LIQUID BIOFUEL POWER PLANTS

VEGETABLE OIL UTILIZATION Unrefined vegetable oil Refinery process Food industry Diesel power plant Refined oil Waste oil Power Heat Refinery by-products 2 .

Wärtsilä liquid biofuel power plants use highly efficient reciprocating diesel engines to turn clarified crude vegetable oils into electricity and heat. soy. IT IS POWER OF THE GREENER KIND. But such oils may in the course of time become as important as petroleum and the coal tar products of the present time.IT LOOKS LIKE VEGETABLE OIL.” Rudolf Diesel. IT IS VEGETABLE OIL – STRAIGHT AND UNPROCESSED. A few years ago that would have seemed a pipe dream. 1912 3 . from oil palm. IT TASTES LIKE VEGETABLE OIL. The virtuous circle in power generation is the dream of the modern world: a power plant that does not increase the sum of greenhouse gases. that uses renewable fuel and that brings the energy required to raise the standard of living where it is most needed. NOW. grown in many regions all around the world. “The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today. Liquid biofuel can be produced from practically any oil-rich crop. Today it is reality. rapeseed and olive to sunflower seeds.

Making money while taking the environmental issues of today into consideration is a good investment – now and for the future. the future of liquid biofuels depends on the availability of the fuel and the solutions to produce it in an environmentally and . the Kyoto agreement and 4 general concern about the environment are raising the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. renewable resources and offer high overall plant performance at all times. At the same time. In many countries. World energy demand is increasing steadily. Electricity provided for the grid should be stable. Many green energy solutions – like solar and wind power – depend on weather conditions. and secondly from green incentives. Still. Wärtsilä has developed technical solutions to meet both needs: liquid biofuel power plants offer sustainable power generation with practically zero greenhouse gas emissions. Wärtsilä liquid biofuel power plants rely on dependable. RAIN OR SHINE. owners of power plants with low greenhouse emissions benefit twice over: firstly from selling their electricity to the national grids.RELIABLE ENERGY. biofuels have to offer just as much to business people as to environmentalists. Surprisingly. ECONOMIC VIABILITY.

e.GREEN ENERGY INCENTIVE SYSTEMS There are various incentive mechanisms. energy crop cultivation might even help to fight soil erosion. Sound economics combined with superior eco-friendliness! 5 . In Malaysia the target share of renewable energy is 5% of the total supply. the details of which are still evolving. for motivating companies to enforce green energy. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) are flexible project-based mechanisms that operate under the Kyoto Protocol. It also improves regional fuel supply security by reducing the need for imported fuels. These are financial contributions at community. Renewable energy already accounts for 4% of the Indian power sector and the target is to reach 12% by 2012. The EU Emission Trading Scheme was launched on 1 January 2005 to gain market experience before the Kyoto Protocol enters into force in 2008. in Japan. national and regional levels. and grants of origin. Japan. The Kyoto Protocol commits the European Union to reduce the 1990 levels of greenhouse gas emissions by 8% between 2008 and 2012. Malaysia and India. In some cases. Interest in the abatement of greenhouse gases is also rising outside Europe. Now the EU countries are working towards a cross-union trading system. including the Green Certificate. has passed laws to promote the development and introduction of petroleum-substituting energy since the 1980s. economically sound manner.g. the renewable energy certificate system. for instance. At its best. Also biomass residues from the palm oil sector offer huge potential energy resources for meeting Malaysia’s target. biofuel production creates local job opportunities. thus promoting social and economic cohesion.

