נ ו‬:‫א ש ד לדדם א ו ת נ ו ו א ת ־ ב ל ־ א ש ד לנו‬
ofZ'eir Anpin, a n d the h o l y A n c i e n t O n e a n d the h o l y Chakal (‫א ב ך ה ם יצךוק ויעקב ב ב ל מנבל ב ל בן יבךך א ו ת נ ו )בני בדית‬
Tapuchin c o m e to j o i n h i m i n the m e a l .
:‫בלנו יךוד ב ב ך כ ה ש ל מ ה ו נ א מ ד אננן‬
‫״בנאות דשא ירביצני״‬ ‫י ל מ ד ו עליו* ועלינו ז כ ו ת ש ת ה א ל מ ש מ ך ת שלום‬ ‫ממרום‬
"He makes me lie down i n green pastures."
QUESTION: In Hebrew a pasture is "mir'eh" so he should have ‫ו נ ש א ב ך כ ה מ א ת יהוה ו צ ד ק ה מאליהי ישענו ו נ מ צ א ךון ו ש כ ל‬
said, "bine'ot mir'eh." Why does he use the term "desha" which :‫טוב בעיני !אלידדים ואדם‬
means vegetation (see Bereishit 1:11, Rashi)? ‫*באג־ק כ־ק אדמריי־צ ח־א ע־ר־ג כ ת ב ־עליו )על המזון הגאכל והגתברר(־‬

ANSWER: When Yosef was about to yield to his master's


58 ‫הרחמן לברית מילה תמצא לקמן עמוד‬
wife and commit a sin, suddenly "nir'eh lo demut deyukno shel
(‫ סעי־ח כ ת ב לאומרו אחר ברהמ־ז‬,‫)בשער הכולל פי־ד‬
aviv" — "the image of his father's visage appeared to h i m " — :‫בשבת‬
and he immediately fled and went outside (Bereishit 39:11,
:‫ה ר ח מ ן הוא ינחילנו ליום שובלו שובת ונננוחה לחיי העולמים‬
Rashi). Seeing the image of his father convinced him to run away
:‫בראש חדש‬
and not, G-d forbid, violate Torah law.
:‫ה ר ח מ ן הוא יחדש עלינו אאר החדש הזה לטובה ולבךכה‬
The word "desha" (‫ )דשא‬is an acronym for "deyukno shel aviv"
:‫ביום טוב‬
(‫" — )דיוקנו ש ל אביו‬the image of his father." David prayed that he
:‫ה ר ח מ ן הוא ינחילנו ליום שובלו טוב‬
should merit at all times to see the image of his "Father" in Heaven,
:‫בסוכות‬
and thus he would always be "al mei menuchot" — "besides still
waters" — i.e. live a tranquil life free of temptation and sin. :‫ה ר ח מ ן הוא ינחילנו ליום שובלו טוב‬
(‫ מסלונים על חנוכה‬- ‫ דבךי שמואל‬,‫ מאלכסנדך‬- ‫)תפאךת שמואל‬ :‫ה ר ח מ ן הוא יקים לנו אאר ס ב ת דוד הנופלת‬
:‫בראש השגה‬

Another interpretation of the words "nir'eh lo demut deyukno :‫ה ר ח מ ן הוא ינחילנו ליום שובלו טוב‬
shel aviv" — is that "es iz im gefelen gevaren" — he took a liking — :‫ה ר ח מ ן הוא יחדש עלינו אאר השנה ךדזאת לטובה ולבךכה‬
and came to the realization that a Jew's appearance should
resemble that of Yaakov. Contrary to his attempts to modernize Our prayer to Hashem that He "lead us upright to our land"
himself (see Rashi 37:1) he now realized that the better way for a asks that we merit to come to Eretz Yisrael happily and healthily
Jew is to emulate the lifestyle of Yaakov, which w i l l protect from during our lifetime and not, G-d forbid, have to roll through
assimilating in a society which is alien to the Torah way of life. underground tunnels to reach it.
(‫ כתובות ק״ה ע״ב‬,‫ ע״ד ״ךואה אני דבךי אדמון״‬,‫)מצאתי בכתבי אבי הךב שמואל פסח ז״ל באגאמילסקי‬ (‫)מצאתי בכתבי אבי הךב שמואל פסח ז״ל באגאמילסקי‬

27 •‫י י‬ • • • m ; 5 0 e&ir
LA v a V
B L E S S I N G 'A F T E R A M E A L
• ^ ^ • ^ • n A V A V A.
; ;
••-Ji^••• -<H^ ‫־‬ - ‫^<״‬r
V*//A¥AVA¥A¥A#A¥AVA‫׳‬ffttAV ‫סעודת שלישית‬
‫שיר זה חיבר האר־י ז־ל‬
good for u s , H e w i l l do good for u s . H e h a s b e s t o w e d , H e
bestows, H e w i l l forever bestow u p o n us grace a n d k i n d n e s s a n d :‫ למחזי זיו דזעיר אנפין‬.‫ דכסיפין‬,‫בני דדיכלא‬
mercy; a n d relief, salvation, a n d success; b l e s s i n g a n d help;
:‫ דביה מ ל ב א בגלופין‬.‫ בהאי תבא‬.‫יהין הכא‬
consolation, sustenance and nourishment and compassion and
life a n d peace a n d a l l good, a n d m a y H e never deprive u s of a l l :‫ ךבגי עידין וכל גדפין‬.‫ בהאי ועדא‬.‫ננבו לחדא‬
good things.* :‫ דביה ךעוא ולית זעפין‬.‫ בבדדאי שעתא‬.‫ךךדו השתא‬
‫הרחמן‬ M a y the M e r c i f u l O n e reign over us forever a n d ever.
:‫ין‬i‫ דלית דינין וורז?ןיכ‬.‫ חזו חילי‬.‫קךיבו ללי‬
‫הרחמן‬ M a y the M e r c i f u l O n e be blessed i n h e a v e n a n d o n
earth. :‫ ךדני בלביןדחציפין‬.‫ ולא עאלין‬.‫ל ב ד ^?ז^לין‬
‫הרחמן‬ M a y the M e r c i f u l O n e be p r a i s e d for a l l generations,
:‫ ל מ צ ך א ןגי־י יהון חלפין‬.‫ עתיק יימין‬.‫י ה א אזמין‬
and be glorified through us forever a n d a l l eternity, a n d m a y H e
be h o n o r e d through us for eternity. :‫ין‬J‫ ל ב ט ל א בכל ?ןק'יכ‬.‫ דגלי ליה‬.‫ךעו דילה‬
‫הרחמן‬ M a y the M e r c i f u l O n e provide us our l i v e l i h o o d w i t h :‫!'יךזנ)ךון ךבגו כפין‬.‫ בנוקביהון‬.‫ישוי לון‬
honor.
:‫ בנךוד־ ותא דזעיר אנפין‬.‫אדי ה ש ת א במנחתא‬
‫הרחמן‬ M a y the M e r c i f u l O n e b r e a k the y o k e of exile (alt. "the
yoke of [the] nations") from our n e c k s a n d m a y H e lead u s
upright to our l a n d . ‫״אך טוב וחםד ירדפוני כל ימי חיי״‬
* Amein is n o t r e s p o n d e d after " a l l g o o d t h i n g s . " (Reshimot #182) "Only goodness and kindness s h a l l pursue me
all the days of my life."
‫״וכל טוב ומכל טוב לעולם אל יחםרנו״‬ QUESTION: David should have simply asked to be blessed
"...and a l l good, and may He never with goodness and kindness all the days of his life, why the
deprive us of a l l good things."
mention of "yirdefuni" — "Shall pursue me"?
QUESTION: This request sounds redundant?
ANSWER: There is no person who lives an absolutely
ANSWER: There are people who have received Hashem's
tranquil life. Everyone is confronted by worrisome moments. It
blessings of goodness i n abundant measure. They have a
may be financial matters, lack of nachas, health problems or
beautiful family, plenty of food and a wardrobe full of clothing.
inadequate spiritual accomplishment etc. King David prayed that
However, due to their poor health they are unable to enjoy these
if it were destined for him to be pursued by worries, he should be
blessings. Thus, we pray that He give us all good things together
"yotze" — meet his quota — by being blessed with material
with the opportunity to enjoy them in good health. ( ‫ת פ ל ה‬ ‫) ע י ו ן‬
wealth and that all the days of his life he should be pursued and
‫והוא יוליכנו קוממיות לארצנו״‬...‫״הרחמן‬ inundated by incessant requests for assistance to help institutions
"May the Merciful One...and may dedicated to causes of goodness and kindness. ( ‫ח י י ם‬ ‫) ח פ ץ‬

He lead us upright to our land."


QUESTION: How can this be reconciled with the Gemara ‫״בהאי שעתה דביה רעוא״‬
(Kedushin 31a) that says it is forbidden for a person to walk four "At this [most propitious] time, i n w h i c h there i s favor."
cubits "bekomah zekufah" — "with an erect posture"? QUESTION: According to the Zohar (Shemot 88b) the period
ANSWER: Eretz Yisrael is our holy land, and all Jews yearn to of Shabbat afternoon (Minchah) is a time of "rava deravin" — "favor
live there. Those who do not reach it during their lifetime will of favors" — i.e. a time when His most favorable Will is disposed
ultimately come there in the days of techiyat hameitim — the Resur¬ toward the Jewish people. Therefore in the Minchah prayer the
rection. However, they will have to roll through tunnels under the verse "May my prayer to you Hashem eit ratzon — at this time of
earth until they reach the holy land (see Bereishit 47:29, Rashi). favor (Psalms 69:14)" is recited.

