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University of Aveiro 2012 Department of Communication and Art

TIAGO CASSOLA EMANUEL EDUCATIONAL LEO BROUWER PROJECT -


MARQUES CONTRIBUTIONS TO PEDAGOGY Guitarrística
University of Aveiro 2012 Department of Communication and Art

TIAGO CASSOLA EMANUEL EDUCATIONAL LEO BROUWER PROJECT -


MARQUES CONTRIBUTIONS TO PEDAGOGY Guitarrística

Thesis submitted to the University of Aveiro for compliance with the requirements for the degree of
Master of Music Education, held under the supervision of Professor José Paulo Torres Vaz de
Carvalho, Assistant Professor Department of Communication and Arts of the University of Aveiro.
I dedicate this work to Pia, inexhaustible source of love.
the jury

president Professor Paulo Ferreira Maria Rodrigues da Silva


Assistant Professor at the University of Aveiro

vowels Professor Ricardo Iván Abeijón Barceló


Assistant Professor at the University of Minho

Professor José Paulo Torres Vaz de Carvalho


Assistant Professor at the University of Aveiro
thanks At the end of this academic path, I would like to thank who never wavered, even when the days up to me to
put gray in color. Without them, I would not have even see the goal.

To Prof. Dr. Paulo Vaz Oak for guidance scientific, by


shared knowledge, the sweet cherries and friends. Prof. Mario Carreira, the unconditional contribution in the
chapter on Giuliani and Prof. Paulo Peres the infinite understanding, and both friendship. Prof. Dejan
Ivanovic, for his great analytical skills. Prof. Dr. Artur Caldeira, the availability of his work on the life and
work of Leo Brouwer,

the best Score in match. THE Prof. Dr. Filipa Over there
by
clarification. Prof. Rui Brito, virtuosoSibelius7. Prof. Ricardo Abreu for providing unpublished material
invaluable and for your friendship. Eduardo Baltar by friends artistic digressions. Cousin John Peter, the
typographic patience.

To all the colleagues and friends who collaborated in the investigation and offered me important words about
the Cuban maestro Dr. Antonio Valley, Prof. Dr. Artur Caldeira, Prof. Eduardo Soares, Prof. Dr. José
Mesquita Lopes, Professor. Paula Marques, Prof. Dr. Ricardo Barceló, Prof. Rui Gama. Prof. Oscar Flecha
for the kind collaboration concerning the courses. To all my students, inexhaustible sources of learning. To all
my friends without exception. To all fellow Conservatory of Music of Porto and Espinho Professional Music
School.

To all my thanks and gratitude.

Address a fraternal thanks to Eduardo and Maria, to Gabi, Fernando Nuno Afonso and Vasco.

At Pia for teaching me that gray is also a color.


key words Leo Brouwer, Guitar, Pedagogy, Didactics of Music, Style, Innovation, Estudios Sencillos, Theory,
Master-class Giuliani.

summary This paper intends to present the Leo Brouwer figure as a pedagogue under Guitarrística pedagogy,
besides addressing its relevance as a guitarist, conductor and composer, particularly his writing for guitar.
an analytical critical review of the historical background of the guitar will be made, from Giuliani to Leo
Brouwer, and obtained conclusions about the research and analysis of their teaching work, its theoretical
reflections and their teaching practice in the context of master-classes.
keywords Leo Brouwer, Guitar, Pedagogy, Didactic Music, Style, Innovation, Estudios Sencillos, Theoretical,
Master-class, Giuliani.
.

abstract This work intends to present the pedagogical path of Leo Brouwer Within the guitar pedagogy, as well as
reporting his important role as a guitarist, the director and the composer, Especially the importance of
his guitar works. An analytical literature review of the idiomatic guitar technique between Giuliani and
Brouwer will be done, as well as some research and analysis of his guitarSimple Studies, On his
theoretical thoughts and his master-class teaching methods.
Index

Introduction 1

1. Biographical notes: composer, guitarist and pedagogue - the indissoluble


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strands of Leo Brouwer

2. historical background 12

2.1. The paradigm of Mauro Giuliani (1781 - 1829) 13

2.1.1. About his compositional style and their contributions 13

2.2. From 1850 to 1950 - Lights and shadows 17

3. Leo Brouwer - style, language and innovation in writing Guitarrística 21

4. Leo Brouwer - Didactic shed 29

4.1. Estudios Sencillos 29

4.1.1. Estudios 1 - 10 31

4.1.2. Estudios 11 - 20 33

4.1.3. Main educational contributions ofEstudios Sencillos -


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synthesis

4.2. Nuevos Estudios Sencillos 40

4.2.1. analytical grid ofNuevos Estudios Sencillos 43

4.2.2. Main educational contributions ofNuevos Estudios Sencillos -


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synthesis

4.3. methodical studies in the absence of a method 45

5. Leo Brouwer - The theoretical aspect 48

5.1. Issues of pedagogical reflection of Leo Brouwer 49

5.1.1. Metacognition - Awareness, understanding, action 53

5.1.2. Sound Culture 54

5.1.3. Resolution of technical and interpretative problems 55

5.1.4. Keys to interpretation 57

5.1.5. rigor history 58

5.1.6. performance 59

5.2. The theoretical work of Leo Brouwer 61


6. Leo Brouwer - The meeting between the class and writing 65

6.1. Video analysis according to the themes of pedagogical reflection 65

6.1.1. rigor history 67

i. Ornamentation 67

ii. Baroque articulation 69

iii. dynamic 71

6.1.2. Resolution of technical and interpretative problems 72

i. study the ineffectiveness mechanically 72

ii. Focusing on one issue 74

iii. Interpretation of sound blocks 75

6.1.3. Keys to interpretation 77

i. Understanding of the work 77

ii. Breathing, direction, coordination 80

6.1.4. Sound Culture 82

6.2. teacher characteristics Leo Brouwer 84

7. Surveys - assessments in first person 89

7.1. Data analysis results 90

8. Leo Brouwer - Educational Profile 97

Final considerations 100

Bibliography 103

attachments 109
Figures index

Fig. 1 Mauro Giuliani, Op. 1, Arpeggios 1-4 (excerpt) 14

Fig. 2 Mauro Giuliani, Op. 1, Arpeggios 117-120 (excerpt) 15

Fig. 3 Mauro Giuliani, Op. 89 Preludio # 2 (excerpt) 15

Fig. 4 Mauro Giuliani, Op. 119, Rossiniana 1 (excerpt) 15

Fig. 5 magazine frontispiece The Giulianiadvol. 1-1833 17

Fig. 6 Leo Brouwer study V (excerpt) 24

Fig. 7 Leo Brouwer study VI (excerpt) 24

Fig. 8 Leo Brouwer study XI (excerpt) 24

Fig. 9 Leo Brouwer XVIII study (excerpt) 24

Fig. 10 Leo Brouwer Canticum (excerpt) 24

Fig. 11 Leo Brouwer Decamerón El Negro, El Arpa del Guerrero (excerpt) 25

Fig. 12 Leo Brouwer El Negro Decamerón, La Huida de los lovers [...] (excerpt) 25

Fig. 13 Leo Brouwer El Negro Decamerón, La Balada de la doncella enamorada 25

Fig. 14 Emilio Pujol, Barcarolle (excerpt) 26

Fig. 15 Leo Brouwer, Hika (excerpt) 26

Fig. 16 Leo Brouwer, Variations on a theme of Django Reinhardt (excerpt) 26

Fig. 17 Leo Brouwer, Hika (excerpt) 27

Fig. 18 Leo Brouwer, Eternal spiral (excerpt) 27

Fig. 19 Leo Brouwer, Paisaje Cubano con Campanas (excerpt) 27

Fig. 20 Dusan Bogdanovic, 5 miniatures Printanières (excerpt) 28

Fig. 21 Carlo Domeniconi, Koyumbaba (excerpt) 28

Fig. 22 Leo Brouwer, XVIII study (excerpt) 34

Fig. 23 Leo Brouwer, Concierto elegiac (excerpt) 34

Fig. 24 Leo Brouwer, Notes on Estudios Sencillos (P.1) 34

Fig. 25 Leo Brouwer, Scale per Chitarra (excerpt) 56

Fig. 26 visée, Menuett II, w. 8 68

Fig. 27 visée, Menuett II, w. 8 with ornamental Brouwer L. 68

Fig. 28 Weiss, Allemande, Cc. 10:11 68

Fig. 29 Weiss, Allemande, Cc. 10 and 11, with adornment 68

Fig. 30 visée, Menuett II, w. 11, unornamented 69

Fig. 31 a) Visée, Menuett II, w. 11, with ornamentation 69


Fig. 32 b) Visée, Menuett II, w. 11, with ornamentation 69

Fig. 33 c) Visée, Menuett II, w. 11, with ornamentation 69

Fig. 34 visée, bourrée, w. 1 70

Fig. 35 visée, bourrée, Cc. 24:13 - with improper ligatures 70

Fig. 36 visée, bourrée, Cc. 24:13 - without proper ligatures 70

Fig. 37 visée, Gavotte, Cc. 1-4 71

Fig. 38 visée, Gavotte, Cc. 1-4, correct 71

Fig. 39 a) Visée, Gigue, Cc. 1-4 71

Fig. 40 b) Visée, Gigue, Cc. 1-4 71

Fig. 41 c) Visée, Gigue, Cc. 1-4 71

Fig. 42 d) Visée, Gigue, Cc. 1-4 72

Fig. 43 Walton Bagatelle 3, Cc. 36-37 72

Fig. 44 Walton Bagatelle 3, Cc. 36-37 (only melody) 73

Fig. 45 Walton Bagatelle 3, Cc. 36-37 (only rhythm) 73

Fig. 46 Walton Bagatelle3 cc. 36-37 73

Fig. 47 Ginastera, Finale, Cc. 65-67 (typing used by the student) 74

Fig. 48 Ginastera, Finale, Cc. 65-67 (typing suggested by Brouwer) 74

Fig. 49 Walton Bagatella2, c. 32-33 74

Fig. 50 Ginastera, Sonata, w. 37 76

Fig. 51 Ginastera, Sonata, w. 75 76

Fig. 52 Torroba, Sonatina, w. 17 76

Fig. 53 Torroba, Sonatina, w. 28 77

Fig. 54 Weiss, Giguecc. 29-33 77

Fig. 55 Bach, Prelude, w. 4 78

Fig. 56 Bach, Prelude, w. 20 78

Fig. 57 Bach, Prelude, w. 7-8 79

Fig. 58 Bach, Prelude, w. 7-8 79

Fig. 59 Walton Bagatella 2, Cc. 17-18 80

Fig. 60 Torroba, Sonatinaw. 16 80

Fig. 61 Walton Bagatella 3cc. 29-30 81

Fig. 62 Bach, Prelude, w. 4 (transcription example of Brouwer singing) 81

Fig. 63 Ginastera, Sonataw. 114 81

Fig. 64 Bach, Prelude, w. 9 (with joint) 82


Fig. 65 Walton Bagatella II, Cc. 40 and 59-53 83

Fig. 66 Ginastera, Sonata, cc.120-130 83

Fig. 67 Ginastera, Sonata, w. 76 84

Fig. 68 Ginastera, "Finale" of Sonata, Cc. 24-27 85

Fig. 69 Ginastera, Sonata, Finale, c. 28 85

Fig. 70 Ginastera, Sonata, Finale, c. 38 86


Introduction

This Document Support Education Project falls within the scope of

Master in Music Education, the Department of Communication and Arts of the University of Aveiro.

This document comes at the conclusion of a year dedicated to Teaching Practice

Unsupervised, at the Music Conservatory of Porto, where he has played teaching duties as a guitar teacher.

Alongside this, the creation of this work under the theme LEO BROUWER -

Contributions to Guitarrística pedagogy It aims to be a comprehensive approach and a monographic reflection on one
of the most important figures in contemporary guitaristic panorama, focusing especially on the various didactic and
theoretical and practical aspects of its educational aspect.

The idea came under the guidance of Professor Paulo Vaz de Carvalho,

with its priceless experience learned guide me in the task of collecting a sample of what is vivid to the contribution of
Leo Brouwer for pedagogy, still not coded in academics.

Over the years, as a student, and now also as concert

teacher, I have been able to assess and demonstrate the importance of the Cuban composer work in my training and the
choice of repertoire second aesthetic criteria. The approach to their studies throughout my primary and secondary route,
and the presence of his works in my recitals define only part of my interest in moving forward with this project.

Regarding the state of the art, Leo Brouwer figure has raised in the days of

now a growing interest in the editorial and academic areas, coming to light in recent years some books and monographs,
as well as successive articles, interviews, publishing and musicological research dissertations on the extensive work of the
Cuban composer in various journals and universities . Are particularly relevant both booksLeo Brouwer, Caminos de la
creación (2009), the co-authors Marta Rodríguez Cuervo and Victoria Eli Rodríguez, and Gajes del Oficio (2004), Leo
Brouwer, a compilation prepared only with articles of his own writings over the past four decades, covering such diverse
topics as

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"Music, folklore, contemporaneidad y postmodernism", "La improvisation random" or "Reflexiones", the latter a
compendium of thoughts about music, and ending with a major contribution entitled "On the technical

Guitarrística ".

As for articles related to Leo Brouwer, the number exceeds two dozen. we highlight some, relevance and timeliness: "El
brouweriano method" (2012), by Gloria Ariza Adame, thedigital journal Independiente Sixth OrdenAn analysis of some
thirty conferences and studies of Leo Brouwer, as a key to a methodological approach to his concert music. We also serve
the article "Leo Brouwer y su influences en la Guitarrística literature vanguard" (2010), Carolina Queipo, a text on the
stages and most striking aspects of his creative life, by way of summary; yet the article "Reappraisal of simple etudes"
(2010), Clive Kronenberg, emphasizing the quality and beauty of their studies, as well as including references to
guitaristic legacy Brouwer.

It should also be noted that not abound in Portuguese jobs

about this composer. Only I know and I could dwell on the recent Artur Caldeira master's thesis,Leo Brouwer -
unavoidable Figure Guitar (2011), an important monographic contribution on his life and work, as well as a chapter on
compositional analysis of their studies, as well as some of his concert works.

It is practically impossible to discover and / or have access to all the texts

address Leo Brouwer, with this sample we realized the growing interest in musicological approach this figure. Yet,
because they are not
exhausting the

studies on the composer, and in particular to not exist theoretical basis about your shed as a pedagogue leads me to
want to contribute to this research chapter on Leo Brouwer, consolidating an educational project on this figure and at
the same time bridging this gap.

This work intends to focus on a particular aspect of a musician

(Contributions to Guitarrística pedagogy), presenting an approach to his biography, teaching materials, its
theoretical profile and teaching, as well as an approach to the student's perspective. To this end, the use of two
research models was imperative

what consist at methodological basis my job: search

documentary and observational research. With the first model sought to systematize biographical information
contextualize the work, compile teaching materials,

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theoretical and documentary, proceeding to the analytical study based on the review of the collected literature (music,
books, articles, interviews, and a storage medium). On the other hand, with the observational research was intended to
go further, not only from a documentary point of view, but having the perspective of the student in the learning
process and teaching methods and interpretation, by conducting surveys and their analysis of these statements.

Thus, the thesis will be structured into eight main chapters:

 The 1st chapter deals with the inseparable artistic aspects in the life and work of Leo Brouwer,

While guitar player, composer, conductor and pedagogue,

looking frame his pedagogical work in this biographical journey.

 In the 2nd chapter far shall be a critical perspective and compared to the composers guitarists who
preceded Leo Brouwer, traveling by Mauro Giuliani.

 In the 3rd chapter will analyze the style and Leo Brouwer language, its

contributions for technical innovation and the reasons for

considered a disruptive figure with his legacy direct.

 In the 4th chapter will be addressed his didactic work, in particular its 20 Sencillos Studies and 10
Nuevos Estudios SencillosAnd what pedagogical contributions.

 The 5th chapter covers the theoretical aspects through the analysis of theoretical texts of pedagogical
nature (especially on the guitar pedagogy) left by Leo Brouwer in interviews, articles or publications,
systematizing them in a list of pedagogical reflection themes.

 The 6th chapter deals with the role of Leo Brouwer as a teacher, through the analysis of a videogram of a
master-class held in Portugal in

1995 relating the theoretical aspects of the previous chapter with the class context.

 In the 7th chapter will be exposed to analysis and the results of a survey prepared from whom worked with
conductor Cuban in those master classes.

 Finally, on the 8th and final chapter will be traced the general educational profile of Leo Brouwer.

At the end of the work will be a summary of the main ideas conveyed and

defended in this work, as well as the final considerations relating to the theme.
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1. Biographical notes: composer, guitarist and pedagogue - the

inseparable aspects of Leo Brouwer

"Leo Brouwer is something unique, vital, monolithic and indistinct, a musician, a huge

musician." (Cuervo and Rodriguez 2009: 10) This is how the Spanish composer

Tomás Marco (Madrid, 1942) attempts to define the indefinable, admitting the impossibility of closing a name the
inventive genius of his Cuban colleague and constant creative movement of this important personality in
contemporary music. Leo Brouwer multifaceted musician: great guitar player, great songwriter, great teacher, great
teacher. Leo Brouwer polyhedral: social man, cultural, political. "Brouwer life and work have their dialectics and
functional correspondence." (Cuervo and Rodriguez, 2009: 13)

We discuss in this chapter the life and work of Leo Brouwer. It is not our

aim to make a musicological work on the biography, describing his work, the compositional stages in his career,
influences or successes. However, we believe it is important to book this first chapter to a biographical, social and
aesthetic environment in phases and periods around which composed his didactic work, relating them well with the
theme and purpose of this work. To this end, the chosen reference texts are mainlyLeo Brouwer - Caminos de la creación
(Cuervo and Rodriguez, 2009) Leo Brouwer - unavoidable Figure Guitar (Caldeira, 2011), by the look of those who
emphasize more comprehensive, correlated and detailed the life and work of Cuban composer way.

These two strands are so interconnected that make it almost impossible

a simple chronology that does not take into account again and face. Still, for consistency with the purpose of this study we
chose to focus on the events and the works that refer to what may have influenced his character pedagogue. This implies
the studies conducted (academic and non-academic), their social and cultural roots, and professional events that have led to
compose works that now form part of the studies of many guitarists worldwide curriculum and make -if the benchmark of
innovative pedagogy how is closely linked to his person, and never until now encoded by a method.

We will present this biography following an invisible horizontal and vertical line.

Horizontal and vertical from a chronological point of view in order to have a vision

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overview of the various events that have occurred in their professional lives and their surrounding socio-cultural
environment, and that influenced the musician and pedagogue Brouwer. From this perspective it results in the vicinity of
nature information concertística, compositional, social and cultural.

A true living legend, Juan Leovigildo Brouwer Mezquida born on 1

March 1939 in Havana, Cuba, within a loving family music and musical background. Your great-uncle, Ernesto Lecuona
(1895-1963), is a renowned Cuban composer, and his aunt gave him his first lessons in music theory and piano.

His father, an amateur guitarist, initiated him in contact with famous works

composers such as dances Granados, the Choros Villa-Lobos, the pieces of Francisco Tarrega and Isaac Albéniz
(McKenna, 1988). By not received teachings are sufficient, you begin to study in the Cuban capital with Isaac Nicola.

pedagogue student Emilio Pujol (in turn a beloved student Francisco

Tarrega) during his studies in Paris, Isaac Nicola would be responsible for solidifying the Guitarrística school in Havana,
after the foundation launched by his mother Clara Romero, guitar official school founder in Cuba. During those years,
Brouwer deepened a methodical and disciplined study of the instrument, a decision made after hearing his teacher to
interpret the works of Gaspar Sanz, Luys of Milan, John Dowland, Fernando Sor, Francisco Tarrega and other names of the
repertoire (Cuervo and Rodriguez, 2009: 16), marking it deeply:

"[Isaac Nicola] Toco para mi español Renaissance, Baroque, Siglo XIX, music del Siglo

XX ... Homenaje a Debussy, de Falla ... y since Toco el español Renaissance me dió un swipe, traumatizó me radically, y
todo aquello it was intuition is convirtió en una de las más cultural experiences powerful. [...] Eso fue el gran echo. Es
como el nacimiento un fetus, which convierte en el cutting human umbilical Cordon. "(McKenna, 1988).

The characteristic features of Leo Brouwer manifest from his youth

up to today. A couple of guitar studies, is slowly incorporating new plural cultural experiences. It is defined as a creative
personality unable to be confined to learning one instrument (also learned cello, flute,

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percussion and piano) or one area of knowledge; has an insatiable curiosity, an enormous capacity for work and a
relentless pursuit of information and perfectionism, the absorption techniques and compositional methods (often self-
taught), and a passion for other arts, such as literature, painting, dance and in particular the Cuban cinema, with which will
work from 1960.

The brilliant and acclaimed concertística career Brouwer starts from

late 50s (and that would last more than two decades), with hundreds of concerts and tours to various continents and
various discographic records (Caldeira, 2011) with repertoire from baroque to contemporary, lived with the composition
of the first works for guitar from 1954; for example we quote:Suite # 2 (1955) Prelude and Pieza sin título # 1 (1956)
Danza Feature (1957) flight (1957), the themes and Aires Cuban popular (1957) and Five Micropiezas (Homenaje to
Milhaud) (1957) for two guitars, Tres apuntes (1959) are just some of the first titles that were part still many other
compositions for various chamber formations: Music for guitar, timpani cuerdas y (1955); Homenaje a Manuel de Falla
(Fl, ob, cl, guit, 1958); Ritual (1958); of canciones (Voice, guit, 1958); Tres danzas concertante (Guit and Orchid, 1958),
to name a few.

The writing style of the young and irreverent Brouwer reveals one

appreciation for classical forms (fugue, prelude, suite), the influence of Cuban folk and popular music, the music scene
(writing for the theater guiñol in Havana) and concert (for your guitar duo with Jesús Ortega) and a large, early high
culture. Your rate of production should be first, according to his own words, a gap in the modern repertoire that the
ambitious Brouwer felt at the time:

"We did not have a Brahms quintet for the guitar, we did not have the L 'Histoire du Soldat by

Stravinsky, we did not have the chamber music by Hindemith, we did not have any sonatas by Bartok. So, as I was young
and ambitious and crazy, I Told myself que if Bartók did not write any sonatas, maybe I could do it. "(McKenna, 1988).

To get a Cuban government scholarship in 1959 to complement

the composition studies at Juilliard School (New York) and Hartford (Connecticut)

opens up one new chapter in experiences what if revealed

fundamental. Worked with Vincent Persichetti and Stephen Wolpe (composition)

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Bennet (choral conducting), Jean Morel (direction of orchestra), Joseph Iadone (early music), and enjoy a rich cultural
environment and direct experiences with personalities such as Paul Hindemith, Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland, etc.
(Cuervo and Rodriguez, 2011). During his stay in the United States (1959-1960) writesTrio for bow instruments, Rondo
for two clarinets and cello, Sonata for solo cello (Rev. 1994), Cervantina escape piano and highlights the beginning of its
didactic aspect, with the composition of the first section of Estudios Sencillos (1-5) for guitar.

