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Round 3

E. The measures of the angles at B and E are each 90◦ , as indicated

in the interior of the pentagon. The measure of the angle at C is 105◦ ,

as indicated in the interior of the pentagon and 2∠A + ∠D = 360◦ .

What is the angle measure of A in degrees?

D

E

C

105◦

A B

1. ANSWER: 105

The sum of the interior angles of any convex pentagon is 540◦ . (This can

be seen by drawing AC and AD dividing the pentagon into 3 triangles,

then summing all angles in all 3 triangles.) Using the vertex label for

the angle measure at that vertex, A + D = 540 − (90 + 90 + 105) = 255.

Using the given 2A + D = 360, solve for A to get A = 105.

Note: If AE = ED and DC = 2ED this pentagon is one of the exactly

fifteen types of convex pentagons that tile the plane. This particular

kind of pentagon is called type 13 and is one of 4 tiling pentagons

1

2018 Math Madness High School Round 3 2

1977.

2. What is the sum of all of the coordinates of all points that have integer

coordinates and that are solutions to x2 + y 2 − 6x + 4y = −12 ?

2. ANSWER: 4

From x2 − 6x + 9 + y 2 + 4x + 4 = −12 + 13 we obtain (x − 3)2 +

(y + 2)2 = 1. One squared expression must equal 1 and the other

0. So (x, y) = (4, −2), (2, −2), (3, −1) or (3, −3). The answer is

(4 + 2 + 3 + 3) − (2 + 2 + 1 + 3) = 4.

and point F divides CD in the ratio CF : F D = 1 : 1. Segments AF

and DE intersect at G. The ratio of the area of 4DF G to the area of

square ABCD is a/b where a and b have no common factors. What is

a + b?

2018 Math Madness High School Round 3 3

D F C

A E B

3. ANSWER: 31

Without loss of generality let the side length of the square be 1. Note

that 4DF G is similar to 4EAG and AE = 2/3 and DF = 1/2. Then

ratio of similarity is 4/3 so the height of 4EAG is 4/3 the height h

of 4DF G, and the sum of the heights is 1. Then (4/3)h + h = 1, so

h = 3/7. Then the area of 4DF G = 21 · 12 · 37 = 28

3

so a = 3, b = 28 and

a + b = 31.

4. ANSWER: 27

2018 Math Madness High School Round 3 4

1 5

− =0

log3 3x 4 log3 9x

or

4 5

− = 0.

1 + log3 x 2 + log3 x

Then 8 + 4 log3 x − 5 − 5 log3 x = 0 gives 3 = log3 x, so x = 27.

√

5. Suppose that G1 = 1, G2 = 1, and Gn = Gn−1 + iGn−2 , where i = −1

is the imaginary constant. What is the coefficient b of the imaginary

part of G10 = a + bi ?

5. ANSWER: -12

Directly, G1 = 1, G2 = 1, G3 = 1+i, G4 = 1+2i, G5 = 3i, G6 = −2+4i,

G7 = −5 + 4i, G8 = −9 + 2i, G9 = −13 − 3i, G10 = −15 − 12i.

11 cards is numbered consecutively from 1 to 11. In how many ways

can all the cards be placed in the boxes, one card per box, such that

the sum of the number of any given box and the number of the card in

that box is divisible by 3 ?

6. ANSWER: 3456

Consider the boxes:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

3, must be paired with cards whose number is a multiple of 3, i.e., 3,

6, or 9, in order for the sum to be a multiple of 3. There are 3! ways to

do that. Boxes that are 1 more than a multiple of 3, i.e., 1, 4, 7, and

10 must be paired with cards 2 more (or 1 less) than a multiple of 3,

namely 2, 5, 8, or 11 in order to get a sum divisible by 3. There are 4!

ways to do that. Likewise if the boxes are numbered 2, 5, 8, and 11, the

cards must be numbered 1, 4, 7, and 10 for the sum to be divisible by 3.

There are 4! ways to do that. Thus, there are (3!)(4!)(4!) = 3456 ways

to place the cards in the boxes such that the sum of the box number

and card number in each case is divisible by 3. The answer is 3456.

2018 Math Madness High School Round 3 5

7. ANSWER: 84

n

m n−m

Each term in the expansion of (a+b)n has the form m a b so apply-

1/2 m 2/3 (9−m)

ing this to the given expansion, we seek the m for which (x ) (x ) =

5 m 2(9−m)

x . That is, we seek the value m for which 2 + 3 = 5, which is

9 9! 9·8·7

m = 6. Then the coefficient is 6 = 6! 3! = 3·2·1 = 84.

tion points of y = 2018

x

and y = 2018 − x2 .

8. ANSWER: 4036

The general case is easier and more instructive: Setting xk = k − x2

gives x3 − kx + k = 0. Let the roots be a, b and c. By the relationship

between the roots and coefficients of a polynomial we have a + b + c = 0

and ab + ac + bc = −k. Then (a + b + c)2 = 0 implies a2 + b2 + c2 +

2(ab + ac + bc) = 0 so a2 + b2 + c2 = −2(ab + ac + bc) = −2(−k) = 2k.

In this case the answer is 2(2018) = 4036.

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