49 28
. YAYA WAYA V AVA1V1VA VA Y A YiAV A Y AVAVAVAVA V AWA V A"i A V A ¥W1¥ A V A VAVWi'f AVA V A ‫י‬
H V A V A V A W l V A V A V A ^

S E U D A H SHELISHIT
A V . V V ± V ; W A R
T ‫ ־‬A ¥ A ¥ H ¥ A V A R
T ‫ ־‬. W
‫ברכת המזון‬
A Kabbalistic song composed by the Arizal
‫ ה ו א יגמלנו ה ו א גומלנו ה ו א‬. ‫ ה ו א ייטיב ל נ ו‬. ‫ה ו א מטיב ל נ ו‬
‫בני‬ Y o u princes of the palace, w h o y e a r n to b e h o l d the
splendor of Z ' e i r Anpin. . ‫ ו ל ת ת ה צ ל ה ו ה צ ל ח ה‬.‫ לךון ו ל ח ס ד ולרחמים‬. ‫יגמלנו ל ע ד‬
Be present at this m e a l at w h i c h the K i n g leaves H i s i m p r i n t . ‫ ונחמה פ ר נ ס ה ו כ ל ב ל ה ורחמים וחיים ושלום‬.‫ב ד כ ה וישועה‬
- - - - -
T J " I " ! I ‫! ־ י י י‬ ! ‫! ־ י י י‬ T T " . " T ‫״‬ T T :

E x u l t , rejoice i n this gathering together w i t h the angels a n d


*:‫וכל־טוב וננבל־טוב ל ע ו ל ם א ל יחסךנו‬
all s u p e r n a l beings;
R e j o i c e n o w , at this [most propitious] time, i n w h i c h there i s ‫הרחמן‬ :‫ה ו א ימלוך עלינו ל ע ו ל ם וועד‬
favor, but no anger. :‫הרחמן ה ו א י ת ב ר ך בשמים ובארץ‬
D r a w near to M e , b e h o l d M y strength, for there are n o h a r s h ‫ולנצח‬ ‫הרחמן ה ו א י ש ת ב ח ל ד ו ד דודים ו י ת פ א ר בנו ל ע ד‬
‫ • • ־‬: ‫־‬ T T •• T - -
I " I T ‫! ־‬ ‫־‬ T

judgments.
:‫נצחים ו י ת ה ד ר בנו ל ע ד ו ל ע ו ל מ י עולמים‬
T h e y are cast out, they m a y not enter, these [forces of evil
w h i c h are l i k e n e d to] insolent dogs. :‫ה ו א יפרנסנו בכבוד‬ ‫הרחמן‬
I h e r e w i t h invite the " A n c i e n t of D a y s " at this auspicious ‫ישבור עול** ג ל ו ת מ ע ל צואדנו והוא יוליכנו‬ ‫הרחמן ה ו א‬
. . . . . . T - - .. T I T ‫ ־‬: ‫־‬ T
time, a n d [the p o w e r s of i m p u r i t y ] w i l l be utterly r e m o v e d .
:‫ק ו מ מ י ו ת לארצנו‬
It i s H i s revealed W i l l , to a n n u l a l l the p o w e r s of i m p u r i t y ; .‫ ורשימות כ־ק אדמו־ר חוברת קפ־ב‬,‫* אין עוגין אמן אחר ־אל יחסרגו־ עי׳ אג־ק כ־ק אד־ש ח־ז ע׳ רכח‬
.(‫«« צ־ל עול הגוים )ראה שערי הלכה ומגהג ח־א ע׳ ריב‬
He w i l l h u r l t h e m into their abysses, a n d they w i l l h i d e i n the
clefts of the rocks.
For this time of Minchah is a time of joy for Z'eir Anpin. ‫וכל טוב״‬...‫״לחן ולחםד ולרחמים‬
"Grace and kindness and mercy... and a l l good"
QUESTION: Why do we beseech Hashem to bestow upon us
Why is this time so propitious? fifteen Divine favors specifically?
ANSWER: Rashi (Bereishit 1:1) explains that the Torah starts ANSWER: According to the Gemara (Shabbat 117b) it is
with the word "Bereishit" — "In the beginning" — to teach that customary to eat two meals daily, one in the morning and one in
the entire creation was for the sake of the Jewish people, who are the evening, and on Shabbat there is an additional meal. In keeping
called "reishit [tevu'ata]" — "the first [of His crop]" (Jeremiah 2:3). with this custom, the Gemara says that the charity fund is required
The actual creation was preceded by a "ratzon elyon" — to provide the impoverished with fifteen meals, which would last
"Supernal W i l l " — to create a world (Eitz Chaim p. 1). This one for the entire week. Thus, during a period of a week, one recites
Supernal Will was aroused i n H i m , so to speak, through His the Grace after Meals fifteen times. In merit of this, we ask Hashem
infinite love of Klal Yisrael. to bless us with fifteen acts of Divine kindness.
The first day of creation was Sunday. Since according to the * * *
Jewish calendar a day starts with nightfall, the creation Immediately before the Birkat Hamazon the pasuk,
commenced on Motza'ei Shabbat subsequent to the Supernal Will "Va'anachnu nevareich Y-ah mei'atah ve'ad olam" — "And we w i l l
during Minchah time, i n which His exceptional love for the bless G-d from now until eternity" — is recited. The spelling of
Jewish people was manifested. On every Shabbat at Minchah Hashem's name "yud-hei" (‫ה‬-‫ — )י‬has the numerical value of
time, the Supernal Will is repeated, making the period fifteen. I n consideration of the fifteen meals eaten during the
propitious and most favorable for Klal Yisrael. week, we declare that we w i l l recite the Grace after Meals and
bless Hashem (‫ה‬-‫ )י‬fifteen times, until eternity.
(‫א בשם ך׳ מ״מ זצ״ל מךימונוב‬:‫)בני יששכך מאמךי שבת ח‬
(‫)בהמ״ז עם פיךושו של ך׳ נתן ז״ל שפיךא‬

29 48
••-Ji^••• -<H^ ‫־‬ ;
B L E S S I N G 'A F T E R A M E A L
;
- ‫^<״‬r ‫ברכת המזון‬
+
¥ A J Y A ¥ A ¥ A V *•/*‫ ־‬A ' r A V A V . * / ‫ " ז‬A V A ¥ A V A ' I " A V L . "1' .*. V A V A ¥ A V A V A T A V A Y A ¥ ft¥A ¥ A V A V . W A V A ¥ A V A

‫ ו ב נ ה‬A n d r e b u i l d J e r u s a l e m , the h o l y city, s p e e d i l y i n o u r ‫ס ד ר ב ר כ ת המזון‬


d a y s . B l e s s e d are Y o u , Adonai, W h o i n H i s m e r c y r e b u i l d s :‫קודם מים אחרוגים יאמר על גהרות בבל‬
Jerusalem. Amein. ‫ ע ל עךבים‬:‫ בזכךנו א ת ציון‬,‫על ה ר ו ת בבבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו‬
If one forgot to say ‫ ( רצה‬M a y it please You...) on Shabbat — even at the Seudah Shelishit, i f it is ‫ בי שם שאלונו שובינו דבךי ששיר ותוללינו‬:‫ תלינו בנדותינו‬,‫בתוכה‬
before sunset — and he became aware of it before the berachah of ‫( הטוב ה מ ט י ב‬...who is good and
does good... ) that follows, he should say:
:‫ ע ל א ד מ ת נכד‬,‫ איך נשיר א ת ששיר ידוה‬:‫ ששירו ל נ ו משיד ציון‬, ‫ש מ ח ה‬
‫ ברוך‬Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, King of the universe, Who has ,‫ ת ד ב ק לשוני ל ח ב י נאם ל א אזבךכי‬:‫ ת ש ב ח ימיני‬,‫נאם א ש ב ח ך ידושלם‬
given Shabbats for rest to His people Israel, with love, as a sign and a ‫ זכר יהוה לבני אדום א ת‬:‫א ם ל א א ע ל ה א ת ידושלם ע ל ראש שמחתי‬
covenant. Blessed are You Adonai, Who sanctified the Shabbat.
,‫ ב ת בבבל השדודה‬:‫ ה א מ ר י ם עדו ן עדו עד היסוד בה‬,‫יום ידושלם‬
If one forgot to say ‫( יעלה ויבא‬Our God...may there ascend) on a Festival, he should say:
‫ ברוך‬Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, King of the universe, Who has ‫ אשךי שיאחז ונפץ נאת‬:‫אשדי שישלם ל ך נאת גמולך ש ג מ ל ת לנו‬
given festivals to His people Israel for joy and gladness, this day of the :‫ע ל ל י ך א ל הסלע‬
Festival of (Name the Festival). Blessed are You Adonai, Who sanctified Israel and
the seasons. ‫ אלידזים יחננו ויבךכנו יאאד פניו א ת נ ו‬:‫למנצח בנגינת מזמור ששיר‬
O n Rosh Hashanah: ‫ ברוך‬Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, King of the ‫ יודוך עמים אלידדים יודוך‬:‫ ל ד ע ת ב א ר ץ דדבך ב כ ל גוים ישועתך‬:‫וסלה‬
universe, Who has given festivals to His people Israel for a remembrance, this ­‫!•ו‬ TI T I •: T T T I •: ‫־‬ I T T ‫־‬ ‫־‬ T T