On his return to Cuba founded the Sound Experimentation Group and integrates

Cuban Institute of Art and Film Industry (ICAIC), leading to the creation of a bond that will keep for more than twenty
years and led to the creation of music for dozens of films and documentaries. Appointed Professor of Harmony,
Counterpoint and Composition in 1961 at the Conservatorio Amadeo Roldán (Havana), participates in the V Festival of
Contemporary Music Warsaw "Autumn Varsoviano" by going for the first time live to the music of the European avant-
garde composers such as Berio, Stockhausen, Boulez, Bussotti, Penderecki and others, impactful aesthetic experience
that would progressively manifest to its heyday in the '70s, however, continues with its irreversible pace of composition
with the second notebook

of Estudios Sencillos (6-10) material teaching used All the

likely even before its publication in 1972 by the Parisian house Max Eschig. In the same year, and taking advantage of
the materialTrio for bow instruments, Makes up the String Quartet No. 1 (Homage to Béla Bartók), Two bocetos piano,
Sonata for flute, Sonata for viola and Son Mercedes for choir.

Despite not having any written explicitly teaching appointment during

the next two decades, the 60 Leo Brouwer has established itself internationally as a guitarist (acting by the most important
stages of international festivals and seasons, and recordings for Erato label, RCA, Deutsche Grammophon), and as a
composer, bringing some key parts of your catalog: Praise de la danza (1964) and Canticum(1968), in which pieces are
explored timbre and dynamics, resonance and directionality of the sentence or the pedal tones. Founding member of the
Sound Experimentation Group, writes a full work of symbolism, and that augurs the aesthetic way of the following
years:La tradición breaks ... pero cuesta trabajo

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(1967-69), a piece of meetings, sharing and sound deconstructions of the past and this present.

THE eternal spiral at the beginning of the 70's assume this cutting edge

music of Boulez and Stockhausen, intense, dry and mathematics, a reflection of your new path, marking a completely
new, serial and random phase. an authentictour-de-forcethe guitaristic repertoire that explores the most of timbral and
dynamic capabilities of the guitar, the piece is based on the nature of the structures: developed in a spiral, from
minimum organisms to higher complexity of structures with continuous phenomena of expansion and contraction, and
free sections with room for improvisation, bravery and inspiration of the interpreter. This decade saw still be createdEs
el amor quien ve (S, fl, vl, vlc, pn, guit, perc, 1972) Parable (1973) and Tarantos

(1974), a stage where he studies, experiences and hosts several

technical and expressive procedures avant-garde.

Brouwer, whose active social and cultural life, and the composition and career

intense concertística mingle and intertwine, begins this decade to be a constant presence in Cuban cultural life, either
as a collaborator of Radio Television Cubana, or as a speaker at conferences thanks to its communicative power, and to
be recognized also by their dowries of analytical narrative on items of cultural magazines: "La Musica, it Cuba y la
innovación" (1970), "La Cuban vanguard" (1970), "La improvisation random" (1971), "modular Composición" (late
70s) are some of these articles, compiled and brought to light in the book Gajes del Oficio (Brouwer,

2006), and where we can enjoy the thematic focus of Conductor,

proving its avant-garde aesthetic fascination of those years.

However, as he stated himself:

"The un cierto punto, this is lenguaje y atomizó if rompió. If volvio increasingly bad abstract y

Airtight. In comunicaba y esto es as fundamental to mi, dulcifiqué un poco mi estilo, quizá insiriendo simplicity, y
fue as volver a house [...]. "(Kerstens, 1987).

The post-modern and neo-avant-garde Brouwer returns to simplicity, to their

african-Cuban roots to modalism, a rapprochement of tonality. Called "Nueva

simplicity", or "Hyper-Romanticism National" (in detriment in

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Minimalism Leo Brouwer rejects), this will be the track that will go up to today:

"La simplicity condujo a una deep reflexión them on ways of emplear la materia

sound. On the ground Brouwer lograba optimize these resources expresión del lenguaje bell también una distinct actitud
ante la obra y sus forms of hacerla conocida. All these aspects related to it psicología de la Audicion en el recipient that
escucha ganaron una importance that años ago habían lost ground. "(Cuervo and Rodriguez,

2009: p. 67)

In 1979 composes La Ciudad de las thousand cuerdasFor large ensemble

guitars, guitar commissioned by IV Biennial in Hungary, and in 1980 the concert for guitar and orchestra Quasi una
fantasia (Liège Concert). The year 1981 is particularly rich in huge international success works: composes and ends
notebooksIII and IV of Sencillos studies and let yourself be seduced by the literary richness of African legends in building
El Negro Decamerón, A great work concerto with three movements, inspired by the homonymous book of German
anthropologist Leo Frobenius (Berlin, 1873-1938). alsopreludes epigrammatic, Very short reports on the structure and
musical elements, seek their inspiration in the poems of Miguel Hernández (1910-1942). From the short story by Edgar
Allan Poe, Brouwer composedAntiguo manuscript found en una botella (Pn, vl, vlc, 1983), and is inspired by strong
personalities of culture to write Pictures Catalanes (Guit and Orchid, 1983), in honor of Mompou and Gaudi; Canción de
gesta(For orchestra câmara1983) from the homonymous book of poetry of Pablo Neruda; andVariations on a theme of
Django Reinhardt(1984). Still in the 80s he wroteCuban paisaje with lluvia(1984), one of his pieces for orchestra of
guitars that takes the ratio technique (Fibonacci series); is a play based on an initial cell that germinates and to which are
added other notes, other sounds, other effects around this seed, a minimalist architecture.

Brouwer, despite the removal of the stage for problems arising from

a possible muscle injury, is by now synonymous with international recognition and fame, attested by the constant
presence of his work in the concert programs of other renowned concert artists, the invitations to teach master-class in
Europe,

9
directing orchestras, give lectures, hold important political and cultural positions, receive prizes and awards that will
adding, with the prize awarded by UNESCO in 1987

only the side more media this route. contribute for This one

recognition debut and the success of some new works: elegiac concert (1986) dedicated to the great Conductor British Sir
Julian Bream, and di Toronto Concert (1987), dedicated to another great virtuoso John Williams, in addition to the
hundreds of recordings (works by recording their currently exceeds 650 discographic records) (Cuervo and Rodriguez,
2009).

In the early 90s, Brouwer makes up Sonata(1990) for guitar. also

these years assumes the direction of the Orchestra of Cordoba (1992-2001), and presented in Portugal as a conductor and
pedagogue in Santo Tirso (1994, 1995, 1997) and Fafe Courses (1999). also begins the composition of a series of
concerts for guitar and orchestra dedicated to important concert performers:Helsinki concert (# 5) (1991-2), Timo
Korhonen; Volos Concert (# 6) (1997), Cotsiolis back; Concert La Habana (# 7) (1998), Joaquin Clerch; Concerto-
Cantata di Perugia (# 8) (1999), Leonardo de Angelis; Concierto de Benicàssim (# 9) (2002), Gabriel Estarellas.

In 2000 composes Cuadros de otra exposición (Vl, trp / vlc, pn), where each

progress is a tribute to a painter: from the Cuban W. Lam, the most celebrated A. Modigliani, H. Bosh, E. Delacroix, Goya
F. and R. Rauschenberg. It is following this line in 2001 presents a new didactic work, the tenNuevos Estudios
SencillosAlso giving each of them a simple tribute to a different composer (Debussy,

Mangoré, Caturla, Prokofiev, Tarrega, Sor, Piazzolla, Villa-Lobos,

Szymanowski and Stravinsky), and which evokes and quotes earlier works, such as the second movement of El Negro
Decamerón, Or Liege Concert, Or the sound universe of Astor Piazzolla.

Leo Brouwer proceeds with multiple activities, continuing to produce works

great breath (La ciudad de las columns, 2004; Sonata del Caminante, 2007), addressing the National Symphony
Orchestra of Cuba for over twenty years until 2003, or giving ateliers guitar and composition (Córdoba, 2010; Italy,
2012).

He is currently president of the "Oficina Leo Brouwer", based in Havana. It has

more 200 distinctions, prizes and awards International, with honors

constant serving of merit certificate and universal projection of this unique and charismatic character: in addition to the
UNESCO distinction, highlight the Prize

10
Manuel de Falla (1998) in Spain, Honoris Causa in Havana and Santiago de Chile (1999), MIDEM Award for
Classical Music in Cannes for his Helsinki ConcertOrder Pablo Neruda (Chile, 2007), Award Goffredo Petrassi (Italy,
2008), National Film Award (Cuba, 2009).

11
2. historical background

In this chapter there is a historical review about the history of Leo

Brouwer on guitar pedagogy, drawing a comparison with another reference figure in classical guitar study, the
Italian composer-guitarist century. XIX, Mauro Giuliani.

Since the guitar adopted six simple strings model at the end of the century.

XVIII1The technical school and Italian aesthetics contributed significantly (Radole 1986:

143) to its rapid development and consolidation in a few years, regardless of the instrument is then known as French
guitar or violates French. The relevance of this instrument in the Italian peninsula is confirmed to some extent by the
appearance of several methods (Radole 1986: 164), especially the first, both by the Italian guitarist Federico Moretti
(Napoli, 1769-1839)Principi per chitarra 5 simple strings in 1792 in Naples and Method / per chitarra to know corde /
con gli elementi generali della musica / terza edizione / acresciuta di /...arpeggi said quattro (Napoli, 1804)2As well as
the observed growth of dilettantes and self-taught. Of course, the composers-guitarists are the most visible face of this
phenomenon of popularity, especially for its artistic importance, performative and didactics Ferdinando Carulli (Napoli,
1770 - Paris, 1841), Antonio Nava (Milano, 1775

- 1826), Francesco Molino (Ivrea, 1768 - Paris, 1847), Filippo Gragnani (Livorno, 1767 - Paris, 1812), almost all,
however, getting abroad the artistic and economic recognition, with Paris and Vienna as the most common destinations .

However, in the short arc of a generation is the figure of Mauro Giuliani (Bisceglie,

1781 - Napoli, 1829) lies the true heyday of this Italian school, although many

1
The 5 simple string guitar oldest which are known to date is 1774, authored by Ferdinandus Gagliano Filius Nicolai, Naples, 1774 (Heck 1975:
64-71). Until recently, the 6 oldest simple strings was written by Giovanni Battista Fabricatore (Napoli, fecit Anno 1791)

but however we know the hand of the recently disappeared American musicologist James Tyler, the existence of two Italian instruments
both dated 1785 by Antonio Vinaccia and Giovanni Battista Fabricatore (Tyler and Sparks, 2002: 219). In any event, 1780 continues to be a
good transition date for reference, but it was still unsolved in France or Italy which gave the processing for simple double strings.

2
In this respect Moretti is very clear:
"Aunque yo use it siete Guitar órdenes Sencillos, I like but timely ha accommodate estos Principles for her six órdenes, being it that touches
generalmente en España: this misma razón me obligo will imprimirlos en Italian en el año 1792 adapted to her five órdenes guitar; pues en
aquel tiempo ni aun it six if conocía en Italia. " (Fernandez, 2009: 109-134).

12
other names to succeed him on the success, beginning with their children Michele and Emilia Giuliani, Luigi Legnani
(Ferrara, 1790 - Ravenna, 1877), Matteo Carcassi (Florence, 1792 - Paris, 1853), Luigi Castellacci (Pisa, 1797 - Paris,
1845), Marc 'Aurelio Zani de Ferranti (Bologna 1800 - Pisa, 1878), or Giulio Regondi (Genève, ca. 1822 - London,

1872).

2.1. Oparadigm Mauro Giuliani (1781 - 1829): About your style

Compositional and their contributions

Composer fruitful, virtuoso concert pianist and teacher, was in Vienna that Giuliani

He managed to establish its reputation and fame, developing in the Austrian capital his talent, the result of a musical
environment conducive and where there was a strong interest in the guitar, seen in huge editions of works by composers-
guitarists counted as Anton Diabelli (1781 - 1858) Leonhard De Call (1779 - 1815), Wenzeslaus Matiegka (1773 - 1830),
Simon Molitor (1766 - 1848), Johann Kaspar Mertz (1806 -

1856), or the aforementioned Legnani. With nearly 200 works 3, Mauro Giuliani stand out more than five notebooks
studies virtuosic concert works such as Grande Ouverture Op. 61, a Sonata Eroica Op. 150, at six Rossinian Op. 119-
124Or many other works written as Potpourri or Theme and Variations, which stand out for their fame the Variations
on a Theme by Handel, Op. 107 and the Variations on the Folias of Spain Op. 45. It was, moreover, the first
composer to write aConcerto per chitarra and orchestra Op. 30.

2.1.1. About his compositional style and their contributions

If we consider two textures4principal in writing for the newcomer

six-string guitar (horizontal texture, when we refer to scales or melodic passages and / or monaural; vertical texture,
when referring to the harmonic passage, in particular arpeggio as a technique of strumming the strings with his hand

3
Mauro Giuliani left the 150 numbers opusAnd more than 40 pieces without being cataloged. (Heck,
1970).
4
See Heck 1995: 190, which explains and exemplifies the terminology suggested here.
13
right, while the left hand sets the chord), the skill and mastery of the composers lived in the mill degree in
combination of the two.

In this regard, Thomas Heck, researcher and reference biographer

Mauro Giuliani, the Italian musician:

"[...] Was truly a genius. His ability to make the guitar speak with its own accent the musical

language of his era has left posterity with a wealth of very resourceful, effective, and charming guitar music, that is, music
Which Could hardly be conceived apart from the guitar. "(Heck, 1995: 191).

At opinion American musicologist, it would take many years

practical experience to get good results in this fusion of textures above. Dubbing this technique of "guitarrismo" (Heck
1995: 190), we can associate this concept in the concept of idiom, since it is the adaptability of a musical technique to
specific characteristics (physical and acoustic) of the instrument, thereby obtaining the musical maximum results with
the least technical effort, and whose music could hardly be designed with the same result in another tool.

Heck says that guitarrísticas textures in the work for Mauro guitar

Giuliani are constant. Through their great work, Mauro Giuliani developed a technique residing beyond the scales, a
strong right-hand area of the guitar perfectly adapted to the characteristics expressed by multiple formulas with
accompanied melody arpeggio. The importance of having a good mechanic in his right hand from the beginning of the
studies is central to the Italian guitarist, so that in yourMetodo per chitarra Opus 1 It includes "120 arpeggio" and in
various possible combinations of fingering.

Examples:

Fig.1 Mauro Giuliani, Op. 1, Arpeggios 1-4 (excerpt)

14
Fig.2 Mauro Giuliani, Op. 1, Arpeggios 117-120 (excerpt)

Fig.3 Mauro Giuliani, Op. 89 Preludio # 2 (excerpt)

Fig.4 Mauro Giuliani, Op. 119, Rossiniana 1 (excerpt)

When referring to Giuliani as the paradigm of the first great wave of

guitarists of the classical period, do not want to take importance or merit to other great composers-guitarists, with special
emphasis on those who developed their activity in Paris, the other great guitar worship center as well as Vienna (and little
later London) . Two of the major figures were Dionisio Aguado and Fernando Sor. Aguado (Madrid, 1784-1849), virtuoso
guitarist and composer enjoyed in Paris, was also known for the considerable teaching volume:Guitar Escuela (Madrid
1825), Méthode complète pour la Guitare (Paris 1826), Nouvelle Méthode de Guitare Op. 6 (Paris 1836); La guitare par
un enseignée Méthode Simple

15
(Paris 1837), Nuevo Method for Guitar(Madrid, 1849). Likewise the work for guitar Fernando Sor (Barcelona 1778
- Paris 1839) and in particular itsMethode (Paris 1830) presents a much more thorough and complete didactic
approach than Opus 1 Mauro

Giuliani, where we can find in brief many topics

important for a great guitar (the instrument construction, strings, sound production, hand position, typing,
transcription), on which we do not here address in detail.

However, for the reasons previously mentioned and the examples above,

the factor of presence "guitarrismo" already pointed out in this paper lies in that Italian guitarist establishing a paradigm in
the way of playing5As well as in the form of composing for guitar to write "pieces of music in a style never before known"

(Heck, 1995, 108) and serving as a test model or base for

evaluation of works for guitar by other composers (Heck, 1995: 52). The reason is evoked Mauro Giuliani in this work
should be exactly this development that the still young classic-romantic guitar made through the contribution of this
famous concert pianist, "turning his guitar into an instrument that mimics the harp and tender hearts." 6

Its importance and fame as a performer and composer were recognized

with news, articles and laudatory references between the European height press, and guitarist century. XIX with more
references. After his disappearance, born in London a music magazine and guitarrísticos studies with the suggestive
nameThe Giulianiad (1833-1835).

5
Supported to some extent by the numerous laudatory mentions by the Viennese critic at the time. As an example, what was the critical first
published in the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, the November 4, 1807, which reads: "Among the many gifts guitarists this

city, such Giuliani is having much success, even causing great feeling, not only for his compositions as well as for his playing. He actually
uses the guitar with grace, ability and power out of the ordinary. "(Free translation of the author:"Unter den hiesiegen, sehr zahlreichen
Guitarrespielern macht ein gewisser Giuliani, ja sogar grosses Aufsehen. Wirklich behandelt er die Guitarre mit einer seltenen Anmuth,
Fertigkeit und Kraf. ") (Heck 1995: 238).

6
free translation citation itself: "[...] Mauro Giuliani, famous suonator di chitarra, che si
trasformava [guitar] nelle sue mani in one strumento emulate dell'arpa, dolcemente molcendo i cuori ". (Heck, 1995: 256)

16
Fig. 5 magazine frontispiece The Giulianiadvol. 1-1833

2.2. From 1850 to 1950

Between one and another figure (Mauro Giuliani and Leo Brouwer), followed one another names

important in the evolution of the guitar, starting by the evolution organological 7

through contributions virtuoso Julian Arcas (1832-1882) to the Spanish builder Antonio Torres. It is noteworthy,
particularly in terms of composition and its technique, the Spaniard Francisco Tarrega (Villareal 1852 - Barcelona 1909)
and his disciples, Daniel Fortea (Catalonia 1878-1953), Miguel Llobet (Barcelona 1878 -

1938), or Emilio Pujol (Llérida 1886-1980) and Agustín Barrios Mangoré (Paraguay, 1885-1944).

THEline interpretation and Tarrega composition is based on a

appreciation of the melodic line, the sound volume and homogeneity in all strings, legato and expression, own
aesthetic values of a late passion for ballroom music (mazurkas,

minuets, waltzes, polkas, preludes ...) expressing a language

7
Antonio de Torres (Almería, 1817-1892) in 1856 built the famous guitar "Leona", whose construction model has been imitated since then
with adaptations or minor changes, and that is the basis of all models of the great luthiers of the century. XX. (Grondona, 2001: 58-61).

17
Romantic (attested by transcripts and reworkings of works by Chopin, Schumann, Beethoven, Mendelssohn).

Miguel Llobet, beloved student of Tarrega, and a more nimble technique

noticeable in some of his compositions (Scherzo-Vals or Variations on a theme of Sor) Is also drawn to impressionist
current, harmonizing in this style some popular songs of Catalonia. Emilio Pujol (Llérida 1886-1980), also a student of
Tarrega, codified and perfected his education, publishingEscuela de la Guitarra Razonada(In 4 volumes) and also the
teaching field, making many studies. Composer of some important works, mainly influenced by folklore, also important
was the performance of work, transcription, and old music collections editing. It was also a professor in huge courses in
Paris, Lisbon, etc., whose pedagogical work was responsible for guitar disclosure in many countries.

Still on guitarist-composers, it's from also highlight the role

important pedagogical work of Argentine Julio Sagreras (1879 - 1942), whose nine volumes Las lecciones guitar(1922)
are still an important educational tool within the traditional technique. Also John William Duarte (1919 - 2004) presented
didactic publications, the fruit of long experience in the field, nameFoundation Studies in Classical Guitar Technique.
Also noteworthy Abel Carlevaro (Montevideo 1918-2001): it was a composer, concert performer, researcher and deeply
devoted teacher, whose bookExposición de la instrumental theory and the four technical cuadernoscame in a way widely
theorize some issues related to posture and sound, as well as the mechanics of both hands through sheer technique
exercises: the independence of the left hand fingers, for the displacement of the left hand - position jumps, arpeggio in
multiple formulations, etc. He wrote 20Microestudios, preludes AmericanAmong other pieces, technically related to its
principles, and aesthetically close to a contrapuntal melodies and South American-inspired rhythms.

These names have quoted here are, among others, recognized pedagogues,

whose methods have today created Guitarrística technical schools, with no less famous disciples. For example, in the
master-class numerous Carlevaro formed important concert performers of the current panorama, such as Alvaro Pierri,
Roberto Aussel or Eduardo Fernandez. Emilio Pujol was professor José Tomás, Alberto Ponce, or

18
Isaac Nicola (among many other followers of their courses in Portugal, Madrid or Paris).

In studies of musicology, aesthetics and style, but it is known that not

include guitar composers them as models to the century. XX, as with Bach, Mozart, Beethoven or Chopin. The explosion
of the classical guitar in the last 60-70 years is mainly due to the contribution of quality repertoire that was written
especially

by composers who were not guitarists is that collaborated

closely with the competent guitarists, with reference summit the names of Andres Segovia and Julian Bream, who
transmitted the creators of works the idiom and instrumental knowledge.

The composers and compositions list of recognized merit that came to light

in this context is extensive. For example, the Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos outstanding (1887-1959) dedicated to
the guitarDouze Etudes (Manuscript version of 1928), at the request of Andrés Segovia, in the case of a central work of
approach to modern music, with technical and complex textures, richness of expression, etc .: complex formulas right hand
arpeggios (Study 1), Arpeggios, bars and connected left hand (studies 2, 3, 10), Block chords repeated (studies 4, 6, 12),
Etc., with many scripture passages

Guitarrística, or "idiomatic harmony."8 though

called studies, the execution level of difficulty is very high because not only is very technically demanding, as the
musical point of view calls for an advanced knowledge of the way, phrase, harmony, etc., seeming to treat more than
"study composition".

Also Custom Spanish guitarist succeeded even Mario

Castelnuovo-Tedesco (1895-1968), Apunti Op. 210 (One posthumous collection of his pedagogical contribution)
Sonata a Boccherini Op. 77, Tarantella, Concerto en Re M Op.

99, Escarramán Op. 177, 24 Caprichos de Goya Op. 195, etc.; Joaquín Turina,Fandaguillo Op. 36; Federico Moreno
Torroba,Castillos de España, Sonatina, etc.; Alexander Tansman composedCavatina and Variations sur un thème
Scriabin; Manuel Ponce wroteSonata Romántica, Sonata III, Classical Sonata, Sonata Mexicana, Sonatina Meridional,
and Variaciones on her Folia.

