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# Functions available in Calc

**Functions available in Calc
**

Table 1. Functions available in Calc

Function Category Standard Addins Total

Mathematical 54 8 62

Financial 22 37 59

Statistical 77 0 77

Date and Time 17 13 30

Logical 6 0 6

InIormational 16 2 18

Database 12 0 12

Array 14 0 14

Spreadsheet 20 0 20

Text 27 1 28

Total 265 61 326

Calc provides all oI the commonly used Iunctions Iound in modern spreadsheet applications.

This appendix is oIIered to acquaint users with the available Iunctions. Since many oI Calc`s

Iunctions require very speciIic and careIully calculated input arguments, these descriptions

should not be considered complete reIerences Ior each Iunction. More detailed explanations

oI the Ieatures and requirements oI Calc`s Iunctions can be Iound in the OpenOIIice.org help

system.

Over 250 standard Iunctions are available in Calc, with many more available through its

AaaIn Ieature, which is brieIly explained in the last section oI this Appendix, 'Add-in

Iunctions¨ on page 42. The Iollowing tables list Calc`s Iunctions organized in eleven

Iunctional categories. Throughout the lists below. anv function markea with an asterisk (*) is

onlv available if the Analvsis AaaIn is installea.

Note Some oI the descriptions in this appendix deIine limitations on the number oI values

or arguments that can be passed to the Iunction. SpeciIically, Iunctions that reIer to

the Iollowing arguments may lead to conIusion.

Number¸1; number¸2;... number¸30

Number 1 to 30

a list of up to 30 numbers

There is a signiIicant diIIerence between a list of numbers (or integers) and the

number of arguments a Iunction will accept. For, example the SUM Iunction will

only accept a maximum oI 30 arguments. This limit does NOT mean that you can

only sum 30 numbers, but that you can only pass 30 separate arguments to the

Iunction.

Descríptíon of Functíons 1

Functions available in Calc

Arguments are values separated by semi-colons, and can include ranges which oIten

reIer to multiple values. ThereIore one argument can reIer to several values, and a

Iunction that limits input to 30 arguments, may in Iact accept more then 30 separate

numerical values.

This appendix attempts to clariIy this situation by using the term arguments, rather

than any oI the aIorementioned phrases. UnIortunately the OOo online help is

somewhat vague regarding this matter.

Note Functions whose names end with ¸ADD are provided Ior compatibility with

MicrosoIt Excel Iunctions. They return the same results as the corresponding

Iunctions in Excel (without the suIIix), which though they may be correct, are not

based on international standards. The functions are onlv available if the

Analvsis AaaIn is installea.

Mathematical functions

Table 2. Mathematical functions

Syntax Description

ABS(number) Returns the absolute value oI the given number.

ACOS(number) Returns the inverse cosine oI the given number in radians.

ACOSH(number) Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine oI the given number in

radians.

ACOT(number) Returns the inverse cotangent oI the given number in radians.

ACOTH(number) Returns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent oI the given number

in radians.

ASIN(number) Returns the inverse sine oI the given number in radians.

ASINH(number) Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine oI the given number in

radians.

ATAN(number) Returns the inverse tangent oI the given number in radians.

ATAN2(numberx:

numbery)

Returns the inverse tangent oI the speciIied x and y coordinates.

Number¸x is the value Ior the x coordinate. Number¸y is the

value Ior the y coordinate.

ATANH(number) Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent oI the given number.

(Angle is returned in radians.)

CEILING(number:

signiIicance: mode)

Rounds the given number to the nearest integer or multiple oI

signiIicance. Significance is the value to whose multiple oI ten

the value is to be rounded up (.01, .1, 1, 10, etc.). Mode is an

optional value. II it is indicated and non-zero and iI the number

and signiIicance are negative, rounding up is carried out based

on that value.

Descríptíon of Functíons 2

Mathematical functions

Syntax Description

COMBIN(count1:

count2)

Returns the number oI combinations Ior a given number oI

obiects. Count¸1 is the total number oI elements. Count¸2 is

the selected count Irom the elements. This is the same as the

nCr Iunction on a calculator.

COMBINA(count1:

count2)

Returns the number oI combinations Ior a given number oI

obiects (repetition included). Count¸1 is the total number oI

elements. Count¸2 is the selected count Irom the elements.

CONVERT(value: "text":

"text")

Converts a currency value oI a European currency into Euros.

Value is the amount in the currency to be converted. Text is the

oIIicial abbreviation Ior the currency in question (Ior example,

"EUR"). The Iirst Text parameter gives the source value to be

converted: the second Text parameter gives the destination

value. Both text arguments must be within quotes.

COS(number) Returns the cosine oI the given number (angle in radians).

COSH(number) Returns the hyperbolic cosine oI the given number (angle in

radians).

COT(number) Returns the cotangent oI the given number (angle in radians).

COTH(number) Returns the hyperbolic cotangent oI the given number (angle in

radians).

COUNTBLANK(range) Returns the number oI empty cells. Range is the cell range in

which the empty cells are counted.

COUNTIF(range: criteria) Returns the number oI elements that meet certain criteria within

a cell range. Range is the range to which the criteria are to be

applied. Criteria indicates the criteria in the Iorm oI a number,

a regular expression, or a character string by which the cells are

counted.

DEGREES(number) Converts the given number in radians to degrees.

EVEN(number) Rounds the given number up to the nearest even integer.

EXP(number) Returns e raised to the power oI the given number.

FACT(number) Returns the Iactorial oI the given number.

FLOOR(number:

signiIicance: mode)

Rounds the given number down to the nearest multiple oI

significance. Significance is the value to whose multiple oI ten

the number is to be rounded down (.01, .1, 1, 10, etc.). Mode is

an optional value. II it is indicated and non-zero and iI the

number and signiIicance are negative, rounding up is carried out

based on that value.

GCD(numbers) Returns the greatest common divisor oI one or more integers.

Numbers is a list oI up to 30 numbers whose greatest common

divisor is to be calculated, separated by semi-colons.

*GCDADD(numbers) Returns the greatest common divisor oI a list oI numbers.

Numbers is a list oI up to 30 numbers separated by semi-

colons.

Descríptíon of Functíons 3

Mathematical functions

Syntax Description

INT(number) Rounds the given number down to the nearest integer.

ISEVEN(value) Returns TRUE iI the given value is an even integer, or FALSE

iI the value is odd. If the is not an integer. the function

evaluates onlv the integer part of the .

ISODD(value) Returns TRUE iI the given value is an odd integer, or FALSE iI

the value is even. If the is not an integer. the function

evaluates onlv the integer part of the .

LCM(integer1:

integer2: ... integer30)

Returns the least common multiple oI one or more integers.

Integer¸1; integer¸2;... integer¸30 are integers whose lowest

common multiple is to be calculated.

*LCMADD(numbers) Numbers is a list oI up to 30 numbers separated by semi-

colons. The result is the lowest common multiple oI a list oI

numbers.

LN(number) Returns the natural logarithm based on the constant e oI the

given number.

LOG(number: base) Returns the logarithm oI the given number to the speciIied

base. Base is the base Ior the logarithm calculation.

LOG10(number) Returns the base-10 logarithm oI the given number.

MOD(dividend: divisor) Returns the remainder aIter a number is divided by a divisor.

Dividend is the number which will be divided by the divisor.

Divisor is the number by which to divide the dividend.

*MROUND(number:

multiple)

The result is the nearest integer multiple oI the number.

*MULTINOMIAL

(number(s))

Returns the Iactorial oI the sum oI the arguments divided by the

product oI the Iactorials oI the arguments. Number(s) is a list oI

up to 30 numbers separated by semi-colons.

ODD(number) Rounds the given number up to the nearest odd integer.

PI() Returns the value oI PI to Iourteen decimal places.

POWER(base: power) Returns the result oI a number raised to a power. Base is the

number that is to be raised to the given power. Power is the

exponent by which the base is to be raised.

PRODUCT(number 1 to

30)

Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the

product. Number 1 to number 30 are up to 30 arguments

whose product is to be calculated, separated by semi-colons.

*QUOTIENT(numerator:

denominator)

Returns the integer result oI a division operation. Numerator is

the number that will be divided. Denominator is the number the

numerator will be divided by.

RADIANS(number) Converts the given number in degrees to radians.

RAND() Returns a random number between 0 and 1. This number will

recalculate every time data is entered or F9 is pressed.

Descríptíon of Functíons 4

Mathematical functions

Syntax Description

*RANDBETWEEN

(bottom: top)

Returns an integer random number between bottom and top

(inclusive). This number will recalculate when the

Control·Shift·F9 key combination is pressed.

ROUND(number: count) Rounds the given number to a certain number oI decimal places

according to valid mathematical criteria. Count (optional) is the

number oI the places to which the value is to be rounded. II the

count parameter is negative, only the whole number portion is

rounded. It is rounded to the place indicated by the count.

ROUNDDOWN(number:

count)

Rounds the given number. Count (optional) is the number oI

digits to be rounded down to. II the count parameter is negative,

only the whole number portion is rounded. It is rounded to the

place indicated by the count.

ROUNDUP(number:

count)

Rounds the given number up. Count (optional) is the number

oI digits to which rounding up is to be done. II the count

parameter is negative, only the whole number portion is

rounded. It is rounded to the place indicated by the count.

*SERIESSUM(x: n: m:

coeIIicients)

Returns a sum oI powers oI the number x in accordance with the

Iollowing Iormula:

SERIESSUM(x:n:m:coeIIicients) ÷ coeIIicient1*x`n ¹

coeIIicient2*x`(n¹m) ¹ coeIIicient3*x`(n¹2m) ¹...¹

coeIIicienti*x`(n¹(i-1)m).

x is the number as an independent variable. n is the starting

power. m is the increment. Coefficients is a series oI

coeIIicients. For each coeIIicient the series sum is extended by

one section. You can only enter coefficients using cell

reIerences.

SIGN(number) Returns the sign oI the given number. The Iunction returns the

result 1 Ior a positive sign, 1 Ior a negative sign, and 0 Ior

zero.

SIN(number) Returns the sine oI the given number (angle in radians).

SINH(number) Returns the hyperbolic sine oI the given number (angle in

radians).

SQRT(number) Returns the positive square root oI the given number. The value

oI the number must be positive.

*SQRTPI(number) Returns the square root oI the product oI the given number and

PI.

SUBTOTAL(Iunction:

range)

Calculates subtotals. II a range already contains subtotals, these

are not used Ior Iurther calculations. Function is a value that

stands Ior another Iunction such as Average, Count, Min, Sum,

Var. Range is the range whose cells are included.

Descríptíon of Functíons 5

Mathematical functions

Syntax Description

SUM(number1:

number2: ... number30)

Adds all the numbers in a range oI cells. Number¸1;

number¸2;... number¸30 are up to 30 arguments whose sum is

to be calculated. You can also enter a range using cell

reIerences.

SUMIF(range: criteria:

sumrange)

Adds the cells speciIied by a given criteria. The search supports

regular expressions. Range is the range to which the criteria are

to be applied. Criteria is the cell in which the search criterion is

shown, or the search criterion itselI. Sum¸range is the range

Irom which values are summed: iI it has not been indicated, the

values Iound in the Range are summed.

SUMSQ(number1:

number2: ... number30)

Calculates the sum oI the squares oI numbers (totaling up oI the

squares oI the arguments) Number¸1; number¸2;...

number¸30 are up to 30 arguments, the sum oI whose squares

is to be calculated.

TAN(number) Returns the tangent oI the given number (angle in radians).

TANH(number) Returns the hyperbolic tangent oI the given number (angle in

radians).

TRUNC(number: count) Truncates a number to an integer by removing the Iractional part

oI the number according to the precision speciIied in Tools >

Options > OpenOffice.org Calc > Calculate. Number is the

number whose decimal places are to be cut oII. Count is the

number oI decimal places which are not cut oII.

Financial analysis functions

Note Many oI the Iunctions listed here and in the OOo help system are available only iI

the Analvsis AaaIn is installed. These Iunctions are marked with an asterisk (*).

