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TECHNOLOGY ISSN (O) :- 2349-3585

A Review on Performance of Diesel Engines by using

Biodiesel blends from Different oils
Dr. M Srinivasa Rao1,N. Venkatesh2,A. Lakshumu Naidu3
Professor, 2Scholar, 3Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engg, GMRIT, Rajam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract—The expanding industrialization and But with the help of available latest technologies researchers
mechanization of the world has led to a steep rise for the are finding new ways such as multiple injections, low
demand of petroleum products. Petroleum based fuels are temperature combustions to decrease the unwanted emissions
obtained from limited reserves. Therefore biodiesels are and increases the efficiency of the engine.
alternatives to replace in the place of fossil fuels. Vegetable
oils display an exceptionally encouraging condition of At present the prices of oil is increasing day by day and also
working as option energizes to conventional diesel fuel. The the fossil fuels reserves are depleting fast are the main reasons
properties and characteristics of biodiesels can be for the researchers to look for alternative resources of fuel to
contrasted positively for the qualities required for the meet the fuel demands and face the energy crisis.
compression ignition engine fuels .At present several
countries does not containing petroleum resources are In this biodiesels are the most suitable alternative solution and
facing a severe fuel crisis, mainly due to the import of raw thus causes a great interest. The main advantages of these
oil. Therefore, it is very emergency to look for alternative biodiesels are biodegradable, sustainable, and renewable and
fuels, which can be extracted from resources available in the reduces the harmful emissions and severe toxic gases. Besides,
countries. The vegetable oils releases less emissions than fuel properties of biodiesel are practically like diesel fuel.
conventional fuels. This paper reviews the Performance by
using biodiesel blends from different oils jatropha, 1.1ADVANTAGES OF BIODIESEL AS AN
Pongamia, Mahua, animal fat, Cottonseed oil, soybean, SUBSTITUTE FUEL
crude oil, rapeseed oil, palm oil, waste cooking oil,
sunflower, neem oil, etc. along with the experimental work Biodiesel is nontoxic and degrades very faster than diesel.
carried out in several countries in this area. Blending of biodiesel with diesel improves the engine
Index Terms—Performance analysis, Biodisel, fuels, engine efficiency and decreases the greenhouse gases like carbon
characteristics dioxide and further decreases the greenhouse effects on
environment. Due to its high flash point there are no storage
1.INTRODUCTION problems.

Diesel engine is one of the most broadly utilized engines in 1.2PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF
energy generation, transportation and farming machinery BIODIESEL
Vegetable oil is changed over into biodiesel through a
Starting today, diesel engine is playing a more prevailing and compound procedure that transesterification and produces
vital role because of its higher efficiency in thermal and methyl ester or ethyl ester. Palm seed oil, Cotton seed oil,
economy in fuel operating conditions. Rape seed oil, Soybean oil, Sunflower oil, Olive oil, Karanji
oil, Vegetable oil, Jatropha oil etc.

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Paper Title:- A Review on Performance of Diesel Engines by using Biodiesel blends from Different oils


ISSN:-2349-3585 |
Paper Title:- A Review on Performance of Diesel Engines by using Biodiesel blends from Different oils


Type of oil Density(kg/m³) Viscosity(mm²/s) Cetane no Flash point(ºc) Pour point(ºc)

