Functions available in Calc

Functions available in Calc
Table 1. Functions available in Calc
Function Category Standard Addins Total
Mathematical 54 8 62
Financial 22 37 59
Statistical 77 0 77
Date and Time 17 13 30
Logical 6 0 6
InIormational 16 2 18
Database 12 0 12
Array 14 0 14
Spreadsheet 20 0 20
Text 27 1 28
Total 265 61 326
Calc provides all oI the commonly used Iunctions Iound in modern spreadsheet applications.
This appendix is oIIered to acquaint users with the available Iunctions. Since many oI Calc`s
Iunctions require very speciIic and careIully calculated input arguments, these descriptions
should not be considered complete reIerences Ior each Iunction. More detailed explanations
oI the Ieatures and requirements oI Calc`s Iunctions can be Iound in the OpenOIIice.org help
system.
Over 250 standard Iunctions are available in Calc, with many more available through its
AaaIn Ieature, which is brieIly explained in the last section oI this Appendix, 'Add-in
Iunctions¨ on page 42. The Iollowing tables list Calc`s Iunctions organized in eleven
Iunctional categories. Throughout the lists below. anv function markea with an asterisk (*) is
onlv available if the Analvsis AaaIn is installea.
Note Some oI the descriptions in this appendix deIine limitations on the number oI values
or arguments that can be passed to the Iunction. SpeciIically, Iunctions that reIer to
the Iollowing arguments may lead to conIusion.
Number¸1; number¸2;... number¸30
Number 1 to 30
a list of up to 30 numbers
There is a signiIicant diIIerence between a list of numbers (or integers) and the
number of arguments a Iunction will accept. For, example the SUM Iunction will
only accept a maximum oI 30 arguments. This limit does NOT mean that you can
only sum 30 numbers, but that you can only pass 30 separate arguments to the
Iunction.
Descríptíon of Functíons 1
Functions available in Calc
Arguments are values separated by semi-colons, and can include ranges which oIten
reIer to multiple values. ThereIore one argument can reIer to several values, and a
Iunction that limits input to 30 arguments, may in Iact accept more then 30 separate
numerical values.
This appendix attempts to clariIy this situation by using the term arguments, rather
than any oI the aIorementioned phrases. UnIortunately the OOo online help is
somewhat vague regarding this matter.
Note Functions whose names end with ¸ADD are provided Ior compatibility with
MicrosoIt Excel Iunctions. They return the same results as the corresponding
Iunctions in Excel (without the suIIix), which though they may be correct, are not
based on international standards. The functions are onlv available if the
Analvsis AaaIn is installea.
Mathematical functions
Table 2. Mathematical functions
Syntax Description
ABS(number) Returns the absolute value oI the given number.
ACOS(number) Returns the inverse cosine oI the given number in radians.
ACOSH(number) Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine oI the given number in
radians.
ACOT(number) Returns the inverse cotangent oI the given number in radians.
ACOTH(number) Returns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent oI the given number
in radians.
ASIN(number) Returns the inverse sine oI the given number in radians.
ASINH(number) Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine oI the given number in
radians.
ATAN(number) Returns the inverse tangent oI the given number in radians.
ATAN2(numberx:
numbery)
Returns the inverse tangent oI the speciIied x and y coordinates.
Number¸x is the value Ior the x coordinate. Number¸y is the
value Ior the y coordinate.
ATANH(number) Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent oI the given number.
(Angle is returned in radians.)
CEILING(number:
signiIicance: mode)
Rounds the given number to the nearest integer or multiple oI
signiIicance. Significance is the value to whose multiple oI ten
the value is to be rounded up (.01, .1, 1, 10, etc.). Mode is an
optional value. II it is indicated and non-zero and iI the number
and signiIicance are negative, rounding up is carried out based
on that value.
Descríptíon of Functíons 2
Mathematical functions
Syntax Description
COMBIN(count1:
count2)
Returns the number oI combinations Ior a given number oI
obiects. Count¸1 is the total number oI elements. Count¸2 is
the selected count Irom the elements. This is the same as the
nCr Iunction on a calculator.
COMBINA(count1:
count2)
Returns the number oI combinations Ior a given number oI
obiects (repetition included). Count¸1 is the total number oI
elements. Count¸2 is the selected count Irom the elements.
CONVERT(value: "text":
"text")
Converts a currency value oI a European currency into Euros.