A note about dates

Date values used as parameters Ior Calc's Iinancial Iunctions must be entered in a speciIic

manner. For example, a date (entered in the US Iorm), must be surrounded by quotes, and

with periods separating each value. To represent August 6, 2004, or 8/6/04, you would enter,

'08.06.2004¨. II you don`t enter the date values as required by the Iunction, you will not get

the correct results. Date Iormats are locale speciIic, check with your speciIic online help Ior

the acceptable Iormatting.

A note about interest rates

You can enter interest rates one oI two ways.

As a decimal. To enter an interest rate as a decimal, divide it by 100 beIore entering it

into a Iunction. For example, to compute a loan with a 3.25° interest rate, enter .0325

into the Iunction.

Descríptíon of Functíons 6

Financial analysis functions

As a percentage. To enter an interest rate as a percentage, type in the interest rate

Iollowed by the º key. For example, to compute a loan with a 3.25° interest rate,

enters 3.25º into the Iunction.

Either way will work. However, iI you enter it as 3.25, the Iunction will treat it as a 325°

interest rate.

Accounting systems vary in the number oI days in a month or a year used in calculations. The

Iollowing table gives the integers used Ior the basis parameter used in some oI the Iinancial

analysis Iunctions.

Table 3. Basis calculation tvpes

Basis Calculation

0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months oI 30 days each.

1 Exact number oI days in months, exact number oI days in year.

2 Exact number oI days in month, year has 360 days.

3 Exact number oI days in month, year has 365 days.

4 European method, 12 months oI 30 days each.

Table 4. Financial analvsis functions

Syntax Description

*ACCRINT(issue:

Iirstinterest: settlement: rate:

par: Irequency: basis)

Calculates the accrued interest oI a security in the case oI

periodic payments. Issue is the issue date oI the security.

First¸interest is the Iirst interest date oI the security.

Settlement is the maturity date. Rate is the annual nominal

rate oI interest (coupon interest rate). Par is the par value oI

the security. Frequency is the number oI interest payments

per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and

indicates how the year is to be calculated.

*ACCRINTM(issue:

settlement: rate: par: basis)

Calculates the accrued interest oI a security in the case oI

one-oII payment at the settlement date. Issue is the issue date

oI the security. Settlement is the maturity date. Rate is the

annual nominal rate oI interest (coupon interest rate). Par is

the par value oI the security. Basis is chosen Irom a list oI

options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

*AMORDEGRC(cost:

datepurchased: Iirstperiod:

salvage: period: rate: basis)

Calculates the amount oI depreciation Ior a settlement period

as degressive amortization. Unlike AMORLINC, a

depreciation coeIIicient that is independent oI the

depreciable liIe is used here. Cost is the acquisition cost.

Date¸purchased is the date oI acquisition. First¸period is

the end date oI the Iirst settlement period. Salvage is the

salvage value oI the capital asset at the end oI the

depreciable liIe. Period is the settlement period to be

considered. Rate is the rate oI depreciation. Basis is chosen

Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to be

calculated.

Descríptíon of Functíons 7

Financial analysis functions

Syntax Description

*AMORLINC(cost:

datepurchased: Iirstperiod:

salvage: period: rate: basis)

Calculates the amount oI depreciation Ior a settlement period

as linear amortization. II the capital asset is purchased during

the settlement period, the proportional amount oI

depreciation is considered. Cost is the acquisition cost.

Date¸purchased is the date oI acquisition. First¸period is

the end date oI the Iirst settlement period. Salvage is the

salvage value oI the capital asset at the end oI the

depreciable liIe. Period is the settlement period to be

considered. Rate is the rate oI depreciation. Basis is chosen

Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to be

calculated.

*COUPDAYBS(settlement:

maturity: Irequency: basis)

Returns the number oI days Irom the Iirst day oI interest

payment on a security until the settlement date. Settlement

is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date

on which the security matures (expires). Frequency is the

number oI interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is

chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to

be calculated.

*COUPDAYS(settlement:

maturity: Irequency: basis)

Returns the number oI days in the current interest period in

which the settlement date Ialls. Settlement is the date oI

purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on which the

security matures (expires). Frequency is the number oI

interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a

list oI options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

*COUPDAYSNC(settlement:

maturity: Irequency: basis)

Returns the number oI days Irom the settlement date until the

next interest date. Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the

security. Maturity is the date on which the security matures

(expires). Frequency is the number oI interest payments per

year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and

indicates how the year is to be calculated.

*COUPNCD(settlement:

maturity: Irequency: basis)

Returns the date oI the Iirst interest date aIter the settlement

date, and Iormats the result as a date. Settlement is the date

oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on which

the security matures (expires). Frequency is the number oI

interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a

list oI options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

*COUPNUM(settlement:

maturity: Irequency: basis)

Returns the number oI coupons (interest payments) between

the settlement date and the maturity date. Settlement is the

date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on

which the security matures (expires). Frequency is the

number oI interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is

chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to

be calculated.

Descríptíon of Functíons 8

Financial analysis functions

Syntax Description

*COUPPCD(settlement:

maturity: Irequency: basis)

Returns the date oI the interest date prior to the settlement

date, and Iormats the result as a date. Settlement is the date

oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on which

the security matures (expires). Frequency is the number oI

interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a

list oI options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

CUMIPMT(rate: NPER: PV:

S: E: type)

Calculates the cumulative interest payments (the total

interest) Ior an investment based on a constant interest rate.

Rate is the periodic interest rate. NPER is the payment

period with the total number oI periods. NPER can also be a

non-integer value. The rate and NPER must reIer to the

same unit, and thus both must be calculated annually or

monthly. PV is the current value in the sequence oI

payments. S is the Iirst period. E is the last period. Type is

the due date oI the payment at the beginning (1) or end (0) oI

each period.

*CUMIPMTADD(rate:

NPER: PV: startperiod:

endperiod: type)

Calculates the accumulated interest Ior a period. Rate is the

interest rate Ior each period. NPER is the total number oI

payment periods. The rate and NPER must reIer to the same

unit, and thus both must be calculated annually or monthly.

PV is the current value. Start¸period the Iirst payment

period Ior the calculation. End¸period the last payment

period Ior the calculation. Type is the due date oI the

payment at the beginning (1) or end (0) oI each period.

CUMPRINC(rate: NPER:

PV: S: E: type)

Returns the cumulative interest paid Ior an investment period

with a constant interest rate. Rate is the periodic interest

rate. NPER is the payment period with the total number oI

periods. NPER can also be a non-integer value. The rate and

NPER must reIer to the same unit, and thus both must be

calculated annually or monthly. PV is the current value in the

sequence oI payments. S is the Iirst period. E is the last

period. Type is the due date oI the payment at the beginning

(1) or end (0) oI each period.

*CUMPRINCADD(rate:

NPER: PV: startperiod:

endperiod: type)

Calculates the cumulative redemption oI a loan in a period.

Rate is the interest rate Ior each period. NPER is the total

number oI payment periods. The rate and NPER must reIer

to the same unit, and thus both must be calculated annually

or monthly. PV is the current value. Start period is the Iirst

payment period Ior the calculation. End period is the last

payment period Ior the calculation. Type is the due date oI

the payment at the beginning (1) or end (0) oI each period.

Descríptíon of Functíons 9

Financial analysis functions

Syntax Description

DB(cost: salvage: liIe:

period: month)

Returns the depreciation oI an asset Ior a speciIied period

using the double-declining balance method. Cost is the

initial cost oI an asset. Salvage is the value oI an asset at the

end oI the depreciation. Life deIines the period over which

an asset is depreciated. Period is the length oI each period.

The liIe must be entered in the same date unit as the

depreciation period. Month (optional) denotes the number oI

months Ior the Iirst year oI depreciation.

DDB(cost: salvage: liIe:

period: Iactor)

Returns the depreciation oI an asset Ior a speciIied period

using the arithmetic-declining method. Note that the book

value will never reach zero under this calculation type. Cost

Iixes the initial cost oI an asset. Salvage Iixes the value oI an

asset at the end oI its liIe. Life is the number oI periods

deIining how long the asset is to be used. Period deIines the

length oI the period. The period must be entered in the same

time unit as the liIe. Factor (optional) is the Iactor by which

depreciation decreases.

*DISC(settlement: maturity:

price: redemption: basis)

Calculates the allowance (discount) oI a security as a

percentage. Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the

security. Maturity is the date on which the security matures

(expires). Price is the price oI the security per 100 currency

units oI par value. Redemption is the redemption value oI

the security per 100 currency units oI par value. Basis is

chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to

be calculated.

*DOLLARDE(Iractional

dollar: Iraction)

Converts a quotation that has been given as a decimal

Iraction into a decimal number. Fractional¸dollar is a

number given as a decimal Iraction. (In this number, the

decimal value is the numerator oI the Iraction.) Fraction is a

whole number that is used as the denominator oI the decimal

Iraction.

*DOLLARFR(decimal

dollar: Iraction)

Converts a quotation that has been given as a decimal

number into a mixed decimal Iraction. The decimal oI the

result is the numerator oI the Iraction that would have

Fraction as the denominator. Decimal¸dollar is a decimal

number. Fraction is a whole number that is used as the

denominator oI the decimal Iraction.

DURATION(rate: PV: FV) Calculates the number oI periods required by an investment

to attain the desired value. Rate (a constant) is the interest

rate to be calculated Ior the entire duration. Entering the

interest rate divided by the periods per year, can calculate the

interest aIter each period. PV is the present value. FV is the

desired Iuture value oI the investment.

Descríptíon of Functíons 10

Financial analysis functions

Syntax Description

*DURATIONADD

(settlement: maturity:

coupon: yield: Irequency:

basis)

Calculates the duration oI a Iixed interest security in years.

Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity

is the date on which the security matures (expires). Coupon

is the annual coupon interest rate (nominal rate oI interest).

Yield is the annual yield oI the security. Frequency is the

number oI interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is

chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to

be calculated.

*EFFECTADD(nominal

rate: Npery)

Calculates the eIIective annual rate oI interest on the basis oI

the nominal interest rate and the number oI interest payments

per annum. Nominal interest reIers to the amount oI interest

due at the end oI a calculation period. Nominal¸rate is the

annual nominal rate oI interest. Npery is the number oI

interest payments per year.

EFFECTIVE(NOM: P) Calculates the eIIective annual rate oI interest on the basis oI

the nominal interest rate and the number oI interest payments

per annum. Nominal interest reIers to the amount oI interest

due at the end oI a calculation period. NOM is the nominal

interest. P is the number oI interest payment periods per year.

FV(rate: NPER: PMT: PV:

type)

Returns the Iuture value oI an investment based on periodic,

constant payments and a constant interest rate. Rate is the

periodic interest rate. NPER is the total number oI periods.

PMT is the annuity paid regularly per period. PV (optional)

is the present cash value oI an investment. Type (optional)

deIines whether the payment is due at the beginning (1) or

the end (0) oI a period.

*FVSCHEDULE(principal:

schedule)

Calculates the accumulated value oI the starting capital Ior a

series oI periodically varying interest rates. Principal is the

starting capital. Schedule is a series oI interest rates.

Schedule has to be entered with cell reIerences.

*INTRATE(settlement:

maturity: investment:

redemption: basis)

Calculates the annual interest rate that results when a

security (or other item) is purchased at an investment value

and sold at a redemption value with no interest being paid.

Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity

is the date on which the security is sold. Investment is the

purchase price. Redemption is the selling price. Basis is

chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to

be calculated.

Descríptíon of Functíons 11

Financial analysis functions

Syntax Description

IPMT(rate: period: NPER:

PV: FV: type)

Calculates the periodic amortization Ior an investment with

regular payments and a constant interest rate. Rate is the

periodic interest rate. Period is the period Ior which the

compound interest is calculated. NPER is the total number

oI periods during which annuity is paid. Period÷NPER, iI

compound interest Ior the last period is calculated. PV is the

present cash value in sequence oI payments. FV (optional) is

the desired value (Iuture value) at the end oI the periods.

Type (optional) deIines whether the payment is due at the

beginning (1) or the end (0) oI a period.

IRR(values: guess) Calculates the internal rate oI return Ior an investment. The

values represent cash Ilow values at regular intervals: at least

one value must be negative (payments), and at least one

value must be positive (income). Values is an array

containing the values. Guess (optional) is the estimated

value. II you can provide only a Iew values, you should

provide an initial guess to enable the iteration.