Transesterification of the liquid biofuels produces biodiesel. which is also approved to run in Wärtsilä engines. 24 cSt can not be achieved with an unheated fuel.50 0.8 cSt. Liquid biofuel has been known since the beginning of the industrial revolution. max. Biofuel is derived from biological material and can be produced from any carbon source. max.8 cSt. But it is only recently that environmental and commercial pressures have resulted in substantial research into maximizing efficiency for electrical power generation. Medium-speed engines can run on most qualities of heavy fuel oil (HFO). max. 35 for LFO and CCAI max. The diesel engine. 4) Cloud point and cold filter plugging point have to be at least 10 °C below fuel injection temperature. Phosphorus. max. max. Strong acid number. Ignition properties 3) Sulphur. Injection viscosity. max. 6 While optimizing our standard engine design. separators.8 – 2.. Total sediment existent.05 0. Common liquid biofuel sources approved for use in Wärtsilä engines are oils from various oilseeds. we developed a fuel feed system which controls the temperature and viscosity throughout the power plant. such as palm oil. Copper strip corrosion (3 hrs @ 50 °C).8 2) 24 991 FIA test 0. Acid number. max. Silicon.20 0. max. Flash point (PMCC).0 120 g iodine /100 g 1) If injection viscosity of max. limit at engine inlet in running conditions. W46: 2. rape seed oil. This eliminates over-heating or cold points which can lead to changes in fuel characteristics. max. Ash.0 cSt. W50DF: 2. Steel corrosion (24 / 72 hours @ 20. usually plants but it can also be of animal origin.05 0.8 cSt 3) Ignition properties have to be equal to or better than the requirements for fossil fuels. CN min. i. preheaters and coolers have helped us to develop optimal solutions for maximum fuel efficiency and a minimum of emissions. turns vegetable oil more or less straight from the crop into electric energy. W34DF: 2. max. max. palm stearin. min. max.LBF FUEL SYSTEM LBF day tank LBF buffer tank LBF storage tank LFO/biodiesel storage tank Transfer pump unit Unloading pump unit Booster unit Feeder unit Filter Viscosity meter Booster pump Pump F Flow meter Back-up fuel heater Heater Mixing tank Safety filter Return fuel cooler THIS IS NO NEWS. . Limit 100 1. sunflower oil and jatropha oil. 870 for HFO. max. max. max. STRAIGHT8 LIQUID BIOFUEL SPECIFICATION Property Viscosity. based on compression ignition technology.e. fuel system has to be equipped with a heater 2) Min.0 0. These engines have for years proven their worth as power generating sets for electricity under the most extreme conditions on the planet. max. % m/m % m/m % v/v % m/m % m/m mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg °C °C °C Rating Rating mg KOH/g mg KOH/g Unit cSt @ 40 °C cSt cSt Decades of experience and a system of filters. max. Water. 60 and 120 °C). Cold filter plugging point. Alkali content (Na+K). It is in the fuel feed system where the major research on the larger medium-speed engines has taken place. max. Cloud point.0 cSt. Iodine number. min.05 100 15 30 60 4) 4) 1) Test method reference ISO 3104 ISO 3675 or 12185 ISO 8754 ISO 10307-1 ISO 3733 ISO 10370 ISO 6245 / LP1001 ISO 10478 ISO 10478 ISO 10478 ISO 2719 ISO 3015 IP 309 ASTM D130 LP 2902 ASTM D664 ASTM D664 ISO 3961 kg/m³ @ 15 °C 1b No signs of corrosion 15. before engine Micro carbon residue. Density. W20: 1. W32: 2. Injection viscosity.

.. • January 2008..... we are continuously developing new plant concepts..... Germany..... Six Wärtsilä 18V46 engines with a total output of 100 MW. Total output extended to 24 MW......... Italy... • July 2005..... The ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) as well as ordinary steam based solutions are used for this purpose.. A TYPICAL COMBINED CYCLE PLANT Steam turbine COMBINED CYCLE PLANTS In order to meet market needs and demands......51.... Vegetable oil was approved as fuel for Wärtsilä diesel engines... • 2008: Several power plants started up in Italy • 2009: More start ups in Italy and the first power plant using jatropha oil will start in Koekhoven... Belgium.... very high electrical efficiencies are achieved when utilising waste heat for generation of additional electricity. Start up of first commercial power plant on liquid biofuel in Karlburg.... Finland...... 50 MWE COMBINED CYCLE PLANT Engine type.... Start up of Ital Green Energy Block 2 in Monopoly Italy.. Finland.. Start up of the third engine at the Ital Green Energy power plant.. using both Wärtsilä 32 and Wärtsilä 46 engines. For biofuel plants below 50 MWe.. Netherlands • October 2002..2 MWe Electrical efficiency ........ Condensing steam turbine Total electrical output..........2% (gross) Exhaust gas boiler SCR-unit (option) Exhaust gas silencer Engine-generator set 7 ..3 x Wärtsilä 18V46 Turbine type...............LIQUID BIOFUEL DEVELOPMENT MILESTONES • April 1995..... palm stearin and olive olein on a Wärtsilä 6L32 engine at the engine laboratory in Vaasa....... Start up of the Ital Green Energy power plant in Monopoli... A 200 hour engine test with rape seed oil on a Wärtsilä Vasa 4R32 engine at VTT in Espoo........ • August 2004.... A 18 hour verification test with refined palm oil... 49. • September 2001. A 50 hour engine test with vegetable oil on a Wärtsilä 6L26 engine at the test laboratory in Zwolle. Two Wärtsilä 18V32 engines with a total output of 16 MW.6 MW output. among them Combined Cycle plants...... One Wärtsilä 6L32 engine with 2.... • January 2003..............

8 .LOOK! IT´S PRACTICALLY EMISSION-FREE.