Diesel 834-850 2.6-4 47-57.9 45-80 -20-3

Sunflower 880-882 4.44-5.8 49-52 178-220 -3.8

Jatropha 830-878 3.7-5.8 45-105 178-280 -15-3

Palm 874.7 4.05-5.1 58-65.5 135-161.9 11.8-16

Cottonseed 872-885 4-4.7 51.2-60 70-200 -15-6

Neem 864-878 4.72-5.21 54.2-57.83 63-162.5 -6.1

Soyabean 884 3.75-6.5 51.8 158.8-230 -3.8

Coconut 870.8 2.78 61 127.7 -3.8

Rapeseed 882.3 4.44-4.79 50.4-58.6 147-170 -11-7

Pongamia 876-888 4.8-37.12 53-55.84 52-263 -

Mahua 850-880 3.98-6.04 51-80 130-208 4-6

Rubber seed 882.3 5.81 50.04 130 -8

Waste cooking oil 870-880 4.75 56.2 169 -1

2. Litreature Review and B20 the BTE is closer to diesel and so found suitable. The
An extensive number of experiments were done with BSFC with blends of biodiesel is high as compared with diesel
vegetable oils as a substitution of I.C. engine fuel by scientists due to low heating value and high density. The exhaust gas
from different parts of the world. A large portion of these tests temperatures were increased with increase in blends
were accounted for from US, Europe, India, Malaysia and concentration for all the biodiesels due to low heat transfer
Germany. An outline of these trial results is given beneath. rate. At a pressure of 200 bar the optimum value of injection
Puneetverma et al [1].was taken vegetable oils like waste pressure was observed.Ashok kumar yadav et al.[3] were
cooking oil, palm oil, coconut oil, jatropha oil and converted it studied the performance and emissions characteristics on a
into biodiesel by transesterification process and found the transportation engine with non edible oil methyl esters of
performance and emissions on 4-stroke single cylinder CI oleander,ground nut and kusum at various speeds and full load
engine. The BSFC was increased with increase in speed of the conditions and found that these biodiesels were alternative
engine and brake power due to lower heating value of the resource for conventional fuels. The results showed that the
biodiesel than mineral diesel. With increase in blend BTE of oleander methyl ester is high and BSFC is lower than
percentage the BSFC was increasing. The BTE is decreased other two oils.with the ground nut methyl ester.Therefore the
for all the biodiesels than diesel due to high viscosity and engine can be operated smoothly with these biodiesels without
density of biodiesels. But for B20 blends of jatropha and palm any major changes.B.Deepanraj et al.[4] were used palm oil
oils the BTE has improved. From the overall experiment it methyl ester blends on a direct ignition single cylinder 4
shows the B20 blend biodiesel is the most reasonable blend stroke diesel engine at constant speed and compared with
for the engine. H.M.Dharmadhikari et al.[2] performed the diesel and found that the BTE is increased and the BSFC is
experiment on diesel engine with karanja and neem biodiesel reduced with lower blends of biodiesel and emissions were
blends at different injection pressures and compared with lowered. The 20-40% palm oil biodiesel can be used as an
diesel and found that these biodiesels can be used directly alternate fuel for diesel without any modifications. Jalpit B.
without any changes. The BTE of blends were lower than Prajapati et al[5] were conducted experiments of various
diesel due to high viscosity and poor volatility. But for B10 blends of palm oil biodiesel B0,B10,B20,B30 and compared

ISSN:-2349-3585 |
Paper Title:- A Review on Performance of Diesel Engines by using Biodiesel blends from Different oils

