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You are on page 1of 58

Outline

• Introduction

– Basic Characteristics

– Feeding Methods

• Rectangular Patch

– Transmission-Line Model

– Conductance and Input Impedance

– Matching Techniques

– Fields

– Directivity

• Quality Factor, Bandwidth, and Efficiency

• Antennas for Mobile Communications

– Planar Inverted-F Antenna

– Slot Antenna

– Inverted-F Antenna

Introduction

3

Microstrip Antennas -

Introduction

A microstrip patch antenna is a metallic strip or patch mounted

on a dielectric layer (substrate) over a ground plane.

Useful for high performance in extreme applications: aircraft,

satellite, missiles, cellphones and electronic devices.

PROS:

They are low profile, conformable, simple and inexpensive to

manufacture, mechanically robust, and very versatile

CONS:

Low efficiency, low power, high Q, poor polarization purity, poor

scanning properties, spurious radiation, very narrow frequency

bandwidth, still large dimensions at high frequencies

Microstrip Patch Antennas Slide 5

Basic characteristics

𝜆0 𝜆0

<L<

3 2

2.2 ≤ 𝜖𝑟 ≤ 12

W is tuned to get

desired impedance

Basic characteristics

t ≪ 𝜆0

ℎ ≪ 𝜆0

(0.003𝜆0 ≤ ℎ ≤ 0.05𝜆0 )

Basic Characteristics

© antenna.mppa.gr

Introduction to Antennas Slide 8

Basic Characteristics

http://antsim.elmag.org/patches/

Introduction to Antennas Slide 9

Basic Characteristics

Basic characteristics

Feeding Methods

• Easy to fabricate

• Simple to match

• Low spurious radiation

• Narrow bandwidth

• Good for low h

Quarter Wave Transformer

𝑍1 = 𝑍0 𝑅𝐿

https://www.cst.com/academia/examples/qua

rter-wave-transformer

Microstrip Patch Antennas Slide 13

Feeding Methods

• Easy to fabricate

• Simple to match

• Low spurious radiation

• Matching is easily done by

changing feed position

• Narrow Bandwidth

• Difficult to model & simulate

Feeding Methods

• Ground plane between substrates

isolates the feed from the

radiating element, minimizing

interference

• Simple to match

• Moderate spurious radiation

• Matching is easily done by

changing feed position

• Narrow Bandwidth

• Easy to model & simulate

• Most difficult to fabricate

• Independent optimization

of feed and radiating element

Feeding Methods

• Largest Bandwidth

• Easy to model & simulate

• More difficult to fabricate

• Length of feeding stub and

width-to-line ratio of patch

can control match

Rectangular Patch

17

Rectangular Patch Analysis

The rectangular patch is the most widely used configuration for

microstrip patch antennas.

Transmission-Line Model

It is the easiest approach to model and analyze the microstrip patch

antenna. It is also less accurate, but gives a good physical insight.

EM Cavity Model

It is more complex than the transmission line model, and it is more

accurate. It also gives physical insight.

Full-Wave Model

It is the most accurate, versatile, and easiest to simulate of all three

models. It is also the most complex and has less physical insight.

Microstrip Patch Antennas Slide 18

Transmission-Line Model

The transmission-line model represents the microstrip antenna by two

slots, separated by a low-impedance 𝑍𝑐 transmission line of length L.

Looking at a cross

section of the antenna

(x-y plane), this is

effectively a non-

homogeneous

transmission line.

Fringing effects make

the microstrip line

look wider than it is.

Effective dielectric

constant is introduced to

account for this.

Microstrip Patch Antennas Slide 19

Fringing Effects -Effective dielectric

1

𝜖𝑟 +1 𝜖𝑟 −1 ℎ −2

Static Values 𝜖𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑓 = + 1+ 12

2 2 𝑤

Microstrip Patch Antennas Slide 20

Effective Length, Resonant

Frequency, and Effective Width

Because of the fringing effects, the patch of the antenna is electrically

longer than the physical dimensions. We take care of this by adding an

electrical distance ΔL which is a function of the effective dielectric

𝑊

constant 𝜖𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑓 and width-to-height ratio

ℎ

𝑊

Δ𝐿 𝜖𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑓 + 0.3 + 0.264

= 0.412 ℎ

ℎ 𝑊

𝜖𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑓 − 0.258 + 0.8

ℎ

𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 𝐿 + Δ𝐿

Effective Length, Resonant

Frequency, and Effective Width

Effective Length, Resonant

Frequency, and Effective Width

The resonant frequency in the dominant TM010 mode is

1 𝑐0

𝑓𝑟010 = =

2𝐿 𝜖𝑟 𝜇0 𝜖0 2𝐿 𝜖𝑟

1 1

𝑓𝑟𝑐010 = =

2𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝜖𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝜇0 𝜖0 2 𝐿 + 2Δ𝐿 𝜖𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝜇0 𝜖0

1 𝑐0

=𝑞 =𝑞

2𝐿 𝜖𝑟 𝜇0 𝜖0 2𝐿 𝜖𝑟

𝑓𝑟𝑐 010

𝑞=

𝑓𝑟 010

Microstrip Patch Antennas Slide 23

Rectangular Antenna Design

This procedure assumes we know the dielectric constant of the

substrate 𝜖𝑟 , the resonant frequency 𝑓𝑟 , and the height of the

substrate ℎ.