Value is the amount in the currency to be converted. Text is the
oIIicial abbreviation Ior the currency in question (Ior example,
"EUR"). The Iirst Text parameter gives the source value to be
converted: the second Text parameter gives the destination
value. Both text arguments must be within quotes.
COS(number) Returns the cosine oI the given number (angle in radians).
COSH(number) Returns the hyperbolic cosine oI the given number (angle in
radians).
COT(number) Returns the cotangent oI the given number (angle in radians).
COTH(number) Returns the hyperbolic cotangent oI the given number (angle in
radians).
COUNTBLANK(range) Returns the number oI empty cells. Range is the cell range in
which the empty cells are counted.
COUNTIF(range: criteria) Returns the number oI elements that meet certain criteria within
a cell range. Range is the range to which the criteria are to be
applied. Criteria indicates the criteria in the Iorm oI a number,
a regular expression, or a character string by which the cells are
counted.
DEGREES(number) Converts the given number in radians to degrees.
EVEN(number) Rounds the given number up to the nearest even integer.
EXP(number) Returns e raised to the power oI the given number.
FACT(number) Returns the Iactorial oI the given number.
FLOOR(number:
signiIicance: mode)
Rounds the given number down to the nearest multiple oI
significance. Significance is the value to whose multiple oI ten
the number is to be rounded down (.01, .1, 1, 10, etc.). Mode is
an optional value. II it is indicated and non-zero and iI the
number and signiIicance are negative, rounding up is carried out
based on that value.
GCD(numbers) Returns the greatest common divisor oI one or more integers.
Numbers is a list oI up to 30 numbers whose greatest common
divisor is to be calculated, separated by semi-colons.
*GCDADD(numbers) Returns the greatest common divisor oI a list oI numbers.
Numbers is a list oI up to 30 numbers separated by semi-
colons.
Descríptíon of Functíons 3
Mathematical functions
Syntax Description
INT(number) Rounds the given number down to the nearest integer.
ISEVEN(value) Returns TRUE iI the given value is an even integer, or FALSE
iI the value is odd. If the is not an integer. the function
evaluates onlv the integer part of the .
ISODD(value) Returns TRUE iI the given value is an odd integer, or FALSE iI
the value is even. If the is not an integer. the function
evaluates onlv the integer part of the .
LCM(integer1:
integer2: ... integer30)
Returns the least common multiple oI one or more integers.
Integer¸1; integer¸2;... integer¸30 are integers whose lowest
common multiple is to be calculated.
*LCMADD(numbers) Numbers is a list oI up to 30 numbers separated by semi-
colons. The result is the lowest common multiple oI a list oI
numbers.
LN(number) Returns the natural logarithm based on the constant e oI the
given number.
LOG(number: base) Returns the logarithm oI the given number to the speciIied
base. Base is the base Ior the logarithm calculation.
LOG10(number) Returns the base-10 logarithm oI the given number.
MOD(dividend: divisor) Returns the remainder aIter a number is divided by a divisor.
Dividend is the number which will be divided by the divisor.
Divisor is the number by which to divide the dividend.
*MROUND(number:
multiple)
The result is the nearest integer multiple oI the number.
*MULTINOMIAL
(number(s))
Returns the Iactorial oI the sum oI the arguments divided by the
product oI the Iactorials oI the arguments. Number(s) is a list oI
up to 30 numbers separated by semi-colons.
ODD(number) Rounds the given number up to the nearest odd integer.
PI() Returns the value oI PI to Iourteen decimal places.
POWER(base: power) Returns the result oI a number raised to a power. Base is the
number that is to be raised to the given power. Power is the
exponent by which the base is to be raised.
PRODUCT(number 1 to
30)
Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the
product. Number 1 to number 30 are up to 30 arguments
whose product is to be calculated, separated by semi-colons.
*QUOTIENT(numerator:
denominator)
Returns the integer result oI a division operation. Numerator is
the number that will be divided. Denominator is the number the
numerator will be divided by.
RADIANS(number) Converts the given number in degrees to radians.
RAND() Returns a random number between 0 and 1. This number will
recalculate every time data is entered or F9 is pressed.
Descríptíon of Functíons 4
Mathematical functions
Syntax Description
*RANDBETWEEN
(bottom: top)
Returns an integer random number between bottom and top
(inclusive). This number will recalculate when the
Control·Shift·F9 key combination is pressed.