with diesel and found that B20 is the suitable and alternative found that with higher blends the efficiency and fuel
blend for the diesel engine in its performance than other consumption decreased from 10-25%. but the combustion in
blends. The performance is better with B30 at full load with the engine with the sesame methyl ester is trouble free and
1500 rpm. The BTE was increased and BSFC was reduced smooth in operation. S.D. Bhopale et al.[13] was taken neem
with all the blends with increase in load. U. Santhan Kumar et oil as blending oil, they found that for neem biodiesel all the
al.[6]used corn oil biodiesel to conduct experiment on diesel properties are high except calorific value when compared with
engine and found that the BTE is increased with increase in diesel. The results from the study said that the BTE was
brake power and maximum for B15 than diesel due to better increased with brake power. With the blends
atomization and vaporization of fuel and the BSFC is B10,B30,B50,B70 and B100 the maximum BTE was getting
minimum for B15 than other blends and diesel due to upto B30 and with higher blends the BSFC is increasing
improvement in combustion and less calorific value. The gradually. Soni S.Wirawan et al.[14] choosed palm oil
higher heat release rate is observed for B30 and maximum biodiesel to conduct performance and emissions on
cylinder pressure for B60. A.F. Sherwani et al.[7] used blends automotive diesel engine with the blends B10,B20,B30,B50
of mahua oil methyl and ethyl esters and waste cooking oil and B100.the results had shown that with higher blends of
methyl ester at a proportion of 5%,10%,15%,20% on a 4 palm biodiesel the power and torque are increasing and the
stroke single cylinder diesel engine at full load and 1500 rpm power with B100 is less than B10 and B20 and maximum
and analysed comparatively. They found that the BTE is high torque was exerted by all the blends at a speed of 30 to 40
for mahua oil methyl ester than other two. AmanHira et al.[8] km. A.M.Liaquat et al.[15] tested with coconut biodiesel and
used blends of biodiesel with ethanol as B20,BE20 and found envo diesel(5% palm diesel,95% ordinary diesel) to know
that it is an alternative fuel without any modification to diesel whether these are alternative fuels or not. From the results
engine. The BSFC is less and BTE is high for BE20 due to they found that with 5% blends the brake power is reduced by
additive ethanol. Maximum exhaust temperature is also for 1.2% and 0.7% with coconut and envo biodiesels respectively.
BE20 due to better combustion. VaneetBhardwaj et al.[9] used Overall the results showed that 5% envo and coconut
waste mustard biodiesel blends of 10%,15% and 20% as an biodiesels are suitable alternative fuels for diesel. Nidal H.
alternative fuel. The results shows that BSFC with B10 is less Abu-Hamdeh and Khaled A. Alnefaie[16] used almond
than other blends and BTE is almost same as diesel.B10 blend biodiesel blends B10,B30 and B50 to check its influence on
can be used as a partial diesel substitute for the crisis of diesel engine. Finally they found that a slight increase in
mineral diesel. S.kiran kumar [10] used fish oil with exhaust gas temperature, BSFC and increase in BTE. Among
isobutanol as an additive and prepared blends to use in C.I the blends B10 has minimum BSFC and maximum BTE. Nitin
engine. experiments were conducted by changing the volume Shrivastava[17] used jatropha biodiesel named jatropha
of isobutanol in biodiesel blends and found that BTE was methyl ester blends B20 and B50 to found whether it could be
increased with 5% and 10% isobutanol blends but the BSFC an alternative fuel or not. The results had shown that the
was increased. By using the fish BTE is highly increased from BSFC increased and brake specific energy consumption
0.36% to 0.82%. Senthil, R et al.[11] used annona methyl ester decreased with increase in blend ratio with neat diesel. B20
oil with additive ethanol in the proportions of 40-60,45-55,50- showed approximately same results as diesel. Whereas BTE
50,55-45 at different load conditions and compared with was decreased with increase in jatropha blend. But with neat
diesel. From the results it is found that with 50-50 the BTE is biodiesel there is 21% average increase in BSFC and 9.3%
slightly increased than other.Hence they concluded that average reduction in thermal efficiency. M. Sunil Kumar and
annona-ethanol 50-50 can be the suitable alternative fuel for a Vinod M. Kotebavi[18] used dual biodiesel blends of neem
diesel engine. Yuvaraj.M et al.[12] used the non-edible sesame and simarouba oils in a diesel engine to found its performance
oil from sunflower fruits with blends S5,S10,S20,S50,S80 and analysis. The results had shown that the BTE is reducing and

ISSN:-2349-3585 |
Paper Title:- A Review on Performance of Diesel Engines by using Biodiesel blends from Different oils