ISPMT(rate: period:

totalperiods: invest)

Calculates the level oI interest Ior unchanged amortization

installments. Rate sets the periodic interest rate. Period is

the number oI installments Ior calculation oI interest.

Total¸periods is the total number oI installment periods.

Invest is the amount oI the investment.

*MDURATION(settlement:

maturity: coupon: yield:

Irequency: basis)

Calculates the modiIied Macauley duration oI a Iixed

interest security in years. Settlement is the date oI purchase

oI the security. Maturity is the date on which the security

matures (expires). Coupon is the annual nominal rate oI

interest (coupon interest rate) Yield is the annual yield oI the

security. Frequency is the number oI interest payments per

year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and

indicates how the year is to be calculated.

MIRR(values: investment:

reinvestrate)

Calculates the modiIied internal rate oI return oI a series oI

investments. Values corresponds to the array or the cell

reIerence Ior cells whose content corresponds to the

payments. Investment is the rate oI interest oI the

investments (the negative values oI the array) Reinvest¸rate

is the rate oI interest oI the reinvestment (the positive values

oI the array).

NOMINAL(eIIectiverate:

Npery)

Calculates the yearly nominal interest rate, given the

eIIective rate and the number oI compounding periods per

year. Effective¸rate is the eIIective interest rate Npery is

the number oI periodic interest payments per year.

*NOMINALADD(eIIective

rate: Npery)

Calculates the yearly nominal rate oI interest, given the

eIIective rate and the number oI compounding periods per

year. Effective¸rate is the eIIective annual rate oI interest.

Npery is the number oI interest payments per year.

Descríptíon of Functíons 12

Financial analysis functions

Syntax Description

NPER(rate: PMT: PV: FV:

type)

Returns the number oI periods Ior an investment based on

periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Rate is the periodic interest rate. PMT is the constant

annuity paid in each period. PV is the present value (cash

value) in a sequence oI payments. FV (optional) is the Iuture

value, which is reached at the end oI the last period. Type

(optional) deIines whether the payment is due at the

beginning (1) or the end (0) oI a period.

NPV(Rate: value1: value2:

... value30)

Returns the net present value oI an investment based on a

series oI periodic cash Ilows and a discount rate. Rate is the

discount rate Ior a period. Value¸1; value¸2;... value¸30 are

values representing deposits or withdrawals.

*ODDFPRICE(settlement:

maturity: issue: Iirstcoupon:

rate: yield: redemption:

Irequency: basis)

Calculates the price per 100 currency units par value oI a

security, iI the Iirst interest date Ialls irregularly. Settlement

is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date

on which the security matures (expires). Issue is the date oI

issue oI the security. First¸coupon is the Iirst interest date

oI the security. Rate is the annual rate oI interest. Yield is

the annual yield oI the security. Redemption is the

redemption value per 100 currency units oI par value.

Frequency is the number oI interest payments per year (1, 2

or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates

how the year is to be calculated.

*ODDFYIELD(settlement:

maturity: issue: Iirstcoupon:

rate: price: redemption:

Irequency: basis)

Calculates the yield oI a security iI the Iirst interest date Ialls

irregularly. Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the

security. Maturity is the date on which the security matures

(expires). Issue is the date oI issue oI the security.

First¸coupon is the Iirst interest period oI the security. Rate

is the annual rate oI interest. Price is the price oI the

security. Redemption is the redemption value per 100

currency units oI par value. Frequency is the number oI

interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a

list oI options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

*ODDLPRICE(settlement:

maturity: lastinterest: rate:

yield: redemption: Irequency:

basis)

Calculates the price per 100 currency units par value oI a

security, iI the last interest date Ialls irregularly. Settlement

is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date

on which the security matures (expires). Last¸interest is the

last interest date oI the security. Rate is the annual rate oI

interest. Yield is the annual yield oI the security.

Redemption is the redemption value per 100 currency units

oI par value. Frequency is the number oI interest payments

per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and

indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Descríptíon of Functíons 13

Financial analysis functions

Syntax Description

*ODDLYIELD(settlement:

maturity: lastinterest: rate:

price: redemption: Irequency:

basis)

Calculates the yield oI a security iI the last interest date Ialls

irregularly. Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the

security. Maturity is the date on which the security matures

(expires). Last¸interest is the last interest date oI the

security. Rate is the annual rate oI interest. Price is the price

oI the security. Redemption is the redemption value per 100

currency units oI par value. Frequency is the number oI

interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a

list oI options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

PMT(rate: NPER: PV: FV:

type)

Returns the periodic payment Ior an annuity with constant

interest rates. Rate is the periodic interest rate. NPER is the

number oI periods in which annuity is paid. PV is the present

value (cash value) in a sequence oI payments. FV (optional)

is the desired value (Iuture value) to be reached at the end oI

the periodic payments. Type (optional) deIines whether the

payment is due at the beginning (1) or the end (0) oI a

period.

PPMT(rate: period: NPER:

PV: FV: type)

Returns Ior a given period the payment on the principal Ior

an investment that is based on periodic and constant

payments and a constant interest rate. Rate is the periodic

interest rate. Period is the amortization period. NPER is the

total number oI periods during which annuity is paid. PV is

the present value in the sequence oI payments. FV (optional)

is the desired (Iuture) value. Type (optional) deIines whether

the payment is due at the beginning (1) or the end (0) oI a

period.

*PRICE(settlement: maturity:

rate: yield: redemption:

Irequency: basis)

Calculates the market value oI a Iixed interest security with a

par value oI 100 currency units as a Iunction oI the Iorecast

yield. Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Rate is the annual nominal rate oI interest (coupon interest

rate). Yield is the annual yield oI the security. Redemption

is the redemption value per 100 currency units oI par value.

Frequency is the number oI interest payments per year (1, 2

or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates

how the year is to be calculated.

*PRICEDISC(settlement:

maturity: discount:

redemption: basis)

Calculates the price per 100 currency units oI par value oI a

non-interest- bearing security. Settlement is the date oI

purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on which the

security matures (expires). Discount is the discount oI a

security as a percentage. Redemption is the redemption

value per 100 currency units oI par value. Basis is chosen

Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to be

calculated.

Descríptíon of Functíons 14

Financial analysis functions

Syntax Description

*PRICEMAT(settlement:

maturity: issue: rate: yield:

basis)

Calculates the price per 100 currency units oI par value oI a

security, that pays interest on the maturity date. Settlement

is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date

on which the security matures (expires). Issue is the date oI

issue oI the security. Rate is the interest rate oI the security

on the issue date. Yield is the annual yield oI the security.

Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates how the

year is to be calculated.

PV(rate: NPER: PMT: FV:

type)

Returns the present value oI an investment resulting Irom a

series oI regular payments. Rate deIines the interest rate per

period. NPER is the total number oI payment periods. PMT

is the regular payment made per period. FV (optional)

deIines the Iuture value remaining aIter the Iinal installment

has been made. Type (optional) deIines whether the payment

is due at the beginning (1) or the end (0) oI a period.

RATE(NPER: PMT: PV: FV:

type: guess)

Returns the constant interest rate per period oI an annuity.

NPER is the total number oI periods, during which

payments are made (payment period). PMT is the constant

payment (annuity) paid during each period. PV is the cash

value in the sequence oI payments. FV (optional) is the

Iuture value, which is reached at the end oI the periodic

payments. Type (optional) deIines whether the payment is

due at the beginning (1) or the end (0) oI a period. Guess

(optional) determines the estimated value oI the interest with

iterative calculation.

*RECEIVED(settlement:

maturity: investment:

discount: basis)

Calculates the amount received that is paid Ior a Iixed-

interest security at a given point in time. Settlement is the

date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on

which the security matures. Investment is the purchase sum.

Discount is the percentage discount on acquisition oI the

security. Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates

how the year is to be calculated.

RRI(P: PV: FV) Calculates the interest rate resulting Irom the proIit (return)

oI an investment. P is the number oI periods needed Ior

calculating the interest rate. PV is the present value (must be

~0). FV is determines what is desired as the cash value oI

the deposit.

SLN(cost: salvage: liIe) Returns the straight-line depreciation oI an asset Ior one

period. The amount oI the depreciation is constant during the

depreciation period. Cost is the initial cost oI an asset.

Salvage is the value oI an asset at the end oI the

depreciation. Life is the depreciation period determining the

number oI periods in the depreciation oI the asset.

Descríptíon of Functíons 15

Financial analysis functions

Syntax Description

SYD(cost: salvage: liIe:

period)

Returns the arithmetic-declining depreciation rate. Use this

Iunction to calculate the depreciation amount Ior one period

oI the total depreciation span oI an obiect. Arithmetic

declining depreciation reduces the depreciation amount Irom

period to period by a Iixed sum. Cost is the initial cost oI an

asset. Salvage is the value oI an asset aIter depreciation. Life

is the period Iixing the time span over which an asset is

depreciated. Period deIines the period Ior which the

depreciation is to be calculated.

*TBILLEQ(settlement:

maturity: discount)

Calculates the annual return on a treasury bill. Settlement

is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date

on which the security matures (expires). (The settlement and

maturity date must be in the same year.) Discount is the

percentage discount on acquisition oI the security.

*TBILLPRICE(settlement:

maturity: discount)

Calculates the price oI a treasury bill per 100 currency units.

Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity

is the date on which the security matures (expires). Discount

is the percentage discount upon acquisition oI the security.

*TBILLYIELD(settlement:

maturity: price)

Calculates the yield oI a treasury bill. Settlement is the date

oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on which

the security matures (expires). Price is the price (purchase

price) oI the treasury bill per 100 currency units oI par value.

VDB(cost: salvage: liIe: start:

end: Iactor: type)

Returns the depreciation oI an asset Ior a speciIied or partial

period using a variable declining balance method. Cost is the

initial value oI an asset. Salvage is the value oI an asset at

the end oI the depreciation. Life is the depreciation duration

oI the asset. Start is the start oI the depreciation entered in

the same date unit as the liIe. End is the end oI the

depreciation. Factor (optional) is the depreciation Iactor.

FA÷2 is double rate depreciation. Type (optional) deIines

whether the payment is due at the beginning (1) or the end

(0) oI a period.

*XIRR(values: dates: guess) Calculates the internal rate oI return Ior a list oI payments

which take place on diIIerent dates. The calculation is based

on a 365 days per year basis, ignoring leap years. II the

payments take place at regular intervals, use the IRR

Iunction. Values and dates are a series oI payments and the

series oI associated date values entered as cell reIerences.

Guess (optional) is a guess Ior the internal rate oI return.

The deIault is 10°.

Descríptíon of Functíons 16

Financial analysis functions

Syntax Description

*XNPV(rate: values: dates) Calculates the capital value (net present value) Ior a list oI

payments which take place on diIIerent dates. The

calculation is based on a 365 days per year basis, ignoring

leap years. II the payments take place at regular intervals,

use the NPV Iunction. Rate is the internal rate oI return Ior

the payments. Values and dates are a series oI payments and

the series oI associated date values entered as cell reIerences.

*YIELD(settlement:

maturity: rate: price:

redemption: Irequency: basis)

Calculates the yield oI a security. Settlement is the date oI

purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on which the

security matures (expires). Rate is the annual rate oI interest.

Price is the price (purchase price) oI the security per 100

currency units oI par value. Redemption is the redemption

value per 100 currency units oI par value. Frequency is the

number oI interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is

chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to

be calculated.

*YIELDDISC(settlement:

maturity: price: redemption:

basis)

Calculates the annual yield oI a non-interest-bearing security.

Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity

is the date on which the security matures (expires). Price is

the price (purchase price) oI the security per 100 currency

units oI par value. Redemption is the redemption value per

100 currency units oI par value. Basis is chosen Irom a list

oI options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

*YIELDMAT(settlement:

maturity: issue: rate: price:

basis)

Calculates the annual yield oI a security, the interest oI

which is paid on the date oI maturity. Settlement is the date

oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on which

the security matures (expires). Issue is the date oI issue oI

the security. Rate is the interest rate oI the security on the

issue date. Price is the price (purchase price) oI the security

per 100 currency units oI par value. Basis is chosen Irom a

list oI options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Descríptíon of Functíons 17

5tatistical analysis functions

Statistical analysis functions

Calc includes over 70 statistical Iunctions which enable the evaluation oI data Irom simple

arithmetic calculations, such as averaging, to advanced distribution and probability

computations. Several other statistics-based Iunctions are available through the Add-ins

which are noted at the end oI this appendix.