The oils can typically be extracted with simple methods so that even the CO2 emissions associated with the fuel refinement are minimized.A LIFETIME OF CLEAN ENERGY IS ENSURED BY SOLUTIONS BEYOND THE FUEL. To reduce the total of greenhouse emissions. Moreover. Wärtsilä liquid biofuel power plants offer a very high simple cycle electrical efficiency. Last but not least. The sulphur emissions are insignificant compared to those associated with fossil fuels because vegetable oils do not contain significant amounts of sulphur. The selective catalyst reduction technologies for NOX abatement typically enable an 85…90% reduction of NOX emissions from the exhaust gases. Particle emissions (PM) in liquid-biofuelbased power plants depend mainly on the ash content of the source fuel. The power is also generated with minimal use of water. with vegetable oils the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions are low due to the highly efficient diesel engine process. Experience has shown that with good-quality liquid biofuels it is possible to reach low PM levels that meet stringent European standards. You get more output for your input! 9 . so the impact on water resources is negligible. Wärtsilä liquid biofuel power plants are designed to operate on straight vegetable oils – without any supplementary energy for fuel refinement needed.

SCR NOX abatement Delivered: ... SUSTAINED PARTNERSHIP FOR SUSTAINED DEVELOPMENT.............000 households.. annual CO reduction will be more than 36.....Liquid biofuel (Jatropha oil) Emission control: .......... Q3 2009 The heat produced by the plant is supplied to a drying facility for digested biomass recovered from a manure fermentation plant as well as a greenhouse producing tomatoes The 9 MW Wärtsilä 20V32 engine will provide electrical power sufficient to serve approximately 20............... Our global network is always ready to make sure your power plant performs flawlessly.....2% and an overall efficiency of more than 85%...................5 MWth (Hot water) Fuel: . allowing you to focus on your core business.....9 MWe + 7.... BELGIUM Engine: .. BY THE END OF 2009 THERE WILL BE ABOUT 700 MW OF WÄRTSILÄ LIQUID BIOFUEL POWER PLANTS IN OPERATION......... ..... MERKSPLAS.KOEKHOVE..................000 tons......... making it the world’s leading power plant O&M contractor............. After all. free of breakdowns and unwanted downtime throughout its lifetime.... The gross electrical efficiency is 44...1 x Wärtsilä 20V32 Output: ........... The services range from rapid spare parts delivery to a complete operation and maintenance partnership...... 10 Wärtsilä Operations & Management currently runs more than 130 plants around the world.. you can still rest assured that you have the best possible support available when and where you need it – from training to online support and service or modernization and upgrading of the plant.......... If you choose to operate the plant yourself.. Our aim is to ensure you get the best possible performance from your power plant investment throughout its lifecycle.................... who could be better at this than the people who designed and built the plant? We provide a comprehensive range of services built on the concept of enhancing the customer’s profitability by optimizing all aspects of the power plant operation....................