BSFC is increasing with increase in blend ratio due to lower sending into the cylinder. The performance of the engine is
heating value. With B10 blend showed better BTE than other high and SFC is low with the biodiesel blends. V.Gopinath,
blends and has same engine output than diesel. K.Srinivas et Dr.P.Suresh[25] used corn oil as fuel since in India corn
al.[19] used waste vegetable and its blends with additives production is increasing year by year. The experiment was
ethanol and ethyl hexyl nitrate and studied its performance and conducted with the blends 10%,20%,30% and 40% at different
emissions on diesel engine. From their results it is shown that load conditions and found that B40 blend was the direct
the BTE is lesser with all the blends than diesel and the substitute for diesel even though the performance is lesser than
maximum BTE was occurred with B20 and its additive than diesel. But B20 blend was the optimum blend in performance.
diesel and the SFC is more with the biodiesel than diesels and Akram Attar et al.[26] evaluated the performance of engine
it increasing with increase with blends percentage and among with castor oil blends B10,B20,B30 and found that 80 to 90%
all the blends B20 has less SFC than diesel.Prashanth Kumar diesel blend could give optimum results in both performance
et al.[20] used cotton seed methyl ester and sapindous and emissions so it can be replaceable with diesel for future
mukorossi seed oil blends on CI engine at an injection needs Ee Sann Tan et al[27] used waste cooking oil biodiesel
pressure of 240 bar. From their results it is found that with and distillate blends in micriturbine application at a mixing
25% coconut oil methyl ester,5% sapindous mukorossi oil the ratio of maximum up to 20% from 5%,since it has low
BTE and BSFC were increased by 3% and 2% than diesel. calorific value and high specific fuel consumption and proved
Abdülvahap Çakmak and Atilla Bilgin[21] used corn oil that this biodiesel has an ability to operate the micro turbine.
methyl ester diesel blends on a CI engine with blends B10,B20 The results showed that the thermal efficiency increases with
and B50 blends on volume basis at five different engine increase in blend ratio.Bhabani Prasanna Pattanaik et al.[28]
speeds. From the experiment they found that the engine torque used rice bran oil methyl ester blends on a single cylinder
and BSFC were reduced with increase in biodiesel diesel engine with the blends B20,B30 and B50.the results
concentration except B10. BTE is higher with the biodiesel showed that the brake power of engine with all the blends was
blends than diesel. S.Ghosh, D.Dutta[22] were done very closer to diesel but a considerable reduction of 2.4% with
comparative study with the soyabean oil methyl B50.BTE was slightly lower with all the blends than diesel.
ester(SOME),pongamia pinata methyl ester(POME) and BSFC was little greater than diesel due to lower heating value
diesel. They found that the BTE with SOME and POME was and high viscosity. The results conclude that rice bran oil can
reduced by 4.46% and 6.75% than diesel and the exhaust gas be successfully used as an alternative fuel. A. Anbarasu & A.
temperatures were high with blends than neat diesel. So Karthikeyan.[29] evaluated by using canola biodiesel and
finally they said that these biodiesels can be used as an observed that the BTE was high for blends than diesel and
alternate fuels for the diesel engine without any modifications. with B100 BTE and was increased by 2.4% than diesel at full
C. Srinidhi et al.[23] investigated with honne oil methyl ester load due to improvement in combustion process and high
blends and compared with diesel on a modified variable oxygen content.But the SFC with the blends is higher than that
compression ratio CI engine. They found that BTE was better of diesel due to combined effects of less heating value and
than diesel with slight compensation. While the brake mean high density of biodiesel. R. K. Yadav and S. L. Sinha [30]
effective pressure with the biodiesel was increased greatly by used jatropha biodiesel blends and found that the BTE
53%.BSFC with B20 is quite similar with neat diesel. But it is increases with all the fuel samples at 80% of engine load due
maximum with B100 by 24% increase than diesel.M. to increase in brake power. The optimum performance was
Soundarrajan et al.[24] found the behaviour of emissions with obtained with B20 regarding both BSFC and BTE. Due to the
the biodiesels melon seed oil and blended water melon seed addition of jatropha biodiesel the lubricity of the fuel
oil at a concentrations of 25%,50%,75% and 100% and the increases which helps to reduce the loss of power in fuel
blended oil was preheated to a temperature of 67◦c before pump. W. O. Osawa et al.[31] used croton megalocarpus