8
In this regard Paulo Torres Vaz de Carvalho explains: "idiomatic harmony to that which results from the multiplication of stereotyped
hand movements or postures of transposition over or

19
Starting from Julian Bream appeared the works of Benjamin Britten, nocturnal

; Malcolm Arnold, Fantasy Op. 107 and Serenade; Sir William Walton,Five Bagatelles and Anon in Love; Sir Reginald
Smith Brindle gave an outstanding educational contribution to the three volumesGuitarcosmosEtc .. Francis Poulenc
wrote Sarabandefor the virtuous Ida Presti; Manuel de Falla finally dedicated to the guitarHomage pour le tombeau of
DebussyAt the request of Miguel Llobet; Joaquín Rodrigo wroteConcierto de Aranjuez for the guitarist Regino Sainz de
la Maza, dedicated to Andrés Segovia to Fantasia para un gentilhombre, Tres Piezas Españolas, And Alirio Diaz
Invocación y Danza. THESonata Op. 47, Alberto Ginastera, at the request of Carlos Barbosa-Lima, or segoviana

Darius Milhaud are only a few pieces of this huge list of works written by composers not guitarists, who have dedicated their talent

20
3. Leo Brouwer - style, language and innovation in writing Guitarrística

Starting from Giuliani, this chapter will discuss the style and language

Leo Brouwer, and their contributions to an instrumental technical innovation as well as the reasons why it is considered a leading fig

Giuliani and Brouwer share some characteristics common:

both guitarists, composers and pedagogues


(While creators
in work

didactics) also used the guitar in the orchestral context as soloist (cf. four concertos for guitar / Terz-guitarre and
orchestra Giuliani (Heck 1995: 194), and twelve concert Brouwer to date (Caldeira 2011: Annex I, 4) or integrated in
smaller instrumental groupings (cf. Serenade Op. 19 Italian composer, to guit, vl and VLC; Es el amor quien sees

Brouwer, to S, fl, vl, vlc, pn, guit, perc).

In addition, both stylistically favor the timbral characteristics and

Guitar resonances and idiomatic writing (ie, born music of own hand gestures, without forcing movements), and both make up accor

Despite all these features, the parallelism between them is not so much a viewpoint of compositional approach, or
technical or aesthetic lineage. The contact point is exactly the break, the new chapter in the history of the instrument
created after Giuliani and after Brouwer.

As Giuliani also Leo Brouwer has a written quality

in his music for guitar. Since the Italian composer who not watching the creation of a new language, modern and thoroughly idiomatic, despite
forefront of this period
new, african-Cuban rhythms, harmonies that reflect the forefront of this period

21
composition timbres that explored the guitar, with great knowledge of their characteristics and limitations. The paradigm
of guitar music has changed.

As was mentioned, Leo Brouwer appears in the middle of the century. XX as

creator of a new style, a new way of writing for guitar, knowing the instrument in detail, with pragmatism and founded a
thorough experience as a performer, a deep knowledge of the capabilities, characteristics and limitations of the instrument,
and which also certainly contributed to quality projection and acoustic resonance of the new instruments 9:

"Pujol's school was the last of the gut-stringed instrument. The contemporary guitar - the Fleta

and Gilbert - with nylon strings and a huge sound, is like the Steinway or Bösendorfer pianos. Technique shouldnt
change for These instruments. "(McKenna, 1988)

In his compositional style we did not find an aesthetic lineage coming from

its direct composers-guitarists predecessors. The influences derive from their taste and their study of pre-classical music,
from the vihuelistasSiglo de Oro Spain, with its counterpoint technique and exploiting resonances in the use of
campanelas, to gravity and opulence of baroque music (manifested in some of the titles of his early works, such as
Antigua Suite # 1 (1954) Suite # 2 (1955) Prelude (1956) flight (1957), or in studies study XV The XVIIIWith
continuous references to the baroque adornments and the nature of information indicated in the score - sarabande,
serious - or through the ornamentation of study courses in the Netherlands with Franz Brüggen and Gustav Leonhardt).

But Leo Brouwer's music is also that of his time, whose studies

harmony and composition in the United States with Vincent Persichetti and living with contemporary classical music in
the courses of Warsaw and Darmstadt (where lived with premieres of works for HW Henze's guitar, S. Bussotti, C.
Halffter, etc.) brought her echoes of modernity and European avant-garde in the 60s and 70s (and randomness Serialism),
and Nueva simplicity from the 80 century

XX. But the musical genetics Brouwer is founded on the roots of Cuban music, that native to the more exuberant,
and that is reflected in its entire catalog as cloth

9
The level of construction, post-Torres line brought notable instruments through luthiers as José Ramirez, Ignacio Fleta, Herman
Hauser, Jose Romanillos, Robert Bouchet, etc., which contributed to a change in the sound aesthetics, and consequently the music
written for the instrument.

22
fund, the rhythmic pulse to melodic, from its inception in the late '50s to the present day (Brouwer, 2006: 96).

Although seen in studies 1-10 (1960-61) in embryonic form, is in

11-20 studies (1981) Leo Brouwer develops more explicitly a composite style of guitar music that would solidify from
the compositions of the 80s, particularly in preludes epigrammatic (1981) and Decamerón Black (1981), but also
present in Danza Feature (1956) Praise de la Danza (1964) or Canticum (1968).

"Cuando escribe para la piensa guitar en los habituales resources y pueden that experimental

ajustarse más las propias del potential instrument [...]; esa es su feature present en el rompimiento catalog of structures fijas
from esencias al end transformed en nuevas formulas "(Cuervo and Rodríguez, 2009: 56).

Their language will therefore inevitably very idiomatic, leaving notice

a relationship almost always osmotic between the composition and the instrument, to the extent that their works
show that always writes to think about the technical characteristics, timbre and expressive guitar.

Surely these fruit their knowledge and in-depth studies of music

old, combined with a critical spirit, curious and unusual reflection, and yet always aware of the enormous potential that
the acoustic characteristics of the modern instrument gave her, Leo Brouwer realize that the essence of the guitar lies
in the arpeggio, the reflection of his Major quality pair of timbral richness. Thus, chooses in his art not develop long
melodic lines, but only short melodic cells, "epigrammatic". Himself said in an interview:

"I do not favor it. Melody has another value. Melodies are tied to the voice. Which Instruments

are not melodic, like the guitar Which can be wonderful and magical, but not melodic, shouldnt travel another path.
They shouldnt go more toward texture, through the development of patterns, figures - flowing ideas "(Dausend, 1990:
9-14).

This means that the joint "legato"Inherited from Pujol and Tarrega before used

with the right hand, now has another aspect: what we might call "organized campanelas", taking advantage of the
present notes on the open strings of a

23
not purely technical point of view (which provides the opportunity to position jumps), but especially musical.

Taking advantage of this instrumental idiom, its parts are therefore based

the use of right hand arpeggios, using the full resources of the Arpeggio formulas inner sense (such as m i or a, m, i). This
right hand technique is made possible by a left hand technique primarily positional, matured and developed, with infinite
points of support (fingers pivot) in position changes, or frequent use of open strings to facilitate these heels, getting in this
way one large increase speed or the occurrence of notes.

Examples:

Fig. 6 Leo Brouwer study V (excerpt)

Fig. 7 Leo Brouwer study VI (excerpt)

FIG. 8 Leo Brouwer study XI (excerpt)

Fig. 9 Leo Brouwer XVIII study (excerpt)

Fig. 10 Leo Brouwer Canticum (excerpt)

24
Fig. 11 Leo Brouwer El Decameron Negro, El Arpa del Guerrero (excerpt)

Fig. 12 Leo Brouwer El Decameron Negro, La Huida de los lovers ... (excerpt)

Fig. 13 Leo Brouwer El Decameron Negro, La Balada de la doncella enamorada (excerpt)

Leo Brouwer can thus get a good or very good quality

Compositional, accompanied by the facility, and its studies are the ideal starting point for this new technical approach.
Once realized the mechanism and the technical system, listen to passages that apparently seem complex, but are the
result of a technical knowledge that allows for convenience in instrumental performance.

There is just that caveat to work Barcarolle, E. Pujol, a passage

(Bridge) between the B section and return to the theme A, which makes use of campanelas as a way to create resonances
conducive to impressionist piece environment but whose size and not the reiteration corpus the work of Pujol makes
these measures do not pass a mere casuistry note.

25
Fig. 14 Emilio Pujol, Barcarolle (excerpt)

Therefore, we can say that no other composer after

Giuliani had achieved something (together the two strands) on that basis the right hand technique coupled with the
left hand comprising the guitar system based on arpeggios, obtaining benefits from the musical point of view and
technical.

These technical effects make the instrument get Greater resonance

harmonics, giving the appearance that sounds more volume, and more legatoAnd it is precisely with Leo Brouwer that the
occurrence of this technique becomes a stylistic feature, adapted to the most varied scales and modes from the full range
of tones, pentatonic or the Lydian mode.

Fig. 15 Leo Brouwer, Hika (excerpt)

Fig. 16 Leo Brouwer, Variations on a theme of Django Reinhardt (excerpt)

There are other innovative technical contributions, such as some

scordature unusual (cf. Hika), Percussion with both hands (Eternal spiral)

26
tapping (Cuban paisaje with Campanas), Use of the bow on the guitar (Metaphor of loveFor guitar and tape - 1974),
etc., but we consider the already described campanelas technique organized as the great technical and stylistic
contribution of Cuban composer for his constancy in work.

Fig. 17 Leo Brouwer, Hika (excerpt)

Fig. 18 Leo Brouwer, Eternal spiral (excerpt)

Fig. 19 Leo Brouwer, Paisaje Cubano con Campanas (excerpt)

The legacy of Leo Brouwer also projected far beyond its

scores and the frequent presence in recitals programs immense guitarists. Its importance also reveals itself in the
influence that currently has on the new generations of guitarists-composers. There are many young composers who are
following the same path of idiomatic writing such as Nuccio D'Angelo,

27
Dusan Bogdanovic, Carlo Domeniconi, Nikita Koshkin, Simon Iannarelli, Stephen Goss, Atanas Ourkouzounov,
Konstantin Vassiliev, Roland Dyens, to name a few, demonstrating innovation and influence of this new form of writing.
In all

these cases, Brouwer is surely the pioneer.

Fig. 20 Dusan Bogdanovic, 5 miniatures Printanières (excerpt)

Fig. 21 Carlo Domeniconi, Koyumbaba (excerpt)

Within this composer-pedagogue facet, creator of a new school

guitar music (and thus instrumental guitar school, which will allow the execution of his work), it is necessary to
divide into three main fields:

 work didactics

 Teacher-pedagogue

 Theoretical (Reflections on guitar pedagogy)

28
4. Leo Brouwer - Didactic shed

Throughout his career as a composer, Leo Brouwer has dedicated part of

creativity, inspiration and talent to the composition of works for educational purposes. Composed to date 30 studies
for guitar divided as follows:

 1st Series Simple studies (Estudios Sencillos): Notebook I: 1-5

 2nd series Simple studies (Estudios Sencillos): Notebook II: 6-10

 3rd Series Simple studies (Estudios Sencillos): Notebook III: 11-15

 4th Series Simple studies (Estudios Sencillos): Notebook IV: 16-20

 New Simple Studies (Nuevos Estudios Sencillos): 1-10

Between 1960 and 1961, then 22-23 years, he composed the first two series

studies (books I and II)10, Edited in 1972 by Max Eschig; in 1981 he composed and concludes the third and fourth series
(books III and IV), published in 1983 also by the same Parisian publisher 11; in 2001 writesNuevos Estudios Sencillos,
Published in the same year by the London Chester Music. repairs itself on the dates a gap of 20 years between each of the
three study blocks, which could allow one a period of reflection and maturation techniques and musical issues. Thus, a
range for the otherSimple studiesThey are progressive difficulty. The same applies toNew Simple StudiesWhose difficulty
increases progressively study in study.

4.1. Estudios Sencillos

Although it is impossible to generalize, the Simple studies They are a presence

constant in the curricula of many conservatories and music academies not only in Portugal but in all other countries where
the classical guitar is appreciated. As part of an evolutionary process guitar student, we note

10
"Los primeros Estudios SencillosDel 1 al 10 compuse them between 1960-1961 "(Brouwer., 1990: registration
sound).
11
All studies were reviewed and reissued in 2006 by the same publisher.
29
today its success and popularity even in the media distribution channels such as YouTube, to put in network of
hundreds of versions and so many thousands of views.

also follow one another now works dedicated to Leo Brouwer and

analysis of these musical miniatures, such as parts of Artur Caldeira master's thesis, Leo Brouwer - unavoidable Figure
Guitar(2010), pp. 30-41; Article Gloria Ariza Adame,The Method "Brouweriano": los studios as preparación sus
works(2012); Clive Kronenberg,Reapprisal of Etudes Simple; Marie-Madeleine Bobet-Doherty,

Leo Brouwer, son œuvre pour guitare seule et son utilization

pédagogique, etc.

The reason for this can only be by far the intrinsic quality and importance

these small works, which became in a short time teaching reference books, dealing with technical and expressive
aspects that guitar students usually face during their training course. Of course, also the classical studies of his
predecessors Mauro Giuliani, Matteo Carcassi, Fernando Sor and others are aimed at a youthful audience with
technical and musical limitations, providing a progressive and solid instrumental training.

"[In] Fernando Sor [...] arpeggios studies show left hand positions

impossible for a child, "says Leo Brouwer (Dumond and Denis, 1988: 8)

Observe these words as the Cuban composer, aware of the value and

role of these classical studies, and making use of constructive criticism view, left the classical tradition to create a set of
small works to correct what he thought to be less effective, as the failure to isolate the technical difficulties (putting
difficulties in both hands), which reflect the new musical languages and some of the current century composition. XX,
without cutting completely with the past. Thus, their studies within the stylistic grammar of Cuban composer, achieve
two fundamental educational purposes for a solid and complete musical base:

The) Primary / immediately, providing to student beginner solutions to

treatment of technical issues;

30
B) Secondary, by building a musical consciousness, by the continued presence of musical expression
elements (such as dynamic and joints) and the musical form (ABA, Canon, etc.) as well as by the
presence of very elements of modern language (metric irregular, complex chords, minimalism, etc.). A
curriculum point of view, Simple studies Leo Brouwer

They are aimed primarily at secondary level from 3rd to 8th grade). 12

4.1.1. Estudios Sencillos 1-10

Technical aspects: it claims the composer, the main educational goal

of Simple studiesIt is dealing with multiple technical problems facing a beginner, isolating them and solving them
separately, working one technical aspect at a time. For example, theStudy 1 It features a melody in serious tessitura
(strings , and ), Indicating "singing el bajo" [the bass sing] to work the thumb of the right hand, simplifying the
index and middle fingers of the same hand pulsing together in loose strings, while the left hand performs reduced
movements, thus allowing the student to focus on the competence to acquire.

The same procedure and compositional concept

identification and focus on one problem technician, lightening the remaining

components will be used in all other studies, of 1 to 20.

Using the first guitar scale positions, let's see what aspects

common technicians addressed Guitarrística technical: development and independence of the thumb (Study 1); chords of
three sounds (Study 2); introduction to tremolo (Study

3); half-bar (study 4); arpeggios with complex rhythms (study 5); Several formulas of arpeggios (Study 6); alternating
between single pulse and supported, simple connected with emphasis on weak finger 4 (study 7); simultaneous
movements on the right hand on the independence of voices and arpeggios (study 8); connected and independence of
the left hand fingers with fixed fingers (study 9); left hand independence and string crossings typing in the right hand
(study 10).13

12
On this issue, we propose a didactic point of view the use of I and II series plans
curriculum of the 3rd and 4th grade; the remaining III and IV series from 5th to 8th grade.
13
For a more detailed analysis of 20 studies, see Caldeira 2011: 30-41.
31
From a compositional standpoint, Brouwer using a wide range of metrics

different and irregular (Ex. study 42/4 alternating with 3/4), strong african-Cuban rhythms and melodies (Ex .: Study 1:
4/4 that becomes 3 + 3 + 2/8 and 3 + 3 + 2/8; Ex. Melodystudy 5), Accented rhythms and syncopated (Ex. study 5),
And still times, harmonies, textures and comprehensive dynamic from a canon the two voices on a Byzantine melody
(Ex. study 8), The almost improvised style study 7With the aim of developing the musical awareness of the pupil
(Kronenberg, 2010: 3). In this sense, it is also often the presence of expressive and interpretative statements:

The) agogic (ritardando, rallentando, accelerando, più mosso, poco rit.)

B) dynamics (growing molto and diminuendo; sinceff The pp sub.)

w) joint (marcato,>, stacc., secco, legato)

d) sound (south ponticello, south tasto)

and) character (singing el bajo, sonorous, morendo, always singing)

Two other important aspects of the analysis are size and shape. Highlights-

in the first Brevity, And the Majority does not exceed 30 bars.

Study 1 Study 2 Study 3 study 4 study 5 Study 6 study 7 study 8 study 9 study 10

26 14 14 26 27 33 26 32 16 34

This feature can be understood as synthesizing (Ariza, 2012: 31-34)

as we have seen, according to his own words regarding their Simple studies, Its fundamental theory is that of "working
one technical aspect at a time, simplifying the other components"

(Brouwer, 1990: sound recording), so as not

interfere with the primary endpoint for each study. It is also interesting to see how in such short reports with as few bars,
the composer achieves a perfection of form14. often using the form ABA (exceptstudies

2, 6 and 9), Despite the brevity Leo Brouwer still manages to introduce more developed formal structures such as
codas (last bars of Study 1, study 7, study 9 and study 10), Bridges (study 8, Cc. 20 and 21), or introductions (study
10), oftentimes

14
Recalls the little Japanese poems haiku.
32
with no more than a bar, conveying the cohesion and strength of these small studies.

4.1.2. Estudios Sencillos 11-20

These studies of the series III and IV propose to more advanced students. No

They are only larger, but also "deal with technical and musical aspects in a more developed formal plan"

(Brouwer, 1990: sound recording).

Technical aspects - Firstly, the technical complexity is evident:

use of scales and fast passages (Study 11); chordslegato (study 12); double linked (studies 13 and 14); chords of three
sounds with extension on the right hand (study 15); fast ornaments with scales and passages and fast (studies 16, 17 and
18) - And which includes the study 16an unusual technicality, to slide the same finger of the right hand on two consecutive
strings in the style of harp -; four sounds and connected chords (study 19); finally instudy 20More than a study for the left
hand and quick connected, this is an introductory exercise to minimalist language, both in writing and in the execution of
small cells to which it will add small upward scales and descendants fast-moving .

As studies on 1-10, there is also a profusion of these studies

character information, time, timbre and dynamics, giving the young performer many clues to an interpretative
reflection.

Ornamentation: Similarly, its strong relationship with the emotional Baroque is

not only evoked (indication "Sarabande" in study 15), As also in studies 16, 17 and 18 a real theoretical and practical
notebook of technical and stylistic exercises on ornamentation (pressure, typing, different formulas and ancient
symbologies, with its corresponding resolution) that Preclassic period.

In the last series (studies 16-20) Predominant lyricism, with little melodies

Preparing a way for the music that Brouwer will write. As a note Gloria Ariza Adame (Ariza, 2012: 23), you hear
thestudy 18 (1981) the same tune that will later be cited in Elegiac concerto (No. 3) for guitar and orchestra (1986).

33
Fig. 22 Leo Brouwer, XVIII study (excerpt)

Fig. 23 Leo Brouwer, Concierto elegiac (excerpt)

It includes this work the text in the form of notes of own

compositor on each of their studies, which is part of booklet CD Leo Brouwer - 20 STUDI, Recorded by Italian guitarist
Leonardo de Angelis15. In these notes, Leo Brouwer reveals important aspects for the implementation of their studies, as
well as key concepts that accompanied a conscious way, the time of its composition, and that proves an early knowledge
very developed on the technique and important points to keep in account in the design of this type of teaching materials.

Fig. 24 Leo Brouwer, notes on Estudios Sencillos (P.1)

15
Leo Brouwer - [sound recording] Leo Brouwer - 20 Studi. Perugia: Quadrivium, 1990 - De Angelis,
Leonardo.
34
As we shall see in later paintings, are basic information for

solid construction of the interpretation of these studies. Divided into five paragraphs,objectives, Time, technique,
Character and What not to doBrouwer leaves us in a very clear and detailed information and valuable advice on
each.

objectivesOn the first point, Brouwer explains what the main objective

each study. For example, theStudy 1It aims to develop the right hand thumb, making the left hand. At theStudy 2 The aim is
to balance the chords, leaving no rope stand, etc.

TimeOn the second point, the composer explains what time should be

taken in interpreting each of the studies, is an explicit

using the metronímica indication (study 5: Moved pero no too. = 88 to

100) or less explicit (Ex. Study 1: Fast. El convenient time).

technique: The third point deals with advice on technique to determine for

the desired results.

Character: The fourth point offers interpretation suggestions, providing the

study further level of musicality (Ex. Study 1: Vivace. Feel the niveles "orchestral";study 4: Lirico (singing her
melody del bajo - mentally con la voz).

What not to do: This is the fifth and last point where Brouwer was

cares about what is usually not spoken in studies, his or others, and which confirms the pedagogical side of the
composer himself, preventing the student prepare the piece erroneously.

Estudio 1
Desarrollo del pulgar (p) m. derecha. M. izq. Easy each finger is divided soil.
1 - Purpose

2 - Time Fast. El convenient time.


3 - Technical Concentrarse en la derecha M. (sin stiffness).
4 - Character Rhythmic. Feel the niveles "orchestral" el bajo en relieve.
5 - What in debe
hacerse In excel debe el "acute" accompaniment (i, m)

Studio 2
1 - Purpose Homogeneity of these chords. (Cuerda Ninguna debe excel).
2 - Time Slow "ma non troppo" gives M. = 44 to = 48 non solenne

35
3 - Technical Estudiarlo con doble formula m. der: pim - ima
La dinámica y el color is comportan de acuerdo a su tensión harmonic. El chord "en tensión"
4 - Character hara if: a) bad fuerte (O P) a) arpegiado b) otro color c) conritenuto.

5 - What in debe
hacerse No se debe play slow tan at sea legato (cantabile)

Studio 3
1 - Purpose Preparación for el tremolo
2 - Time Ligero, fast ma legato = 76/96
3 - Technical Singing her melody treble them
4 - Character La dinámica flexible "en onda"
5 - What in debe
hacerse In touch con rhythmic rigidity.

Studio 4
1 - Purpose Estudio para la pequeña cejilla, pulgar y metric variable (5/4)
2 - Time Moderato Cantabile. always legato.
As preparatory ejercicio studio them chords "sets" con el pulgar.
3 - Technical

4 - Character Lirico (singing her melody del bajo - mentally con la voz)
5 - What in debe
hacerse Care in deforming it "cejilla" en positions "aviolinada" (violinistic)

Studio 5
1 - Purpose Arpeggios rhythmic con compleja. Basado en el folkclore Afro-Cuban.
2 - Time Pero moved in too. = 88 to 100.
3 - Technical All debe resonare (quasi arpa) Sin accents, ni staccati.
4 - Character La ritmicidad no es la central theme, bell la progresión harmonic.
5 - What in debe
hacerse In confuse el ritmo "staccato"Latino as a model.

Studio 6
1 - Purpose To use any kind of arpeggiated formulas (improvisarlas)
2 - Time = 112 to 152 approx.
3 - Technical Concentrarse en mezclar to use different formulas m. derecha.
La velocidad no es important it bell articulate all these forms of arpeggios con el mismo
4 - Character "time." Using dynamical cambios.

5 - What in debe
hacerse Caring feel the stiffness en la m. derecha.