Table 5. Statistical analvsis functions

Syntax Description

AVEDEV(number1:

number2: ... number30)

Returns the average oI the absolute deviations oI data points

Irom their mean. Displays the diIIusion in a data set.

Number¸1; number¸2; ... number¸30 are values or ranges

that represent a sample. Each number can also be replaced by a

reIerence.

AVERAGE(number1:

number2: ... number30)

Returns the average oI the arguments. Number¸1; number¸2;

... number¸30 are numerical values or ranges. Text is ignored.

AVERAGEA(value1:

value2: ... value30)

Returns the average oI the arguments. The value oI a text is 0.

Value¸1; value¸2; ... value¸30 are values or ranges.

B(trials: SP: T1: T2) Returns the probability oI a sample with binomial distribution.

Trials is the number oI independent trials. SP is the probability

oI success on each trial. T¸1 deIines the lower limit Ior the

number oI trials. T¸2 (optional) deIines the upper limit Ior the

number oI trials.

BETADIST(number: alpha:

beta: start: end)

Returns the cumulative beta probability density Iunction.

Number is the value between Start and End at which to

evaluate the Iunction. Alpha is a parameter to the distribution.

Beta is a parameter to the distribution. Start (optional) is the

lower bound Ior number. End (optional) is the upper bound

Ior number.

BETAINV(number: alpha:

beta: start: end)

Returns the inverse oI the cumulative beta probability density

Iunction. Number is the value between Start and End at

which to evaluate the Iunction. Alpha is a parameter to the

distribution. Beta is a parameter to the distribution. Start

(optional) is the lower bound Ior number. End (optional) is the

upper bound Ior number

BINOMDIST(X: trials: SP:

C)

Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. X

is the number oI successes in a set oI trials. Trials is the

number oI independent trials. SP is the probability oI success

on each trial. C ÷ 0 calculates the probability oI a single event

and C ÷ 1 calculates the cumulative probability.

Descríptíon of Functíons 18

5tatistical analysis functions

Syntax Description

CHIDIST(number:

degreesIreedom)

Returns the probability value that a hypothesis will be

conIirmed Irom the indicated chi square. The probability

determined by CHIDIST can also be determined by CHITEST.

Number is the chi-square value oI the random sample used to

determine the error probability. Degrees¸freedom is the

degrees oI Ireedom oI the experiment.

CHIINV(number:

degreesIreedom)

Returns the inverse oI the one-tailed probability oI the chi-

squared distribution. Number is the value oI the error

probability. Degrees¸freedom is the degrees oI Ireedom oI the

experiment.

CHITEST(dataB: dataE) Returns the chi-square distribution Irom a random distribution

oI two test series based on the chi-square test Ior

independence. The probability determined by CHITEST can

also be determined with CHIDIST, in which case the chi square

oI the random sample must then be passed as a parameter

instead oI the data row. Data¸B is the array oI the

observations. Data¸E is the range oI the expected values.

CONFIDENCE(alpha:

STDEV: size)

Returns the (1-alpha) conIidence interval Ior a normal

distribution. Alpha is the level oI the conIidence interval.

STDEV is the standard deviation Ior the total population. Size

is the size oI the total population.

CORREL(data1: data2) Returns the correlation coeIIicient between two data sets.

Data¸1 is the Iirst data set. Data¸2 is the second data set.

COUNT(value1: value2:

... value30)

Counts how many numbers are in the list oI arguments. Text

entries are ignored. Value¸1; value¸2; ... value¸30 are values

or ranges which are to be counted.

COUNTA(value1:

value2: ... value30)

Counts how many values are in the list oI arguments. Text

entries are also counted, even when they contain an empty

string oI length 0. II an argument is an array or reIerence,

empty cells within the array or reIerence are ignored. value¸1;

value¸2; ... value¸30 are up to 30 arguments representing the

values to be counted.

COVAR(data1: data2) Returns the covariance oI the product oI paired deviations.

Data¸1 is the Iirst data set. Data¸2 is the second data set.

CRITBINOM(trials: SP:

alpha)

Returns the smallest value Ior which the cumulative binomial

distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value. Trials is

the total number oI trials. SP is the probability oI success Ior

one trial. Alpha is the threshold probability to be reached or

exceeded.

DEVSQ(number1:

number2: ... number30)

Returns the sum oI squares oI deviations based on a sample

mean. Number¸1; number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical

values or ranges representing a sample.

Descríptíon of Functíons 19

5tatistical analysis functions

Syntax Description

EXPONDIST(number:

lambda: C)

Returns the exponential distribution. Number is the value oI

the Iunction. Lambda is the parameter value. C is a logical

value that determines the Iorm oI the Iunction. C ÷ 0 calculates

the density Iunction, and C ÷ 1 calculates the distribution.

FDIST(number:

degreesIreedom1:

degreesIreedom2)

Calculates the values oI an F probability distribution. Number

is the value Ior which the F distribution is to be calculated.

Degrees¸freedom¸1 is the degrees oI Ireedom in the

numerator in the F distribution. Degrees¸freedom¸2 is the

degrees oI Ireedom in the denominator in the F distribution.

FINV(number:

degreesIreedom1:

degreesIreedom2)

Returns the inverse oI the F probability distribution. Number

is probability value Ior which the inverse F distribution is to be

calculated. Degrees¸freedom¸1 is the number oI degrees oI

Ireedom in the numerator oI the F distribution.

Degrees¸freedom¸2 is the number oI degrees oI Ireedom in

the denominator oI the F distribution.

FISHER(number) Returns the Fisher transIormation Ior the given number and

creates a Iunction close to a normal distribution.

FISHERINV(number) Returns the inverse oI the Fisher transIormation Ior the given

number and creates a Iunction close to a normal distribution.

FORECAST(value:

dataY: dataX)

Extrapolates Iuture values based on existing x and y values.

Value is the x value, Ior which the y value oI the linear

regression is to be returned. Data¸Y is the array or range oI

known y`s. Data¸X is the array or range oI known x`s. Does

not work Ior exponential Iunctions.

FTEST(data1: data2) Returns the result oI an F test. Data¸1 is the Iirst record array.

Data¸2 is the second record array.

GAMMADIST(number:

alpha: beta: C)

Returns the values oI a Gamma cumulative distribution.

Number is the value Ior which the Gamma distribution is to be

calculated. Alpha is the parameter Alpha oI the Gamma

distribution. Beta is the parameter Beta oI the Gamma

distribution. C ÷ 0 calculates the density Iunction, and C ÷ 1

calculates the distribution.

GAMMAINV(number:

alpha: beta)

Returns the inverse oI the Gamma cumulative distribution.

This Iunction allows you to search Ior variables with diIIerent

distribution. Number is the probability value Ior which the

inverse Gamma distribution is to be calculated. Alpha is the

parameter Alpha oI the Gamma distribution. Beta is the

parameter Beta oI the Gamma distribution.

GAMMALN(number) Returns the natural logarithm oI the Gamma Iunction, G(x), Ior

the given number.

GAUSS(number) Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution Ior the

given number.

Descríptíon of Functíons 20

5tatistical analysis functions

Syntax Description

GEOMEAN(number1:

number2: ... number30)

Returns the geometric mean oI a sample. Number¸1;

number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical arguments or ranges

that represent a random sample.

HARMEAN(number1:

number2: ... number30)

Returns the harmonic mean oI a data set. Number¸1;

number¸2; ... number¸30 are values or ranges that can be

used to calculate the harmonic mean.

HYPGEOMDIST(X:

nsample: successes:

npopulation)

Returns the hypergeometric distribution. X is the number oI

results achieved in the random sample. N¸sample is the size oI

the random sample. Successes is the number oI possible results

in the total population. N¸population is the size oI the total

population.

INTERCEPT(dataY:

dataX)

Calculates the y-value at which a line will intersect the y-axis

by using known x-values and y-values. Data¸Y is the

dependent set oI observations or data. Data¸X is the

independent set oI observations or data. Names, arrays or

reIerences containing numbers must be used here. Numbers

can also be entered directly.

KURT(number1:

number2: ... number30)

Returns the kurtosis oI a data set (at least 4 values required).

Number¸1; number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical

arguments or ranges representing a random sample oI

distribution.

LARGE(data: rankc) Returns the Rankc-th largest value in a data set. Data is the

cell range oI data. Rank¸c is the ranking oI the value (2nd

largest, 3rd largest, etc.) written as an integer.

LOGINV(number: mean:

STDEV)

Returns the inverse oI the lognormal distribution Ior the given

Number, a probability value. Mean is the arithmetic mean oI

the standard logarithmic distribution. STDEV is the standard

deviation oI the standard logarithmic distribution.

LOGNORMDIST(number:

mean: STDEV)

Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution Ior the given

Number, a probability value. Mean is the mean value oI the

standard logarithmic distribution. STDEV is the standard

deviation oI the standard logarithmic distribution.

MAX(number1:

number2: ... number30)

Returns the maximum value in a list oI arguments. Number¸1;

number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical values or ranges.

MAXA(value1: value2:

... value30)

Returns the maximum value in a list oI arguments. Unlike

MAX, text can be entered. The value oI the text is 0. Value¸1;

value¸2; ... value¸30 are values or ranges.

MEDIAN(number1:

number2: ... number30)

Returns the median oI a set oI numbers. Number¸1;

number¸2; ... number¸30 are values or ranges, which

represent a sample. Each number can also be replaced by a

reIerence.

MIN(number1: number2:

... number30)

Returns the minimum value in a list oI arguments. Number¸1;

number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical values or ranges.

Descríptíon of Functíons 21

5tatistical analysis functions

Syntax Description

MINA(value1: value2: ...

value30)

Returns the minimum value in a list oI arguments. Here text

can also be entered. The value oI the text is 0. Value¸1;

value¸2; ... value¸30 are values or ranges.

MODE(number1:

number2: ... number30)

Returns the most common value in a data set. Number¸1;

number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical values or ranges. II

several values have the same Irequency, it returns the smallest

value. An error occurs when a value does not appear twice.

NEGBINOMDIST(X: R:

SP)

Returns the negative binomial distribution. X is the value

returned Ior unsuccessIul tests. R is the value returned Ior

successIul tests. SP is the probability oI the success oI an

attempt.

NORMDIST(number:

mean: STDEV: C)

Returns the normal distribution Ior the given Number in the

distribution. Mean is the mean value oI the distribution.

STDEV is the standard deviation oI the distribution. C ÷ 0

calculates the density Iunction, and C ÷ 1 calculates the

distribution.

NORMINV(number: mean:

STDEV)

Returns the inverse oI the normal distribution Ior the given

Number in the distribution. Mean is the mean value in the

normal distribution. STDEV is the standard deviation oI the

normal distribution.

NORMSDIST(number) Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution Ior the

given Number.

NORMSINV(number) Returns the inverse oI the standard normal distribution Ior the

given Number, a probability value.

PEARSON(data1: data2) Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coeIIicient r.

Data¸1 is the array oI the Iirst data set. Data¸2 is the array oI

the second data set.

PERCENTILE(data: alpha) Returns the alpha-percentile oI data values in an array. Data is

the array oI data. Alpha is the percentage oI the scale between

0 and 1.

PERCENTRANK(data:

value)

Returns the percentage rank (percentile) oI the given value in a

sample. Data is the array oI data in the sample.

PERMUT(count1:

count2)

Returns the number oI permutations Ior a given number oI

obiects. Count¸1 is the total number oI obiects. Count¸2 is the

number oI obiects in each permutation.

PERMUTATIONA(count

1: count2)

Returns the number oI permutations Ior a given number oI

obiects (repetition allowed). Count¸1 is the total number oI

obiects. Count¸2 is the number oI obiects in each permutation.

PHI(number) Returns the values oI the distribution Iunction Ior a standard

normal distribution Ior the given Number.

POISSON(number: mean:

C)

Returns the Poisson distribution Ior the given Number. Mean

is the middle value oI the Poisson distribution. C ÷ 0 calculates

the density Iunction, and C ÷ 1 calculates the distribution.

