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2018 Math Madness High School Level

Round 3

1. The figure shows a irregular pentagon with vertices A, B, C, D, and


E. The measures of the angles at B and E are each 90◦ , as indicated
in the interior of the pentagon. The measure of the angle at C is 105◦ ,
as indicated in the interior of the pentagon and 2∠A + ∠D = 360◦ .
What is the angle measure of A in degrees?
D

E
C
105◦

A B

1. ANSWER: 105
The sum of the interior angles of any convex pentagon is 540◦ . (This can
be seen by drawing AC and AD dividing the pentagon into 3 triangles,
then summing all angles in all 3 triangles.) Using the vertex label for
the angle measure at that vertex, A + D = 540 − (90 + 90 + 105) = 255.
Using the given 2A + D = 360, solve for A to get A = 105.
Note: If AE = ED and DC = 2ED this pentagon is one of the exactly
fifteen types of convex pentagons that tile the plane. This particular
kind of pentagon is called type 13 and is one of 4 tiling pentagons

1
2018 Math Madness High School Round 3 2

discovered by Marjorie Rice, an amateur mathematician, in 1976 and


1977.

2. What is the sum of all of the coordinates of all points that have integer
coordinates and that are solutions to x2 + y 2 − 6x + 4y = −12 ?

2. ANSWER: 4
From x2 − 6x + 9 + y 2 + 4x + 4 = −12 + 13 we obtain (x − 3)2 +
(y + 2)2 = 1. One squared expression must equal 1 and the other
0. So (x, y) = (4, −2), (2, −2), (3, −1) or (3, −3). The answer is
(4 + 2 + 3 + 3) − (2 + 2 + 1 + 3) = 4.

3. On square ABCD, point E divides AB in the ratio AE : EB = 2 : 1


and point F divides CD in the ratio CF : F D = 1 : 1. Segments AF
and DE intersect at G. The ratio of the area of 4DF G to the area of
square ABCD is a/b where a and b have no common factors. What is
a + b?
2018 Math Madness High School Round 3 3

D F C

A E B

3. ANSWER: 31
Without loss of generality let the side length of the square be 1. Note
that 4DF G is similar to 4EAG and AE = 2/3 and DF = 1/2. Then
ratio of similarity is 4/3 so the height of 4EAG is 4/3 the height h
of 4DF G, and the sum of the heights is 1. Then (4/3)h + h = 1, so
h = 3/7. Then the area of 4DF G = 21 · 12 · 37 = 28
3
so a = 3, b = 28 and
a + b = 31.

4. If log3x 3 − 54 log9x 3 = 0, what is the value of x ?

4. ANSWER: 27
2018 Math Madness High School Round 3 4

log3x 3 − 45 log9x 3 = 0 implies


1 5
− =0
log3 3x 4 log3 9x
or
4 5
− = 0.
1 + log3 x 2 + log3 x
Then 8 + 4 log3 x − 5 − 5 log3 x = 0 gives 3 = log3 x, so x = 27.

5. Suppose that G1 = 1, G2 = 1, and Gn = Gn−1 + iGn−2 , where i = −1
is the imaginary constant. What is the coefficient b of the imaginary
part of G10 = a + bi ?

5. ANSWER: -12
Directly, G1 = 1, G2 = 1, G3 = 1+i, G4 = 1+2i, G5 = 3i, G6 = −2+4i,
G7 = −5 + 4i, G8 = −9 + 2i, G9 = −13 − 3i, G10 = −15 − 12i.

6. A set of 11 boxes is numbered consecutively from 1 to 11 and a set of


11 cards is numbered consecutively from 1 to 11. In how many ways
can all the cards be placed in the boxes, one card per box, such that
the sum of the number of any given box and the number of the card in
that box is divisible by 3 ?

6. ANSWER: 3456
Consider the boxes:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Boxes numbered 3, 6, and 9, i.e., boxes whose number is a multiple of


3, must be paired with cards whose number is a multiple of 3, i.e., 3,
6, or 9, in order for the sum to be a multiple of 3. There are 3! ways to
do that. Boxes that are 1 more than a multiple of 3, i.e., 1, 4, 7, and
10 must be paired with cards 2 more (or 1 less) than a multiple of 3,
namely 2, 5, 8, or 11 in order to get a sum divisible by 3. There are 4!
ways to do that. Likewise if the boxes are numbered 2, 5, 8, and 11, the
cards must be numbered 1, 4, 7, and 10 for the sum to be divisible by 3.
There are 4! ways to do that. Thus, there are (3!)(4!)(4!) = 3456 ways
to place the cards in the boxes such that the sum of the box number
and card number in each case is divisible by 3. The answer is 3456.
2018 Math Madness High School Round 3 5

7. What is the coefficient of the x5 term in the expansion of (x1/2 +x2/3 )9 ?

7. ANSWER: 84
n
 m n−m
Each term in the expansion of (a+b)n has the form m a b so apply-
1/2 m 2/3 (9−m)
ing this to the given expansion, we seek the m for which (x ) (x ) =
5 m 2(9−m)
x . That is, we seek the value m for which 2 + 3 = 5, which is
9 9! 9·8·7
m = 6. Then the coefficient is 6 = 6! 3! = 3·2·1 = 84.

8. Determine the sum of the squares of the x-coordinates of the intersec-


tion points of y = 2018
x
and y = 2018 − x2 .

8. ANSWER: 4036
The general case is easier and more instructive: Setting xk = k − x2
gives x3 − kx + k = 0. Let the roots be a, b and c. By the relationship
between the roots and coefficients of a polynomial we have a + b + c = 0
and ab + ac + bc = −k. Then (a + b + c)2 = 0 implies a2 + b2 + c2 +
2(ab + ac + bc) = 0 so a2 + b2 + c2 = −2(ab + ac + bc) = −2(−k) = 2k.
In this case the answer is 2(2018) = 4036.