Studio 7
1 - Purpose Connected m. izquierda en el con emphasis finger 4 (weak finger)
2 - Time = 168-184
el drive connected to ganar sin fuerza stiffness (relajando inmediately la
3 - Technical tensión de los las fingers m. izq.)

36
4 - Character Vivace y ligero
5 - What in debe
hacerse In separate them exaggeratedly fingers (m. Izq.)

Studio 8
Polyphony of the voces y pulgar singing against arpeggios (central sección)
1 - Purpose

2 - Time quiet and always legato


3 - Technical = 80 (central sección: Più mosso = 138 min.)
4 - Character Homenaje a la Bicinia (medioeval corner of the voces) Byzantine.
5 - What in debe
hacerse 5 - In touch tan slower than in oiga if contrapuntística Imitacion.

Studio 9
1 - Purpose For el connected with the posiciones "fijas"
2 - Time = 108 to 130
3 - Technical independence of each finger of her m. izq.
4 - Character Rhythmic
5 - What in debe In underestimate her importance to her post. Fija atendiendo solo a la posición del
hacerse connected.

Studio 10
1 - Purpose Independencia de la mano izq. Cruce continue to cuerdas M. der.
2 - Time = 100 to 116
3 - Technical Difficulty for her continuous digitación de la m. der.
4 - Character 4 - Rhythmic / Punchy (quasi Toccata).
5 - What in debe 5 - It seems un estudio para la m. izq. cuando en realidad la dificultad is en la m. derecha
hacerse

Studio 11
1 - Purpose 1 - Linked m. izq. y para el posiciones fijaslegato.
2 - Time = 120 to 132
Concentrarse en los dedos en posiciones fijas (independencia de los otros fingers)
3 - Technical

4 - Character rhythmic pero always legato and Cantabile.


5 - What in debe
hacerse Avoid mucha velocidad

Studio 12
1 - Purpose for el legatissimo y los movimientos contraries.
2 - Time Quiet. = 76.
3 - Technical Continuidad and igualdad de las 3 voces en el "coral".
4 - Character Una sarabande (homenaje a la danza Renaissance) "extraña".
5 - What in debe
hacerse In delete it the resonance vibration of them resulting chords.

37
Studio 13
1 - Purpose For them connected dobles (El bajo singing - "pulgar")
2 - Time moderato the rhythmic
3 - Technical m. izq: un finger fijo y otros en movimiento (Independencia)
4 - Character El bajo en relieve. Las voces en higher background (fondo)
5 - What in debe Los dobles linked tienden to use too much presión. Los en fingers pos. fija in deben descuidarse
hacerse by them connected dobles.

Studio 14
1 - Purpose To connected them (m. Izq.) En P Cantabile.
2 - Time Moved. Bad lyric that rhythmic.
In sonar deben but them you guys superiors that el bajo (turn gently)
3 - Technical

4 - Character Lyrical sin emphasis en el ritmo. gradual dynamics.


5 - What in debe
hacerse In confuse continues pulsación con ritmo "staccato".

Studio 15
1 - Purpose Chords of 3 notes en legato
2 - Time Sarabande con variaciones. = 60 con flexibilidad en Piu Mosso.
3 - Technical Continue con el maximum legato posible.
4 - Character Homenaje al rate preclásica Sarabanda. Rhythmic.
5 - What in debe
hacerse Caring el bad habit of rhythmic hacer sin it "legato".

Studio 16
1 - Purpose For them en Baroque chords (it prepares "French Overtura")
2 - Time = 56 to 60.
mantener el "serious" / maestoso as ostinato opuesto to her lightness of them loud.
3 - Technical

La French overture exaggerates el Puntillo ( = Quaver con doble


4 - Character punto) severe character. En la doublé (compás 12 al 15) flexiblemente move them
repeated elements.

5 - What in debe
hacerse If debe avoid, en esta sección, her rhythmic rigidity.

Studio 17
1 - Purpose For them loud
2 - Time Tpo. Ist = 80. Tpo. IInd = 92
Desarrolla la independencia de los fingers "Frágiles" de la m. izq. con "ceja".
3 - Technical

4 - Character legato. Homenaje al "clisé" baroque.


5 - What in debe
hacerse In apresurar el Ornament by el general time.

38
Studio 18
1 - Purpose For them dobles loud (compuestos).
2 - Time Sereno y legato. Más bien y slow grave.
3 - Technical Desarrolla linked them con articulaciones dobles (m. Izq. 1.2.1.3.1. Etc.)
4 - Character El en contrast color and Intensity depends on su dramatic character.
5 - What in debe
hacerse In debe of apresurarse (Remember: serious nature con quick loud)

Studio 19
1 - Purpose For her dynamic amplitud (chords)
2 - Time Allegro, legato. Siempre estable.
3 - Technical Igualdad resonance between them connected them y chords.
4 - Character Rhythmic. Clarify them harmonically complejos chords.
5 - What in debe
hacerse In continuously arpegiar them chords.

Studio 20
1 - Purpose For them connected articulated bien.
2 - Time Veloce (Central sección = 120 to 144)
3 - Technical Desarrolla la velocidad y la articulación.
Estudio "minimalist". If repite ad libitum, accentuating element el "nuevo" (Añadido) la
4 - Character primera vez.

5 - What in debe
hacerse Look after them resonances (cuerdas "al aire"). Obscurecen la claridad.

4.1.3. Main educational contributions ofEstudios Sencillos - summary

 Compositions that show an absolute awareness of the main

issues teaching at the teaching instrumental towards one student

beginner, creating a tool set to the resolution of specific technical aspects (see table, points 1 and 3,
"purpose" and "technical");

 Filling a gap of educational pieces with modern nature (of

innovative design aesthetic, that is, with harmonic and rhythmic textures unusual in didactic works for
guitar until 1960/61) for children and young students, immediately accessible from the first years of
study;

 Practical sense: immediate focus of the technical aspects that you want

work, simplifying the other components;

 Profusion of expressive elements (dynamics, articulations, timbres) from the

first works, working them together with the technical,

39
Considering these elements forming part of a small guitar and not necessarily something to be studied later;

 Approach to its technical and musical aesthetics in order to prepare the study of

his works (potentiation of guitar resonances through the study of organized campanelas, irregular rhythms,
single and double linked linked; passages in minimalist style with micro-melodies);

 Study and practice of Baroque ornamentation in a systematic and organized manner,

unusual in guitar resumes in the 80s.

4.2. Nuevos Estudios Sencillos

Twenty years after his last two studies series, Leo Brouwer composed and

edit a new collection of ten small studies for guitar, expanding its didactic work. Opta again for short pieces directed
to young students, but instead of the previous studies, this time the collection has an increasing difficulty in order to
study in the study.

The nature of the series is different from the others, since, while being

teaching, some seem to treat seemingly small parts or incidental Guitar features. Each is dedicated to a composer's
century. XX, although not always quote or wish to evoke the stylistic universe of this composer. In fact, as we shall see in
the analytical framework, some of these studies appear to be simplifying or reworking of some of the works of Leo
Brouwer himself, citing more than once earlier works composed byConductorAnd in a way, so it is meant to prepare the
student for carrying out such their concert works, or in order to allow enjoy their concert pieces adapted to synthetic and
brief study format.

In terms of the issue, not only there is a change of publishing house as

Also this time it is supporting the score of their interpretation notes for each of the studies, which then transcribed. In
them we find the purpose of these studies, as well as some clues or suggestions about the technical and musical approach
that should be taken into account. Unlike the notes he had made in the other series, this time Brouwer devotes attention
to all

40
fields (purpose, time, technical; nature; "in the hacerese debe"), predominantly, rather, the comments about the targets and
the technique.

Notes on interpretation (found in the score)

Studio in. 1 - Omaggio a Debussy


1 - Purpose Pequeños arpeggios (P, i, m) Y mano izquierda of banquet facilities.
2 - Time Es el on time. Crotchet with point = 100-120.
3 - Technical Poner atención en la dynamics ( ).
4 - Character Legato
5 - What in debe
hacerse In muy rápido.

Studio in. 2 - Omaggio a Mangore


1 - Purpose Es un estudio on rhythms con pequeñas disonancias.
El trabajo es on constant rotation of P, mi. Solo by excepción hay "adelantos" Technical para
3 - Technical el al novice end conami y rasgueado.

Observe them el contrast secciones 1st (something staccato) 2nd y (legato y dolce)
4 - Character

Studio in. 3 - Omaggio a Caturla


1 - Purpose Studio on african-Cuban Padrones.
3 - Technical wave dynamics ( ) Y pulgar of (mano derecha).

Studio in. 4 - Omaggio a Prokofiev


1 - Purpose Estudio sobre el pulgar.
3 - Technical Mano izquierda en IIª positions.
4 - Character Dynamical contrasts (f marc. y P)
5 - What in debe Important to save them from articulaciones staccato, legato, Y más y notes wide cortas
hacerse

Studio in. 5 - Omaggio a Tarrega


1 - Purpose Little tremolo 3 notes (preparatory to 4 notes)

3 - Technical Atención a igualdad rhythmic pulsación ( = ).


Minimalist style con thematic extensiones. Las breaks rhythmic sound resonances, the silent.
4 - Character

Studio in. 6 - Omaggio Ser


This studio of straight arpeggios 3 notes y el pulgar es sencillo, sólo la sección central -
1 - Purpose compasses 22 to 29 ofrece un cambio al upper register (raw cuerdas).

3 - Technical Answer wave dynamics them ( ) To hacerlas


gradually.

41
La Formula del arpegio puede invertirse (P, m, i).

La Formula del arpegio puede ampliarse 4 notes (P, i, m, The) Cuerda con (1).

Studio in. 7 - Omaggio a Piazzolla


1 - Purpose For them repeated notes, linked y accents.
El scheme of repeated notes debe be touched in ligero to intense (mano derecha).

Accents salen mejor la playing bad después note PThat playing accent el más fuerte.

3 - Technical

Los compasses 5 y 6, así como el 13 contrasting son (ponticello, staccato)

La sección D es P haciendo la staccato last CORCHEA of compass.

Studio in. 8 - Omaggio a Villa-Lobos


For chords, harmonic y pequeña "ceja".
1 - Purpose

This studio puede tocarse en los primeros grads alcanzando la pequeña ceja.

Los harmonic naturales son muy faciles y pueden anticiparse en el Progreso curriculum,
3 - Technical añadiendo bad interés coloristic.

La pequeña ceja ocurre en II, IV y V positions con los cambios prepared positions.

Studio in. 9 - Omaggio a Szymanowski


1 - Purpose Estudio sobre el legatomelodic. For them broken melodies.
B En son phrases 2 compasses en <poco>.

Algún jump (compasses 5 al 6; 16 al 17; 18 to 19) in impide el legato melodic.


3 - Technical

As dificultad no pasa V positions.

Studio in. 10 - Omaggio a Stravinsky


This studio focuses en las cuerdas serious, connected y rotation of P (Pulgar) con i, m (The)
1 - Purpose Obligando a la mano derecha en articulate "bloque".

Los compasses A y los 6 B pueden re-emerge each one consecutively and el


full period ad lib.
3 - Technical
Hay compositional features such as "caesuras" you cut ( ') y large (GP) that resultant poco
usuales for beginners; pray al profesor them

42
explain, it.

La violencia de los chords allows algún distinct color y staccato de izquierda (raising her cejilla,
lo cual la izquierda también relaxes. This es poco común en la technique traditional technical
pero se le encuentra muchas veces en el jazz.

As in previous series, each thumbnail intends to address technical aspects and

Particular expressive and presents the student with new harmonic material,

rhythmic and musical writing that had not been presented in previous 20 Simple studies.

We proceeded in this work to carry out an analytical table where you can

check the composer's work in the selection of the technical aspects and the profusion of expressive elements that the
student should develop.

4.2.1. analytical grid ofNuevos Estudios Sencillos

TIME TECHNICAL ELEM. CHAR.


CC. ASPECTS
/CHARACTER EXPRESSIVE ANDSTILÍSTICAS
long dynamics
Studio in. 1 (gro. molto; ppp);
Tempo di different joints (> Alternation 12/8
- Omaggio a 28 giga arpeggios; pos. V and 4/8
Debussy -legato);

different joints (stacc.;


legato;marcato);
Dynamic (aP The ff;
dim.; <f) Agogic (poco long melodies
Studio in. 2 and irregular
changing chord with rit.); timbres (dolce)
- Omaggio a 40 Vivace thumb rhythms;
Mangore

2/2 =
Studio in. 3 moderato 1st round: mf
assai . .
- Omaggio a 23 --- cantabile 2ªa back: pp
Caturla = 108-144 ecco african-Cuban
rhythms

Melody on bass;
contrasting joints (in
only two bars appear>
_.); very contrasting
dynamics (ofpp The ffin
the same heartbeat);
Studio in. 4 irregular rhythms; irregular metric 4/4
very broad dynamic: of - 5/8 - 4/4
- Omaggio a 40 Vivace pp The ff
Prokofiev

43
Introduction to
minimalist
language; very
irregular metrics:
Work dynamics: 1/4, 3/4, 4/4, 5/8,
frequent wave design 3/8. We may
Convenient;
Tremolo three notes (gro. anddimin.) associate with the
Evocation part (preparatory work of Working joints> tremolo 3 notes
Studio in. 5 Huida de los Study Huida de los (marcato in evoking the
lovers por el lovers por el valle de syncopation). music of Tarrega.
- Omaggio a 38 valle de los los echoes)
Tarrega echoes.

arpeggios Study
Studio in. 6 (proposed several
- Omaggio Ser 49 libero time alternative formulations) --- ---

Allegro. Working timbres


Tango character (ponticello), articulation Evocation of Tango
(theme of contrasts through harmonic
(legato/stacc.) And sequences and
quick notes,
Studio in. 7 A) with dynamic (of P The f in rhythms and their
repeated;
syncopation and very small spaces). joints.
- Omaggio a 42 emphases; attached;
Piazzolla accents typical
of milonga
(subject B).

Introduction to natural
harmonics; balance of very lyrical central
tranquillo; chords; Prepared position theme, with a quote
changes; half bar. from his
Studio in. 8 Quote of his
melodic Liege lyrical theme:
- Omaggio a 42
Villa-Lobos Concert cantabile.
Liege Concert.

Lyrical: as incidental
music (film); legato unusual accents in
Studio in. 9 melodic; dynamic work. 4/4.
- Omaggio a 26 Lento assai ---
Szymanowski

virtuosic writing,
Study for the alternating perfectly integrated
bass strings; attached; into the
greatly exaggerated compositional style
dynamics;P with i m arpeggios using the
Studio in. 10 -
Omaggio a agogic organized
Stravinsky 32 Toccata (caesuras); repetitionsad campanelas.
lib.;
The
Preparation of MD: joint
block.

44
4.2.2. Main educational contributions ofNuevos Estudios Sencillos - summary

 Miniatures approaching its incidental music, but where behind each

piece is hiding a Study with a strong technical and highly expressive nature (more melodic studies, and a
wide range of articulation and dynamics of suggestions);

 Introduction of techniques that had not been addressed in studies

1961 and 1981: natural harmonics; use with higher frequency of V position; alternating the bass strings
in fingeringsP, i;

 Wave to the curiosity of the student to know more about personalities

history of music honorees in each study and accordingly expand its cultural references, such as Prokofiev or
Debussy, or less known names like Caturla or Szymanovwski; in this sense, also we judge happy evocative
inclusion of tango inStudy 7 "Omaggio a Piazzolla"Or the strong rhythm section and violent chords in Study
10 "Omaggio a Stravinsky, Alluding perhaps to Sacre du Printemps Russian composer.

 The presence in the score of a clearer text of objectives and content

(Technical and expressive) of each study, allowing students to know with greater clarity the skills that should
reach.

One can speak of a minor creative impact of these studies in relation to

above (Sencillos1-20 studies), Where the novelty of these was indeed highly appreciated and welcomed with great
enthusiasm. Perhaps the already mentioned fact that many of these new studies reflect previous compositional features
(but not all), the expectation was not exceeded, which does not imply a lower quality or importance of this small corpus
teaching.

4.3. methodical studies in the absence of a method

Despite never having written a method (as they did in times Dionisio

Aguado, Fernando Sor, Emilio Pujol and Abel Carlevaro), Brouwer is a pedagogue.

45
Inquiring about what the reason not to have [yet] done is likely to be

impossible solution: why have not written a method? Why never have built the bulk of their Guitarrística technique
in a method? It will surely have had the opportunity to do so.

We know that for Brouwer musicality is intrinsically linked to technical,

and these two to the musical work. We also know that is not apologist of pure technical exercises and musically sterile (in
the four notebooks lineSerie Didactic in

A. Carlevaro), designed to provide the student with technical solutions that allow you safely face his repertoire:

"Lo studio della meccanico technical è inefficace. [...] Si può studiare ma non con il interpretare

metronome. "(Brouwer, 2006: 105-108)

It is in this sense that Brouwer proposes the study of music with music. Thus,

their 30 StudiesThey may be understood as their pedagogical musical vision, fruit of a deep reflection on the teaching and
learning of this instrument. The method for guitar ever written, in fact may consist of all its studies which presents,
explores and discusses all technical and expressive aspects that Brouwer considers essential (see ch. 4.1.Sencillos
studies). In these works with degrees of complexity reduced to allow keep the student focused on the technical aspect to
be worked, simplifying the remaining components, Brouwer presents methodical studies which considers possible
progress in understanding and musical performance. According to Gloria Ariza Adame in their studies the technical and
musical principles considered fundamental are meeting for later safe approach to his repertoire:

"(...) Ese method [...] is en su y más work concretely it we discover en cada uno de los

procedimientos technicians trabaja en sus sencilla manera de estudios - in con quiero esto decir que sea simple bell más
bien una synthetically schematic y fundamentally practical -. y that encuentran reflejados en sus works concierto
"(Ariza, 2012: 31-34).

46
It should be noted in this chapter Leo Brouwer collaboration in developing a

method for the study of scales (which will be covered later in Chapter 5.1.) written in 1992. As will be analyzed, it is
not a book of scales and their fingerings, but a reflection on the scales of learning processes, based on bases theoretical.
In the same book, Brouwer calls for a study of the scales with the permanent inclusion of musical expression elements,
or in the context of a musical work.

47
5. Leo Brouwer - The theoretical aspect

Less known than his guitar virtuoso and composer of facets is

the theoretical aspect of Leo Brouwer's personality, either as speaker or writer: opens another way to communicate more
explicitly the areas of philosophical bent that integrate their trade. So, it has contributed essays and articles published in
magazines (Cuban Cinema, Unión, Clave, among others) or presented at conferences, covering topics of musical analysis,
music history, or music sociology, showing a great capacity for research , analysis, synthesis and critical sense.

Through the explicit references in Leo Brouwer texts, we can summarize

the intellectual domain of Leo Brouwer is part of a philosophical vein, sociological and cultural broad but coherent, which
are present from Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault, Jurgen Habermas, to the prospects of the avant-garde art and post-
modern society of Umberto Eco (about the mass culture), Paul de Man, Alfonso Vicente, Octavio Paz, Hal Foster, Susan
Sontag, or notions of "Cubanidad" noted by Alejo Carpentier. 16

Regarding the musical art, Leo Brouwer quotes in Articles Leonard B.

Meyer, Theodore W. Adornment, or Adolfo Salazar, authors in reference at

conceptualization of musical aesthetics and century music psychology. XX, in particular the current Formalist 17.

According to the Italian musicologist Enrico Fubini, a specialist in musical aesthetics,

"Le ricerche del musicologist Leonard Meyer [...] rivolgono una Maggior atenzione alla struttura

psychological della fruizione musicale, tenendo fermo il principle che il linguaggio musicale non ha una referenciale
Funzione. Il siginificato della musica è nella stessa music [...] "(Fubini, 2003: 138).

Also according to the same Italian author, Theodor Adorno developed studies

very interesting about the relationship music-society:

16
Brouwer, 2006.
17
Ibid.
48
"Secondo l'art Adorno ha un rapporto dialettico and problematic con la realtà sociale. […] Over there

music può assumere una Funzione stimolante nei confronti stessa della società, può denunciare la crisi and it gave falsità
Rapporti umani, smascherare l'ordine costituito "(Fubini, 2003: 140)..

For Adorno, the music can be Expressionist or Formalist according to the paper

it plays in society.

These authors are cited in their texts the concept of purpose "artist-fetish"

Adorno, or innovation and evolution of modern artistic language according to Meyer or Salazar, and music as a
means of complex communication.

Leo Brouwer, although knowing the thought of Meyer and Adorno, and share

its formalist concepts18Also welcomes the aesthetic referencialist19(To evoke in his literary universe works - La Ciudad de
las Columnas, Alejo Carpentier -, Pictorial - Pictures at another exhibition, Paraphrasing the Russian composer Modest
Mussorgskj -Or political - Eulogy by Victor Jara) And Expressionist, when he says:

"La información del executant y su culture van mano a mano." (Brouwer, 2006: 63)

"[...] La culture - para mi - son Alejo Carpentier y sus novels, Ponce de León the Wifredo

Lam, pero también es el how taking el coffee, as camina por la calle. En relación a la music - all, it popular y
aquella cultured - works en el mismo so [...] "(Brouwer, 2006: 103).

We believe these to be the theoretical beacons in which moves Leo Brouwer.

5.1. Issues of pedagogical reflection of Leo Brouwer

Among the over one hundred texts (including conferences, articles, interviews, notes

program, prefaces disks, etc.), there is also room for Brouwer express themselves on issues of pedagogy (although the
number of published articles is considerably lower).

18
As stated Enrico Fubini, "the legacy of formalist thinking Hanslick was a
enormous importance in our century; often are formalists results even in very distant thinkers assumptions originate from such aesthetic
"(Fubini, 2003: 133).
19
For referencialistas, the value of a musical work is the ability to evoke, highlight or
suggest extramusical meanings. (Cardoso, 2010d)
49
On the one hand the century. XX saw the emergence of the great teachers of

music education (such as Dalcroze, Orff, Kodaly, Suzuki and Gordon, great pillars of teaching the century theorizing.
XX) also saw to an influence of musical aesthetics in education, in particular its current referencialist, Formalist
(whose characteristics value the pure music and the teaching of this only emphasizes the promotion of musical skills 20)
And Expressionist21.

However, these play no conceptual perspective in one Brouwer

key role as a pedagogue, not taking partisanship by any of them, drinking from each of these theoretical branches
whenever it needs to feed its cultural and philosophical yearnings.

The educational profile of Leo Brouwer is built from the sum of the various

academic and professional experiences as orchestra conductor, composer and professional guitarist and contributes
certainly attentive enjoyment of their cultural and social environment: the passion and collaboration with the cinema
and the theater, the revivalist movement of the new old music, courses Darmstadt avant-garde music, etc.

We have also seen in the first chapter as the roots of Cuban culture, its

academic training in the United States with Persichetti in 1960 and the Warsaw Autumn in 1961 for example, have been
central to his side as a composer, in its various phases and currents. Likewise, their pedagogical training Guitarrística

is born gives plurality in experiences, direct or indirectly

related to the guitar.