Descríptíon of Functíons 22

5tatistical analysis functions

Syntax Description

PROB(data: probability:

start: end)

Returns the probability that values in a range are between two

limits. Data is the array or range oI data in the sample.

Probability is the array or range oI the corresponding

probabilities. Start is the start value oI the interval whose

probabilities are to be summed. End (optional) is the end value

oI the interval whose probabilities are to be summed. II this

parameter is missing, the probability Ior the Start value is

calculated.

QUARTILE(data: type) Returns the quartile oI a data set. Data is the array oI data in

the sample. Type is the type oI quartile. (0 ÷ Min, 1 ÷ 25°, 2 ÷

50° (Median), 3 ÷ 75° and 4 ÷ Max.)

RANK(value: data: type) Returns the rank oI the given Value in a sample. Data is the

array or range oI data in the sample. Type (optional) is the

sequence order, either ascending (0) or descending (1).

RSQ(dataY: dataX) Returns the square oI the Pearson correlation coeIIicient based

on the given values. Data¸Y is an array or range oI data points.

Data¸X is an array or range oI data points.

SKEW(number1:

number2: ... number30)

Returns the skewness oI a distribution. Number¸1;

number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical values or ranges.

SLOPE(dataY: dataX) Returns the slope oI the linear regression line. Data¸Y is the

array or matrix oI Y data. Data¸X is the array or matrix oI X

data.

SMALL(data: rankc) Returns the Rankc-th smallest value in a data set. Data is the

cell range oI data. Rank¸c is the rank oI the value (2nd

smallest, 3rd smallest, etc.) written as an integer.

STANDARDIZE(number:

mean: STDEV)

Converts a random variable to a normalized value. Number is

the value to be standardized. Mean is the arithmetic mean oI

the distribution. STDEV is the standard deviation oI the

distribution.

STDEV(number1:

number2: ... number30)

Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample.

Number¸1; number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical values

or ranges representing a sample based on an entire population.

STDEVA(value1:

value2: ... value30)

Calculates the standard deviation oI an estimation based on a

sample. Value¸1; value¸2; ... value¸30 are values or ranges

representing a sample derived Irom an entire population. Text

has the value 0.

STDEVP(number1:

number2: ... number30)

Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire

population. Number¸1; number¸2; ... number¸30 are

numerical values or ranges representing a sample based on an

entire population.

STDEVPA(value1:

value2: ... value30)

Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire

population. Value¸1; value¸2; ... value¸30 are values or

ranges representing a sample derived Irom an entire

population. Text has the value 0.

Descríptíon of Functíons 23

5tatistical analysis functions

Syntax Description

STEYX(dataY: dataX) Returns the standard error oI the predicted y value Ior each x in

the regression. Data¸Y is the array or matrix oI Y data.

Data¸X is the array or matrix oI X data.

TDIST(number:

degreesIreedom: mode)

Returns the t-distribution Ior the given Number.

Degrees¸freedom is the number oI degrees oI Ireedom Ior the

t-distribution. Mode ÷ 1 returns the one-tailed test, Mode ÷ 2

returns the two-tailed test.

TINV(number:

degreesIreedom)

Returns the inverse oI the t-distribution, Ior the given Number

associated with the two-tailed t-distribution. Degrees¸freedom

is the number oI degrees oI Ireedom Ior the t-distribution.

TRIMMEAN(data: alpha) Returns the mean oI a data set without the Alpha proportion oI

data at the margins. Data is the array oI data in the sample.

Alpha is the proportion oI the marginal data that will not be

taken into consideration.

TTEST(data1: data2:

mode: type)

Returns the probability associated with a Student`s t-Test.

Data¸1 is the dependent array or range oI data Ior the Iirst

record. Data¸2 is the dependent array or range oI data Ior the

second record. Mode ÷ 1 calculates the one-tailed test, Mode ÷

2 the two- tailed test. Type oI t-test to perIorm: paired (1),

equal variance (homoscedastic) (2), or unequal variance

(heteroscedastic) (3).

VAR(number1: number2:

... number30)

Estimates the variance based on a sample. Number¸1;

number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical values or ranges

representing a sample based on an entire population.

VARA(value1: value2: ...

value30)

Estimates a variance based on a sample. The value oI text is 0.

Value¸1; value¸2; ... value¸30 are values or ranges

representing a sample derived Irom an entire population. Text

has the value 0.

VARP(Number1:

number2: ... number30)

Calculates a variance based on the entire population.

Number¸1; number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical values

or ranges representing an entire population.

VARPA(value1: value2:

.. .value30)

Calculates the variance based on the entire population. The

value oI text is 0. Value¸1; value¸2; ... value¸30 are values or

ranges representing an entire population.

WEIBULL(number: alpha:

beta: C)

Returns the values oI the Weibull distribution Ior the given

Number. Alpha is the Alpha parameter oI the Weibull

distribution. Beta is the Beta parameter oI the Weibull

distribution. C indicates the type oI Iunction: C÷ 0 the Iorm oI

the Iunction is calculated, C÷1 the distribution is calculated.

ZTEST(data: number:

sigma)

Returns the two-tailed P value oI a z test with standard

distribution. Data is the array oI the data. Number is the value

to be tested. Sigma (optional) is the standard deviation oI the

total population. II this argument is missing, the standard

deviation oI the sample is processed.

Descríptíon of Functíons 24

Date and time functions

Date and time functions

Use these Iunctions Ior inserting, editing and manipulating dates and times. OpenOIIice.org

handles and computes a date/time value as a number. When you assign the number Iormat

'Number¨ to a date or time value, it is displayed as a number. For example, 01/01/2000 12:00

PM, converts to 36526.5. This is iust a matter oI Iormatting: the actual value is always stored

and manipulated as a number. To see the date or time displayed in a standard Iormat, change

the number Iormat (date or time) accordingly.

To set the deIault date Iormat used by Calc. go to Tools > Options > OpenOffice.org Calc >

Calculate.

Caution

When entering dates, slashes or dashes used as date separators may be interpreted

as arithmetic operators. To keep dates Irom being interpreted as parts oI Iormulas,

and thus returning erroneous results, always place them in quotation marks, Ior

example, "12/08/52".

Table 6. Data ana time functions

Syntax Description

DATE(year: month: day) Converts a date written as year, month, day to an internal serial

number and displays it in the cell`s Iormatting. Year is an

integer between 1583 and 9956 or 0 and 99. Month is an

integer between 1 and 12. Day is an integer between 1 and 31.

DATEVALUE("Text") Returns the internal date number Ior text in quotes. Text is a

valid date expression and must be entered with quotation

marks.

DAY(number) Returns the day, as an integer, oI the given date value. A

negative date/time value can be entered. Number is a time

value.

DAYS(date2: date1) Calculates the diIIerence, in days, between two date values.

Date¸1 is the start date. Date¸2 is the end date. II Date¸2 is an

earlier date than Date¸1, the result is a negative number.

DAYS360(date1: date2:

type)

Returns the diIIerence between two dates based on the 360 day

year used in interest calculations. II Date¸2 is earlier than

Date¸1, the Iunction will return a negative number. Type

(optional) determines the type oI diIIerence calculation: the

US method (0) or the European method (=0).

*DAYSINMONTH(date) Calculates the number oI days in the month oI the given date.

*DAYSINYEAR(date) Calculates the number oI days in the year oI the given date.

EASTERSUNDAY(integer) Returns the date oI Easter Sunday Ior the entered year. Year is

an integer between 1583 and 9956 or 0 and 99.

*EDATE(startdate:

months)

The result is a date a number oI Months away Irom the given

Start¸date. Only months are considered: days are not used Ior

calculation. Months is the number oI months.

Descríptíon of Functíons 25

Date and time functions

Syntax Description

*EOMONTH(startdate:

months)

Returns the date oI the last day oI a month which Ialls Months

away Irom the given Start¸date. Months is the number oI

months beIore (negative) or aIter (positive) the start date.

HOUR(number) Returns the hour, as an integer, Ior the given time value.

Number is a time value.

*ISLEAPYEAR(date) Determines whether a given date Ialls within a leap year.

Returns either 1 (TRUE) or 0 (FALSE).

MINUTE(number) Returns the minute, as an integer, Ior the given time value.

Number is a time value.

MONTH(number) Returns the month, as an integer, Ior the given date value.

Number is a time value.

*MONTHS(startdate:

enddate: type)

Calculates the diIIerence, in months, between two date values.

Date¸1 is the start (earlier) date. Date¸2 is the end date. Type

is one oI two possible values, 0 (interval) or 1 (in calendar

months). II Date¸2 is an earlier date than Date¸1, the result is

a negative number.

*NETWORKDAYS(start

date: enddate: holidays)

Returns the number oI workdays between start¸date and

end¸date. Holidays can be deducted. Start¸date is the date

Irom which the calculation is carried out. End¸date is the date

up to which the calculation is carried out. II the start or end

date is a workday, the day is included in the calculation.

Holidays (optional) is a list oI holidays. Enter a cell range in

which the holidays are listed individually.

NOW() Returns the computer system date and time. The value is

updated when your document recalculates. NOW is a Iunction

without arguments.

SECOND(number) Returns the second, as an integer, Ior the given time value.

Number is a time value.

TIME(hour: minute:

second)

Returns the current time value Irom values Ior hours, minutes

and seconds. This Iunction can be used to convert a time based

on these three elements to a decimal time value. Hour, minute

and second must all be integers.

TIMEVALUE(text) Returns the internal time number Irom a text enclosed by

quotes in a time entry Iormat. The internal number indicated as

a decimal is the result oI the date system used under OOo to

calculate date entries.

TODAY() Returns the current computer system date. The value is

updated when your document recalculates. TODAY is a

Iunction without arguments.

Descríptíon of Functíons 26

Date and time functions

Syntax Description

WEEKDAY(number: type) Returns the day oI the week Ior the given number (date

value). The day is returned as an integer based on the type.

Type determines the type oI calculation: type ÷ 1 (deIault),

the weekdays are counted starting Irom Sunday (Monday ÷ 0):

type ÷ 2, the weekdays are counted starting Irom Monday

(Monday ÷ 1): type ÷ 3, the weekdays are counted starting

Irom Monday (Monday ÷ 0).

WEEKNUM(number:

mode)

Calculates the number oI the calendar week oI the year Ior the

internal date number. Mode sets the start oI the week and the

calculation type: 1 ÷ Sunday, 2 ÷ Monday.

*WEEKNUMADD(date:

returntype)

Calculates the calendar week oI the year Ior a Date. Date is

the date within the calendar week. Return¸type sets the start

oI the week and the calculation type: 1 ÷ Sunday, 2 ÷ Monday.

*WEEKS(startdate:

enddate: type)

Calculates the diIIerence in weeks between two dates,

start¸date and end¸date. Type is one oI two possible values,

0 (interval) or 1 (in numbers oI weeks).

*WEEKSINYEAR(date) Calculates the number oI weeks in a year until a certain date.

A week that spans two years is added to the year in which most

days oI that week occur.

*WORKDAY(startdate:

days: holidays)

Returns a date number that can be Iormatted as a date. You

then see the date oI a day that is a certain number oI

Workdays away Irom the start¸date. Holidays (optional) is a

list oI holidays. Enter a cell range in which the holidays are

listed individually.

YEAR(number) Returns the year as a number according to the internal

calculation rules. Number shows the internal date value Ior

which the year is to be returned.

*YEARFRAC(startdate:

enddate: basis)

Returns a number between 0 and 1, representing the Iraction oI

a year between start¸date and end¸date. Start¸date and

end¸date are two date values. Basis is chosen Irom a list oI

options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

*YEARS(tartdate:

enddate: type)

Calculates the diIIerence in years between two dates: the

start¸date and the end¸date. Type calculates the type oI

diIIerence.

Descríptíon of Functíons 27

Logical functions

Logical functions

Use the logical Iunctions to test values and produce results based on the result oI the test.

These Iunctions are conditional and provide the ability to write longer Iormulas based on

input or output.

Table 7. Logical functions

Syntax Description

AND(logicalvalue1:

logicalvalue2:

...logicalvalue30)

Returns TRUE iI all arguments are TRUE. II any element is

FALSE, this Iunction returns the FALSE value.