1. Determine 𝑊

1 2 𝑐0 2

𝑊= =

2𝑓𝑟 𝜇0 𝜖0 𝜖𝑟 + 1 2𝑓𝑟 𝜖𝑟 + 1

2. Determine the effective dielectric constant 𝜖𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑓

3. Determine the extension of Δ𝐿

4. Determine the actual length 𝐿 of the patch

1

𝐿= − 2Δ𝐿

2𝑓𝑟 𝜖𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝜇0 𝜖0

𝜆0

Approximate lengths of the microstrip vary between 0.47 − 0.49

𝜖𝑟

Rectangular Patch Design - Example

Design a rectangular microstrip antenna using a substrate (RT/Duroid

5880) with dielectric constant of 2.2, ℎ = 0.1588 cm and resonant

frequency of 10 GHz.

Rectangular Antenna Conductance

and Input Impedance

Conductance and Input

Impedance

𝑌1 = 𝐺1 + 𝑗𝐵1

𝑊 1 ℎ 1

𝐺1 = 1 − 𝑘0 ℎ 2 <

120𝜆0 24 𝜆0 10

𝑊 ℎ 1

𝐵1 = 1 − 0.636 ln(𝑘0 ℎ) <

120𝜆0 𝜆0 10

𝑌2 = 𝑌1 , 𝐺2 = 𝐺1 , 𝐵2 = 𝐵1

Conductance and Input

Impedance

At resonance

𝑌෨2 = 𝐺෨2 + 𝑗𝐵෨ 2 = 𝐺1 − 𝑗𝐵1

1 1

𝑍𝑖𝑛 = 𝑅𝑖𝑛 = =

𝑌𝑖𝑛 2𝐺1

This formula does not take into account mutual effects between

the slots.

Conductance and Input

Impedance

To take into account mutual effects between the slots, we introduce 𝐺12

1

𝑅𝑖𝑛 =

2(𝐺1 ±𝐺12 )

where ‘+’ is used with odd (antisymmetric) resonant voltage distribution

beneath the patch and between the slots and ‘–’ is used for modes with

even (symmetric) resonant voltage distribution.

1 ∗

𝐺12 = 2

𝑅𝑒 ඵ 𝐸1 × 𝐻2 ∙ 𝑑𝑠

𝑉0

𝑆

𝐸1 - E-field radiated by slot 1

𝐻1 - H-field radiated by slot 2

𝑉0 - Voltage across the slot

Conductance and Input

Impedance

2

𝑘0 𝑊

1 𝜋 sin 2 cos 𝜃

𝐺12 = 2

න 𝐽0 𝑘0 𝐿 sin 𝜃 sin3 (𝜃) 𝑑𝜃

120𝜋 0 cos 𝜃

Patch Input Impedance- Example

𝑊

A rectangular microstrip antenna has a width-to-height ratio of = 5,

ℎ

𝜆0

where the width has half-wave resonant dimensions 𝑊 = .

2

Determine the input impedance of the antenna. Do not take into

account mutual effects.

Matching Techniques – Inset feed

𝑅𝑖𝑛 𝑦=𝑦0 =

2

𝜋

𝑅𝑖𝑛(𝑦=0) cos 𝑦0

𝐿

Antenna Patch Design - Example

A square patch has an input resistance at resonance of 260 Ω.

Determine the inset feeding distance so that the input resistance is

50 Ω.

resistance.

Microstrip Line Characteristic

Impedance

60 8ℎ 𝑊0 𝑊0

ln + , ≤1

𝜖𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝑊0 4ℎ ℎ

𝑍𝑐 = 120𝜋 𝑊0

, >1

𝑊 𝑊 ℎ

𝜖𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑓 0 + 1.393 + 0.667 ln 0 + 1.444

ℎ ℎ

Matching Techniques – Inset feed

Rectangular Patch - Example

A microstrip antenna with overall dimensions of 𝐿 = 0.906 cm and

𝑊 = 1.186 cm, substrate with height ℎ = 0.1588 cm and dielectric

constant 𝜖𝑟 = 2.2, is operating at 10 GHz. Find:

(a) The input impedance. Do not take into account mutual effects

between slots.

(b) The position of the inset feed point where the input impedance is

50 ohms.