So we can assume that your training as pedagogue is based on

following factors:

 early approach to the guitar through his father, who early on you

He conveyed a rudimentary technique, and gave him to know some repertoire:

"My father is an aficionado who taught me by ear for three or four months. He

was peculiar; instead of playing guitar pop, he was an aficionado of

20
Cardoso, 2010b.
21
Expressionism understood as current aesthetic whose "value and meaning of a musical work
the sum of its internal qualities and artistic influence, cultural and human "and" promotes music education as a contribution to the
development of personal identity of students [...], whose educational benefits go far beyond the acquisition of skills musical "(Cardoso 2010a).

50
Tarrega, Villa-Lobos and Granados, and he played this stuff perfectly be ear. His technique was
quite good. With him I learned some Villa-Lobos - Choros and some preludes, and Tarrega - the
preludes and mazurkas. "22(McKenna, 1988).

 Experience as student in guitar of conductor Isaac Nicola,

considered the founder of the Cuban Guitarrística school (in turn influenced by the teaching of his
mother Clara Romero, and later student Pujol declared follower of the methodological school
Tarrega), providing Brouwer to continue this technical and interpretive line, though not he had left
satisfied, considering it outdated, leading him to search for new teaching experiences:

"I found Isaac Nicola, who was probably the best teacher - he was a student

of Pujol, who was a student of Tarrega. This casette me continuity with the Tarrega school, but I
was not really satisfied with Pujol. I found a couple of things to add to the classical, let's say
"old-fashioned" school ". (McKenna, 1988)

 Impact created by his maestro Isaac Nicola while running

early music (see Chapter 1), taking Leo Brouwer to want to deepen the ancient music studies in a
more rigorous way, first with the pioneering lutenist Joseph Iadone in the US and later in courses in
the Netherlands with Franz Brüggen and Gustav Leonhardt, both prominent figures of the second
generation of early music revival23Contributing on one hand to an application of some techniques of
Renaissance instruments, and the other for a huge requirement of the pedagogue Leo Brouwer as the
interpretive rigor of pre-classical repertoire:

22
CONSTANCE MCKENNA, An Interview With Leo Brouwer, Guitar Review, No. 75-1988
23
Understood as an academic movement of the dawn of the century. XX, strictly concerns
historical interpretation, started with the harpsichordist Wanda Landowska (1879 - 1959) and with the foundation in 1933 Schola Cantorum
Basiliensis in Basel (Switzerland) by Paul Sacher (1906-1999), which followed in Europe and the United States the angular contributions of
Diana Poulton (1903-1995), Julian Bream (1933), Ralph Kirkpatrick (1911-1984) and the Emilio Pujol who, remember, was a professor of
Isaac Nicola.

51
"I applied technique from the Renaissance instruments. This led me to the

Possibility of new right hand positions. [...] I Suggested [Deutsche Grammophon] [...] the
sophisticated record of Baroque music including works by Silvius Leopold Weiss, ornamented in the
rigorous style of Franz Bruggen and Gustav Leonhardt, to Which I was connected "(McKenna,
1988).

 empirical experience as an international-class guitarist,

expert of issues involving at various phases in

preparation of the musical work and performance: the study phase (which presupposes an
understanding of the musical text, the resolution of technical and interpretative problems and
concern for the sound), to its final form, as the sum of technical and interpretative options.

 Similarly, the guitar often contact other

in international festivals, it has also had the opportunity to get to know other interpretative
techniques, from the classical repertoire to flamenco:

"I redbourn some tricks from flamenco; I was in love with flamenco "(McKenna,

1988).

 Knowledge provided by the composer experiences and Director

orchestra, as well as its versatility as an instrumentalist (cello having knowledge, piano, flute and
percussion), which provided him with resources, technical and expressive strangers to the guitar, such
as breathing, articulation, phrasing, dynamics:

"I redbourn different articulations of the left hand from the cello, Which I played the

little bit "(McKenna, 1988).

Therefore, Brouwer declares more than once is not dependent

or attached to a single school Guitarrística:


52
"No partisan soy casarme con una sola technical [...]" (Ariza 2012: 31-34).

And his colleagues and close friends reaffirm this idea, as is

the case of Clara (Cuqui) Nicola, sister of Isaac Nicola, Cuban pedagogue, who devoted his life to teaching guitar:

"[...] Él conoce perfectamente bien las escuelas y las techniques, pero siempre ha played

de acuerdo con su necesidad de hacerlo. Él se fue by encima de las escuelas, y maestros of all "(Giró 1984:
93-105).

Multiple experiences led him to develop not only technical Guitarrística

innovative (see Chapter 3), and lay the foundations for its pedagogical and didactic approach of metacognitivista
membership. In the texts we have access, verify the existence of recurrent and cross-cutting issues regarding the
transmission and acquisition of thought

musical and guitaristic in particular, what will be explained and

exemplified in the following pages: a sound culture; the resolution of technical and interpretative problems; keys to
interpretation; the historical and interpretive rigor; performance.

5.1.1. metacognition24- Awareness, understanding, action

The common thread of all these issues referred to above is the need to

awareness of each of them, the understanding of the theoretical and mechanical processes, and finally the conscious
and enriched by understanding action. Are characteristics of didactics line known as metacognition, surely different
from the learning experience that Brouwer had during their training:

24
"A concept developed in 1971 by John Flavell under the Cognitive Psychology," Metacognition
refers to the knowledge we have own cognitive concepts and products (results), that is, referred to the knowledge of relevant properties of the
information or data; refers among other things, the active monitoring and consequent regulation and orchestration of these processes [...]
usually employed in any specific target or target "(Cavedal, 2007: 43). Presented in a simple way "Learning to learn" (Hallam, 2001) or "reflect
on how we think" (Livingston, 1997), metacognition "involves the process itself awareness of involved in a particular learning" (Cardoso,
2010c) .

53
"Hay renew her teaching. Hay que esa renew traditional escuela que yo he visto muchas

veces y that he sufrido también. No, no, eso no it is ripe: Estudia, Estudia [...]. Eso on sale in: repite [...]. ¿Como va
repeat, repeat va la crap that is haciendo? [...] "(Ariza, 2012: 31-34).

To have been witness and victim of this traditional education, based on the study

mechanical and barely conscious, in the exhaustive repetition as a way to combat the technical and musical problems, Leo
Brouwer refuses to continue this teaching model, by joining in the metacognitivista model with clear concerns and
motivational objectives and improving the degree of efficiency. Thus, Brouwer proposes in his reflections:

"The problems, mistakes or errors are always the same, caused by the same causes.

More than endlessly repeat a passage and uncritically, we give a name to the problem and will disappear "(Brouwer,
2006: 105)..

It is the appeal to the knowledge of the problem from the "critical view", the

rationalization and understanding of the learning process as much of the troubleshooting. This aspect will be alluded to in
all the considerations made by Leo Brouwer, whether technical or interpretative jurisdiction. It is precisely in this context
and within this theme that we will stop in more detail, presenting and commenting on the main lines of tutoring Brouwer,
ie, recurrent and cross-cutting concepts for the various texts and interviews.

5.1.2. Sound Culture

Belonging to the cosmetic branch, Leo Brouwer sound is "the heart of

Guitar "(Brouwer and Paolini 1992: 8), and the sound culture" is one of the fundamental things " 25

and one should always look for their beauty (Brouwer, 2006: 107).

Brouwer thus observed the phenomenon of tone, color, and intensity of the attack, with Greater or lesser degree of
innovation, making up a synthesis of common knowledge already treated in the last chapter of the 1st part of the
Méthode pour la guitare (1830) in

25
Leo Brouwer - [sound recording] Leo Brouwer - 20 Studi. Perugia: Quadrivium, 1990 - De Angelis,
Leonardo.
54
Fernando Sor, or work El Dilema del Sonido en la Guitarra(1960) Pujol Emilio. To this end, in addition to advocating a
Greater dedication to the right hand the reasons behind pointing, Leo Brouwer is more specific, stopping in two
respects:

a) attack points: Brouwer says it is important to know exactly the

various pulse points on guitar and the richer areas and dense harmonics in the production of sound, as well as being
aware of the various factors that alter the sound (nails, hand position and attack profile on the rope), ideas observed
in the preface

of disco 20 Studi - Leo Brouwer26. In "Riflessioni sulla technique

chitarristica "27Brouwer explains these three zones (above) the harmonics that create sound great quality: the heart
guitar mouth, sounds resonant and round; mouth tangent / board towards the easel, with clear and also resonating
sounds; slightly separated from the edge towards the bridge where you get clear sound and no resonance. Clarifies
thatponticello or south tasto are not sound options but merely coloristic;

b) standardization requirement of two simple pulses and supported as

way to get sound and tonal quality, technique required both in the article "Riflessioni sulla chitarristica technique" 28as
in the book Scale per chitarra (Brouwer and Paolini 1992), since often requires the repertoire that changing pulse.

5.1.3. Resolution of technical and interpretative problems

Brouwer again highlights the factor of awareness during the process

study as the main factor of solving technical and interpretative problems. In this regard, Leo Brouwer calls the non-
repetition of the errorad infinitumBut their identification as a key to overcome, or alert to the ineffectiveness of
mechanically study, and discourages the use of Metronome in more advanced stages of the study (Brouwer, 2006: 105-
106).

We find many examples in his writings, in which Brouwer suggests

orientation of the study by focusing on a single problem (in fact, the key concept of the composition of the Estudios
Sencillos). For example, in the bookScale per chitarra, create-

26
Ibid.
27
Brouwer, 2006: 106.
28
Ibid.
55
a set of targeted exercises for each technical problem (see p. 18

cross strings on the right hand):

Fig. 25 Leo Brouwer, Scale per Chitarra (excerpt)

Also the interpretation of aggregate or chords (which Leo Brouwer calls

of sound blocks) are covered in their texts under three aspects:

The) Management of the sound balance of chords due to inequality of strings and must be paid Greater
attention to internal strings and 29;

B) Targeting the gesture rasgueados to high strings and not indiscriminately, in order to obtain
clarity30;

w) Emphasizing the chords with Major harmonic voltage or harmonic Increased interest due to its
complexity, using one of three strategies: arpeggiato, ritenuto or using another tone.31

also a sector this paragraph gives resolution of problems technician-

interpretation is the one related to the energy savings resulting from muscle-relaxing action process, the awareness
can improve many of the technical and mechanical processes. For example, Brouwer offers two ways to activate the
left hand, learning to put on and learning to raise your fingers consciously:

"Siempre estudiamos cómo put them fingers because we are prensiles, pero también hay que

studio cómo draw them fingers "(Ariza, 2012: 31-34).

29
Brouwer, 2006: 108.
30
Ibid.
31
Brouwer, 1990: sound recording.
56
This technique will allow not only relax your left hand, and enhance the

independence of each finger, lifting or placing each in a unique way, as is necessary for the conduct of voices, or the
resonance of the desired notes. Relaxation can also be achieved by alternating supported or single pulse (already
addressed in the previous paragraph: Sound Culture), as well as improve the sound and tonal quality. ( Brouwer and
Paolini 1992: 10).

Still on this aspect, Brouwer going to detail in his reflections: suggests

reordering of the traditional mechanical gesture in the performance of connected left hand, managing more
correctly applied pressure, also considering that it does not take as much effort as one that usually is spent 32.

5.1.4. Keys to interpretation

Again Leo Brouwer implies that the understanding of the text is the basis

essential for a correct interpretation. We highlight, for example, the statement that "not all notes are equally important" 33,
Implying that the student can distinguish them. Similarly, when he writes that "the articulation and breathing are the
secrets of interpretation"34It takes for granted that the student must know how and where to do it. To exemplify the
various technical features that can be used to emphasize a complex chord, states that students should be able to identify
you.

So for a correct interpretation, the student should know:

The) Distinguish melodic plans of harmonics plans and put them in evidence;

B) Harmonically understand the work, and try to give each melody note due importance;

w) Breathing in the right places and articulate the piece according to his compositional style. This idea is
emphasized by Leo Brouwer as the key to good interpretation.

32
Brouwer, 2006: 105-106)
33
Ibid.
34
Ibid.
57
To do this, Brouwer advises the listening interpretative references that can

help students when deciding on the interpretation of a sentence or a joint:

"If the student plays Giuliani should listen to Rossini, Chopin plays Tarrega should listen if

plays Scarlatti must listen to the original on the harpsichord "(Brouwer, 2006: 106)..

Related interpretation is also timeConcept also

exploited by Brouwer; are multiple indicationstimeand character in their studies (not limited to write Allegro or Andante).
Leo Brouwertime, Fast or slow, is a relative concept, not metronímico but measured in intensity, "no adagio is so try not to
vibrate, which do not hold the cantabile"Or" sometimes a quick pass requires more strength than speed "(Brouwer, 1990:
sound recording) are demonstrative phrases of his thought.

THEsound culture should be mentioned here again, since the

interpretation control of timbre-dynamic factors of musical expression are important aspects in which one should
always take into account the sound quality:

"It's unpleasant feel strong hard and rough, or piano . Imperceptible "(Brouwer, 2006:

108)

Brouwer also calls the interpreter to expand and enrich throughout its life

what it means repertoire of ideas, that is, find, adopt and implement in its interpretation

new techniques and further ideas musical: effects, joints,

adornments, etc., thus offering a greater choice.

5.1.5. rigor history

This issue is closely related to the interpretation and in the case of Leo

Brouwer strictly understood as the historically informed interpretation of early music. Through its theoretical and
practical manual unpublished manuscript entitled

Basic Ornamentation in Early Music-Renaissance and Esercizi per la double baroccaI

can be seen several examples and exercises resolution of passing notes,

58
arpeggios, variations (Ground / Chaccona, Glosses the style of Diego Ortiz, etc.) and various formulas

in ornamentation melodic (cheek, trillo, tirata and doble tirata,

appogiatura, gruppetto), Rhythm (French to style inégale, pointer, couler, lourer or lombard) and harmonic (broken
chords, brissee), In the style of Baroque different instruments such as the harpsichord, the vihuela or lute.

This theoretical and practical nature manual, Brouwer attempts to summarize the various

sources studied for itself over 35 years, he says, in order to make the subject more accessible to those who wish to
interpret and discover the repertoire.

5.1.6. performance35

In his texts pedagogical, we also see the concern

relative performative side of the guitar study.

Having achieved a high level of performance as guitarist Leo Brouwer

certainly part of his experience not only to develop technical interpretive concepts to improve the musical work, but also
directed to the stage, that is, for the time performance. Thus, returns to his students this accumulated experience featuring
some advice related to planning, management and execution of the concert:

 Planning - it is advisable to mount a concert only works

athletic, or difficult technique; if the work causes problems, should not be in the repertoire, it means that
you are not prepared to play;

 Optimization - Brouwer refers to optimize the time and effort to

remember that the curriculum repertoire studied over the years of study is usually undervalued, often lying
there a potential repertoire;

 Concentration - in performance, error in a note can create other errors due

the increased anxiety of work; the concentration in the interpretation of each note avoid them;

35
All considerations made solely from the written reflections on Brouwer, 2006: 105 and 106,
unless otherwise specified.
59
 Management - Brouwer advised not to use the stage 100% of capacity (the

remaining 20% served reserve); play with 75% or 80% of capacity prevents errors;

 Programming and communication - for Brouwer, the primary purpose of

performance should be to communicate. To this end, programming should reflect this concern with
communication, coexisting both deeply interconnected way.

"Me interesa que si hay dos mil personas entiendan me them of thousand in una. From ahí that

el art program is related con la comunicación "(Caldeira, 2011:

16).

Thus, respecting and valuing the public, gives some examples

specific to that care should be taken in the art of programming: the artist must put together the program
according to thematic or stylistic blocks culturally interesting, avoiding monographs, or small loose parts 36; in
the case of presenting a new composer, it is not advisable to start with his work, because the public does not
show the desired interest but before

for example

start with a great work to serve as a cover letter, ending with a minor technical difficulty and pleasant to
the ear37.

Also Artur Caldeira in his thesis witness the advice

Brouwer transmitted during the master-class in which he participated with conductorin Portugal. According
to Caldeira, Brouwer advises the interpreter to "previously consider the type of audience and not to show
programs only works less accessible language except more specific events." (Caldeira, 2011: 17).

Poetry - In the field of performance, apparently more subjective and

staff is the exhortation of Leo Brouwer the transmission of "poetry" or "magic" 38, Understood as higher moments of
musical expressiveness, opting for interpretative solutions to communicate, surprised and emotionally involve the
audience.

36
Ariza, 2012: 26.
37
Ibid.
38
Brouwer, 1990: sound recording.
60
Brouwer calls so a musical performance that goes beyond the technical, bringing together the formal and stylistic
understanding of the play and freedom of expression of emotions, a holistic view of musical experience, in line with
the great pedagogues of the century. XX.

5.2. The theoretical work of Leo Brouwer

To prepare this chapter were used exhaustively texts

written by the author related to the Guitarrística pedagogy: "Riflessioni sulla chitarrística technique" (Brouwer, 2006), the
disc preface Leo Brouwer - 20 Studi per chitarra (Brouwer, 1990: sound recording), the book Scale per chitarra - studio
dello methodology (Brouwer and Paolini, 1992), and finally the handwritten document Basic Ornamentation in Early
Music - Renaissance and Esercizi per la double barocca

39
. In

complementarily appealed to the interview in 1988 by Constance McKenna to conductorCuban (McKenna, 1988) and
Artur Caldeira thesis (Caldeira, 2011). Thus, we will conclude this chapter with a short descriptive approach to each of
the four texts written by Leo Brouwer, which served as the basis for the chapter.

"Riflessioni sulla chitarristica technique" is the last part of the book Gajes del Oficio,

in the case of a manual guitarrísmo in very concisely, with short statements or statements, almost aphoristic the way
Theodor W. Adorno, which reveal the experience of Leo Brouwer among guitar learning environments and a consequent
reflection of these same experiences . The rest of the book presents a compilation drawn up in 2004 with the following
articles of his own writings over the past four decades, "The Artist, el Pueblo y el eslabón lost" (2003); "La music, it
Cuban y la innovación" (1970/1989); "Music, folklore, contemporaneidad y postmodernism" (1980/88); "Roldán: sound
reasons" (1989); "La improvisation random" (1971); "Un poco music: Ernesto Lecuona to Pablo Milanés" (1985); "La
Vanguardia en la música

Cuban " (1970); "Over there


composición modular " (end of years 70) and

"Reflexiones" where the theme of Guitarrística pedagogy leads us to the last pages of the book.

39
See Annex I to this work.
61
The disc preface Leo Brouwer - 20 Studi per chitarra (Leonardo de Angelis)

It is a short text on a page, but dense, in which the author in monologue way presents some directives lines for an approach
to his studies, his music and the aesthetic and educational values that defends: his theory about Sencillos studies, The sound
culture, the ways of implementation of harmonic voltages, and considerations about time in interpretation.

Scale per chitarra - studio dello methodology(1992). It may be at least

curious association of Leo Brouwer name to a book with the title Scales for Guitar, Knowing beforehand their reluctance
to address technical aspects of pure form (see chapter 4.3. methodical studies in the absence of a method). Your name
appears on the first page along with the Italian Paolo Paolini, a professor at the Conservatorio di Firenze "Luigi
Cherubini", but finds himself inside the book also Eliot Fisk and Oscar Ghiglia, concert artists and pedagogues renowned
on the international scene, collaborated in drafting of this work, ensuring quality and outstanding value to this issue. We
think it is irrelevant to know exactly which of the lines or thoughts is unique to Leo Brouwer, as to be your name associated
with the other employees, assumes the part of Conductortotal shares the methodology explained in this book. It should be
noted also that even without habitually exercises functions regular teachers in institutions of music education, this
participation demonstrates to some extent the key role Leo Brouwer has taken on in recent decades in the instrument
pedagogy field and is therefore called to testify their thoughts and theories about a subject as this of the specific didactics
ball.

The assumptions of this methodology present in the first chapter ( "The paradox

Scales ") depart from the traditional perspective of the scale as a technical daily study model. However, contrary to the
common view that considers the scale as simple

exercise mechanical and devoid of emotion, this book defends his

complexity, clarifying that by complexYou mean an exercise that has a plurality of difficulties. Thus, the function of
this work is to provide a full awareness of them, an analysis that identifies and a methodology that helps to confront
these difficulties, first separately and then in its complexity. The identification of the three "Problematic Factors" (ch.
2: a) speed;

62
b) displacement of the right hand; c) displacement of the left hand) is fundamental to structure the entire manual,
dedicated consequently each of them: Chapter 3 is titled "Preparing to speed" (3.1 right hand typing; 3.2 Energy
saving);.. Chapter 4 "right hand Shift". After a series of examples and exercises for the right hand, Chapter 5 pays
particular attention to the "left-hand offset" (5.1 escalísticas formulas;.. 5.2 sobreaguda Region). The method ends with
two final chapters (Chapters 6 and 7) dedicated to traditional models of scales (diatonic Major and minor melodies,
alternating, pentatonic, blues) and examples of Guitarrística literature where it can exercise the concepts that appear
throughout this method.

Due to its structure, this book proves to be innovative and critical in

approach to the study of scales. Thus, the initial sections of speculative and theoretical formulation of each of the base
vectors that comprise the study of scales later give rise to various descriptive examples in order to clarify the previously
terrace theory. we still see in that cap. 3 to appeal to a targeted study in the exercise of scales with a purely mechanical
technique never thought, but musical expressiveness integrating elements of those years. Still appears a long list of
exercises necessary proposals for each of the points raised, ending with the challenge of taking the student to enter into
some examples of Guitarrística literature. The latter in particular (for instance Guitarrística literature) shows students the
practical side, music, study of scales, that is, its function and presence within the compositions.

Thus, by clarifying the mechanical phenomena, as well as the complexity of

learning processes of scales in several of its aspects, it is provided a solid theoretical basis that may allow the student to
identify, reflect and act, enhancing thereby the time and study processes. This is because of a wealth of manual didactics,
where not only learn to solve a technical problem, but where once more describes, analyzes and understands the bases
residing in their training to be able to successfully confront.

Basic Ornamentation in Early Music - Renaissance (Volos, July 1989) and

Esercizi per la double barocca (Firenze, April 1988) is the title of a theoretical and practical manual, manuscript,
with examples and exercises for the study of pre ornamentation

63
classic. This document was provided to participants of integrated master-class at the Second International Festival
of St. Tirso Guitar (1995).

64
6. The meeting between the class and writing

Despite not having been standing performance of teaching duties, Leo

Brouwer is invited regularly to lead master class in guitar festivals that are happening a little by all continents has
usual presences in Cordoba and Escorial (Spain), Gent (Belgium), West Dean (England), Mikulov ( Czech Rep.),
Esztergom (Hungary), Zwolle (Netherlands), Perugia, Rome and Latina (Italy), Sao Paulo (Brazil), Caracas
(Venezuela), Martinique (French Caribbean), Toronto (Canada), Japan 40, among others.

Also in Portugal we could count on the presence of Conductor in-master

class. Leo Brouwer made the first course and performed for the first time in Portugal as a conductor (with soloist
Eduardo Isaac) in the city of Santo Tirso, from 28 June to 30 June 1994 at the First International Guitar Festival. Even
between November 28 and December 3, 1994 was set the "IV course of Santo Tirso" outside the Festival. Also present
at the Second International Festival of Santo Tirso Guitar, between 30 June and 10 July 1995. In 1997 was the opening
of the IV International Festival of Santo Tirso Guitar as conductor (with Kazuhito Yamashita as soloist) and teacher in
the master class offered during the festival. Leo Brouwer was still in Fafe between 23 and 25 July 1999, also a master
class organized by the Academy of Music José Atalaya.