Day of Remembrance. Blessed are You Adonai, Who sanctified Israel and the ‫ ישמחו וידרשנו ל א מ י ם בי תששפט עמים מישר ולאמים‬:‫עמים כבלם‬
Day of Remembrance. ‫ א ר ץ ת ע ה‬:‫ יודוך עמים אליהים יודוך עמים כבלם‬:‫ב א ך ץ ת נ ח ם וסלה‬
O n Chol HaMoeid: ‫ ברוך‬Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, King of the
universe, Who has given festive days to His people Israel for joy and ‫ יברכנו אליהים וייראו אותו ב ל א פ ס י‬:‫יבולה יברכנו אליהים אלידדינו‬
gladness, this day of the Festival of (Name the Festival) — w i t h o u t a concluding blessing. (32 ‫אברכה גו־ )עמוד‬ :‫אךץ‬
O n Rosh Chodesh: ‫ ברוך‬Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, King of the ‫״על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בזכרנו את ציון״‬
universe, Who has given the days of Rosh Chodesh to His people Israel for "By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat
remembrance — w i t h o u t a concluding blessing.
and also wept as we remembered Z i o n . "
If a Festival (or Rosh Hashanah or Rosh Chodesh) falls on Shabbat,
QUESTION: The word "gam" — "also" — is superfluous. It
and one omitted both of the appropriate prayers, he should combine them and say:
‫ ברוך‬Blessed are You, Adonai, our God, King of the universe, Who has should simply say "yashavnu ubachinu" — "we sat and wept"?
given Shabbats for rest to His people Israel, with love, as a sign and a ANSWER: On the second day of creation Hashem made the
covenant, and festivals (on Chol HaMoeid substitute: and festive days) for joy and firmament which separated between the waters above and the
gladness, this day of the Festival of (Name the Festival). ( O n Rosh Hashanah substitute:
waters below [the earth]. The lower waters were unhappy and
and festivals for remembrance, this Day of Remembrance. O n Rosh Chodesh
substitute: and days of Rosh Chodesh for remembrance.) and conclude: Blessed are
cried that they, too, desired to be close to Hashem. As an
You Adonai, Who sanctified the Shabbat and Israel and the [festive] seasons. appeasement He promised them that their benefit for being
On Rosh Hashanah substitute: and the Day of Remembrance. O n Rosh Chodesh substitute: below would be that salt, which is a derivative of the water,
and days of Rosh Chodesh.
would be put on all sacrifices offered in the Beit Hamikdash, and
The above applies only i f one realized his omission before he began the berachah ‫ הטוב ה מ ט י ב‬that
follows. I f he reminded himself after he had already begun the berachah, even i f he only said the
that on Simchat Beit Hasho'eivah water would be poured on the
w o r d , Baruch, he must repeat the entire Blessing After a Meal from the beginning. This applies to altar and there would be much ceremony and rejoicing when the
Shabbat and the festival days of Pesach, Shavuot and Succot and the evening meal of Rosh Hashanah;
however, on Chol HaMoeid, Rosh Chodesh, the Seudah Shelishit of Shabbat or the daytime meal of
water would be drawn (see Tikunei Zohar 5, Vayikra 2:13, Rashi).
Rosh Hashanah, i f he d i d not r e m i n d himself u n t i l he had already begun ‫הטוב והמטיב‬, he should not With the destruction of the Beit Hamikdash the appeasement
repeat it.
offered the waters was no longer relevant, so they wept over their
If Grace was recited over a cup of wine, it is n o w put on the table.
distance and detachment from the waters above. In addition, the
‫ ברוך‬B l e s s e d are Y o u , Adonai, our G o d , K i n g of the u n i v e r s e , Jews exiled to Babylon wept over their sad plight. Hence, the
the A l m i g h t y , our Father, our K i n g , our M i g h t , our Creator, our Psalmist is saying that when we sat at the rivers in Babylonia,
R e d e e m e r , our M a k e r , our H o l y O n e , the H o l y O n e of Y a a k o v , our "gam bachinu" — "we also wept" — (together with the water)
S h e p h e r d , the S h e p h e r d of Israel, the K i n g w h o is good a n d does when we reminded ourselves of Zion which lay in ruins.
good to a l l each a n d every day. H e has done good for u s , H e does (‫)תהלים עם פי׳ אמךות טהוךות בשם ישמח ישךאל‬

47 30
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Blessing After A M e a l ‫ ברוך אתה‬.‫ובנה ירושלים עיד הקדש במהךה בימינו‬


O n d a y s w h e n Tachnun is r e c i t e d ,
t h e f o l l o w i n g is s a i d b e f o r e w a s h i n g t h e f i n g e r s : :‫יהרה בנה ברחמיו ירושלים אננן‬
‫ ע ל‬By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat and also wept as we
,‫ אפילו בסעודה שלישית‬,‫שכח ולא אמר רצה בשבת‬
remembered Zion. There, upon the willows we hung our harps. For there
:‫ אומר‬,‫ וגזכר קודם ברכת הטוב והמטיב‬,‫אם הוא קודם שקיעת החמה‬
our captors demanded of us songs, and those who scorned us — rejoicing,
[saying,] "Sing to us the songs of Zion." How can we sing the song of ‫ב ר ו ך אתה יהוה אליהינו מלך העולם שנתן ששבתות למנוחה לעמו‬
Adonai on alien soil? I f I forget you, Jerusalem, let my right hand forget :‫ ברוך אתה יהוה מקדש השבת‬.‫ישךאל באהבה לאות ולבךית‬
its dexterity. Let my tongue cleave to my palate if I will not remember
:‫ואם טעה ולא אמר יעלה ויבא ביום טוב אומר‬
you, if I w i l l not bring to mind Jerusalem during my greatest joy!
Remember, Adonai, against the Edomites the day of the destruction of ‫ב ר ו ך אתה יהוה אליהינו מלך העולם אשד נדרן ימנים טובים לעמו ישךאל‬
Jerusalem, when they said, "Raze it, raze it to its very foundation!" O ‫ ברוך אתה יהוה מקדש ישךאל‬:‫הזזה‬ (‫פלוגי‬ ‫לששון ולשמחה את־יום ךוג‬
Babylon, who are destined to be laid waste, praises to him who w i l l repay
you in retribution for what you have inflicted on us. Praises to him who :‫והזמנים‬
w i l l seize and crush your infants against the rock! :‫בראש השגה אומר‬

‫למנצח‬For the Choirmaster; a song with instrumental music; a Psalm. ‫ב ר ו ך אתה יהוה אליהינו מלך העולם אשד נדרן ימנים טובים לעמו ישךאל‬
May God be gracious to us and bless us, may He make His countenance
shine upon us forever; that Your way be known on earth, Your salvation
:‫ ברוך אתה יהוה מקדש ישךאל ויום דזזבדון‬:‫לזבדון את־יום הזבדון הזה‬
among all nations. The nations w i l l extol You, O God; all the nations w i l l :‫בחול המועד אומר‬
extol You. The nations w i l l rejoice and sing for joy, for You w i l l judge the ‫ב ר ו ך אתה יהוה אליהינו מלך העולם אשד נתן מועדים לעמו ישךאל‬
peoples justly and guide the nations on earth forever. The peoples w i l l
(‫ )ואיגו חותם‬:‫לששון ולשמחה את־יום חוג פלוגי( הזה‬
extol You, O God; all the peoples w i l l extol You. The earth w i l l have
:‫בראש חודש אומר‬
yielded its produce and God, our God, w i l l bless us. God w i l l bless us;
and all, from the furthest corners of the earth, shall fear Him. (continue ‫א ב ר כ ה‬ ‫ב ר ו ך אתה יהוה אלהינו מלך העולם ש נתן דאשי חדשים לעמו ישךאל‬
— " I w i l l bless..." — p. 33) (‫ )ואיגו חותם‬:‫לזבדון‬