(c) Taking into account mutual effects and new calculations, the

admittance between slots is calculated as G1 = 1.57 × 10−3 , 𝐺12 =

6.1683 × 10−4 . Calculate the input impedance and the distance of the

inset feed point. Compare with parts (a) and (b)

Microstrip Patch Antennas Slide 36

Rectangular Patch - Fields

𝑘𝑊

sin sin 𝜃 sin 𝜙 𝑘𝐿

2

𝑓 𝜃, 𝜙 = cos sin 𝜃 cos 𝜙

𝑘𝑊 2

sin 𝜃 sin 𝜙

2

𝑘𝐿

𝐹𝐸 𝜃 = cos sin 𝜃 , 𝜙 = 0°

2

𝑘𝑊

sin 2 sin 𝜃

𝐹𝐻 𝜃 = cos(𝜃) , 𝜙 = 90°

𝑘𝑊

sin 𝜃

2

Rectangular Patch - Fields

Radiation Efficiency: 36.72%

Rectangular Patch - Fields

Rectangular Patch Antenna

Measurements & Simulation

Rectangular Patch - Directivity

𝑈𝑚𝑎𝑥 4𝜋𝑈𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝐷0 = =

𝑈0 𝑃𝑟𝑎𝑑

Single Slot 𝑘0 ℎ ≪ 1

2

𝑉0 2 𝜋𝑊

𝑈𝑚𝑎𝑥 =

2𝜂0 𝜋 2 𝜆0

2

𝑘0 𝑊

𝑉02 𝜋 sin cos 𝜃

2

𝑃𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 2

න sin3 (𝜃) 𝑑𝜃

2𝜂0 𝜋 0 cos 𝜃

Two Slots 𝑘0 ℎ ≪ 1

2

2𝜋𝑊 𝜋

𝐷2 =

𝜆0 𝐼2

2

𝑘0 𝑊

𝜋 𝜋 sin cos 𝜃 𝑘0 𝐿𝑒

2

𝐼2 = න න sin3 (𝜃) cos 2 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜙 𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜙

0 0 cos 𝜃 2

Microstrip Patch Antennas Slide 41

Quality Factor, Bandwidth, and

Efficiency

42

Quality Factor

The quality factor, bandwidth, and efficiency are interrelated figures-of-merit, and

cannot be independently optimized.

Stored Energy

𝑄 = 𝜔𝑟

Dissipated Power

The quality factor is representative of the antenna losses. These are radiation,

conduction (ohmic), dielectric, and surface-wave losses.

1 1 1 1 1

= + + +

𝑄𝑡 𝑄𝑟𝑎𝑑 𝑄𝑐 𝑄𝑑 𝑄𝑠𝑤

Where

𝑄𝑟𝑎𝑑 = Quality Factor due to radiation (space-wave) losses.

𝑄𝑐 = Quality Factor due to conduction (ohmic) losses.

𝑄𝑑 = Quality Factor due to dielectric losses

𝑄𝑠𝑤 = Quality Factor due to surface waves (negligible for thin substrates)

Quality Factor

For very thin substrates (𝑘 ≪ ℎ0 ) of arbitrary shapes, there are approximate

formulas to represent the quality factors.

𝑄𝑐 = ℎ 𝜋𝑓𝜇𝜎

1

𝑄𝑑 =

tan(𝛿)

2𝜔𝜖𝑟

𝑄𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 𝐾

ℎ 𝐺𝑡 /𝑙

𝐸 𝑎𝑒𝑟𝑎2 𝑑𝐴

𝐾=

𝐸 𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑝ׯ2 𝑑𝑙

𝑥

For rectangular aperture in the dominant 𝑇𝑀010 mode

𝐿

𝐾=

4

𝐺𝑡 𝐺

= 𝑟𝑎𝑑 conductance per unit length of radiating aperture

𝑙 𝑊

Quality Factor – Bandwidth

The fractional bandwidth of the antenna is inversely proportional to

the 𝑄𝑡 of the antenna

Δ𝑓 1

=

𝑓0 𝑄𝑡

Δ𝑓 𝑓2 −𝑓1 𝑓1 +𝑓2

= Fractional Bandwidth , 𝑓0 =

𝑓0 𝑓0 2

Δ𝑓 𝑉𝑆𝑊𝑅 − 1

=

𝑓0 𝑄𝑡 𝑉𝑆𝑊𝑅

𝑓0

𝑓1 = , 𝑓2 = 𝑓0 1 + 1/𝑄𝑡

1 + 1/𝑄𝑡

1

An approximate expression of the bandwidth for VSWR ≤ 2, Γ ≤ ,

3

𝜖𝑟 − 1 ℎ 𝑊

BW = 3.771 2 𝜆

Microstrip Patch Antennas

𝜖 𝑟 0 𝐿 Slide 45

Quality Factor – Dimensions and

Bandwidth

Quality Factor, Bandwidth, and

Efficiency – Example

The fractional bandwidth at a center frequency of 10 GHz of a rectangular patch

antenna whose substrate is RT/Duroid 5880 𝜖𝑟 = 2.2 with height ℎ = 0.1588 cm is

about 5% for a VSWR of 2: 1. Within that bandwidth, find resonant frequencies

associated with the two lengths of the rectangular patch antenna, and relative ratio of

the two lengths.

Antennas for Mobile

Communications

Planar Inverted F Antenna

Planar Inverted F Antenna

Planar Inverted F Antenna

Planar Inverted F Antenna

Slot Antenna

Inverted F Antenna

Inverted F Antenna

Inverted F Antenna

3D Inverted F Antenna

3D Inverted F Antenna

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