6.1. Video analysis according to the themes of reflection

pedagogical

In the process of documentation collection for this study was access

a recording41with master-class excerpts from where we can see Leo Brouwer in full teaching action. It refers to the II
International Festival of Santo Tirso Guitar (30/06 to 10/07/1995), without being possible, however, the need (s) day (s)
exact (s) in

40
McKenna, 1988.
41
Annex II to this work: Leo Brouwer - Master-Class Santo Tirso 1995[Registration video]. Holy
Tirso: Ricardo Abreu 1995. Video Amateur.
65
which took place filming. Recording is privately held without professional pretensions, serving only documentary
record. As such, there has only excerpts classes, recorded and cut without defined criteria (as well as the framework
plan of class players, which does not always allow the audiovisual comprehension).

Despite all of these constraints, the recording stops not be a

time privileged in perception of your labor teacher, since the way

communicational used to streaming content.

The recording includes six individual lessons and a guitar quartet class,

where works are interpreted in a broad stylistic and chronological spectrum, ranging from the Renaissance period to the
century. XX.

In the table below you can check the content and the timing of each

class:

TIME OF
Minutes RECORDING THEUtor AND ASK FRAINING
LESSON

00:00:00 to 12'30 Robert Visée (ca. 1655 - ca. 1732) Gavotte, Menuett II, bourrée
00:12:30 "approx. and Gigue gives Suite in D m Individual

00:12:31 to 25'30
00:28:10 "approx. William Walton (1902 - 1983), 2 Bagatelles and 3 Individual

00:28:14 to 18'30 Alberto Ginastera (1916 - 1983), Finale gives Sonata Op. 47
00:46:00 "approx. Individual

00:46:10 to 15'00 Silvius Leopold Weiss (1686-1750), Allemande and Gigue gives
01:01:30 "approx. XVII Suite Individual

1:01:42- 13'00 Michael Praetorius (ca. 1571-1621) Bransle de la torche, Ballet and
01:14:38 "approx. Come back of Terpsichore Musarum Quartet

01:14:40 to 09'00 Johann Sebastian Bach (1685 - 1750), Prelude gives II Suite for Lute,
01:24:30 "approx. BWV 997 Individual

01:24:33- 05'00 Federico Moreno Torroba, (1891 - 1982), Allegretto gives Sonatina in
01:29:55 "approx. A major Individual

In view of the only available document from its extensive educational action

as a teacher you can also check in each class the presence of some of the topics discussed in the previous chapter
(Chapter 5), in relation to the transmission and acquisition of skills

musical and guitarrísticas (metacognition - Awareness,

66
understanding, action; historical accuracy, resolution of technical and interpretative problems, keys for interpretation,
sound Culture).

Thus, the choice of video analysis process will address in particular the

demonstration of the recurring themes of Leo Brouwer through example with the class times when Brouwer acts directly
on many musical passages interpreted by the students, establishing harmony between theory and practice.

6.1.1. historical accuracy:

We watched the master-class the interpretation of Baroque music through works

of Visée, Weiss and Bach. This led to many of the points raised by Leo Brouwer in classes where they played this
repertoire were mainly related to the musical rhetoric of this period, particularly the historically informed
interpretation of adornments, articulation and dynamics.

i. Ornamentation

Leo Brouwer begins by clarifying the students about the concept of

ornamentation, as its functions, providing all present their theoretical and practical manuscript manual titled Basic
Ornamentation in Early Music - Renaissance and Esercizi per la double baroccaAdvising to its study:

"En esas pages [are] these ornaments Renaissance Baroque y [shows the front page] y

en esa [shows the page back] how to make it doublé "(00:02:00)

"[...] I know it's very Difficult first time to understand this, but in this pages you can deal with

this ornaments. "(0:05:10).

As a teacher Brouwer gives students-performers the concept of

ornamentation, not only as a Guitarrística technique to use or as an abstract concept, but contextualizes depending
on the time and the musical style, serving as interpreter between the performer and the composer, that is, making the
first reading and communication

67
between the musician and the score, in addition to guitarist and Guitarrística instrument practice.

About ornamental functions:

"El ornament using en las cadences harmonic to llenar them huecos [between notes and rhythmic]

y to avoid them repeticiones "(0:05:45).:

The)in cadences

Fig. 26 visée, Menuett II, w. 8

Fig. 27 visée, Menuett II, w. 8, with ornamental Brouwer

B) To fill the melodic jumps and rhythmic spaces

Fig. 28 Weiss, Allemande, Cc. 10:11

Fig. 29 Weiss, Allemande, Cc. 10 and 11, with adornment

68
w) To avoid repetitions, with various proposals from the style

French, Lombard, etc., all right:

"Yo I repeat con algo nuevo" (0:04:50).

Fig. 30 visée, Menuett II, w. 11, unornamented

Fig. 31 The) visée, Menuett II, w. 11, with ornamentation

Fig. 32 B) visée, Menuett II, w. 11, with ornamentation

Fig. 33 c) visée, Menuett II, w. 11, with ornamentation

ii. Baroque articulation

also addresses the baroque joint (emphases and connected, according to the practice

rigorous musical), explaining and exemplifying simultaneously. It begins by showing the accentuation of each note through
gesture marking the Quaternary compass as follows:

69
"[Down] Largo, [left] cut [right] cut [up] nothing" (0:07:50).

And integrating the concept:

"home go-es-ta-ca-to-go home [ | ] "(00:08:30).

Fig. 34 visée, bourrée, w. 1

It also makes clear that "these ligatures en el baroque, almost in every music, is in

the down / strong beat "(0:07:15). By "Bourrée" ofSuiteof Visée first exemplifies incorrectly, and then their correction,
concluding tersely: "It seems un juego, pero la vida es el secret articulación of esas cosas." (00:08:00)

Fig. 35 visée, bourrée, Cc. 24:13 - with improper ligatures

Fig. 36 visée, bourrée, Cc. 24:13 - without proper ligatures

In order to be clearer, provides another example of the same Suite:

"Like that en la Gavotte"(00:08:30)

70
Fig. 37 visée, Gavotte, Cc. 1-4

Fig. 38 visée, Gavotte, Cc. 1-4, correct

iii. dynamic

Leo Brouwer uses the work Speech Sounds, Nikolaus Harnoncourt,

considered by Brouwer 'one of the greatest musicians in this century "(0:09:50), to address the practice of dynamics. By
using this cultural reference not only explains this concept as evidenced by its historical accuracy, clarifying that the
baroque is not a secondary aspect, depending on the view that you have of the piece, that is, the aesthetics of the
interpreter design, enabling different versions, all of them correct:

Fig. 39 The) visée, Gigue, Cc. 1-4

Fig. 40 B) visée, Gigue, Cc. 1-4

Fig. 41 w) visée, Gigue, Cc. 1-4

71
Fig. 42 d) visée, Gigue, Cc. 1-4

6.1.2. Resolution of technical and interpretative problems

These master-class Brouwer also addresses the issue of resolution of

technical and interpretative problems in works performed by students, insisting on the awareness of the student during
this process.

i. study the ineffectiveness mechanically

Ineffectiveness of mechanically and study the error repeat endlessly without

identify.

Example 1 - We can see this item in the interpretation of

Bagatelle 3Where Brouwer to hold in bars 36-37 to suggest a

dynamics.

Fig. 43 Walton Bagatelle 3, Cc. 36-37

The student, after trying four times, not concretized intended. O

teacher asks to do so again, but with the following comment:

"Otra time. Fíjate: no lo repeat the crude it, Piensalo "(0:25:35).

Thus Brouwer calls the awareness of students about

interpretative model idealized, clarifying it unequivocally three

ways:

72
The) Brouwer then sings again:

Fig. 44 Walton Bagatelle 3, Cc. 36-37 (only melody)

B) After only the rhythmic music theory:

Fig. 45 Walton Bagatelle 3, Cc. 36-37 (only rhythm)

w) Yet another once with the pace and assigning each cell a syllable

with the tone and the desired dynamics:

Fig. 46 Walton Bagatelle 3, Cc. 36-37

Only then asks the student to play a 5th time.

Example 2 - In this short excerpt from Sonata Op. 47of Ginastera, Brouwer considers that the amount of strings
resonate transform the musical passage in a very noisy way. To this end, it suggests that the student fails to make
typing suggested in the score (3-2 fingers), advising him:

"Use [fingers] 2-1, y el 4 to cover [the resonant strings rasgueado]." (00:36:35)

73
Fig. 47 Ginastera, Finale, Cc. 65-67 (typing used by the student)

Fig. 48 Ginastera, Finale, Cc. 65-67 (typing suggested by Brouwer)

ii. Focusing on one issue

Example 1 - This action up just described, also serves as

example for the approach to solving the problems by focusing on a single problem, since Brouwer to hold only that
measure 37 to solve a dynamic problem, asking the student to repeat consciously, not moving until the student has
achieved the result desired. Example 2 - Also in bars 32-33 ofBagatella 2 the teacher asks the student to watch the
dynamics in the execution of triplets, dividing the 3/8 into three groups, and stopping at each pulse:

"You must hacer three pasos" (00:19:15)

"to-ro-ro-ro-ro to shovel"LB
Fig. 49 Walton Bagatella 2, w. 32-33

74
Example 3 - Also for example, on Youtube42It has access to a

small excerpt from a master-class43Leo Brouwer to young Cuban guitarist Edel Muñoz, which addresses this issue.
Brouwer was arrested in bar 28 of his workPraise de la DanzaTo solve a technical problem just as we saw earlier, that is,
identifying the problem and dividing it to the maximum, and in the end is directed to the public to make the following
comment:

"¿Que hicimos with un tamaño this problem? You cut it convertimos y en pequeños

problems. Divide y conquer. "44.

iii. Interpretation of sound blocks

Another aspect addressed by Leo Brouwer is the interpretation of sound blocks

(Rasgueados and chord Higher harmonic complexity), calling for making attention to your balance, its directionality
and clarity.

Example 1 - The need for directing the rasgueados for acute cords is

visible in the classroom Sonata Op. 47of Ginastera. In bar 37, before the cross rasgueado to 6 strings, Brouwer
asks the student:

"Pegale bad a la prima y least it Friday. [The student plays] Ves? Hay más claridad. Ahora

suena. Included in interesa el serious. Let's entendernos: that he can learn in nadie del Truco, es uno to seek
claridad "(0:34:25).

42
http://www.Youtube.com/watch?v=107ELyGSfJY&feature=related, Minute 9:20 (accessed 29-06-
2012)
43
There is no temporal and spatial reference of the master-class unless the caller's name
Leo Brouwer.
44
"Divide et vinces" phrase famous popularly attributed to Julius Caesar, which means "divide and
conquer ". Leo Brouwer refers to a" chorus that involves solving a difficult problem by dividing it into simpler parts as many times as
necessary until the resolution of the problem becomes obvious. " http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algoritmo_divide_y_vencerás (Accessed 29-
06-2012, 02:21).

75
Fig. 50 Ginastera, Sonata, w. 37

Example 2 - The same happens with this rasgueado in bar 75 of the

same work, referring to the high note as "it only that interesa".

Fig. 51 Ginastera, Sonata, w. 75

Also chords with Higher voltage or harmonic complexity are

addressed these master class, such as the class of Sonatina of Torroba:

Example 3 - In bar 17, the student touches a chord VI degree plaqué.

Brouwer asks arpejá it, leaving a short but enlightening comment:

"Un poquito arpeggiato that if the siente la armonia" (1:25:42).

Fig. 52 Torroba, Sonatina, w. 17

The student repeats the passage arpejando the chord, and Brouwer makes a nod

positive.

76
Example 4 - Also in the bar 28 of the same work, the execution of a

diminished chord in 1st inversion, Brouwer asked the same student that repeat, but this

time arpejando it as not "heard". (01:26:15)

Fig. 53 Torroba, Sonatina, w. 28

6.1.3. Keys to interpretation

The understanding and interpretation of the musical work are in the field of activity

teaching of Leo Brouwer. Are cross-cutting aspects of interpretive praxis, which occur both in the baroque
repertoire of running as contemporary. Thus, we see his concern in making the interpreter reach:

i. Understanding of the work

Understand the work of a formal point of view, melodic and harmonic,

distinguishing plans and giving them due importance.

Example 1 - In the interpretation of the measures 29-33 Gigue gives XVII Suite

Weiss, Brouwer explains the plans of difference, in order to clarify the speech:

"El la [acute] no le des hard tan, el es la acute harmonic rhythmic relleno y un, no tiene

ninguno value. "(00:57:27)

Fig. 54 Weiss, Giguecc. 29-33

77
Example 2 - Still in the Baroque repertoire, Brouwer calls for understanding

formal and harmonic part, seen in the following excerpt: the Prelude gives Suite II Bach, Brouwer asks the student to
touch only a few bars, separated from each other,

we which Brouwer profit for sing along with the student,

intensifying the desired dynamics or highlighting certain notes in order to clarify the structure and compositional
features of the piece:

"Toca esto" (01:21:50)

[Pointing only to the bar 4]:

Fig. 55 Bach, Prelude, w. 4

"Y ahora esto"

[Pointing to the compass 20]:

Fig. 56 Bach, Prelude, w. 20

"Lo mismo, entonces behaves the same."

"Y ahora de aquí"

[Pointing to the bar 7]

78
Fig.57 Bach, Prelude, w. 7-8

[Brouwer sings simultaneously accentuating itself notes, do, re, mi]

"From here"

[Pointing to the compass 36]

Fig. 58 Bach, Prelude, w. 7-8

[Brouwer sings simultaneously accentuating the notes # sun, la, ti, doh]

In the end, it explains what was the intended objective with this strategy:

"¿Que son? periodic forms. [Addressing to the audience] What is that? periodical

taillight. Periodic music behaves la misma manera. [...] Periodical music always behaves the same way. [...]
Aquella music that behaves like because tiene las mismas thematic features, en una u otra tonality. "(01:23:20)

Example 3 - In another example also Brouwer not stop us cc. 17-18 ofBagatella

2, Commenting:

"Tienes un problema: les of la misma y entonces importance eso suena pesante."

For exemplify, Brouwer caricature yours interpretation, using The

onomatopoeia with heavy character:

79
[Foot mark time]: "po-po-po-po [foot] po-po-po-po"

Fig. 59 Walton Bagatella 2, Cc. 17-18

In order to clarify the desired Brouwer sings again, this time using onomatopoeia bad light and also asks the
student to move a little time:

[Foot mark time]: "ti-ri-ru-ri [foot] ti-ri-ru-ri" [accel. andStringendo]

Example 4 - Also in Sonatina of Torroba, to complete the 1st great phrase

(Up to c. 16), the student plays the last chord mf; Brouwer asks the student to putppBecause "rhythmic relleno es y no
hace falta salting." (01:25:20)

Fig. 60 Torroba, Sonatinaw. 16

ii. Breathing, direction and coordination:

Breathing in the right places, direct the melody (using the phrasing and

dynamic) and articulate the piece according to his compositional style.

80
Example 1 - In this descending movement in the melody Bagatella 3Brouwer asks the student to perform the following
directional intent: "From the ligero intense.

From light to intense. Always like that. Music is directional. "(00:27:45)

Fig. 61 Walton Bagatella 3cc. 29-30

Example 2 - In the interpretation of Preludio Suite II Bach, Brouwer hold on the bar 4, asking the student to
touch with directionality:

'Single Lo que tienes que es la direccionalidad achieve. "(1:16:40).

Brouwer explains singing the beginning of the period P, Goes on growing until the sun #, making immediate dimin.

Fig. 62 Bach, Prelude, w. 4 (transcription example of Brouwer singing)

Example 3 - The purpose of the need to breath in long musical passages:

"Crecer before in the calidad de sonido [pause], entonces tienes que hacer una pequeñísima

Respiration. " (00:41:20)

Fig. 63 Ginastera, Sonataw. 114

81
Example 4 - At the conclusion of the class Sonata of Ginastera, Brouwer ends with the following comment:

"This music is so tense que if you sing inside your head is so clear. So this little break [between

cc. 114-115] is here [pointing to head], is breath, Respiration, Respiration esa that hablaba Rubinstein.
"45(00:45:10)

Example 5 - This time relates to the necessity musical joint interpretation, particularly in the old music. At the end of
class the guitar quartet, in which interpreted Renaissance dances Praetorius, Brouwer comments as follows:

"Articulation is the only thing que makes the music out otherwise you have solfeggio only. El

Secret de la eso es guitar, nothing more ... Guitar on, [of] all these instruments. "(01:10:50)

Example 6 - Brouwer recalls that "one [note] wide después of [note] cuts in the wide tan es" (1:18:00), asking to
articulate as follows:

Fig. 64 Bach, Prelude, w. 9 (with joint)

6.1.4. Sound Culture:

Contrary to what happens in the texts, these master-class there was

concern testimonies to the theme of sound culture. Thus, they are

45
Theodor Leschetizky, who taught piano at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory When it opened, likened
muscle relaxation at the piano to the singer's deep breathing. He would remark to his students about "what deep breaths Rubinstein
used to take at the beginning of long phrases, and Also what repose he had and what dramatic pauses." (Sachs 1982: 83).

82
few times when Leo Brouwer stopped, offering three very few general examples. Example 1 - The first in relation to the
ideal point of attack Brouwer to perform a second passageBagatella 2 Walton:

"Va, sigue, dolce [Move the hand of the student to the left] [...] south tasto"(0:19:50):

Fig. 65 Walton Bagatella II, Cc. 40 and 49-53

Example 2 - The second relates to the use of the term "calidad de sonido" used in the execution of a growing and
accelerando from Compass 120 Finale gives Sonata

Ginastera of which correspond to the end of Sonataw. (131), And it appears

its assertion that the sound quality should be the subject of constant care:

"Grow in before giving calidad de sonido" (00:41:35):

Fig. 66 Ginastera, Sonata, cc.120-131

83
Example 3 - Similarly, his admiration for the acoustic qualities of the guitar is evident in the following sentence,
after you click the rope pizz. feroce also present in Finale gives Sonata of Ginastera:

"In here [in the tangent of the edge of the mouth to the top], bell here [the mouth center, plays ffAnd let

vibrate]: What timbre, which Maravilla "(0:44:50).:

Fig. 67 Ginastera, Sonata, w. 76

6.2. teacher characteristics Leo Brouwer

Despite the short duration of the storage medium, it is possible to draw a profile of its action

teaching in the context of class.

It is noted in this context that there is a recurrent teaching model

all classes: the student plays the piece from beginning to end; during this period of implementation of the student, the
teacher makes notes in the score all the points which he deserve debate and clarification; the work is crafted solely on
the points that were marked in the score, and each of these points is crafted with great detail; end of the lesson,
summarizing the points made in class and usually with a general comment on the work.

This teaching practice reveals two aspects:

a) Immediate formal and stylistic understanding of the repertoire, avoiding on the one hand

the student has to repeat the whole piece, and the other offering a wide view of the work, related structures and
formal and stylistic features;

b) Good time management class, moving directly from a marked point

to another, addressing only what it considers to be important work, and also referring the parties consider to be
correctly interpreted.

84
For example, at the end of the run by the student Finale gives Sonata

of Ginastera Brouwer acts as follows:

"Bien, muy bien. [Pause] El bien principle. Bien. Here, the second page to see un momento

here: "(00:30:45)

Fig. 68 Ginastera, Finale gives Sonata, Cc. 24-27

Brouwer hold up in cc. 24-27 to address the problem of lack of clarity

speech last beat of each measure. To this end, sings all the bars, scoring with arms duple meter and applyingmarcato and
poco tenuto the last beat of each measure, and in order to ask to apply these indications:

"Bad weight al último y waiting un poco más". (00:32:10)

Once solved the problem in these measures, Brouwer will address a new

this problem immediately compass (c. 28), and relates it for its similarity with this issue at bar 38, going directly
from one to another without going through the intermediate bars:

"Esto. Let's see un poco. [Student plays] Bad slow. [Student rings] Okay. Ahora comes to hacerlo

fast". (00:33:25)

Fig. 69 Ginastera, Sonata, Finale, c. 28


85
"Ahora esto. [Student rings] Okay. Ahora fast. " (00:34:05)

Fig. 70 Ginastera, Sonata, Finale, c. 38

In this short excerpt from the class of about 4 minutes there is the occurrence of

two features mentioned above, i.e. ready understanding of the work,

relating structures and formal and stylistic features, as well as good time management class, moving directly from one
point to another, only addressing the points according to the teacher needed to be worked out.

From the view of this recording, you can also spell out some

personality traits that Leo Brouwer evidence in their classes:

The) Rigor, through the use of reference works in the interpretation (Speaking of soundsOf Harnoncourt) or
its baroque ornamentation Manual, the result of 35 years of study, the purpose of the approach to the
pre-classical repertoire;

B) Requirement, asking students to touch as often as necessary to achieve the desired result.
(00:52:20);

w) Generosity, evident through the


will in Leo Brouwer share O

knowledge you have. Not only provides a manual of his own, Renaissance and Baroque ornamentation,
as provided to the titles of books students read passages or as a way to deepen and contextualize the
debate argument, thus expanding the overall view. Brouwer passes the student to his cultural baggage
and its many professional experiences, so that the student can extend the concept of the student not only
about work but about the musical repertoire that will be addressed in the future;

d) Courage, not restraining to praise students:

86
"All esto is bastante bien." (0:58:16), "Bravo!" (00:24:12,
00:39:50 and 01:28:01), "the end is El perfecto" (00:22 :
40)

and asking the public applause at the end of each interpretation of the student;

and) Awareness of its activities and its role with the public addressing this often during the lesson, talking
not only in Spanish but also translating into English whenever addresses the assembly:

"El ornament using en las cadences harmonic to llenar them huecos y to

repeticiones avoid them; [For the meeting] is used in ornaments cadential devices, to avoid repetition or
sequence and to fill the gaps of the rhythm "(0:05:45).

f) Sense of freedom in relation to the way of relating to the work, including its interpretation, management
of agogic, breaths, the timeAnd practice of ornamentation or baroque dynamics (provided they are made
aware of the language);

g) cultural continuity: Brouwer defends with reference personalities in the panorama

International, theoretical, conductors or instrumentalists

mark his inspiration, sensitivity and justify its historical accuracy, as is the case of Harnoncourt and
Rubinstein.

The recording also shows its valences as large guitarist

experience, composer and conductor (orchestral conducting).

With yours recognized experience as guitar player, and serving

often the student guitar to illustrate what you want (0:01:27, 0:18:35, 0:36:50, 0:48:05), Brouwer does not waive the
treatment of issues common to all teachers, correcting and suggesting solutions to students to get better sound, or
proposing fingerings in order to obtain better musical results, and also recalls the value techniques completed and "tricks"
needed to play and play when he says, for example:

"El severe in the matter. Let's entendernos that he can learn in nadie del Truco, es for one

seek claridad ". (00:35:20).

87
On other occasions, stands out Brouwer interpreter:

"Tu tienes mi grabación of esto?" (00:46:34).