Logical¸value¸1; logical¸value¸2; ...logical¸value¸30 are

conditions to be checked. All conditions can be either TRUE or

FALSE. II a range is entered as a parameter, the Iunction uses

the value Irom the range that is in the current column or row.

The result is TRUE iI the logical value in all cells within the

cell range is TRUE

FALSE() Set the logical value to FALSE. The FALSE() Iunction does

not require any arguments.

IF(test: thenvalue:

otherwisevalue)

SpeciIies a logical test to be perIormed. Test is any value or

expression that can be TRUE or FALSE. Then¸value

(optional) is the value that is returned iI the logical test is

TRUE. Otherwise¸value (optional) is the value that is

returned iI the logical test is FALSE.

NOT(logicalvalue) Reverses the logical value. Logical¸value is any value to be

reversed.

OR(logicalvalue1:

logicalvalue2:

...logicalvalue30)

Returns TRUE iI at least one argument is TRUE. Returns the

value FALSE iI all the arguments have the logical value

FALSE.. Logical¸value¸1; logical¸value¸2;

...logical¸value¸30 are conditions to be checked. All

conditions can be either TRUE or FALSE. II a range is entered

as a parameter, the Iunction uses the value Irom the range that

is in the current column or row.

TRUE() Sets the logical value to TRUE. The TRUE() Iunction does not

require any arguments.

Descríptíon of Functíons 28

lnformational functions

lnformational functions

These Iunctions provide inIormation (or Ieedback) regarding the results oI a test Ior a speciIic

condition, or a test Ior the type oI data or content a cell contains.

Table 8. Informational functions

Syntax Description

CELL(inIotype:

reIerence)

Returns inIormation on a cell such as its address, Iormatting or

contents oI a cell based on the value oI the info¸type

argument. Info¸type speciIies the type oI inIormation to be

returned and comes Irom a predeIined list oI arguments.

Info¸type is not case sensitive, but it must be enclosed within

quotes. Reference is the address oI the cell to be examined. II

reference is a range, the cell reIerence moves to the top leIt oI

the range. II reference is missing, Calc uses the position oI the

cell in which this Iormula is located.

CURRENT() Calculates the current value oI a Iormula at the actual position.

FORMULA(reIerence) Displays the Iormula oI a Iormula cell at any position. The

Iormula will be returned as a string in the Reference position.

II no Iormula cell can be Iound, or iI the presented argument is

not a reIerence, returns the error value #N/A.

ISBLANK(value) Returns TRUE iI the reIerence to a cell is blank. This Iunction

is used to determine iI the content oI a cell is empty. A cell

with a Iormula inside is not empty. II an error occurs, the

Iunction returns a logical or numerical value. Value is the

content to be tested.

ISERR(value) Returns TRUE iI the value reIers to any error value except

#N/A. You can use this Iunction to control error values in

certain cells. II an error occurs, the Iunction returns a logical or

numerical value. Value is any value or expression in which a

test is perIormed to determine whether an error value not equal

to #N/A is present.

ISERROR(value) The ISERROR tests iI the cells contain general error values.

ISERROR recognizes the #N/A error value. II an error occurs,

the Iunction returns a logical or numerical value. Value is any

value where a test is perIormed to determine whether it is an

error value.

*ISEVENADD(number) Tests Ior even numbers. Returns TRUE (1) iI the number

returns a whole number when divided by 2.

ISFORMULA(reIerence) Returns TRUE iI a cell is a Iormula cell. II an error occurs, the

Iunction returns a logical or numerical value. Reference

indicates the reIerence to a cell in which a test will be

perIormed to determine iI it contains a reIerence.

Descríptíon of Functíons 29

lnformational functions

Syntax Description

ISLOGICAL(value) Returns TRUE iI the cell contains a logical number Iormat.

The Iunction is used in order to check Ior both TRUE and

FALSE values in certain cells. II an error occurs, the Iunction

returns a logical or numerical value. Value is the value to be

tested Ior logical number Iormat.

ISNA(value) Returns TRUE iI a cell contains the #N/A (value not available)

error value. II an error occurs, the Iunction returns a logical or

numerical value. Value is the value or expression to be tested.

ISNONTEXT(value) Tests iI the cell contents are text or numbers, and returns

FALSE iI the contents are text. II an error occurs, the Iunction

returns a logical or numerical value. Value is any value or

expression where a test is perIormed to determine whether it is

a text or numbers or a Boolean value.

ISNUMBER(value) Returns TRUE iI the value reIers to a number. II an error

occurs, the Iunction returns a logical or numerical value. Value

is any expression to be tested to determine whether it is a

number or text.

*ISODDADD(number) Returns TRUE (1) iI the number does not return a whole

number when divided by 2. Number is the number to be

tested.

ISREF(value) Tests iI the content oI one or several cells is a reIerence.

VeriIies the type oI reIerences in a cell or a range oI cells. II an

error occurs, the Iunction returns a logical or numerical value.

Value is the value to be tested, to determine whether it is a

reIerence.

ISTEXT(value) Returns TRUE iI the cell contents reIer to text. II an error

occurs, the Iunction returns a logical or numerical value. Value

is a value, number, Boolean value, or error value to be tested.

N(value) Returns the number 1, iI the parameter is TRUE. Returns the

parameter, iI the parameter is a number. Returns the number 0

Ior other parameters. II an error occurs, the Iunction returns a

logical or numerical value. Value is the parameter to be

converted into a number.

NA() Returns the error value #N/A.

TYPE(value) Returns the type oI value. II an error occurs, the Iunction

returns a logical or numerical value. Value is a speciIic value

Ior which the data type is determined. Value 1 ÷ number, value

2 ÷ text, value 4 ÷ Boolean value, value 8 ÷ Iormula, value 16

÷ error value.

Descríptíon of Functíons 30

Database functions

Database functions

This section deals with Iunctions used with data organized as one row oI data Ior one record.

The Database category should not be conIused with the Base database component in

OpenOIIice.org. A Calc database is simple a range oI cells that comprises a block oI related

data where each row contains a separate record. There is no connection between a database in

OpenOIIice.org and the Database category in OOo Calc.

The database Iunctions use the Iollowing common arguments:

Database is a range oI cells which deIine the database.

Database¸field speciIies the column where the Iunction operates on aIter the search

criteria oI the Iirst parameter is applied and the data rows are selected. It is not related to

the search criteria itselI. The number 0 speciIies the whole data range. To reIerence a

column by using the column header name, place quotation marks around the header name.

Search¸criteria is a cell range containing the search criteria.. Empty cells in the search

criteria range will be ignored.

Note All oI the search-criteria arguments Ior the database Iunctions support regular

expressions. For example, 'all.*¨ can be entered to Iind the Iirst location oI 'all¨

Iollowed by any characters. To search Ior text that is also a regular expression,

precede every character with a \ character. You can switch the automatic evaluation

oI regular expressions on and oII in Tools > Options > OpenOffice.org Calc >

Calculate.

Table 9. Database average

Syntax Description

DAVERAGE(database:

databaseIield:

searchcriteria)

Returns the average oI the values oI all cells (Iields) in all

rows (database records) that match the speciIied

search¸criteria. The search supports regular expressions.

DCOUNT(database:

databaseIield:

searchcriteria)

Counts the number oI rows (records) in a database that match

the speciIied search¸criteria and contain numerical values.

The search supports regular expressions. For the

database¸field parameter, enter a cell address to speciIy the

column, or enter the number 0 Ior the entire database. The

parameter cannot be empty.

DCOUNTA(database:

databaseIield:

searchcriteria)

Counts the number oI rows (records) in a database that match

the speciIied search¸criteria and contain numeric or

alphanumeric values. The search supports regular expressions.

DGET(database:

databaseIield:

searchcriteria)

Returns the contents oI the reIerenced cell in a database which

matches the speciIied search¸criteria. In case oI an error, the

Iunction returns either #VALUE! Ior no row Iound, or Err502

Ior more than one cell Iound.

Descríptíon of Functíons 31

Database functions

Syntax Description

DMAX(database:

databaseIield:

searchcriteria)

Returns the maximum content oI a cell (Iield) in a database (all

records) that matches the speciIied search¸criteria. The

search supports regular expressions.

DMIN(database:

databaseIield:

searchcriteria)

Returns the minimum content oI a cell (Iield) in a database that

matches the speciIied search¸criteria. The search supports

regular expressions.

DPRODUCT(database:

databaseIield:

searchcriteria)

Multiplies all cells oI a data range where the cell contents

match the search¸criteria. The search supports regular

expressions.

DSTDEV(database:

databaseIield:

searchcriteria)

Calculates the standard deviation oI a population based on a

sample, using the numbers in a database column that match the

search¸criteria. The records are treated as a sample oI data.

Note that a representative result oI a large population can not

be obtained Irom a sample oI Iewer than one thousand.

DSTDEVP(database:

databaseIield:

searchcriteria)

Calculates the standard deviation oI a population based on all

cells oI a data range which match the search¸criteria. The

records Irom the example are treated as the whole population.

DSUM(database:

databaseIield:

searchcriteria)

Returns the total oI all cells in a database Iield in all rows

(records) that match the speciIied search¸criteria. The search

supports regular expressions.

DVAR(database:

databaseIield:

searchcriteria)

Returns the variance oI all cells oI a database Iield in all

records that match the speciIied search¸criteria. The records

Irom the example are treated as a sample oI data. A

representative result oI a large population cannot be obtained

Irom a sample population oI Iewer than one thousand.

DVARP(database:

databaseIield:

searchcriteria)

Calculates the variance oI all cell values in a database Iield in

all records that match the speciIied search¸criteria. The

records are Irom the example are treated as an entire

population.

Descríptíon of Functíons 32

Array functions

Array functions

Table 10. Arrav functions

Syntax Description

FREQUENCY(data:

classes)

Calculates the Irequency distribution in a one-column-array.

The deIault value supply and the number oI intervals or classes

are used to count how many values are omitted on the single

intervals. Data is the array oI, or reIerence to, the set oI values

to be counted. Classes is the array oI the class set.

GROWTH(dataY:

dataX: newdataX:

Iunctiontype)

Calculates the points oI an exponential trend in an array.

Data¸Y is the Y Data array. Data¸X (optional) is the X Data

array. New¸Data¸X (optional) is the X data array, in which the

values are recalculated. Function¸type is optional. II

Iunctiontype ÷ 0, Iunctions in the Iorm y ÷ m`x are

calculated. Otherwise, y ÷ b*m`x Iunctions are calculated.

LINEST(dataY: dataX:

lineartype: stats)

Returns the parameters oI a linear trend. Data¸Y is the Y Data

array. Data¸X (optional) is the X Data array. Linear¸Type

(optional). II the line goes through the zero point, then set

LinearType ÷ 0. Stats (optional): II Stats÷0, only the

regression coeIIicient is calculated. Otherwise, other statistics

will be seen.

LOGEST(dataY: dataX:

Iunctiontype: stats)

Calculates the adiustment oI the entered data as an exponential

regression curve (y÷b*m`x). Data¸Y is the Y Data array.

Data¸X (optional) is the X Data array. Function¸type

(optional): II Iunctiontype ÷ 0, Iunctions in the Iorm y ÷ m`x

are calculated. Otherwise, y ÷ b*m`x Iunctions are calculated.

Stats (optional). II Stats÷0, only the regression coeIIicient is

calculated.

MDETERM(array) Returns the array determinant oI an array. This Iunction returns

a value in the current cell: it is not necessary to deIine a range

Ior the results. Array is a square array in which the

determinants are deIined.

MINVERSE(array) Returns the inverse array. Array is a square array that is to be

inverted.

MMULT(array: array) Calculates the array product oI two arrays. The number oI

columns Ior array 1 must match the number oI rows Ior array

2. The square array has an equal number oI rows and columns.

Array at Iirst place is the Iirst array used in the array product.

Array at second place is the second array with the same

number oI rows.

MUNIT(dimensions) Returns the unitary square array oI a certain size. The unitary

array is a square array where the main diagonal elements equal

1 and all other array elements are equal to 0. Dimensions

reIers to the size oI the array unit.