‫״בשוב הי את שיבת ציון היינו כחלמים״‬ ‫ בשבת ולא הזכיר לא של שבת ]רצה[ ולא של‬,‫ וחול המועד‬- ‫ ראש חדש‬- ‫ ראש השגה‬- ‫ואם חל יום טוב‬
"When G - d w i l l return the exiles of Z i o n , :‫ כוללן יחד ואומר‬,[‫יום טוב או ראש השגה או ראש חדש או חול המועד ]יעלה ויבא‬

we w i l l have been like dreamers." ‫ב ר ו ך אתה יהוה אליהינו מלך העולם שנתן ששבתות למנוחה לעמו‬
QUESTION: To which dreamers will we be compared? (‫ישךאל באהבה לאות ולבךית )ביום טוב( וימים טובים )בחול המועד ומועדים‬
ANSWER: When Yosef was incarcerated in Egypt, he met
‫ )בראש השגה( וימים טובים לזבדון את־יום‬:‫לששון ולשמחה את־יום ךוג פלוגי( הזזה‬
the butler and the baker, who had experienced strange dreams
‫ ברוך אתה ידוה מקדש‬:‫ וחותם‬:‫ )בראש חדש( וראשי חדשים לזבדון‬:‫הזבדון הזה‬
during the night. Each one of them not only dreamt something
related to his profession, but also dreamt the interpretation of his (‫)בראש חדש‬ :‫וייום הזבדון‬ (‫)בראש השגה‬ :‫והזמנים‬ (‫)ביום טוב וחול המועד‬ ‫השבת וישראל‬
colleague's dream (Bereishit 40:5, Rashi). :‫וראשי חדשים‬
The baker dreamt of a king's servant who will be released ‫ אפילו‬,‫ אבל אם גזכר אחר שהתחיל ברכת הטוב והמטיב‬.‫וכל זה כשגזכר קודם שהתחיל ברכת הטוב והמטיב‬
,‫* במה דברים אמורים בשבת ויום טוב של שלש רגלים‬.‫לא אמר אלא תיבת ברוך בלבד צריך לחזור לראש‬
from prison and restored to his duty and glory. He thought that ‫ וכן בסעודה שלישית‬.‫ אם לא גזכר עד שהתחיל הטוב והמטיב אוגו חוזר‬,‫ וראש חדש‬- ‫אבל בחולו של מועד‬
it referred to him and was thus very happy. The butler on the .‫ אבל בליל ראש השגה חוזר‬,‫ וכן בראש השגה ביום‬,‫של שבת ויום טוב‬

other hand, dreamt of a king's servant who will be hung and


.‫ אומר הן רצה והן יעלה ויבא‬,‫ ר־ח‬,‫ ר־ה‬,‫ חוה־מ‬,‫ יו־ט‬:‫* ואם הוא גם שבת וגם‬
was very sad, since he thought it was he. In reality they were
both mistaken. The good news of which the baker dreamt did .‫ אבינו מלבנו‬. ‫ ה א ל‬,‫א ת ה יהוה אליהינו מ ל ך העולם‬ ‫ברוך‬
not refer to him; on the contrary he ended up being hung, and
the bad news of which the butler dreamt did not apply to him,
‫ קדושנו קדוש יעקב ת ע נ ו רועה‬.‫אדיךנו בוךאנו גואלנו יוצךנו‬
for he was exonerated and returned to his position. .‫ הוא היטיב לנו‬,‫ישךאל ה מ ל ך הטוב והמטיב ל ב ל ב כ ל יום ויום‬

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{On the Shabbat, the following paragraph is added:} ‫ואם הוא יום שאין אומרים בו תחגון יאמר זה‬
‫ ר צ ה‬May it please You Adonai, our God, to strengthen us through
Your commandments and through the commandment of the seventh day, ‫ אז‬:‫ה מ ע ל ו ת בשוב יהוה ואת־ שיבת ציון היינו בחלמים‬ ‫ששיר‬
this great and holy Shabbat. For this day is great and holy before You, to ‫י מ ל א ששחוק כפינו ו ל ש ו נ ו יונה אז ייאמרו בגוים הגדיל ידוה ל ע ש ו ת‬
refrain from work and to rest on it with love, in accordance with the
‫ שובה ידוה ואת־‬:‫ הגדיל ידוה ל ע ש ו ת עמנו היינו שמחים‬:‫עם־אלה‬
commandment of Your will. And in Your w i l l grant us tranquility
Adonai, our God, that there be no distress, grief, or sorrow on the day of I ‫ הליך נלך‬:‫ דזזיךעים ב ד מ ע ה בךנה יקצרו‬:‫שביתנו באפיקים בנגב‬
our rest. And show us, Adonai, our God, the consolation of Zion Your :‫ובכה נ ש א משך־הזךע ב א יביא בךנה נ ש א אלמתיו‬
city, and the rebuilding of Jerusalem Your holy city, for You are the
Master of deliverances and the Master of consolations. ‫ א ה ב יהוה שערי ציון‬:‫לבני־קךח מזמור ששיר יסודרו בהךךי־קדש‬
On Rosh Chodesh, Festivals, and Chol HaMoeid add: I ‫ אאזביד‬:‫ נ כ ב ד ו ת מ ד ב ר בך עיר האליהים וסלה‬:‫בנבל מ ש ב נ ו ת יעקב‬
7

D u r i n g the following passage, the person leading the Grace should raise his voice slightly w h e n
‫ ולציון דאמד‬:‫ר ה ב ובבבל ליידעי הזנה פ ל ש ת וצור עם בוש זה ילד־שם‬
reciting the phrase "Zachreinu A-donai" ("Remember us A-donai"). Those assembled should answer
Amein after the w o r d s "letovah" ("for good"), "liverachah" ("for blessing"), and "lechayim tovim" ‫ ידוה יספר ב כ ת ו ב עמים זה‬:‫איש ואיש יילד־בה והוא יכוננה עליון‬
("and for good life").

‫אלקינו‬ Our God and God of our fathers, may there ascend, come and
:‫ ושווים בךךללים ב ל מעיני בך‬:‫ילד־שם וסלה‬
reach, be seen, accepted, and heard, recalled and remembered before You, ‫ סוף ד ב ר הזבל‬:‫א ת ־ ידוה בכל־ ע ת ת מ י ד ת ה ל ת ו בפי‬ ‫אבךכה‬
the remembrance and recollection of us, the remembrance of our fathers,
the remembrance of Mashiach the son of David Your servant, the ‫ תדזלת‬:‫ בבי־ זה ב ל האדם‬.‫ א ת האליהים יךא ו א ת מצותיו ששמור‬.‫נשמע‬
remembrance of Jerusalem Your holy city, and the remembrance of all .‫ ואנחנו נברך יה‬:‫ ויברך ב ל בשד ששם קדשו ל ע ו ל ם ועד‬.‫יהוה ידבד פי‬
T :1 ‫־‬ ‫־‬: ‫־‬: T ‫״‬ T" 1 :
Your people the House of Israel, for deliverance, well-being, grace,
kindness, mercy, good life and peace, on this day of: :‫ הללויה‬.‫מ ע ת ה ועד עולם‬
O n Rosh Chodesh: Rosh Chodesh. O n Pesach: the Festival of Matzot. O n Shavuot:
In the Diaspora, the Jews experience persecution and
the Festival of Shavuot. O n Succot: the Festival of Succot. O n Shemini Atzeret:
Shemini Atzeret, the Festival. O n Rosh Hashanah: Remembrance. O n Pesach, Shavuot, oppression, and the gentile world which reigns over us experiences
and Succot — except on Chol HaMo'eid — and on Rosh Hashanah: O n this holy Festival day. success and tranquility. The Psalmist is saying that when Hashem
Remember us on this [day], Adonai our God, for good; be mindful of takes the Jewish people out of exile and we will face the reality of
us on this [day] for blessing; help us on this [day] for good life. With the the Messianic era, it will be for the Jews and the world an
promise of deliverance and compassion, spare us and be gracious to us;
"awakening of the dreamers" — similar to the case of the baker and
have mercy upon us and deliver us; for our eyes are directed to You, for
You, Almighty, are a gracious and merciful King. the butler, who awakened and witnessed reality. The Jews who
thought that their suffering was endless and perpetual will rejoice
Chassidei Chabad, instead of "hakedoshah" — "holy" — it says and be jubilant, and the gentile world who thought that they would
"hegedushah" — "overflowing" — (as i n "maleih vegadush" — forever dominate over the Jewish people will declare, "Hashem has
"full and overflowing"). done great things for these," and they will adopt a submissive
attitude towards the Jewish people. ( —‫ן‬ ‫)ק‬
The letters of the alef-beit emanate from five different points ‫ב א ב ו ב‬ ‫צ י ו‬ ‫ד ו ש ת‬

of articulation in the mouth (tongue, lips, teeth, throat, and ‫ הלך ילך ובכה‬.‫״הזרעים בדמעה ברנה יקצרו‬
palate). The letters gimmel, yud, chaf, and kuf (‫ )גיכ״ק‬emanate from ‫נשא משך הזרע בא יבא ברנה נושא אלומותיו״‬
the "chaich" — "palate" — and due to their similarity they are at "Those who sow in tears will reap with joyous
times interchangeable. A n example of this is i n the Gemara song. He who goes along carrying the bag of seed;
w i l l return singing joyously, carrying his sheaves."
(Chullin 7b) which says, "Ein adam nokeif etzba'o" — " A person
QUESTION: These two verses seem redundant?
does not injure his finger [unless it was decreed from above]."
ANSWER: Based on the passuk, "Zireu'a lachem litzedakah" —
Rashi writes that the word "nokeif" (‫ )נוקף‬means "nogeif"(‫)נוגף‬.
"Sow for yourselves charity" (Hosea 10:12), the Gemara (Succah 49b)
Hence, it is possible here, too, that in "hakedoshah" the "kuf" is
identifies charity with sowing. Thus, in this Psalm the word "hazo-
interchanged with the "gimmel" and it actually means "overflowing."
(‫ו‬:‫ ועי׳ עךוך השלחן קפ״ז‬,‫)בךוך שאמך‬ rim" — "those who sow" — is a reference to those who give charity.