In its composer facet, Brouwer intends to clarify the

interlocutor the function of certain features, such as ornamentation, formal understanding of the works, etc .: "Each
repetición [theme] no es el bell to reaffirm speech to rellenar. Es un rhythmic relleno, no tiene ninguno thematic value,
one in le puede give it importance that no tiene. "(1:17:17). Also concerning the interpretation of the "Finale" ofSonata
of Ginastera, Brouwer addresses the student in this way:

"¿What are haciendo? We are making it dramaturgy de la danza. Esto es dramatic.

Rhythmic dramatic y. "(0:38:37).

Approaches because the student to the reality of the composition with regard to

devices used by the composer. In general nothing is important in itself, apart from the musical thought of the composer;
everything is functional by the artistic result to be achieved.

Also the gestures of the orchestra direction is permanent in each

interpretation you hear, often moving his arms to mark phrases, compasses, dynamic or accents.

88
7. surveys46- Assessments in first person

The preparation of an investigation came from the possibility of contacting students who

They worked directly with Leo Brouwer in the master-class of Santo Tirso and Fafe. So, having contacted Oscar Flecha,
artistic director of the II International Festival of Santo Tirso Guitar and Ricardo Barceló, professor at Fafe Academy
during the master class made there, it was found that this sample would be far from being complete, because the absence
of complete databases enabling him to make an exhaustive survey of all participants in both master-class.

For this reason, the universe of respondents is relatively small, not being

representative sample of all participants in these master-class. Also for this reason, this sample can not be meaningful to a
procedure for statistical analysis data. Thus, it will not obey the methodologies of statistical branch, because the temporal
distance that the courses took place brings a blur of memory reading, reducing the stringency of the narrative. From a
group of 15 people identified, 13 were sent surveys (the other two surveys were not sent by lack of information that would
allow sending or receiving). 8 people responded to the survey, not having received a reply from the other five individuals.

The survey of participants of the master-class of Santo Tirso and Fafe has the

overall objective to assess the impact of the conductor at a distance of 17, and thus complement the storage medium,

corroborating or no, some points in analysis

related to Leo Brouwer's profile as a pedagogue expressed in the previous subchapter, noting the statements of the
students on the degree of satisfaction expressed or succeed in statements obtained after contact with conductor
Cuban.

After identifying the respondents (name, age at the time, and situation

academic / professional), the survey, which consisted of a set of ten questions, was designed in two topics, grouped as
follows: I. Opinion Objective (6 issues), in the form of qualitative questionnaire (perception) which contained the reply
form structured and open-response; II. subjective opinion (6 issues) in which it prevailed as open response, but also
included two examples of responses

46
Annex III to this work.
89
structured. The sample was chosen based on convenience (which individuals could contact). By professional secrecy
issues, each witness will be identified only by a letter (Student A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H).

7.1. Data analysis results

Age:

28/29 18 27/38 26 30 28 33 not mentioned

academic status / professional (number of responses):

Student Student / Teacher Teacher Musician Other


1 4 1 1 1

When they were all students of adulthood, and prevailing academic-situation

professional student / teacher, these data show that Leo Brouwer be a teacher selected by individuals of the layers so
young, observing that they are students with an academic path longer and Major cultural maturity and musical,
indicating in a way, the relief and the prestige that already when Leo Brouwer was garnering between guitarists.

Part 1: Opinion goal

I. If to remember what the material (part / study) worked?

WOMPOSITOR OBRA FRAINING IDENTIFICATION


J. Turina Sonata, Op. 61 Ground Student
A. Ginastera Sonata Ground student B
L. Brouwer El Decameron Negro Ground student C
N. Coste Andante and Polonaise Ground student D
R. Barceló Suite Uruguaya and Studies 2:03 Ground student E
L. Brouwer Cuban popular topics Ground student F
FM Torroba torija Ground student F
J. Mesquita Lopes Disallowance on a topic of Teresa Ground student G
J. Mesquita Lopes Study Numerus Nine Ground student G
L. Brouwer Music Incidental Campesina Duo guit student E

90
P. Petit Toccata and Tarantella Duo guit student D
Leo Brouwer Per suonare Tre Guit, Vla and fl student G

The answers to this field denote the practice of a repertoire in which prevails

music composed in the century. XX, with the work of N. Coste to be one exception. It is also worth mentioning the
presence of Leo Brouwer's music, and music composed by students present in the master-class (R. Barceló and J.
Mesquita Lopes).

This question repertoire differs from the recorded master class, because the responses

students focus on other works that were not recorded in the video, where, as it turned out, much of this repertoire there
focused on pre-classical music. Also unlike that show these responses, the video was not recorded interpretation of any
work of Cuban composer.

Particularly interesting is the presence of an individual who responded to

investigation and that is also present in the recording, in which he played the Sonata Op. 47A. Ginastera. Thus, his
testimony will be put in evidence, as it may corroborate certain points of the analysis made in the previous
subchapter.

II. What are the technical aspects worked (mark with an X)?

(Number of responses)

RIGHT HAND LEFT HAND

arpeggios 3 bound 5
Sound 6 scales 1
Pulsation 2 extensions 2
chords 5 positions 2

At the technical level, there is a preponderance of the work of the hand bound

left; in relation to the right hand was most recurrent work chords and sound, the latter being a very relevant aspect
in the recording.

III. What musical aspects were worked (tick with an X)?

91
(Number of responses)

STYLE (UP)
Analysis Form tonality
4 6 1

INTERPRETATION
phrasing agogic
7 4

ORNAMENTATION TRANSCRIPTION
2 ---

The level of musical aspects, all students noted the work of

interpretation and phrasing, and the shape and style also deserved highlight (all of these aspects are also very present in
the video). Because it was not working baroque repertoire for these students, the ornamentation was hardly mentioned.

Although the dynamics are not included in the boxes, one respondent

(Student E) rightly said this field of musical expression (also present in the video).

The purpose of the work Per suonare a tre (Work of L. Brouwer, composed 1970),

Student G also highlighted the "expression of work involving his atonal and random language in the seventies," and the
work of "joint interaction of the three instruments."

IV. How the meeting with the maestro Leo Brouwer changed and / or

He enriched the work that was being worked on?

The answers could not be more enlightening: to have a "vision

comprehensive and multifaceted music and guitar "(D Student), as a conductor and as a teacher, Leo Brouwer
contributed to the" timbral exploration, appropriate wording and sound quality "(Student F), and" dynamic equilibrium
"(Student E) .

92
For some students, Brouwer confirmed aspects and ways of working

They had been acquired and approaches similar to that of his teacher (Students A and D). For other respondents, however,
Brouwer contributed to further clarification, contextualization and interpretation of the work, largely for those who could
work the repertoire of Brouwer, "clarifying doubts that the work raised, particularly in relation to the limits of freedom that
work suggests "(Student G, the interpretation of the workPer suonare a tre), Derived from "his deep knowledge of the
work and his vast musical knowledge and instrument" (Student C, the interpretation of the work El Negro Decamerón).

Also the Student B, who worked Sonata Op. 47 Alberto Ginastera,

He considers that "Brouwer better contextualized the work, clarified the percussive effects and their musical
perspective, helping to build a more conscious interpretation."

V. The teachings and the suggested techniques have been applied? If yes, with which

degree of success?

The indiciadoras answers a high degree of success were unanimous: "good

results "(Student E)," high success rate "(D Student)," quite successful "(Student C)," tested in successfully practice
"(Student G), were the answers, leading, for example, student F to "incorporate gradually the wording of concepts and
timbral exploration."

Regarding the interpreter Sonata of Ginastera (Student B), it considers that

They were "particularly his ideas on the rasgueados and different percussive effects that helped to improve the
performance."

SAW.Your way of seeing the music has changed since then? If so, how?

While a witness reports the "transmission concepts clearly and

simple [...] quite scoring [their] way to see the music for guitar from then "(Student E), others argue that the fact of
having contacted the author of the work made it pass" to do music as a living, moldable and intimate body "(Student F).
Other witnesses report the enrichment that the contact provided "stimulating confidence" (D Student), improving the
interpretation and the sound of

93
work "(Student C), and" realizing better much of the compositional universe of composer "(Student G).

As for the interpreter Sonata Op. 47 (Student B), it recalls "that their strong

musical personality was clearly retained in memory, "referring to the impact that the contact with the conductor in the
master-class caused her.

Part 2: Subjective Opinion

I. He had the impression of being in the presence of:

(Number of responses)

Composer Guitar player Director Orchestra Teacher


6 6 5 2

Others:

Also the following were noted: "Man and worship

excellent musician with great experience and wisdom "(Student H), broadcasting" several concepts in a clear and simple
way, supported by its extensive experience in various musical fields "(Student E), communicator," noting that he took
advantage of the class to give useful advice to all present [...] (Student H). In addition, one of the answers referred to "ease
and speed of Brouwer in perceiving the qualities and aspects that needed to be improved in each performer" (Student C).
The versatility of Leo Brouwer was also recorded in the testimony of the Student G to refer to the fact that the composer
has touched "the piano parts for guitar and flute (part) of an informative and effective way."

These responses corroborate largely the analysis profile

teaching of Leo Brouwer, suggesting a multidisciplinary approach, bringing their classes to their extensive
professional experience (as a conductor, composer, guitarist and teacher), his strong musical personality and his
human characteristics. this framework

It is clear from also what Leo Brouwer fuses fields many different of

musical, artistic and cultural knowledge, as the Student B in his testimony in his class "Brouwer was conductor,
composer and guitarist."

94
Brouwer seems more like trainer of musical art in the broadest sense of that

as a trainer only content related to the didactics of guitar.

II. Taking stock of the experience, how would you define your position as

musician before and after the meeting with Leo Brouwer?

For one respondent, the meeting did not produce significant changes (Student

D). The other students, however, were found to have had the feeling that there was a technical and interpretive
enrichment, artistic and even personal, "the fact of playing your own music [...] was a revelation to me" (Student F).
Stimulants and positive comments also served to encourage compositional aspect Student E.

The)In particular, what Brouwer brought back to its execution / interpretation?

Brouwer brought the interpretation / execution of an enrichment of students

technical and musical resources: "Increased demand technical, stylistic and compositional" (Student H), "the need for
strict interpretation according to the text (Student B)," care in the production of sound "(Student F), specific technical
aspects, such as "emission chords connected work, sound and intensity" (Student C).

Brouwer has also contributed to an improvement of characteristics

subjective nature, as is the case of "trust" (Student D) and "encouragement to play" (Student A). According to the
Student G, Brouwer instigated the curiosity of looking for other works of other composers who also influenced him
(Beethoven, Stravinsky, Bartok, Manuel de Falla, Ligeti, etc.).

B) He felt in his speech some influence or relationship with other arts?

In this regard, the statements were very vague, not citing points

contact, not specifying any concrete metaphor or musical expression in music and art. Despite little depth or specific
references, the students said their relationship with the "painting in constant analogy [music] with image, light and
color" (D Student), with the "film / music for films and literature" ( student E). On one

95
compositional point of view, Brouwer related "new atomic discoveries, the nano structure of the cosmos, architecture,
mathematics and painting with the compositional processes of his works" (Student G), referring specifically to the
presence and use of gold series.

III. To what extent felt the "masterly authoritarianism" artist?

The following table, which corresponds to the end of the interview, shows the number

responses indicated in the fields of professional rigor and the principles of personality development
(encouragement, freedom and free will, in contrast to authoritarianism and imposition), about the sense of students
in relation to Leo Brouwer.

anything little much too

stringency 1 6

Sense of freedom 1 6

Consideration of personal initiative 2 5

Penchant for imposing personal taste 1 5 1

Encouragement 1 6

One of the witnesses described Leo Brouwer as follows: "delicacy

exterior and interior firmness "(Student E). Thus, the answers to your most show a tendency to see Leo Brouwer a
demanding and rigorous pedagogue, but takes into account the freedom and personal initiative as fundamental values,
encouraging them in decision making. As one witness, "it is not authoritarianism but authority" (D student), that is,
does not prejudge but show accurately the ways that the interpreter can follow. One respondent concluded his reply as
follows:

"The only conditioning is created by us, his students, not for him, it puts (tries to put)

students at ease. The musical and technical rigor can only hinder those who are not present open-minded to new ideas
and do not feel comfortable with that man Leo Brouwer is in wanting to help out. "(Student G).

96
8. Leo Brouwer - Pedagogical Profile

In this chapter we will try to trace the comprehensive psychological profile of Leo

Brouwer, namely that the chains that served as a model for their pedagogical action.

Despite the lack of evidence of his membership in specific branches of

pedagogy (being their academic studies related only to the composition and the performative side of the musical art as
guitarist and conductor), not having knowledge of pedagogical training or scientific research in this field, and recognition
of his career Derive the their pedagogical slope, there are several tests that Brouwer gives Guitarrística community about
the importance of this aspect plays always in your professional life.

Your contributions to Guitarrística pedagogy manifest form

substantial through didactic work, pedagogical reflection of texts and in the teaching profession, always present in the
arc of his life. Examples include even the composition of teaching-oriented parts in 1961, 1981 and 2001; texts and
reflections on pedagogy Guitarrística in the 90s of last century (Scale per chitarra, in

1992 or disc preface 20 Studi - Leo Brouwer, 1990) in addition to the sparse written, compiled in Gajes del Oficio in
2004, or the teaching duties at the Conservatory Amadeo Roldán in Havana in the 60s, as well as training courses
coming performing frequently throughout his life to this day, a little on all continents.

The lack of academic training or in-depth studies in this area

It does not prevent him to be knowledgeable and aware user of various learning theories, methods and teaching models,
either scientific or empirical way. After analyzing the materials provided in the documentary and observational research
from work, it is clear that, from a pedagogical point of view, there are several evidences of the importance that the
acquisition of motor skills, expressive and performative has to Leo Brouwer, in its idealized conception musical
teaching and learning. Creating your own learning materials through

97
composition of Simple studies They are therefore an artistic and educational value recognized, assuming as a
fundamental tool for a student to acquire these skills.

Likewise, it appears the classes observed in Chapter 6 to recurrence of

various teaching methods: the method of recitation / explanation, Designated expository method(The transmission of
concepts concerning the accuracy of historical interpretation, or when defining the concept of regular music), providing
safe content, the result of his musical authority; Odemonstrative method(Exemplifying the concepts previously exposed,
prompting a musical performance by the student, or himself demonstrating the guitar worked the content), thereby
combining different teaching methods, depending on the specific objective you want to achieve; Ointerrogative method
often when preparing rhetorical questions, stimulating curiosity and reasoning of the student, but eventually being
himself to give the answer, as you can see, for example, at the conclusion of the lesson around Sonata Op. 47 of
Ginastera:

"¿What are haciendo? We are making it dramaturgy de la danza. "(00:38:37)

also active method It is present when interacting with the student in demand

technical or interpretive solution to a particular musical passage.

Based on the models of teaching observed in lessons, Brouwer runs from

classic or traditional model (behaviorist modelWhose transmission of content is made from the focus on teacher figure
when he speaks with authority

in concepts Stylistic) up until


O fashion model cognitive and constructivist,

organizing the acquisition of knowledge in parts of more demonstrative class, or creating situations for the student to
achieve the expected knowledge, a dialectical relationship between teacher and student. In its teaching model after
Brouwer observe the knowledge of the student during the execution of work at first class, there is the immediate
adaptation of the objectives the skills of the student, leaving from there to the development of class. We can also consider
the use ofinteractional model Brouwer in that interrelates and interacts with the audience in explanation and disclosure of
concepts.

98
Although many of these issues are common to many other teachers and

pedagogues (the work of technical, expressive and performative, or adequacy of the most effective teaching model
students), their level of success may lie in the cultural wealth, professional and humane in its communicative eloquence
(verbal, paralinguistic and kinesthetic often resorting to gestures of orchestral direction) and expositional conciseness,
accuracy, dynamism and authority in the classroom:

Leo Brouwer imposes explaining, explains exemplifying, exemplifies

relating.

99
100
Final considerations

The breadth and cultural background of Leo Brouwer as a composer, musician and

with own personal and artistic journey, leave a unique legacy as a pedagogue: the freedom to master a musical feature
autonomously, knowing its origin and its role and application, and then you can make it a personal use.

We can define Brouwer as a pedagogue in the dogmatic sense of

term and at the same time, deep innovative and revolutionary substantially. La tradición breaks ... pero cuesta trabajoIt
costs the work of a past life to know it, elaborate it, to be able to then take it, and reuse it in a unique and personal way.
The painstaking work of composition and reconstitution of the forms of recognition of the limits (beginning with himself
as a student, as a performer, scholar and then as a composer) is passed to the student with great generosity and simplicity,
offering you the greatest gift a pedagogue can do: the freedom that knowledge gives, private impositions and dogmatism
shows him naked in its beauty and wealth of potentialities as yet express. A message passing from Brouwer teacher, person,
creative child out of the Platonic myth cave to show the road of independence and autonomy.

As can be deduced from the comparative analyzes of the master-class that we took

as an example, none of the participants felt excluded judged, forced, and at the same time all it retains a generalized feeling
of cooperation, rather than having studied with conductor Brouwer. In fact, the audience, made up of students and for the
students, is a party that absorbs and interprets its insights and expressions.

Didactic work that early felt the impetus and the need to share,

reflects cyclically, full of pragmatism and intention, what is essential to learn: master the technique to communicate, to
express power. Your style designed there, new and creative, is uniqueness vehicle, modernism and quality appreciated
with an unusual frequency of major concert performers programs. Their Cuban, genuine roots but not restrictive, are
mirrored in their musical cells with the same intensity of the European avant-garde. Through a human-being rich culture
and conscious of its mission to communicate, his music speaks of a vital pulse, the lyricism of love and beauty.

101
At the conclusion of this work, my teaching practice not only out

enriched, but also strongly influenced by his way of communicating, by its rigor, for its professionalism, its culture,
its expertise recognized and appreciated as a composer, guitarist, conductor and teacher.

Multiple strands of Leo Brouwer, internationally recognized with

hundreds of prizes, awards, honors and other distinctions, the growing number of writings on your figure, just so
justify my investment in the development of a draft academic community dedicated to Cuban composer.

The inability to contact directly with the conductor It did not make me

give to dwell on his figure in the educational aspect, which shall collect the higher number of possible materials: disks,
scores, articles, books, theses, among others. This process of documentation collection led to the surprising discovery of
unpublished or little available audiovisual materials, such as the storage medium of your master-class in Santo Tirso, or
oral testimony of Leo Brouwer in the preface to hang on disk Leonardo De Angelis together with their handwritten
notesSencillos studies (Transcribed in chapter 4 of this paper), enriching greatly this dissertation.

Responses to surveys are also revealing, though missing in many

aspects and little concise, a rich pedagogue profile, which can be a great future the subject of an in-depth study
in the field of education sciences.

So in the future, this project can be developed from a

direct approach Leo Brouwer, and extending large-scale sample of

respondents, which can lead to conclusions more accurate and in-depth pedagogical.

Still, given the relevance of Leo Brouwer in the curricula of

our conservatories, and not aware of the existence of an academic study on their Guitarrística pedagogy, I hope this
educational project may have contributed

for create knowledge new and useful in that field, expanding

availability of data and analysis about their comprehensive musical personality and in particular its educational
profile, enriching teaching practices the guitar of all those who understand, out of curiosity or need, consult this work.

102
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Clerch, J. Four Works. Heidelberg: Chanterelle Verlag, (2009). Domeniconi, C.Koyumbaba. Berlin,
Margaux Editions (1990). Ginastera, A.Sonata for Guitar Op. 47. Milwaukee: Boosey & Hawkes, (1978).
Giuliani, M.Studio per la chitarra, opus 1 - Vol. 1(Ed. Jeffery). London: Key

Editions (1984).

Giuliani, M. Le rossiniane, opus numbers 119-124 - 13 Vol.. (Ed. Jeffery). London:

Editions key (1986).

Giuliani, M. Sechs Praludien. SD Visée, R.Music for El Rey Sol. Buenos Aires Ricordi, (1978). Visée,
R.Suite D-Moll. Wien: Universal Edition (1944). Walton, W.Five Bagatelles for Guitar. Oxford: Oxford
University Press (1974). Weiss, SLIntavolatura di Liuto - Vol. 1(Ed. Chiesa). Milano: Edizioni Suvini

Zerboni, (1967).

106
attachments

107
James Cassola Marques 1
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

LEO BROUWER - INQUIRY FOR RESEARCH

This interview is part of the Educational Project which concludes the Master in Teaching

AU music, under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Paulo Vaz de Carvalho. A brief investigation

focuses on the figure of Leo Brouwer as a pedagogue.

It is for this purpose that I come to request the kind cooperation of those who had the opportunity to

find and confront the conductor an educational context, with the aim of

draw a profile of the personality and the influence of Leo Brouwer pedagogy.

Name and Surname: (Optional) Student

Age at the time: 28

academic / professional situation


student / teacher / other: __Músico
height:

Part 1: Opinion goal

I. If to remember what the material (part / study) worked?

Sonata Op. 61 - J. Turina

II. What are the technical aspects worked (mark with an X)?

RIGHT HAND LEFT HAND

arpeggios - bound -

Sound - scales -

Pulsation - extensions -

chords - positions -

Others:

Click here to enter text.

III. What musical aspects were worked (tick with an X)?

Form x phrasing x

Analysis - Transcription -
James Cassola Marques 2
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

Style x agogic -

Interpretation x tonality -

Ornamentation -

Others:Click here to enter text.

IV. How the meeting with the conductor Leo Brouwer changed and / or enriched the work

that was being worked?

He confirmed all the important aspects of which was already working at the time.

V. The teachings and the suggested techniques have been applied? If so, with what degree of

success?

There were no technical issues relevant to the point of whether or not applied, the meeting with

conductor L. Brouwer focused primarily on musical issues.

SAW. Your way of seeing the music has changed since then? If so, how?

The way to see the work but not the music. It was not so much to change but confirmation

I was on the right track.

Part 2: Subjective Opinion

I. He had the impression of being in the presence of a composer (x), a guitarist

(X), a director of orchestra (x), or a teacher (x)? (Mark with an X)

II. Taking stock of the experience, how would you define your posture as a musician before and

after the meeting with Leo Brouwer?

These experiences are always positive, and that is one of the guitarists with composers

an extensive learning and all levels of work. It is always a gain power

contact directly with the composer.

In particular:

The) What Brouwer brought back to its execution / interpretation?

Will play

B) He felt in his speech some influence or relationship with other arts?

Yes, but above all the art of "living well"

III. To what extent felt the "masterly authoritarianism" artist?


James Cassola Marques 3
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

anything little much too

stringency x

Sense of freedom x

Consideration of personal initiative x

Penchant for imposing personal taste x

Encouragement x

May indicate other psychological conditioning of attitudes? If so, what?

Click here to enter text.

Thank you for your cooperation.


James Cassola Marques 1
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

LEO BROUWER - INQUIRY FOR RESEARCH

This interview is part of the Educational Project which concludes the Master in Teaching

AU music, under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Paulo Vaz de Carvalho. A brief investigation

focuses on the figure of Leo Brouwer as a pedagogue.

It is for this purpose that I come to request the kind cooperation of those who had the opportunity to

find and confront the conductor an educational context, with the aim of

draw a profile of the personality and the influence of Leo Brouwer pedagogy.