Descríptíon of Functíons 33

Array functions

Syntax Description

SUMPRODUCT(array 1:

array 2: ...array 30)

Multiplies corresponding elements in the given arrays, and

returns the sum oI those products. Array 1; array 2;...array

30 are arrays whose corresponding elements are to be

multiplied. At least one array must be part oI the argument list.

II only one array is given, all array elements are summed.

SUMX2MY2(arrayX:

arrayY)

Returns the sum oI the diIIerence oI squares oI corresponding

values in two arrays. Array¸X is the Iirst array whose

elements are to be squared and added. Array¸Y is the second

array whose elements are to be squared and subtracted.

SUMX2PY2(arrayX:

arrayY)

Returns the sum oI the sum oI squares oI corresponding values

in two arrays. Array¸X is the Iirst array whose arguments are

to be squared and added. Array¸Y is the second array, whose

elements are to be added and squared.

SUMXMY2(arrayX:

arrayY)

Adds the squares oI the variance between corresponding

values in two arrays. Array¸X is the Iirst array whose

elements are to be subtracted and squared. Array¸Y is the

second array, whose elements are to be subtracted and squared.

TRANSPOSE(array) Transposes the rows and columns oI an array. Array is the

array in the spreadsheet that is to be transposed.

TREND(dataY: dataX:

newdataX: linearType)

Returns values along a linear trend. Data¸Y is the Y Data

array. Data¸X (optional) is the X Data array. New¸data¸X

(optional) is the array oI the X data, which are used Ior

recalculating values. Linear¸type is optional. II linear¸type ÷

0, then lines will be calculated through the zero point.

Otherwise, oIIset lines will also be calculated. The deIault is

linear¸type ·~ 0.

Descríptíon of Functíons 34

5preadsheet functions

Spreadsheet functions

Use spreadsheet Iunctions to search and address cell ranges and provide Ieedback regarding

the contents oI a cell or range oI cells. You can use Iunctions such as HYPERLINK() and

DDE() to connect to other documents or data sources.

Table 11. Spreaasheet functions

Syntax Description

ADDRESS(row: column:

abs: sheet)

Returns a cell address (reIerence) as text, according to the

speciIied row and column numbers. Optionally, whether the

address is interpreted as an absolute address (Ior example,

$A$1) or as a relative address (as A1) or in a mixed Iorm (A$1

or $A1) can be determined. The name oI the sheet can also be

speciIied. Row is the row number Ior the cell reIerence.

Column is the column number Ior the cell reIerence (the

number, not the letter). Abs determines the type oI reIerence.

Sheet is the name oI the sheet.

AREAS(reIerence) Returns the number oI individual ranges that belong to a

multiple range. A range can consist oI contiguous cells or a

single cell. Reference is the reIerence to a cell or cell range.

CHOOSE(index: value1: ...

value30)

Uses an index to return a value Irom a list oI up to 30 values.

Index is a reIerence or number between 1 and 30 indicating

which value is to be taken Irom the list. Value1; ... value30 is

the list oI values entered as a reIerence to a cell or as

individual values.

COLUMN(reIerence) Returns the column number oI a cell reIerence. II the reIerence

is a cell, the column number oI the cell is returned: iI the

parameter is a cell area, the corresponding column numbers are

returned in a single-row array iI the Iormula is entered as an

array Iormula. II the COLUMN Iunction with an area reIerence

parameter is not used Ior an array Iormula, only the column

number oI the Iirst cell within the area is determined.

ReIerence is the reIerence to a cell or cell area whose Iirst

column number is to be Iound. II no reIerence is entered, the

column number oI the cell in which the Iormula is entered is

Iound. Calc automatically sets the reIerence to the current cell.

COLUMNS(array) Returns the number oI columns in the given reIerence. Array

is the reIerence to a cell range whose total number oI columns

is to be Iound. The argument can also be a single cell.

Descríptíon of Functíons 35

5preadsheet functions

Syntax Description

DDE(server: Iile: range:

mode)

Returns the result oI a DDE-based link. II the contents oI the

linked range or section changes, the returned value will also

change. The spreadsheet can be reloaded, or Edit > Links

selected, to see the updated links. Cross-platIorm links, Ior

example Irom an OpenOIIice.org installation running on a

Windows machine to a document created on a Linux machine,

are not supported. Server is the name oI a server application.

OpenOIIice.org applications have the server name 'SoIIice¨.

File is the complete Iile name, including path. Range is the

area containing the data to be evaluated. Mode is an optional

parameter that controls the method by which the DDE server

converts its data into numbers.

ERRORTYPE(reIerence) Returns the number corresponding to an error value occurring

in a diIIerent cell. With the aid oI this number, an error

message text can be generated. II an error occurs, the Iunction

returns a logical or numerical value. Reference contains the

address oI the cell in which the error occurs.

HLOOKUP(searchcriteria

: array: index: sorted)

Searches Ior a value and reIerence to the cells below the

selected area. This Iunction veriIies iI the Iirst row oI an array

contains a certain value. The Iunction returns the value in a

row oI the array, named in the index, in the same column. The

search supports regular expressions.

HYPERLINK(URL) or

HYPERLINK(URL:

celltext)

When a cell that contains the HYPERLINK Iunction is clicked,

the hyperlink opens. URL speciIies the link target. The

optional cell¸text argument is the text displayed in the cell. II

the cell¸text parameter is not speciIied, the URL is displayed.

INDEX(reIerence: row:

column: range)

Returns the content oI a cell, speciIied by row and column

number or an optional range name. Reference is a cell

reIerence, entered either directly or by speciIying a range

name. II the reIerence consists oI multiple ranges, the reIerence

or range name must be enclosed in parentheses. Row

(optional) is the row number oI the reIerence range, Ior which

to return a value. Column (optional) is the column number oI

the reIerence range, Ior which to return a value. Range

(optional) is the index oI the subrange iI reIerring to a multiple

range.

INDIRECT(reIerence) Returns the reference speciIied by a text string. This Iunction

can also be used to return the area oI a corresponding string.

Reference is a reIerence to a cell or an area (in text Iorm) Ior

which to return the contents.

Descríptíon of Functíons 36

5preadsheet functions

Syntax Description

LOOKUP(searchcriterion:

searchvector:

resultvector)

Returns the contents oI a cell either Irom a one-row or one-

column range or Irom an array. Optionally, the assigned value

(oI the same index) is returned in a diIIerent column and row.

As opposed to VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP, search and result

vectors may be at diIIerent positions: they do not have to be

adiacent. Additionally, the search vector Ior the LOOKUP must

be sorted, otherwise the search will not return any usable

results. The search supports regular expressions.

Search¸criterion is the value to be searched Ior: entered either

directly or as a reIerence. Search¸vector is the single-row or

single-column area to be searched. Result¸vector is another

single-row or single-column range Irom which the result oI the

Iunction is taken. The result is the cell oI the result vector with

the same index as the instance Iound in the search vector.

MATCH(searchcriterion:

lookuparray: type)

Returns the relative position oI an item in an array that matches

a speciIied value. The Iunction returns the position oI the value

Iound in the lookuparray as a number. Search¸criterion is

the value which is to be searched Ior in the single-row or

single-column array. Lookup¸array is the reIerence searched.

A lookup array can be a single row or column, or part oI a

single row or column. Type may take the values 1, 0, or 1.

This corresponds to the same Iunction in MicrosoIt Excel. The

search supports regular expressions

OFFSET(reIerence: rows:

columns: height: width)

Returns the value oI a cell oIIset by a certain number oI rows

and columns Irom a given reIerence point. Reference is the

cell Irom which the Iunction searches Ior the new reIerence.

Rows is the number oI cells by which the reIerence was

corrected up (negative value) or down. Columns is the number

oI columns by which the reIerence was corrected to the leIt

(negative value) or to the right. Height is the optional vertical

height Ior an area that starts at the new reIerence position.

Width is the optional horizontal width Ior an area that starts at

the new reIerence position.

ROW(reIerence) Returns the row number oI a cell reIerence. II the reIerence is a

cell, it returns the row number oI the cell. II the reIerence is a

cell range, it returns the corresponding row numbers in a one-

column Array iI the Iormula is entered as an array Iormula. II

the ROW Iunction with a range reIerence is not used in an

array Iormula, only the row number oI the Iirst range cell will

be returned. Reference is a cell, an area, or the name oI an

area. II a reIerence is not indicated, Calc automatically sets the

reIerence to the current cell.

ROWS(array) Returns the number oI rows in a reIerence or array. Array is

the reIerence or named area whose total number oI rows is to

be determined.

Descríptíon of Functíons 37

5preadsheet functions

Syntax Description

SHEET(reIerence) Returns the sheet number oI a reIerence or a string

representing a sheet name. II no parameters are entered, the

result is the sheet number oI the spreadsheet containing the

Iormula. Reference (optional) is the reIerence to a cell, an

area, or a sheet name string.

SHEETS(reIerence) Determines the number oI sheets in a reIerence. II no

parameters are entered, the result is the number oI sheets in the

current document. Reference (optional) is the reIerence to a

sheet or an area.

STYLE(style: time: style2) Applies a style to the cell containing the Iormula. AIter a set

amount oI time, another style can be applied. This Iunction

always returns the value 0, allowing it to be added to another

Iunction without changing the value. Style is the name oI a cell

style assigned to the cell. Time is an optional time range in

seconds. Style2 is the optional name oI a cell style assigned to

the cell aIter a certain amount oI time has passed.

VLOOKUP(searchcriterio

n: array: index: sortorder)

Searches vertically with reIerence to adiacent cells to the right.

II a speciIic value is contained in the Iirst column oI an array,

returns the value to the same line oI a speciIic array column

named by index. The search supports regular expressions.

Search¸criterion is the value searched Ior in the Iirst column

oI the array. Array is the reIerence, which must include at least

two columns. Index is the number oI the column in the array

that contains the value to be returned. The Iirst column has the

number 1. Sort¸order (optional) indicates whether the Iirst

column in the array is sorted in ascending order.

Descríptíon of Functíons 38

Text functions

Text functions

Use Calc`s text Iunctions to search and manipulate text strings or character codes.

Table 12. Text functions

Syntax Description

ARABIC(text) Calculates the value oI a Roman number. The value range must

be between 0 and 3999. Text is the text that represents a

Roman number.

BASE(number: radix:

|minimumlength|)

Converts a positive integer to a speciIied base then into text

using the characters Irom the base's numbering system

(decimal, binary, hexadecimal, etc.). Only the digits 0-9 and

the letters A-Z are used. Number is the positive integer to be

converted. Radix is the base oI the number system. It may be

any positive integer between 2 and 36. Minimum¸length

(optional) is the minimum length oI the character sequence that

has been created. II the text is shorter than the indicated

minimum length, zeros are added to the leIt oI the string.

CHAR(number) Converts a number into a character according to the current

code table. The number can be a two-digit or three-digit integer

number. Number is a number between 1 and 255 representing

the code value Ior the character.

CLEAN(text) Removes all non-printing characters Irom the string. Text

reIers to the text Irom which to remove all non-printable

characters.

CODE(text) Returns a numeric code Ior the Iirst character in a text string.

Text is the text Ior which the code oI the Iirst character is to be

Iound.

CONCATENATE(text1:

text2: ...: text30)

Combines several text strings into one string. Text¸1; text¸2;

... text¸30 are text passages that are to be combined into one

string.

DECIMAL(text: radix) Converts text with characters Irom a number system to a

positive integer in the base radix given. The radix must be in

the range 2 to 36. Spaces and tabs are ignored. The text Iield is

not case-sensitive. Text is the text to be converted. To

diIIerentiate between a hexadecimal number, such as A1 and

the reIerence to cell A1, place the number in quotation marks:

Ior example, "A1" or "FACE¨. Radix indicates the base oI the

number system. It may be any positive integer between 2 and

36.

Descríptíon of Functíons 39

Text functions

Syntax Description

DOLLAR(value: decimals) Converts a number to an amount in the currency Iormat,

rounded to a speciIied decimal place. Value is the number to

be converted to currency: it can be a number, a reIerence to a

cell containing a number, or a Iormula which returns a number.

Decimals (optional) is the number oI decimal places. II no

decimals value is speciIied, all numbers in currency Iormat will

be displayed with two decimal places. The currency Iormat is

set in the system settings.