45 32
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• • - H < - B L E S S I N G 'A F T E R A M E A L ‫ברכת המזון‬


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••j^>y•-om‫ ^־‬Ji^•••,'•
O n d a y s w h e n Tachnun is n o t r e c i t e d , :‫בשבת‬
t h e f o l l o w i n g is s a i d b e f o r e w a s h i n g t h e f i n g e r s
‫והחליצנו יהוה אלדדינו במצןתיך׳ ובמצות יום השביעי‬ ‫רצה‬
‫ ש י ר‬A Song of Ascents. When Adonai returns the exiles of Zion, it
,‫ה ש ב ת הגדול והקדוש הזזה בבי יום זה גדול וקדוש הוא לפניך‬
w i l l be as if we had been dreaming. Then, our mouth w i l l be filled with • T • IT • T_TI • • •_• ‫־‬

laughter and our tongue with songs of joy. Then they w i l l declare among ‫ ובךצונך הניח לנו יהוה‬.‫לש בת־בו ^לנוךך־בו ב א ה ב ה במצות ךצונך‬
the nations: "Adonai has done great things for these." Adonai has done
great things for us; we have been joyful. Bring back, Adonai, our exiles as ‫ והראנו יהוה‬.‫אלדדינו שליא ת ה א צךה יייגון ואנךה ביום מנוחתנו‬
streams in the desert. Those who sow in tears will reap with joyous song.
‫ בבי א ת ה‬,‫ ובבנין ירושלים עיר קדשך‬,‫אלדדינו ב נ ח מ ת ציון עיךך‬
He who goes along weeping, carrying the bag of seed, w i l l return singing
joyously, carrying his sheaves. :‫הוא בעל הישועות וךב^ל הנחמות‬
‫ ל ב נ י‬By the sons of Korach, a psalm, a song whose theme is [praise ‫בר־ח וביו־ט ובחוה־מ‬

for] the holy mountains [of Zion and Jerusalem]. Adonai loves the gates of .‫ ויגיע ןיךאה ונרצה‬.‫ יעלה ויבא‬.‫נאלידזינו דאלידזי אבותינו‬
Zion more than all the dwelling places of Yaakov. Glorious things are
spoken of you, eternal city of God. I w i l l make mention of Rahav (Egypt)
‫ חכרון מששיךו‬.‫ הכךון אבותינו‬.‫ זכרוננו ופקדוננו‬.‫וישמע <י^פנןד ויזכר‬
and Babylon to those who know me; behold there are Philistia, Tyre, as ‫ חכרון בל־עמך בית‬.‫ הכךון ירושלים עיר קדשך‬.‫ב;ן־דוד עבדך‬
well as Cush; [their call to fame is] "This one [great person] was born
there." But of Zion it can be said; "Man after man [many men of ‫ לחן ולחסד ולרחמים ולחיים טובים‬.‫ישךאל ל פניך לפליטה לטובה‬
greatness] were born in her," and He w i l l establish her as supreme. ‫בשבועות‬ .‫ךוג המצות הזזה‬ ‫בפסח‬ .‫ראש החדש הזה‬ ‫ברח‬ ‫ בביום‬.‫ולשלום‬
Adonai w i l l count in the register of people, "This one was born there";
Selah. Singers and dancers [will praise Jerusalem,] chanting: " A l l my ‫שמיני עצרת דדךוג‬ ‫בשמע־צ‬ .‫ךוג ה ס ב ו ת הזה‬ ‫בסוכות‬ .‫ךוג השבעות הזה‬
inner thoughts are of you."
‫בביום טוב‬ ‫בשלש רגלים )חחי מחה־מ( וברה‬ .‫דדי־־בךון הזה‬ ‫בראש השגה‬ .‫הזה‬
‫ א ב ר כ ה‬I w i l l bless Adonai at all times; His praise shall always be in ‫ ופקדנו בו ל ב ר כ ה‬.‫ זכרנו יהו ה אליהינו בו לטו בה‬.‫מק דא קודש הזזה‬
my mouth. The ultimate conclusion, all having been heard: Fear God, and T T : ‫״‬ ‫ ״״‬I : T T : ‫״״‬ ".‫ ״‬I T : ‫״״‬ I T ".‫־ ״‬ ".‫ ״‬I T I: ‫״‬

observe His commandments, for this is the whole purpose of man. My ‫ ובדבר ישועה ורחמים חוס ויחננו וךךום‬:‫והושיענו בו לחיים טובים‬
mouth w i l l utter the praise of Adonai, and let all flesh bless His holy
name forever and ever. A n d we w i l l bless God from now until eternity, :‫ בבי א ל מ ל ך ךונון וךחום אתה‬.‫עלינו והושיענו בבי אליך עינינו‬
Halleluyah — praise God. How can this be reconciled with the Gemara (ibid.) that these
berachot were made by Moshe, Yehoshua, David, and Shlomo?
ANSWER: After meals the Torah requires us to recite a
King David is saying: "Hazor'im" — " A l l that give tzedakah"
blessing to Hashem for the food we have eaten, for the land and
— "bedimah berinah" — [regardless] "if they do it with sadness or
for Jerusalem. Originally each individual, however, based on his
with joy" — "yiktzoru" — "will harvest reward." However,
knowledge and fluency, was at liberty to compose his own text.
"haloch yeilach uvachoh" — "the one who cried and was sad when
The present day text which became the universally accepted and
he parted with his money" — "nosei meshech hazara" — "will
required, was composed by Moshe, Yehoshua, David, and
carry the bag of seed" i.e. the reward will be limited and
Shlomo, in recognition of a specific goodness which the Jewish
commensurate to the tzedakah given. On the other hand, if "bo p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e d .
(‫ בשם ךשב״א וךא״ש‬,‫ב‬:‫)שו״ע אדמוה״ז סי׳ קפ״ז‬
yavo berina" — one gave tzedakah with happiness and a cheerful
‫״לידך המלאה הפתוחה הקדושה והרחבה״‬
countenance — then "nosei alumotav" — the reward will be "Your full, open, holy, and generous hand."
carried in large bundles — overwhelming. QUESTION: It should have said, "yadecha hakedoshah" — "Your
The Gemara (Bava Batra 9b) says, "One who gives charity holy hand" — before describing His benevolence? It does not seem
receives six blessings, but the one who says soothing words to fit between the descriptions of "open" and "generous"?
while giving receives eleven blessings." ANSWER: In the Ba'al Shem Tov's hand-written Siddur,
(‫)ךזין דאוךייתא‬ which was acquired by the sixth Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef
Yitzchak Schneersohn, and is currently i n the library of Agudat

33 44
A ¥ A ¥ft" W L ¥ft¥ft.YA'tV/fA V A Y A ‫ ־‬T " V A Vft. V A ¥ftY A ¥ftV ATAVAVAVA V A ' T V . V A V A V A W A VftV A Y A ¥ 1 A Y AY A V A ‫י‬
:
•••^y-^4i ‫^'׳׳‬My BLESSING AFTER A M E A L :
•••&*k •‫•־^«^־‬ ‫ברכת המזון‬

On Purim :‫קודם מים אחרוגים יאמר פסוק זה‬

‫ ב י מ י‬I n the days of Mordechai and Esther, i n S h u s h a n the capital, :‫זה ן חלק־אדם ךשע מאלידזים ונחלת אמדו מאל‬
:‫ואחר מים אחרוגים יאמר פסוק זה‬
w h e n the w i c k e d H a m a n rose up against them, and sought to destroy, c 1
:‫וידבר אלי זה ךדכשלחן ןאשוד ק כנני יהוה‬
slaughter and annihilate all the Jews, young and old, infants and
women, i n one day, on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, the In a derasha — speech — Rabbi Aaron of Belz delivered at his
month of Adar, and to take their spoil for plunder. But Y o u , i n Your Bar Mitzvah, he expounded this pasuk as follows:
abounding mercies, foiled his counsel and frustrated his intention, Until the child reaches the age of thirteen, the father is
and caused the evil he planned to recoil on his o w n head, and they responsible for the child's wrongdoings and transgressions.
hanged h i m and his sons upon the gallows. Upon reaching thirteen years of age, the young man becomes
fully liable for his actions, and the father proclaims the "Baruch
‫ ו ע ל‬F o r a l l this, Adonai, our G o d , w e t h a n k Y o u a n d bless Y o u . shepetarani mei'onesh halazeh" — "Blessed is He Who has released
May Y o u r N a m e be b l e s s e d b y the m o u t h of every l i v i n g b e i n g me from being punishable for this [boy]."
constantly a n d forever, as it i s written: " W h e n y o u h a v e eaten a n d The pasuk is saying "haloch yeilach u'vochoh" — [the father] is
are satiated, y o u s h a l l b l e s s Adonai, y o u r G o d , for the good l a n d crying and praying that his son conduct himself properly —
w h i c h H e h a s g i v e n y o u . " B l e s s e d are Y o u , Adonai, for the l a n d since "nosei" — "he carries" — "meshech" — "the bag" — i.e.
and for the food. responsibilities of "hazara" — "the children" — (as in "zera" —
"children"). However, "bo" — it arrives — "yavo" — the age of
‫ ר ח ם‬H a v e mercy, Adonai, our G o d , o n Israel Y o u r people, o n
thirteen — ("yavo" (‫ — )יבוא‬has the numerical value of thirteen).
J e r u s a l e m Y o u r city, o n Z i o n the d w e l l i n g of Y o u r glory, o n the
Then, "berinah" — "[the father] is happy" — since "nosei
k i n g s h i p of the H o u s e of D a v i d Y o u r anointed, a n d o n the great
alumotav" — [the son] carries his own "bundles" from now on
and h o l y house u p o n w h i c h Y o u r n a m e i s called. O u r G o d , our and is fully responsible for his actions.
Father, tend u s ( o n Shabbat [ a n d F e s t i v a l s ] s u b s t i t u t e : O u r S h e p h e r d ) , feed
‫מים אחרונים‬
us, n o u r i s h u s , sustain u s , a n d provide u s w i t h comfort, a n d
W a s h i n g the fingers
speedily, Adonai, our G o d , grant u s relief from a l l our afflictions.
QUESTION: Before reciting the Birkat Hamazon — Grace
Please, Adonai, our G o d , do not m a k e u s dependent o n the gifts
after Meals — we wash our fingers. This is known as mayim
of mortals nor u p o n their loans, but o n l y u p o n Y o u r f u l l , open, acharonim — the final washing — (the first washing is done before
h o l y , a n d generous h a n d , that w e m a y not be s h a m e d or disgraced the meal). One of the reasons for this is melach Sedomit — Sodo¬
forever a n d ever. mite salt. The salt of Sodom is very strong and potentially dan¬
gerous. It can, G-d forbid, blind a person who has i t on his
‫״ואכלת ושבעת וברכת את הי אלקיך‬ fingers and touches his eyes.
‫על הארץ הטובה אשר נתן לך״‬ Why, throughout the entire world, even when one lives thou¬
"When y o u have eaten and are satiated, sands of miles away from Sodom, does one wash his fingers
you shall bless H a s h e m , your G - d , because of the Sodomite salt? (See, Shulchan Aruch Harav 181:1,8.)
for the good land He has given y o u . " ANSWER: Salt itself is not nourishing; it only adds taste to other
QUESTION: The Gemara (48b) explains that the pasuk "And foods. The people of Sodom were evil and refused to give food to
you shall eat, and you shall be satiated, and you shall bless Hashem nourish a guest. Moreover, they even refused to give salt, which has
your G-d" is a reference to the berachah of "Hazan" — "Who no nourishment value, to a stranger (Bereishit, 19:26, Rashi).
nourishes" — and "for the land" is a reference to "Birkat Ha'aretz" "Sodomite salt" is a metaphor for the wicked philosophy of
— "the blessing for the land" — and "the good" is a reference to the people of Sodom, who were totally "blind" to the needs of
the blessing of "Bonei Yerushalayim" — "Builder of Jerusalem." others and refused to practice hospitality.