Name and Surname: (Optional) student B

Age at the time: 30

academic / professional situation


student / teacher / other: __Professor
height:

Part 1: Opinion goal

I. If to remember what the material (part / study) worked?

Alberto Ginastera's Sonata

II. What are the technical aspects worked (mark with an X)?

RIGHT HAND LEFT HAND

arpeggios x bound x

Sound x scales

Pulsation extensions

chords x positions

Others:

Click here to enter text.

III. What musical aspects were worked (tick with an X)?

Form x phrasing x

Analysis x Transcription

Style x agogic x
James Cassola Marques 2
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

Interpretation x tonality

Ornamentation

Others:Click here to enter text.

IV. How the meeting with the conductor Leo Brouwer changed and / or enriched the work

that was being worked?

better contextualized the work, clarified the percussive effects and their musical perspective

It helped me to build a more conscious interpretation.

V. The teachings and the suggested techniques have been applied? If so, with what degree of

success?

Yes, especially his ideas on rasgueados and different percussive effects

They helped me to improve my performance of this sonata.

SAW. Your way of seeing the music has changed since then? If so, how?

I can not answer, but his strong musical personality was me clearly retained in

memory.

Part 2: Subjective Opinion

I. He had the impression of being in the presence of a composer (x), a guitarist

(X), a director of orchestra (x), or a teacher (Click here to enter

text.)? (Mark with an X)

II. Taking stock of the experience, how would you define your posture as a musician before and

after the meeting with Leo Brouwer?

I certainly richer for knowing this mythical figure of guitaristic world, but

my position regarding the music has not changed.

In particular:

The) What Brouwer brought back to its execution / interpretation?

Especially made me review the need to seek to build a strict interpretation of

According to the musical text.

B) He felt in his speech some influence or relationship with other arts?

Yes, literature and fine arts.

III. To what extent felt the "masterly authoritarianism" artist?


James Cassola Marques 3
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

anything little much too

stringency x

Sense of freedom x

Consideration of personal initiative x

Penchant for imposing personal taste x

Encouragement x

May indicate other psychological conditioning of attitudes? If so, what?

Click here to enter text.

Thank you for your cooperation.


James Cassola Marques 1
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

LEO BROUWER - INQUIRY FOR RESEARCH

This interview is part of the Educational Project which concludes the Master in Teaching

AU music, under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Paulo Vaz de Carvalho. A brief investigation

focuses on the figure of Leo Brouwer as a pedagogue.

It is for this purpose that I come to request the kind cooperation of those who had the opportunity to

find and confront the conductor an educational context, with the aim of

draw a profile of the personality and the influence of Leo Brouwer pedagogy.

Name and Surname: (Optional) student C

Age at the time: 26

academic / professional situation student / teacher / other: __estudante and

height: teacher

Part 1: Opinion goal

I. If to remember what the material (part / study) worked?

El Decameron Negro

II. What are the technical aspects worked (mark with an X)?

RIGHT HAND LEFT HAND

arpeggios bound X

Sound X scales

Pulsation extensions

chords X positions

Others:

Click here to enter text.

III. What musical aspects were worked (tick with an X)?

Form X phrasing X

Analysis X Transcription

Style agogic
James Cassola Marques 2
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

Interpretation X tonality

Ornamentation

Others:Click here to enter text.

IV. How the meeting with the conductor Leo Brouwer changed and / or enriched the work

that was being worked?

His deep knowledge of the work and his vast musical knowledge and the instrument,

They helped the interpretation of the work. In addition, rapid perception of each performer

made him easily realize the qualities of each and what each needed

still working.

V. The teachings and the suggested techniques have been applied? If so, with what degree of

success?

Yes, quite successfully.

SAW. Your way of seeing the music has changed since then? If so, how?

No. He drew attention to some technical aspects and reinforced already working

then, with respect to sound and interpretation. However, each contact that

had with each musician was always conditioned and shaping the way I play.

Part 2: Subjective Opinion

I. Had the impression of being in the presence of a composer (X), a guitarist

(X), a director of orchestra (X), or a teacher (Click here to enter

text.)? (Mark with an X)

II. Taking stock of the experience, how would you define your posture as a musician before and

after the meeting with Leo Brouwer?

My position has not changed, although the meeting has enriched some aspects of my

interpretation.

In particular:

The) What Brouwer brought back to its execution / interpretation?

Some technical aspects such as the issuance of the chords and the work of the upward bound,

in season; aspects of the sound, increasing the range of intensities used and

taking further certain interpretative aspects.

B) He felt in his speech some influence or relationship with other arts?


James Cassola Marques 3
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

I have a clear memory of that aspect.

III. To what extent felt the "masterly authoritarianism" artist?

anything little much too

stringency X

Sense of freedom X

Consideration of personal initiative X

Penchant for imposing personal taste X

Encouragement X

May indicate other psychological conditioning of attitudes? If so, what?

Click here to enter text.

Thank you for your cooperation.


James Cassola Marques 1
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

LEO BROUWER - INQUIRY FOR RESEARCH

This interview is part of the Educational Project which concludes the Master in Teaching

AU music, under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Paulo Vaz de Carvalho. A brief investigation

focuses on the figure of Leo Brouwer as a pedagogue.

It is for this purpose that I come to request the kind cooperation of those who had the opportunity to

find and confront the conductor an educational context, with the aim of

draw a profile of the personality and the influence of Leo Brouwer pedagogy.

Name and Surname: (Optional) student D

Age at the time: 28/29 years

academic / professional situation student / teacher / other: __estudante and

height: teacher

Part 1: Opinion goal

I. If to remember what the material (part / study) worked?

Soil: Andante and Polonaise N. Coste.

In Duo: Toccata and Tarantella Pierre Petit

II. What are the technical aspects worked (mark with an X)?

RIGHT HAND LEFT HAND

arpeggios bound

Sound scales

Pulsation extensions

chords positions

Others:

No such technical issues to fix.

III. What musical aspects were worked (tick with an X)?

Form phrasing X

Analysis Transcription
James Cassola Marques 2
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

Style X agogic

Interpretation X tonality

Ornamentation X

Other: Only in informative way, I remember that the first sentence of Brouwer after

presenting the Toccata (me and my colleague António Andrade) was "high technical level and

artistic". It was obviously incentivante for me.

IV. How the meeting with the conductor Leo Brouwer changed and / or enriched the work

that was being worked?

It was interesting to note the similarity of ideas between Maestro and my teacher. Was

also important to realize its comprehensive and multifaceted view of Music and

Guitar.

V. The teachings and the suggested techniques have been applied? If so, with what degree of

success?

Yes, with a high level of success.

SAW. Your way of seeing the music has changed since then? If so, how?

Not sorry for what I've written before. I gained another level of confidence to realize the

semalhanças between what it had been and what he thought Brouwer.

Part 2: Subjective Opinion

I. Had the impression of being in the presence of a composer (X), a guitarist

(X), a director of orchestra (X), or a teacher (X)? (Mark with an X)

II. Taking stock of the experience, how would you define your posture as a musician before and

after the meeting with Leo Brouwer?

As already mentioned, the meeting did not produce major changes for the reasons stated.

In particular:

The) What Brouwer brought back to its execution / interpretation?

Confidence and boldness.

B) He felt in his speech some influence or relationship with other arts?

Painting: constant relationship with image, light, color.

III. To what extent felt the "masterly authoritarianism" artist?


James Cassola Marques 3
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

anything little much too

stringency X

Sense of freedom X

Consideration of personal initiative X

Penchant for imposing personal taste X

Encouragement X

May indicate other psychological conditioning of attitudes? If so, what?

In the previous point I would not say "authoritarianism" but "authority." I have not seen other actions

that condicionassem me.

Thank you for your cooperation.


James Cassola Marques 1
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

LEO BROUWER - INQUIRY FOR RESEARCH

This interview is part of the Educational Project which concludes the Master in Teaching

AU music, under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Paulo Vaz de Carvalho. A brief investigation

focuses on the figure of Leo Brouwer as a pedagogue.

It is for this purpose that I come to request the kind cooperation of those who had the opportunity to

find and confront the conductor an educational context, with the aim of

draw a profile of the personality and the influence of Leo Brouwer pedagogy.

Name and Surname: (Optional) student E

Age at the time: 27 (El Escorial) and 38 (Fafe)

academic / professional situation


student / teacher / other: __ Teacher
height:

Part 1: Opinion goal

I. If to remember what the material (part / study) worked?

*** Two pieces for Guitar Duo: Music Incidental Campesina, L. Brouwer and Suite

Uruguaya R. Barceló, the first time, and studies 2 and 3 R. Barceló, the 2nd time.

II. What are the technical aspects worked (mark with an X)?

RIGHT HAND LEFT HAND

arpeggios bound x

Sound x scales

Pulsation extensions

chords x positions

Others:

Click here to enter text.

III. What musical aspects were worked (tick with an X)?

Form x phrasing x

Analysis x Transcription
James Cassola Marques 2
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

Style agogic x

Interpretation x tonality

Ornamentation

Other: He highlighted especially dynamic aspects in his work and in my pieces

original, expressive outraspossibilidades.

IV. How the meeting with the conductor Leo Brouwer changed and / or enriched the work

that was being worked?

He clarified certain wordings and suggested repetitions Naoe were published in sheet music

his work, and gave good advice on the dynamic equilibrium, the pieces for two

guitars.

V. The teachings and the suggested techniques have been applied? If so, with what degree of

success?

Yes, with good results.

SAW. Your way of seeing the music has changed since then? If so, how?

Brouwer transmitted several concepts, clear and simple, supported by his experience

in different musical fields, which quite marked my way to see the music for

guitar. Also addressed common technical aspects of un points different view. It's from

noting that not merely give an individual class, instead took advantage of this

class to communicate useful knowledge to all present musicians.

Part 2: Subjective Opinion

I. He had the impression of being in the presence of a composer (Click here to

enter text. ), A guitarist ( Click here to enter text. ), on one

Director orchestra (Click here to enter text.), Or a teacher (In

fact, I got the idea from before a learned man, excellent musician and

communicator, with an eclectic vision of music in general, and a huge

experience)? (Mark with an X)

II. Taking stock of the experience, how would you define your posture as a musician before and

after the meeting with Leo Brouwer?

I can say that enriched my artistic and technical knowledge, and that their

stimulants reviews were very positive also in my shed composer.


James Cassola Marques 3
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

In particular:

The) What Brouwer brought back to its execution / interpretation?

In particular, some technical and musical features that facilitate clarity of interpretation.

B) He felt in his speech some influence or relationship with other arts?

Yes, even with the Eastern Martial Arts, for its philosophy of balancing energy, but

especially with the Literature and Cinema.

III. To what extent felt the "masterly authoritarianism" artist?

anything little much too

stringency x

Sense of freedom x

Consideration of personal initiative x

Penchant for imposing personal taste x

Encouragement x

May indicate other psychological conditioning of attitudes? If so, what?

Delicacy exterior and inner firmness.

Thank you for your cooperation.


James Cassola Marques 1
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

LEO BROUWER - INQUIRY FOR RESEARCH

This interview is part of the Educational Project which concludes the Master in Teaching

AU music, under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Paulo Vaz de Carvalho. A brief investigation

focuses on the figure of Leo Brouwer as a pedagogue.

It is for this purpose that I come to request the kind cooperation of those who had the opportunity to

find and confront the conductor an educational context, with the aim of

draw a profile of the personality and the influence of Leo Brouwer pedagogy.

Name and Surname: (Optional) student F

Age at the time: 18

academic / professional situation


student / teacher / other: __estudante
height:

Part 1: Opinion goal

I. If to remember what the material (part / study) worked?

Cuban popular subjects (Brouwer); Torrija (Moreno Torroba)

II. What are the technical aspects worked (mark with an X)?

RIGHT HAND LEFT HAND

arpeggios bound

Sound x scales

Pulsation x extensions x

chords positions x

Others:

Click here to enter text.

III. What musical aspects were worked (tick with an X)?

Form x phrasing x

Analysis Transcription

Style x agogic x
James Cassola Marques 2
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

Interpretation x tonality

Ornamentation

Others:Click here to enter text.

IV. How the meeting with the conductor Leo Brouwer changed and / or enriched the work

that was being worked?

The meeting was an important reminder of the importance of quality

sound, timbre exploration and the need for appropriate wording.

V. The teachings and the suggested techniques have been applied? If so, with what degree of

success?

Yes. Little by little the wording of concepts and timbral exploration were incorporated

in my way of playing.

SAW. Your way of seeing the music has changed since then? If so, how?

Yes. The personal encounter with guitarist-composer's figure was quite striking in

my way of seeing music. Was the beginning of awareness that music is a living organism,

moldable and intimate.

Part 2: Subjective Opinion

I. He had the impression of being in the presence of a composer (Click here to

enter text. ), A guitarist ( Click here to enter text. ), on one

Director orchestra (Click here to enter text.), Or a teacher (It is hard

separate facets of musical personality. In a context of Teacher-Student all

the skills as a guitarist, composer are present.)? (Mark with an X)

II. Taking stock of the experience, how would you define your posture as a musician before and

after the meeting with Leo Brouwer?

My approach will be building with daily meetings. In the case of Leo Brouwer, it was

live role of guitarist-composer (in line all vihuelistas, aluadistas, guitarists

Jazz) that caused more impact. The fact of playing your own music independently

to like or not, was for me a revelation.

In particular:

The) What Brouwer brought back to its execution / interpretation?

constant care of how to produce the sound.


James Cassola Marques 3
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

B) He felt in his speech some influence or relationship with other arts?

I can not need. I remember his facility to improvise at the piano and speak in a way

constant in music for films.

III. To what extent felt the "masterly authoritarianism" artist?

anything little much too

stringency x

Sense of freedom x

Consideration of personal initiative x

Penchant for imposing personal taste x

Encouragement x

May indicate other psychological conditioning of attitudes? If so, what?

Do not.

Thank you for your cooperation.


James Cassola Marques 1
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

LEO BROUWER - INQUIRY FOR RESEARCH

This interview is part of the Educational Project which concludes the Master in Teaching

AU music, under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Paulo Vaz de Carvalho. A brief investigation

focuses on the figure of Leo Brouwer as a pedagogue.

It is for this purpose that I come to request the kind cooperation of those who had the opportunity to

find and confront the conductor an educational context, with the aim of

draw a profile of the personality and the influence of Leo Brouwer pedagogy.

Name and Surname: (Optional) student G

Age at the time: Between 33 and 40

academic / professional situation student / teacher / other: __Professor of

height: guitar and composition student

Part 1: Opinion goal

I. If to remember what the material (part / study) worked?

*** As a guitar student: Per suonare Tre - Leo Brouwer (Gtra, viola and flute)

As a guitar student and composition: Study Numerus Nine - José Mesquita Lopes, Glosa

on a topic of Teresa - José Mesquita Lopes

As a student of composition: City Tours (Orchestra, Choir and Percussion) - J.

Mesquita Lopes, Eternal Echoes (Guitar Ensemble), Sol y Aire (Guitar Trio)

II. What are the technical aspects worked (mark with an X)?

RIGHT HAND LEFT HAND

arpeggios X bound X

Sound X scales

Pulsation extensions

chords X positions

Others:
James Cassola Marques 2
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

Left Hand warm-up exercises (all fingers, eg chromatic scale

octaves)

III. What musical aspects were worked (tick with an X)?

Form X phrasing X

Analysis X Transcription

Style X agogic X

Interpretation X tonality X

Ornamentation X

Other: Expression involving his atonal and random language in the seventies. Was

also crafted set of interaction of the three instruments with the composer played

the piano parts for guitar and flute (partially) but an informative and effective way.

IV. How the meeting with the conductor Leo Brouwer changed and / or enriched the work

that was being worked?

First with the authority to be the author, to know what you want, and know what can be

different interpretations. He confirmed to me some knowledge and took me several small

doubts that the work I raised (giving me to know some limits of freedom that the work

suggests)

V. The teachings and the suggested techniques have been applied? If so, with what degree of

success?

Of course, all that suggested has been tested successfully in practice. In the case of Per suonare Tre

It gave rise to that estreasse the work a few years later at the International Festival of Guitar

Leiria. It is one of the works more like this composer, it seemed to me that the public liked

work and interpretation.

SAW. Your way of seeing the music has changed since then? If so, how?

Whenever we are in the presence of a composer, there are changes (new perspectives)

on the way to "see" a work. Not only I began to better understand this work in concrete, but

much of the compositional universe of the composer (because this did not just talk about

work in concrete)

Part 2: Subjective Opinion

I. Had the impression of being in the presence of a composer (X), a guitarist

(X), a director of orchestra (X), or a teacher (X)? (Mark with an X)


James Cassola Marques 3
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

II. Taking stock of the experience, how would you define your posture as a musician before and

after the meeting with Leo Brouwer?

My approach remained the same. I also realize the best ideas

Compositional and guitarristicas used by Maestro. As a teacher has what any

Latin student (only?) needs, warmth, friendship, knowledge and pleasure in the work that you do.

In particular:

The) What Brouwer brought back to its execution / interpretation?

The execution little more, the execution of works it several details that would be impossible

mention all here. In the interpretation of various aspects, but mainly looking for

other works of other composers who also influenced him. (Beethoven, Stravinsky,

Bartok, Manuel de Falla, Ligeti, etc.

B) He felt in his speech some influence or relationship with other arts?

Of course, directly from the paint (Klee, etc.) with the architecture and painting (series of

gold over several centuries). Also with science and new discoveries of atomic

nano structure of the cosmos. Finally, parts of the global connection of human knowledge.

III. To what extent felt the "masterly authoritarianism" artist?

anything little much too

stringency X

Sense of freedom X

Consideration of personal initiative X

Penchant for imposing personal taste X

Encouragement X

May indicate other psychological conditioning of attitudes? If so, what?

The only conditioning is created by us, his students, not for him, it puts (try to)

students at ease. The musical and technical rigor can only hinder those who are not

This open-minded to new ideas and do not feel comfortable with that man Leo

Brouwer is in wanting to help out. Of course, playing a course in which they are

present many of the best Portuguese guitar players may exercise (exercised) some

pressure. As for the composer not only help more if you can not! Thank Maestro.
James Cassola Marques 4
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

Thank you for your cooperation.


-------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------

I attended the course L.Brouwer as an assistant with fear, when the inscription on it, he could only attend a few times due to
my professional life at the time.

However, in the course managed to combine everything so that I eventually attend it at a rate close to 100%.

In any case, the frequency had to be made as an assistant / listener as contained in the initial application.

part 1

1-- I remember that works were worked / very comprehensive studies - from the most basic (students in the first degree),
the most stringent - the assortment of students who attended.

Examples- Prelude in D - of JS Bach, Decameron Negro, Simple Studies - Brouwer ... etc

2-ways worked - all of Tables II and III with the exception of "transcription" (at least not remember having been focused)

IV - The course with L.Brouwer was the richest lessons I had as an assistant / performer in relation to the intervention of this
master with all subscribers, the range of issues addressed at the level of technical and musical Guitarrística, interpretation /
expression, full of wealth , clarity of explanation and great wisdom. Brouwer is the custom Music

I remember also that L.Brouwer heard a Professor of authorship of the work Ricardo Barceló, played by the same guitarist,
having it analyzed under formal and compositional point of view with wide praise tissue to work and to the author.

I remember myself "interpelei" Brouwer on, among other specific things, aspects of ornamentation - the level of
implementation and interpretation in various stylistic periods ... and work methodology aspects of great players with whom the
master worked and had experience very close (John Williams, Assad Brothers, Barrueco, etc.)

V - The course was taken seriously by the majority of participants, proved of tremendous development contribution to
the whole.

VI - No truly change. There was rather a great enrichment in my musical performance and the Guitarrística after the
stroke frequency.

Part 2 -

Leo Brouwer did not direct any orchestra in the course. However I experienced that their work of this master in many
concerts I saw live, in which soloists were great guitarists, Student H - guitar teacher, music education and lawyer.
Barrueco, Cotsiolis, Eduardo Isaac ... either in the master works and in other - if the Aranjuez Concert.

As a conductor is sublime, the result of his enormous wisdom and experience.

As a composer is a genius.

As a teacher is personified Music, which spreads in a fluid, natural and enthu- tica way through their interventions towards
performers or actors interrogate with questions.

Despite his physical problem on the middle finger of the right hand that prevents him from being a concert guitarist,
Brouwer is a top guitarist in the perception of all technical, stylistic and interpretive. It is only prevented from giving
concerts.

L.Brouwer was the embodiment of all these elements in the course.

II - contributed to my enrichment perspective to see Guitarrística running on a technical level, stylistics, the requirement to
aspects of form, composition and orchestral vision.

The) A global and inter-active view of all the elements that I have set out in Section II.
B) Brouwer always has points of contact with other forms of art and even science
- Paint case (which is intrinsically linked), architecture and mathematics.

III - Despite the rigor seen in their speeches, their action was conspicuous by aspects of freedom as an aesthetic and
artistic vision possible interpretations and techniques guitarrísticas, valuing personal initiative and artistic personality
and great encouragement.
James Cassola Marques 1
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

LEO BROUWER - INQUIRY FOR RESEARCH

This interview is part of the Educational Project which concludes the Master in Teaching

AU music, under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Paulo Vaz de Carvalho. A brief investigation

focuses on the figure of Leo Brouwer as a pedagogue.

It is for this purpose that I come to request the kind cooperation of those who had the opportunity to

find and confront the conductor an educational context, with the aim of

draw a profile of the personality and the influence of Leo Brouwer pedagogy.

Name and Surname: (Optional) Click here to enter text.

Age at the time: Click here to enter text.

academic / professional situation Student / Teacher / Other: __Click here to

height: enter text.

Part 1: Opinion goal

I. If to remember what the material (part / study) worked?

***

II. What are the technical aspects worked (mark with an X)?

RIGHT HAND LEFT HAND

arpeggios bound

Sound scales

Pulsation extensions

chords positions

Others:

Click here to enter text.

III. What musical aspects were worked (tick with an X)?

Form phrasing

Analysis Transcription

Style agogic
James Cassola Marques 2
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

Interpretation tonality

Ornamentation

Others:Click here to enter text.

IV. How the meeting with the conductor Leo Brouwer changed and / or enriched the work

that was being worked?

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V. The teachings and the suggested techniques have been applied? If so, with what degree of

success?

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SAW. Your way of seeing the music has changed since then? If so, how?

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Part 2: Subjective Opinion

I. He had the impression of being in the presence of a composer (Click here to

enter text. ), A guitarist ( Click here to enter text. ), on one

Director orchestra (Click here to enter text.), Or a teacher (Click

here to enter text.)? (Mark with an X)

II. Taking stock of the experience, how would you define your posture as a musician before and

after the meeting with Leo Brouwer?

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In particular:

The) What Brouwer brought back to its execution / interpretation?

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B) He felt in his speech some influence or relationship with other arts?

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III. To what extent felt the "masterly authoritarianism" artist?

anything little much too

stringency

Sense of freedom
James Cassola Marques 3
Educational Project MEM - AU 2012

Consideration of personal initiative

Penchant for imposing personal taste

Encouragement

May indicate other psychological conditioning of attitudes? If so, what?

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Thank you for your cooperation.