ISSN:-2349-3585 |
Paper Title:- A Review on Performance of Diesel Engines by using Biodiesel blends from Different oils

biodiesel blends in a direct ignition diesel engine and found Elango et al.[38] used non edible vegetable oils to blend with
that From the results it is found that a general increase in diesel to evaluate and compute the performance and
BTE, exhaust gases temperature and fuel flow rate and emissions. The results showed that BTE is high for diesel than
decrease in brake specific energy consumption with increase blends. SFC with B20 is quite similar to conventional diesel
in load on the engine with both diesel and biodiesel blends it fuel and decrease in BTE is marginal and concluded that B20
can conclude that the blends ratio upto 50% can be used blend was the optimum one. M Aldhaidhawi et al.[39] used
effectively as an alternative fuel without effecting the palm oil methyl esters blends of B7 and B10 by volume with
performance. A.A. Abdullah t al.[32] used crude jatropha oil different compression ratios of 18:1,20:1,22:1 at 3000rpm and
biodiesel blends in a diesel engine to study the vehicles different engine loads and found that the BSFC and BTE were
performance at different ratios by varying the engine speed less than diesel at all load conditions due high density and
from 1500-3000rpm and observed that the torque,brake lower heating value of biodiesel blends.
power, SFC were increased with increase in engine speed at 2.1.BENEFITS WITH BIODIESELS
no load condition and the torque is high for B10 among all the • The cost of the imports of petroleum products can be
blends at 3000 rpm. K Loganathan et al.[33] used jatropha reduced by replacing the vegetable oils produced
biodiesel with turpentine blend as green fuel for replacement domestically.
in a 4-stroke single cylinder air cooled CI engine and found • The domestic can be strengthen by developing the industries
from their results that the BTE was lowered by 9.2% than of biodiesels especially in rural and agriculture dependent
diesel at a load of 75% and BSFC increases for all the blends countries like India.
at part load. AkkarajuH. Kiran Theja et al[34] investigated • It is biodegradable and non-toxic
with linseed oil derived from flax seed plant and blended at a • It can be extracted from waste of several agricultural crops
proportions of 10,20 and 30% in a constant speed diesel so it is generable.
engine at a pressure of 200bar and repeated at the injection • It has closer heating value as that of diesel
pressures of 220 and 240 bar and found that the BTE is • It consists of low aromatics
maximum for all the blends at a pressure of 200 bar and with • It has considerable cetane number so less chances for
B30 the mechanical efficiency is maximum. P. L. Naik et knocking tendency
al.[35] used pongamia pinnata(karanja) biodiesel to investigate • Sulphur content is less and so it is eco-friendly
whether it is an alternative fuel for a diesel engine or not with • Highly suitable so major modifications to engines is not
the blends B10,B20 and B30.the results showed that B20 required
blend and lower could be used as an alternative fuel without • Its flash point is higher than diesel so more safety is more
any modifications since the BTE is similar as compared with • It can be used directly in the existing diesel engines with
diesel. JAYANT ARBUNE et al[36] was taken jatropha and minor or no modifications in the engine.
chicken fat blends and found that with B10 the BTE is almost 2.2.CHALLENGES WITH BIODIESELS
same as diesel fuel at full load but the best output is with B30 • Flash point is not reliable in the blends.
the torque and brake power were also same as diesel for all the • The further study is needed in suitability with the engine
blends and B30 was the satisfactory blend to replace the material.
diesel. Tejaswita Kajale et al.[37] studied the performace and • The price of vegetable oil is fluctuated with price of feed
emissions with neem oil based biodiesel and found that with stock.
increase in percentage of biodiesel in blends there is a slight • The oil homogeneity depends on method of production,feed
decrease in both power and torque in entire range of speeds. A stock and manucacturer.
significant increase in SFC was observed with blends of • The quality, reliability and purity is not guarantee.
biodiesel due to high density and lower heating value. T. • Difficult to accept by the manufactures of engine.

ISSN:-2349-3585 |
Paper Title:- A Review on Performance of Diesel Engines by using Biodiesel blends from Different oils

• Before going to continuous use consistent availability should biodiesel derived from Mahua oil and waste cooking oil."
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