43 34
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BLESSING AFTER A M E A L ‫ברכת המזון‬


: :
'•'^i••• <-M4> *' ‫־‬£4%i•• VAVAVAVAVA
‫־‬ ;
; ^‫•־‬

Before mayim acharonim — r i n s i n g o f the fingers — the f o l l o w i n g is said. ‫לפורים‬

‫ ז ה‬This is the portion of a wicked man from God, and the heritage .‫ בשעמד עליהם המן הךשע‬.‫ביךה‬1‫^יכני מךדכי ןאסתד בשושן ךז‬
assigned to him by the Almighty. .‫ נזף ונשים‬.‫ מנעך ועד זקן‬.‫יבקקש קדזששנ)יד ל ד ו ג ולאבד־את־בל היהודים‬ t

A f t e r r i n s i n g the fingers, the w e t fingers are passed over one's l i p s


a n d the f o l l o w i n g is said:
.‫ בשלשה עשר לחרש שנים־עשד הוא־חדש אדד ושללם לבוז‬.‫ביום אחד‬
t t
‫וידבר‬ A n d he said to me: 'This is the table that is before Adonai.' " ‫ והשבות‬.‫ ןקןקךןקת את־מחשבתו‬.‫ואתה ברחמיך הךבים הפךת את־עצתו‬
:‫ ותלו אותו ןאת־בנין על העץ‬.‫לו גמולו בראשו‬
A hungry person has sympathy for someone who is in need.
Often, once he is sated and satisfied, he becomes insensitive to , ‫ ומבךכים א ו ת ך‬, ‫ךזבל יהיה אליהינו א נ ח נ ו מודים ך‬ ‫ועל‬
the suffering of the needy, and like the people of Sodom, he ‫ ךבבתוב ו א כ ל ת‬:‫י ת ב ר ך ש מ ך בפי ב ל חי תנניד ל ע ו ל ם ןונד‬
becomes blind to the needs of others. T ‫־‬T: T‫־‬:•/ T T T ‫־־‬ TI""•" !T " I "

Our Sages want us to always have compassion for the needy. ‫ו ש ב ע ת ו ב ר כ ת ךאת־יהוה אליהיך ע ל ־ ה א ד ץ ה ט ו ב ה א ש ד נתן־‬
I ‫־‬ T ‫־‬: T ‫־־‬ I T T ‫־־‬ TI T T ‫־‬ ‫״‬ T T T

Therefore, they have instructed that upon the completion of our :‫ ברוך א ת ה יהוה ע ל ־ ה א ד ץ ועל־המזון‬:‫לךך‬
meal, when we are full and satisfied, we must cleanse ourselves 1

and make sure that the philosophy of Sodom ("Sodomite salt") ,‫יהוה אליהינו ע ל ־ י ש ך א ל ע מ ך ועל־יךושל ים עיךך‬ ‫דחם‬
does not stick to us and, G-d forbid, blind us. We must be hospi¬ ‫ועל ציון מ ש ב ן בבודך ועל מ ל כ ו ת בית דויד מ ש י ח ך ן ע ל ־ ה ב י ת‬
table at all times and "see" the plight of the less fortunate. ‫)בשבת‬ ‫ אליהינו אבינו ךענו‬:‫דזגדול והקדוש ש נ ק ך א ש מ ך עליו‬
(‫)ואני תפלתי‬
‫רוענו( זונננו פ ר נ ס נ ו ו כ ל ב ל נ ו ה ת י ח נ ו ודזוווח לנו ידוה‬ ‫טוב‬ ‫וביום‬

.‫ ו נ א א ל ־ ת צ ך י כ נ ו ידוה אליהינו‬:‫אליהינו ננדדךה מבל־צדותינו‬


Before mayim acharonim we recite the verse, "This is the
‫יבבי א ם ל י ד ך‬,‫ל א לידיי מ ת נ ת בשד ודם ו ל א לידי הלואתם‬
portion of the wicked man from G-d, and the heritage appointed ­‫!­ו‬ :1‫־‬: T T T : -
. . . T T T T -
I -
. . .

to him by the A-mighty" (Job 20:29). After mayim acharonim the ‫ה פ ת ו ח ה ה ק ד ו ש ה ו ה ו ח ב ה שליא דנבוש ו ל א נ ב ל ם‬ ‫המלאה‬
following verse is said, "And he said to me, 'This is the table that :‫ל ע ו ל ם וועד‬
is before G-d' " (Ezekiel 41:22).
‫״ותלו אותו ואת בניו על העץ״‬
In view of the above, the relevance of these verses may be as
"They hanged him and his sons upon the gallows."
follows: In preparing to cleanse one's self of the unwanted
QUESTION: When were they hung?
"Sodomite salt" philosophy, one declares that "This is the
ANSWER: On the sixteenth day of Nissan, the day of the
portion of a wicked man from G-d... " and that it is not the
second banquet, Esther revealed her nationality to King
practice that Hashem expects and requests of the Jewish people.
Achashverosh. She told him of the calamity her people were
After mayim acharonim, which symbolically accentuates the facing and he ordered that Haman be hung. That evening he was
attribute of hachnasat orchim — hospitality — the Jew now hung on the gallows (Megillah 15a, Rashi). Afterwards, the King
declares that his table will be one that is "before Hashem," and requested that a cover be placed above his head to protect his
he will share its holiness with other Jews continuously. body from being eaten up by the birds and he remained on the
gallows for the entire year.
‫״וידבר אלי זה השלחן אשר לפני הי״‬
To further humiliate the Amalikites and frighten the anti-
"And he said to me, ' T h i s is the table
that is before Hashem.' " Semites, on the thirteenth of Adar when Haman's sons were
slain, Esther asked that they be hung together with their father.
QUESTION: What is the significance of reciting this verse This would magnify the already existing public spectacle and
before the Grace after Meals? convey a good lesson. (‫י‬-‫ט‬:‫ ז‬,‫)מעם לועז על מג״א‬

35 42
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:
•••^y-^4i ‫^'׳׳‬My BLESSING AFTER A M E A L :
••••^^^•k ---^>h‫•־‬ ‫ברכת המזון‬
VJWAVftHKVA¥AVI1¥AViWftVAVftVAVAVftVftVAVAVAVAlW¥AVAVAV AVAYAVAVAVAVA