The plant commissioned the first two Wärtsilä 18V32 generating sets in August 2004 with a total capacity of some 16 MW.. DUAL-FUEL ENGINES Wärtsilä 34DF UNIGRÀ. including engine-driven pumps.8 7841 7861 45..8 18260 5090 5885 358 20V46F/600 rpm 22425 7669 46.2 5400 1850 2375 18 8L20 1368 8670 41.7 6540 1950 2620 23 9L20 1539 8604 41..8.. including engine-driven pumps.. delivery of the full generating set package.... the plant supplies both green electricity to the national grid and steam and power to satisfy the factory process demand...0 18780 4090 6020 355 Heat rate and electrical efficiency at generator terminals...SCR NOX abatement Delivered: ......... Located inside the existing vegetable oil refinery......... electrical kW 3758 6737 Heat rate kJ/kWh 8048 (8127)* 8048 (8127)* Electrical efficiency % 44....3)* 12890 3300 4243 132 POWER PLANT OUTPUT RANGE Liquid biofuel engines Wärtsilä 20 Wärtsilä 32 Wärtsilä 46 Dual-fuel engines (gaseous fuel/liquid fuel) Wärtsilä 34DF Wärtsilä 50DF MW 1 5 10 50 100 300 500 Heat rate and electrical efficiency at generator terminals...8.....8 45.... Power factor 0.. electrical kW 3888 6970 Heat rate kJ/kWh 8048 (8127)* 8048 (8127)* Electrical efficiency % 44..9 20710 6275 6230 424 Heat rate and electrical efficiency at generator terminals... detailed engineering. ISO 3046 conditions and LHV.........0 17076 8139 44..... Wärtsilä 50DF Technical data 50 Hz/500 rpm Unit Power..3)* 8439 8036 (8127)* 44.... ISO 3046 conditions and LHV..8.......8 8730 7840 45.100 MWe (engines) + 11 MWe (turbine) Fuel: .8 12V32 16V32 18V32 20V32 5327 7124 8032 8924 7880 7856 7840 7840 45.7 (44.. electrical kW Heat rate kJ/kWh Electrical efficiency % Dimensions and dry weight with generating set Length mm Width mm Height mm Weight tonne 18V50DF 16621 7616 47..9 5211 7880 45.8 (44...September 2008 Technical data 50 Hz/750 rpm Unit 9L34DF 16V34DF Power.. electrical kW Heat rate kJ/kWh Electrical efficiency % Dimensions and dry weight with generating set Length mm Width mm Height mm Weight tonne 6L20 1026 8584 41..... electrical kW 2579 Heat rate kJ/kWh 8069 Electrical efficiency % 44.9 11200 10030 11239 11500 12200 2410 3050 3300 3300 3300 3740 4420 4343 4220 4420 82 92 119 127 130 Heat rate and electrical efficiency at generator terminals.. Wärtsilä 32 MONOPOLI.....3)* Technical data 60 Hz/720rpm Power......3)* 44.......7 (44.6 x Wärtsilä 18V46 + Steam turbine Output: ..3)* Dimensions and dry weight with generating set Length mm 10400 11303 Width mm 2780 3300 Height mm 3842 4472 Weight tonne 77 120 20V34DF 8730 8036 (8127)* 44...........8 1454 8561 42... * In liquid mode... ISO 3046 conditions and LHV... Gas Methane Number >80... Tolerance 5%. Fuel testing... 3 x Wärtsilä 18V46 + combined cycle Output: .7 45...8 3888 8027 44...7 (44. electrical kW Heat rate kJ/kWh Electrical efficiency % Technical data 60 Hz/514 rpm Power.9 22425 7669 46..3 17076 7616 47.9 45. 11 .. ITALY ItalGreen Energy in Italy and Wärtsilä combined to build the world’s largest power plant for simultaneous generation of electricity and heat fuelled exclusively by straight vegetable oil.... In 2005 the plant extended its capacity to 24 MW and the latest extension of 100 MW is under construction and will be in commercial use early in 2007.8 17076 7698 46......... ISO 3046 conditions and LHV.....6 Technical data 60 Hz/720rpm Power..... 50 MWe (engines) + 6 MWe (steam turbine) Fuel: .. Power factor 0.... electrical kW Heat rate kJ/kWh Electrical efficiency % Technical data 60 Hz/900 rpm Power..7 6970 7856 45..8 11349 7692 46......8.... electrical kW Heat rate kJ/kWh Electrical efficiency % Dimensions and dry weight with generating set Length mm Width mm Height mm Weight tonne 12V46 11349 7692 46..3)* 44.9 969 8541 42.... Wärtsilä 46 Technical data 50 Hz/500 rpm Unit Power. including engine-driven pumps... including engine-driven pumps.6 Dimensions and dry weight with generating set Length mm 8766 Width mm 2418 Height mm 3738 Weight tonne 58 9L32 3974 8027 44..Liquid biofuel (mainly palm oil) Emission control: .... *in liquid mode...7 (44...3 18780 4090 6020 355 18V50DF* 16621 8139 44... Operation of the 3 first engines started in January 2008 Engines:.SCR NOX abatement Technical data 50 Hz/750 rpm 6L32 Power. start-up and erection supervision were all included in our delivery. ITALY Engines:.....8 (44.....5 1292 8627 41. Power factor 0.. electrical kW 2636 Heat rate kJ/kWh 8069 Electrical efficiency % 44.... ISO 3046 conditions and LHV... electrical kW Heat rate kJ/kWh Electrical efficiency % Technical data 60 Hz/514 rpm Power..Liquid biofuel (vegetable oil) Emission control: . Tolerance 5%..... Tolerance 5%...... Gas Methane Number >80.................LIQUID FUEL ENGINES Wärtsilä 20 Technical data 50 Hz/1000 rpm Unit Power. Tolerance 5%.... Tolerance 5%.... Power factor 0..8 15400 5090 5700 265 18V46 17076 7698 46... including engine-driven pumps. CONSELICE..0 6820 1950 2620 24 Heat rate and electrical efficiency at generator terminals.8. Power factor 0..

WÄRTSILÄ® is a registered trademark. By emphasising technological innovation and total efficiency.2009 / Bock´s Office / Litoset . Copyright © 2005 Wärtsilä Corporation. 06.Wärtsilä is a global leader in complete lifecycle power solutions for the marine and energy markets. Wärtsilä maximises the environmental and economic performance of the vessels and power plants of its customers. Finland. Copyright © 2009 Wärtsilä Corporation. Wärtsilä is listed on the NASDAQ OMX Helsinki. WÄRTSILÄ® is a registered trademark.