EXACT(text1: text2) Compares two text strings and returns TRUE iI they are

identical. This Iunction is case-sensitive. Text¸1 is the Iirst text

to compare. Text¸2 is the second text to compare.

FIND(Iindtext: text:

position)

Looks Ior a string oI text within another string. Where to begin

the search can also be deIined. The search term can be a

number or any string oI characters. The search is case-

sensitive. Find¸text is the text to be Iound. Text is the text

where the search takes place. Position (optional) is the

position in the text Irom which the search starts.

FIXED(number: decimals:

nothousandsseparator)

SpeciIies that a number be displayed with a Iixed number oI

decimal places and with or without a thousands separator. This

Iunction can be used to apply a uniIorm Iormat to a column oI

numbers. Number is the number to be Iormatted. Decimals is

the number oI decimal places to be displayed.

No¸thousands¸separator (optional) determines whether the

thousands separator is used or not. II the parameter is a number

not equal to 0, the thousands separator is suppressed. II the

parameter is equal to 0 or iI it is missing altogether, the

thousands separators oI the current locale setting are displayed.

LEFT(text: number) Returns the Iirst character or characters in a text string. Text is

the text where the initial partial words are to be determined.

Number (optional) is the number oI characters Ior the start

text. II this parameter is not deIined, one character is returned.

LEN(text) Returns the length oI a string including spaces. Text is the text

whose length is to be determined.

LOWER(text) Converts all uppercase letters in a text string to lowercase.

Text is the text to be converted.

MID(text: start: number) Returns a text segment oI a character string. The parameters

speciIy the starting position and the number oI characters. Text

is the text containing the characters to extract. Start is the

position oI the Iirst character in the text to extract. Number is

the number oI characters in the part oI the text.

PROPER(text) Capitalizes the Iirst letter in all words oI a text string. Text

reIers to the text to be converted.

Descríptíon of Functíons 40

Text functions

Syntax Description

REPLACE(text: position:

length: newtext)

Replaces part oI a text string with a diIIerent text string. This

Iunction can be used to replace both characters and numbers

(which are automatically converted to text). The result oI the

Iunction is always displayed as text. To perIorm Iurther

calculations with a number which has been replaced by text,

convert it back to a number using the VALUE Iunction. Any

text containing numbers must be enclosed in quotation marks

so it is not interpreted as a number and automatically converted

to text. Text is text oI which a part will be replaced. Position is

the position within the text where the replacement will begin.

Length is the number oI characters in text to be replaced.

New¸text is the text which replaces text..

REPT(text: number) Repeats a character string by the given number oI copies. Text

is the text to be repeated. Number is the number oI repetitions.

The result can be a maximum oI 255 characters.

RIGHT(text: number) DeIines the last character or characters in a text string. Text is

the text oI which the right part is to be determined. Number

(optional) is the number oI characters Irom the right part oI the

text.

ROMAN(number: mode) Converts a number into a Roman numeral. The value range

must be between 0 and 3999: the modes can be integers Irom 0

to 4. Number is the number that is to be converted into a

Roman numeral. Mode (optional) indicates the degree oI

simpliIication. The higher the value, the greater is the

simpliIication oI the Roman numeral.

*ROT13(text) Encrypts a character string by moving the characters 13

positions in the alphabet. AIter the letter Z, the alphabet begins

again (Rotation). Applying the encryption Iunction again to the

resulting code, decrypts the text. Text: Enter the character

string to be encrypted. ROT13(ROT13(Text)) decrypts the

code.

SEARCH(Iindtext: text:

position)

Returns the position oI a text segment within a character string.

The start oI the search can be set as an option. The search text

can be a number or any sequence oI characters. The search is

not case-sensitive. The search supports regular expressions.

Find¸text is the text to be searched Ior. Text is the text where

the search will take place. Position (optional) is the position in

the text where the search is to start.

SUBSTITUTE(text:

searchtext: new text:

occurrence)

Substitutes new text Ior old text in a string. Text is the text in

which text segments are to be exchanged. Search¸text is the

text segment that is to be replaced (a number oI times). New

text is the text that is to replace the text segment. Occurrence

(optional) indicates how many occurrences oI the search text

are to be replaced. II this parameter is missing, the search text

is replaced throughout.

Descríptíon of Functíons 41

Text functions

Syntax Description

T(value) Converts a number to a blank text string. Value is the value to

be converted. Also, a reIerence can be used as a parameter. II

the reIerenced cell includes a number or a Iormula containing a

numerical result, the result will be an empty string.

TEXT(number: Iormat) Converts a number into text according to a given Iormat.

Number is the numerical value to be converted. Format is the

text which deIines the Iormat. Use decimal and thousands

separators according to the language set in the cell Iormat.

TRIM(text) Removes spaces that are in Iront oI a string, or aligns cell

contents to the leIt. Text reIers to text in which leading spaces

are removed, or to the cell in which the contents will be leIt-

aligned.

UPPER(text) Converts the string speciIied in the text parameter to

uppercase. Text reIers to the lower case letters you want to

convert to upper case.

VALUE(text) Converts a text string into a number. Text is the text to be

converted to a number.

Add-in functions

You can extend Calc`s Ieatures with Add-ins programmed to be compatible with OOo's

Application Programming InterIace (API). Add-ins are either Dynamically Linked Libraries

(*.dll) or shared libraries (such as Shared Obiect libraries, *.so), depending on the operating

system under which OOo is running. When placed in the directory (or Iolder) deIined in

Tools > Options > OpenOffice.org > Paths > Add-ins dialog, these libraries are recognized

and can be utilized by Calc. Installing a Iunction Add-in library makes its Iunctions available

through the Function Wizara (Insert > Function or Ctrl·F2) and the Function List (Insert >

Function List).

OOo provides samples oI the add-in interIace oI Calc which can be selectively installed or

uninstalled through the OOo Setup program. These add-ins are listed in the Iollowing table. II

these add-ins are not installed, neither the Iollowing described Iunctions, nor the Iunctions

marked with a * in the previous lists, will be available.

More detailed inIormation on programming add-ins Ior OpenOIIice.org can be Iound in the

OpenOIIice.org Developer's Guide or on the OOo developers` website:

http://development.openoIIice.org/.

Descríptíon of Functíons 42

Add-in functions

Table 13. Aaa-in functions

Syntax Description

*BESSELI(x: n) Calculates the modiIied Bessel Iunction In(x). x is the value

on which the Iunction will be calculated. n is the order oI

the Bessel Iunction

*BESSELJ(x: n) Calculates the Bessel Iunction Jn(x) (cylinder Iunction). x is

the value on which the Iunction will be calculated. n is the

order oI the Bessel Iunction

*BESSELK(x: n) Calculates the modiIied Bessel Iunction Kn(x). x is the

value on which the Iunction will be calculated. n is the

order oI the Bessel Iunction

*BESSELY(x: n) Calculates the modiIied Bessel Iunction Yn(x), also known

as the Weber or Neumann Iunction. x is the value on which

the Iunction will be calculated. n is the order oI the Bessel

Iunction

*BIN2DEC(number) Returns the decimal number Ior the binary number entered.

Number is the binary number.

*BIN2HEX(number: places) Returns the hexadecimal number Ior the binary number

entered. Number is the binary number. Places is the number

oI places to be output.

*BIN2OCT(number: places) Returns the octal number Ior the binary number entered.

Number is the binary number. Places is the number oI

places to be output.

*COMPLEX(realnum:

inum: suIIix)

Returns a complex number Irom a real coeIIicient and an

imaginary coeIIicient. Real¸num is the real coeIIicient oI

the complex number. I¸num is the imaginary coeIIicient oI

the complex number. Suffix is list oI options, "i¨ or "i¨.

*CONVERTADD(number:

Iromunit: tounit)

Converts a value Irom one unit oI measure to the

corresponding value in another unit oI measure. Number is

the number to be converted. From¸unit is the unit Irom

which conversion is taking place. To¸unit is the unit to

which conversion is taking place.

*DEC2BIN(number: places) Returns the binary number Ior the decimal number entered

between -512 and 511. Number is the decimal number.

Places is the number oI places to be output.

*DEC2HEX(number: places) Returns the hexadecimal number Ior the decimal number

entered. Number is the decimal number. Places is the

number oI places to be output.

*DEC2OCT(number: places) Returns the octal number Ior the decimal number entered.

Number is the decimal number. Places is the number oI

places to be output.

*DELTA(number1:

number2)

Returns TRUE (1) iI both numbers are equal, otherwise

returns FALSE (0).

Descríptíon of Functíons 43

Add-in functions

Syntax Description

*ERF(lowerlimit:

upperlimit)

Returns values oI the Gaussian error integral. Lower¸limit

is the lower limit oI integral. Upper¸limit (optional) is the

upper limit oI the integral. II this value is missing, the

calculation takes places between 0 and the lower limit.

*ERFC(lowerlimit) Returns complementary values oI the Gaussian error

integral between x and inIinity. Lower limit is the lower

limit oI integral (x).

*FACTDOUBLE(number) Returns the Iactorial oI the number with increments oI 2. II

the number is even, the Iollowing Iactorial is calculated:

n*(N-2)*(n-4)*...*4*2. II the number is uneven, the

Iollowing Iactorial is calculated: n*(N-2)*(n-4)*...*3*1.

*GESTEP(number: step) Returns 1 iI Number is greater than or equal to Step.

*HEX2BIN(number: places) Returns the binary number Ior the hexadecimal number

entered. Number is the hexadecimal number. Places is the

number oI places to be output.

*HEX2DEC(number) Returns the decimal number Ior the hexadecimal number

entered. Number is the hexadecimal number.

*HEX2OCT(number: places) Returns the octal number Ior the hexadecimal number

entered. Number is the hexadecimal number. Places is the

number oI places to be output.

*IMABS(complexnumber) Returns the absolute value (modulus) oI a

complex¸number. The complex number is entered in the

Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"

*IMAGINARY(complex

number)

Returns the imaginary coeIIicient oI a complex¸number.

The complex number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹

yi"

*IMARGUMENT(complex

number)

Returns the argument (the phi angle) oI a complex¸number.

The complex number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹

yi"

*IMCONJUGATE(complex

number)

Returns the coniugated complex complement to a

complex¸number. The complex number is entered in the

Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"

*IMCOS(complexnumber) Returns the cosine oI a complex¸number. The complex

number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"

*IMDIV(numerator:

denominator)

Returns the division oI two complex numbers. Numerator,

Denominator are entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"

*IMEXP(complexnumber) Returns the power oI e (the Eulerian number) and the

complex number. The complex¸number is entered in the

Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"

*IMLN(complexnumber) Returns the natural logarithm oI a complex¸number. The

complexnumber is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi¨

Descríptíon of Functíons 44

Add-in functions

Syntax Description

*IMLOG10(complex

number)

Returns the common logarithm oI a complex¸number. The

complex number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"

*IMLOG2(complex number) Returns the binary logarithm oI a complex¸number. The

complex number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"

*IMPOWER(complex

number: number)

Returns the integer power oI a complex¸number. The

complex number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi".

Number is the exponent.

*IMPRODUCT(complex

number: complexnumber1:

...)

Returns the product oI up to 29 complex¸numbers. The

complex numbers are entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹

yi"

*IMREAL(complex number) Returns the real coeIIicient oI a complex¸number. The

complex number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"

*IMSIN(complexnumber) Returns the sine oI a complex¸number. The complex

number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"

*IMSQRT(complexnumber) Returns the square root oI a complex¸number. The

complex numbers are entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹

yi"

*IMSUB(complexnumber1:

complexnumber2)

Returns the subtraction oI two complex¸numbers. The

complex¸numbers are entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹

yi"

*IMSUM(complexnumber:

complexnumber1: ...)

Returns the sum oI up to 29 complex numbers. The

complex¸numbers are entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹

yi"

*OCT2BIN(number: places) Returns the binary number Ior the octal number entered.

Number is the octal number. Places is the number oI places

to be output.

*OCT2DEC(number) Returns the decimal number Ior the octal number entered.

Number is the octal number.

*OCT2HEX(number: places) Returns the hexadecimal number Ior the octal number

entered. Number is the octal number. Places is the number

oI places to be output.

Descríptíon of Functíons 45