On Chanukah and Purim ‫( ע ל הנסים‬And...for the miracles) is recited here. If one forgot to say it, :‫אם מברכין בזימון אומר המברך‬
w h e n he reaches ‫ ( ה ר ח מ ן ה ו א יזכנו‬M a y the Merciful One...), p. 53, he should add: ‫ה ר ח מ ן ה ו א יעשה לנו‬ :‫ )או בלא( ךבותי נמיר וזעלין בענטשין‬:‫הזב לן ונבךיך‬
‫ ( נסים כ מ ו ש ע ש ה לאבותינו בימים ה ה ם בזמן הזה‬M a y the Merciful One perform miracles of us as H e has :‫ועוגין המסובין‬
for our ancestors i n those days, at this time), and continue ‫( בימי מ ת ת י ה ו‬In the days of Matityahu...)
on Chanukah, and ‫( בימי מרדכי‬In the days of Mordechai...) on Purim.
:‫יהי ששם יהוה מבידך מעתה ויעיד עולם‬
:‫המברך אומר‬
‫ ו ע ל‬And [we thank You] for the miracles, for the redemption, for the
:‫בךשות מרנן ורבנן ודבותי נברך )במגין אליהינו( שאכלנו משלו‬
mighty deeds, for the saving acts, and for the wonders which You have
:‫ועוגין המסובין‬
wrought for our ancestors in those days, at this time —
O n Chanukah
:‫ברוך )במגין אלידדינו( שאכלנו משלו ובטובו חיינו‬
:‫מי ש ל א א כ ל עמהם עוגה‬
‫ ב י מ י‬In the days of Matityahu, the son of Yochanan the High Priest,
the Hasmonean and his sons, when the wicked Hellenic government rose :‫אליהינו( ומביךך שמו תמיד ׳לעולם וועד‬ ‫ברוך)במגין‬
:‫בסעודת גשואין אומר המברך‬
up against Your people Israel to make them forget Your Torah and violate
the decrees of Your will. But You, in Your abounding mercies, stood by :‫נברך אליהינו שהשמחה במעונו ש אכלנו משלו‬
:‫ועוגין המסובין‬
them in the time of their distress. You waged their battles, defended their
rights and avenged the wrong done to them. You delivered the mighty :‫בדוך אליהינו שהשמחה במעונו שאכלנו משלו ובטובו חיינו‬
into the hand of the weak, the many into the hand of the few, the impure
into the hand of the pure, the wicked into the hand of the righteous, and
ANSWER: I n Pirkei Avot (3:3) Rabbi Shimon says, "When
the wanton sinners into the hand of those who occupy themselves with three eat at one table without speaking words of Torah there, it is
Your Torah. You made a great and holy name for Yourself in Your world, as if they ate of sacrifices to the dead. When, by contrast, three sit
and effected a great deliverance and redemption for Your people to this
at one table and speak words of Torah, it is as if they have eaten
very day. Then Your children entered the shrine of Your House, cleansed
Your Temple, purified Your Sanctuary, kindled lights i n Your holy from the table of the Omnipresent, for it is written, "And he said
courtyards, and instituted these eight days of Chanukah to give thanks to me, 'This is the table that is before Hashem.' "
and praise to Your great Name. The Hebrew word for "table is "shulchan" (‫)שלחן‬. The same
Through kindling the Menorah i n the courtyard, everyone Hebrew letters can be rearranged to spell "lenachash" (‫— )לנחש‬
was able to witness the eight-day miracle (which would not have "to a serpent." Through speaking words of Torah, one makes it a
been the case had i t been lit inside, when only the Kohanim "shulchan" — "a table [before Hashem]" — and otherwise one
would have seen it). * * * makes it "lenachash" — into a serpent which kills and makes our
food "zivchei meitim" — "lifeless" — (the Divine sparks in the
With this explanation, we can answer the popular question of
food were not elevated). ( ‫ה ע ו מ ך‬ ‫) מ ל א‬
why Chanukah is celebrated for eight days instead of seven,
‫כופ של ברכה‬
though sufficient oil was found for the first night.
Cup of Blessing
The oil found would have lasted through the night if the
QUESTION: The Gemara (Pesachim 119b) says that when the
Menorah would have been kindled inside. However, Chanukah
Resurrection takes place, Hashem will make a feast for the tzad-
takes place during the winter, and due to the weather, the oil
dikim, and when Avraham will be given the Cup of Blessing he
would normally not have been sufficient to last through the night
will say, " I am unfit to recite the blessing because I had a son
when the Menorah was kindled outside in the courtyard. ( ‫ס ו פ ך‬ ‫ם‬ ‫ת‬ ‫ח‬ )

Yishmael." Yitzchak will say, " I am unfit because Eisav was my


The Lubavitcher Rebbe questions: According to this, grammati¬ son." Yaakov will turn it down, "Because I married two sisters,
cally it should be in singular: "bechatzer kadshecha" — "in Your holy which the Torah will later forbid." Moshe will say, " I cannot be
courtyard" — in lieu of the plural, "bechatzrot kadshecha" — "in your the one to recite the blessing because I was not privileged to enter
holy courtyards." Thus, he asserts that the Menorah was indeed Eretz Yisrael," and Yehoshua will decline it saying, " I am unfit, for
kindled in the Beit Hamikdash. However, as an additional expression I did not merit to have a son." Hashem will then say to David,
of joy and happiness, all the courtyards in the outskirts of the Beit "Take the cup and recite the blessing," and David will respond, " I
Hamikdash were also illuminated with an abundance of light. will do so, and it is fitting for me, as it is stated, ' I shall raise the
[‫ ט׳‬,‫ וכ׳ האבודךהם ״בחצךות קדשיך ע״ש ]ישעי׳ ס״ב‬,238 ‫)לקוטי שיחות חכ״ה ע׳‬
(.‫בחצךות קדשי״ ושם מדובך ע״ד העיך יךושלים‬
cup of salvations, and the Name of Hashem I shall invoke.' "
tV*.¥.*.VVAVA.V.AVA.VAVAVftVAWAV*V^.V.V^AVAV.AVA.VA¥.A¥A¥AWAV.A¥.A¥^

41 36
WYA^ftVAYWtYAYAYAVi
• ¥AYA WAYA V AVA1V1YA VA ¥ftYiftV ft¥ AVAVA'fA'fA ¥ftWftV A"i A V A ¥W1¥ftV A ¥ A ¥ f t ' 1 A ¥ A V A'

• • - H < - B L E S S I N G 'A F T E R A M E A L :
••j^>y•-om‫ ^־‬Ji^•••,'• ;
‫ברכת המזון‬
W h e n the Grace is said over a c u p o f w i n e o r grape juice, the c u p i s h e l d i n the
‫בחגוכה ובפורים אומרים כאן ועל הגסים ואם שכח ]לאמר יעל דזנסים[ אזי כשיגיע אצל הוחמן‬
p a l m o f one's r i g h t h a n d . Preferably, i t is h e l d three h a n d b r e a d t h s ( a p p r o x . t e n
inches) above t h e table u n t i l o n e concludes t h e blessing "Boneh berachamav ‫ הרחמן הוא יעשה לנו נסים במו שעשה לאבותינו בימים הדזם‬:‫ יאמר‬- 52 ‫ עי‬- [‫]הוא יזבנו‬
Yerushalayim, Amein" ( " W h o r e b u i l d s Jerusalem i n H i s m e r c y , Amein"), at w h i c h ...‫ בימי וכוי‬:‫בזמן ךדוה‬
t i m e i t i s placed o n the table. I t i s raised a g a i n a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f Grace, for the
blessing: "Borei pri hagafen" ( " W h o created the f r u i t o f the v i n e " ) . ‫ועל הנסים ועל הפךקן ייעל הגבורות ועל ךדתשועות ייעל‬
‫( ר ב ו ת י‬Leader:) Gentlemen, let us say Grace. :‫הנפלאות שש עששית לאבותינו בימים ההם בבזננן הזה‬
(The others respond:) May the Name of Adonai be blessed from now and ‫לחגוכה‬
forever.
‫ בשעמדה מלכות‬.‫ב י מ י נ)רנזזיהו בן יוחנן בדדן גדול ךך^מונאגי ובניו‬
(The With your permission,
leader repeats t h a t response a n d continues:)
.‫ להשביחם תוךורך ולהעביךם מחקי ךצונך‬.‫יון הךשעה על עמך ישךאל‬
masters, teachers, and gentlemen, let us bless Him ( i f ten o r m o r e a d u l t males
are present, h e substitutes "our God" for "Him") of Whose bounty we have ‫ דנת אאר‬.‫ ךבת אאר וריבם‬.‫ ע מ ד ת לדדם בעת צךתם‬.‫ואתה ברחמיך הךבים‬
eaten. ,
.‫ ןךבים ביד מעטים‬.‫נבוו ים ביד חלשים‬1 ‫ נקמת אאר נקמתם׳ מסךת‬.‫!דינם‬
(The others respond:) Blessed be He ( i f ten o r m o r e a d u l t males are present, they
‫ וךלך‬.‫ וזדים ביד עוסקי תודתך‬.‫ וךשעים ביד צדיקים‬.‫ונז!נאאים ביד טהורים‬
"our God" for "He") of Whose bounty we have eaten and through
substitute
His goodness we live. ‫ ולעמך ישךאל עששית תשועה גדולה‬.‫עששית ששם גדול וקדוש בעולמך‬
(Those present w h o d i d n o t partake of the m e a l respond:) Blessed be He (if ten o r .‫ וכינו אאר היכלך‬.‫ ו א ח ו בך באו בניך לדביר ביתך‬.‫ופךקן מדיום הזה‬
m o r e a d u l t males are present, t h e y substitute "our G o d " for "He") and praised be
‫ וקבעו שמונת ימני חנבה‬.‫ והדליקו נדות בחצרות קדששך‬.‫וטדזדו אאר מקדשך‬
His Name continually forever and ever.
:‫ ל ה ו ד ו ת ולהלל לשמך הגדול‬.‫אלו‬
(The leader repeats this response.)

( A t a w e d d i n g feast, the leader substitutes:) [With your permission, masters, ‫״‬...‫״מפרת גבורים ביד חלשים ורבים ביד מעטים‬
teachers, and gentlemen,] let us bless our God in Whose abode there is "You delivered the mighty into the hand of the
joy, of Whose bounty we have eaten. weak, the many into the hand of the few..."
(The others r e s p o n d ) Blessed be our God in Whose abode there is joy, of QUESTION: Grammatically it should have said "bidei" — "in the
Whose bounty we have eaten and by Whose goodness we live. hands"—in plural, and not the singular "beyad"—"in the hand."
ANSWER: Indeed, more than one hand fought in defense of
Why will David consider himself so qualified for the honor? the Jewish people. However, the secret of their success was the
ANSWER: The Gemara (Berachot 46a) rules that, "Ba'al habayit unity that prevailed among the tzaddikim and the studiers of Torah.
botzei'a ve'orei'ach mevareich" — "The host breaks the bread When people are united, even if they are in the minority, they can
[makes the Hamotzi] and the guest recites the Blessing after the easily conquer any power that endeavors to destroy them.
Meals." ,‫ ופנו את היכלך‬,‫״באו בניך לדביר ביתך‬
King David was destined to be stillborn. Fortunately, Adam ‫ והדליקו נרות בחצרות קדשך״‬,‫וטהרו את מקדשך‬
gave him as a gift 70 years of his life and, thus, he lived for 70 "Your children entered the shrine of Your House,
cleansed Your Temple, purified Y o u r Sanctuary,
years (see Zohar 1:168a). kindled lights i n Your holy courtyards."
A guest is one who is dependent on the favor of others. QUESTION: The kindling of the Menorah took place in the Beit
Thus, King David, who really was not supposed to be in this Hamikdash itself. Why did the Hasmoneans kindle it in the courtyard?
world and consequently not supposed to have anything to do ANSWER: When the Hasmoneans entered the Beit Hamikdash,
with the Resurrection of the dead, considered himself a guest in they found it defiled and in ruins. Thus, they were unable to kindle
the world and also at the Resurrection feast. Hence, being the the Menorah while it stood in its regular place. In the interim, while
guest, it is halachically proper that when the Host — Hashem — they were cleaning the mess and renovating, the Menorah was
makes the meal, he should be the one to take the Cup of Blessing kindled in the courtyard. This is permissible according to halachah
and recite the Blessing after the Meal. ( ‫ל ן ק‬ ‫) ״‬ ‫ב‬ ‫י ע‬ ‫ע י‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫ה ך י‬ (see Rambam, Hilchot Bi'at Hamikdash 9:7).

37 ^ :
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WYA^AVAYWtYAYAYAVi
• ¥AYA WAYA V AVA1V1YA VA ¥ftYift ¥ft¥ AVAVA'fA'fA ¥ftWftV A"i A V A ¥W1¥ftV A ¥ A ¥ f t ' 1 A ¥ A V A'

'A F T E R A M E A L ‫ברכת המזון‬


: ;
• • - H < - B L E S S I N G ••j^>y•-om‫ ^־‬Ji^•••,'•

‫ברוך‬ B l e s s e d are Y o u , Adonai, our G o d , K i n g of the u n i v e r s e ‫ךאתה יהוה אליהינו מ ל ך העולם הזן את־העולם בלו‬
T T I T ‫־‬ T ‫יי‬ V •1 ‫יי‬ I ‫יי‬ -
‫בדוךך‬
I• T
Who, i n H i s goodness, n o u r i s h e s the entire w o r l d w i t h grace,
k i n d n e s s , a n d mercy. H e gives food to a l l flesh, for H i s k i n d n e s s ‫בטובו בחן בחסד ו ב ר ח מ י ו הוא־ נותן ל ח ם לכל־בשד בבי לעולם‬
is eternal. T h r o u g h H i s great goodness to u s c o n t i n u o u s l y w e do ‫ ובטובו ךדגדול עמנו תמיד ליא־חסד לנו ואאל יחסד־לנו מזון‬:‫חסדו‬
not l a c k [food], a n d m a y w e never lack food forever a n d ever for ‫ בעבור ששמו הגדול בבי ה ו א א ל זן ומפרנס ל ב ל ומטיב‬:‫לעולם ועד‬
the sake of H i s great n a m e . F o r H e i s the A l m i g h t y , W h o
‫ל ב ל ומכין מזון ל כ ל ־ בריותיו א ש ד ב ר א באמור פ ו ר ח את־ידך‬
n o u r i s h e s a n d sustains a l l , a n d does good to a l l , a n d prepares ‫ ד‬T•,'1 ‫־‬ T T T T ‫־‬: T T I T I ‫־־‬

food for a l l H i s creatures w h i c h H e h a s created, as i s said: " Y o u :‫ ברוך א ת ה יהוה הזן אאר הבל‬:‫ומשביע ל כל־ךוי ךצון‬
open Y o u r h a n d a n d satisfy the desire of every l i v i n g being." ‫ל ך יהוה אליהינו ע ל ש ה נ ח ל ת לאבותינו ארץ ךומדה‬ ‫נודה‬
B l e s s e d are Y o u , Adonai, W h o p r o v i d e s food for a l l .
‫ ועל שהוצאתנו יהוה אלדדינו מאךץ מצדים ופדיתנו‬,‫טובה ורחבה‬
‫נודה‬ W e t h a n k Y o u , Adonai, our G o d , for h a v i n g g i v e n as a ,‫ ועל תודתך שלמדתנו‬,‫ ועל־ בריתך שש ח ת מ ת בבשרנו‬,‫מבית עבדים‬
T : ‫־־‬ 1‫ י‬J T ‫־‬ : ‫ •״‬T : ‫״‬ T : ‫־־‬ T Tl J : ‫ ־‬: "‫יי‬ -
I . . .
heritage to our fathers, a precious, good, a n d spacious l a n d , a n d
for t a k i n g u s out, Adonai, our G o d , from the l a n d of E g y p t a n d for
‫ ועל א כ י ל ת‬,‫ ועל חיים ךון ח ס ד ששחונינתנו‬,‫ועל חקיך שהודעתנו‬
r e d e e m i n g u s from the h o u s e of bondage; for Y o u r covenant :‫מזון ש א ת ה זן וננךכיונס אותנו תנניד בכל־יום ו ב כ ל ־ ע ת ובכל־שעה‬
T T T T T T T ‫״‬ I ‫״‬ I ‫״‬ 1‫־‬ ‫־‬ T I T

w h i c h Y o u sealed i n our flesh; for Y o u r T o r a h w h i c h Y o u taught


‫״‬...‫ הזן‬...‫״ברוך אתה‬
us, a n d for Y o u r statutes w h i c h Y o u made k n o w n to us; for the
"Blessed are Y o u . . . Who nourishes..."
life, favor, a n d k i n d n e s s w h i c h Y o u have graciously b e s t o w e d
QUESTION: Who composed the Birkat Hamazon?
u p o n us; a n d for the food w e eat w i t h w h i c h Y o u constantly feed
ANSWER: According to the Gemara (Berachot 48b), Moshe
and sustain u s every day, at a l l times, a n d at every hour.
composed the berachah of "Hazan" — "Who nourishes" — for the
Jews when the manna fell from heaven. Yehoshua composed
The phrase "Vehameitiv" — "And Who confers good" — refers to "Birkat Ha'aretz" — "the berachah for the land" — when the Jews
the fact that they were afforded burial. (Halachically [see Seder entered Eretz Yisrael. The berachah of "Bonei Yerushalayim" —
Birkat Hanehenin 12:12] when something good occurs to a person "Builder of Jerusalem" — was composed by Kings David and
and others also benefit, it is customary to make a berachah of Shlomo. David conquered Yerushalayim and composed the
"Hatov Vehameitiv" — see Siftei Chachamim, Berachot ibid.) segment of "Racheim" — "Have mercy...[on Jerusalem]" — and
According to halachah (Orach Chaim 187:8) the first three Shlomo, who built the Beit Hamikdash, added the segment "the
berachot are mide'oraita — Biblical — and the fourth is only great and holy House."
miderabanan — a rabbinical injunction. To emphasize the The fourth berachah of "Hatov Vehameitiv" was composed by
distinction between the first three and the fourth, the word the sages in Yavneh (headed by Rabban Gamliel) i n appreciation
"Amein" is recited at the conclusion of the third berachah. of Hashem's goodness towards the hundreds of thousands of
Jews of Bethar who were slain during Bar Kochba's ill-fated
Regarding the Shulchan — Table — in the Sanctuary, it says, rebellion against the Roman's during the reign of Emperor
"And you shall cover it w i t h zahav tahor — pure gold" (Shemot Hadrian and denied burial. After years of praying and fasting by
Rabban Gamliel and his court in Yavneh, plus Rabban Gamliel's
25:24). The word "zahav" (‫" — )זהב‬gold" — is an acronym for the
depleting his inheritance to bribe the Romans, permission for
three blessings, "Zan" (‫" — )זן‬nourishment" — "Ha'aretz" (‫)הארץ‬
burial was finally granted.
— "the land" — and "Bonei Yerushalayim" (‫— )בונה ירושלים‬
The phrase "Hatov" — "Who is good" — refers to the fact
"Builder of Jerusalem" — recited at the table upon the
that although years passed the bodies did not decompose, but
completion of the meal.
(‫ נדפס לךאשונה בלובלין שנת של״ה‬,‫)בהמ״ז עם פיךושו של ך׳ נתן ז״ל שפיךא‬ were fresh and whole, and it was thus bearable for the residents.

:
‫י‬ •'•^y- :
••&&> • '•<^; 39 (!‫^׳י‬:;• • ‫>^>' י‬ 38