ROUND(number: count) Rounds the given number to a certain number oI decimal places
according to valid mathematical criteria. Count (optional) is the
number oI the places to which the value is to be rounded. II the
count parameter is negative, only the whole number portion is
rounded. It is rounded to the place indicated by the count.
ROUNDDOWN(number:
count)
Rounds the given number. Count (optional) is the number oI
digits to be rounded down to. II the count parameter is negative,
only the whole number portion is rounded. It is rounded to the
place indicated by the count.
ROUNDUP(number:
count)
Rounds the given number up. Count (optional) is the number
oI digits to which rounding up is to be done. II the count
parameter is negative, only the whole number portion is
rounded. It is rounded to the place indicated by the count.
*SERIESSUM(x: n: m:
coeIIicients)
Returns a sum oI powers oI the number x in accordance with the
Iollowing Iormula:
SERIESSUM(x:n:m:coeIIicients) ÷ coeIIicient1*x`n ¹
coeIIicient2*x`(n¹m) ¹ coeIIicient3*x`(n¹2m) ¹...¹
coeIIicienti*x`(n¹(i-1)m).
x is the number as an independent variable. n is the starting
power. m is the increment. Coefficients is a series oI
coeIIicients. For each coeIIicient the series sum is extended by
one section. You can only enter coefficients using cell
reIerences.
SIGN(number) Returns the sign oI the given number. The Iunction returns the
result 1 Ior a positive sign, 1 Ior a negative sign, and 0 Ior
zero.
SIN(number) Returns the sine oI the given number (angle in radians).
SINH(number) Returns the hyperbolic sine oI the given number (angle in
radians).
SQRT(number) Returns the positive square root oI the given number. The value
oI the number must be positive.
*SQRTPI(number) Returns the square root oI the product oI the given number and
PI.
SUBTOTAL(Iunction:
range)
Calculates subtotals. II a range already contains subtotals, these
are not used Ior Iurther calculations. Function is a value that
stands Ior another Iunction such as Average, Count, Min, Sum,
Var. Range is the range whose cells are included.
Descríptíon of Functíons 5
Mathematical functions
Syntax Description
SUM(number1:
number2: ... number30)
Adds all the numbers in a range oI cells. Number¸1;
number¸2;... number¸30 are up to 30 arguments whose sum is
to be calculated. You can also enter a range using cell
reIerences.
SUMIF(range: criteria:
sumrange)
Adds the cells speciIied by a given criteria. The search supports
regular expressions. Range is the range to which the criteria are
to be applied. Criteria is the cell in which the search criterion is
shown, or the search criterion itselI. Sum¸range is the range
Irom which values are summed: iI it has not been indicated, the
values Iound in the Range are summed.
SUMSQ(number1:
number2: ... number30)
Calculates the sum oI the squares oI numbers (totaling up oI the
squares oI the arguments) Number¸1; number¸2;...
number¸30 are up to 30 arguments, the sum oI whose squares
is to be calculated.
TAN(number) Returns the tangent oI the given number (angle in radians).
TANH(number) Returns the hyperbolic tangent oI the given number (angle in
radians).
TRUNC(number: count) Truncates a number to an integer by removing the Iractional part
oI the number according to the precision speciIied in Tools >
Options > OpenOffice.org Calc > Calculate. Number is the
number whose decimal places are to be cut oII. Count is the
number oI decimal places which are not cut oII.
Financial analysis functions
Note Many oI the Iunctions listed here and in the OOo help system are available only iI
the Analvsis AaaIn is installed. These Iunctions are marked with an asterisk (*).
A note about dates
Date values used as parameters Ior Calc's Iinancial Iunctions must be entered in a speciIic
manner. For example, a date (entered in the US Iorm), must be surrounded by quotes, and
with periods separating each value. To represent August 6, 2004, or 8/6/04, you would enter,
'08.06.2004¨. II you don`t enter the date values as required by the Iunction, you will not get
the correct results. Date Iormats are locale speciIic, check with your speciIic online help Ior
the acceptable Iormatting.
A note about interest rates
You can enter interest rates one oI two ways.
As a decimal. To enter an interest rate as a decimal, divide it by 100 beIore entering it
into a Iunction. For example, to compute a loan with a 3.25° interest rate, enter .0325
into the Iunction.
Descríptíon of Functíons 6
Financial analysis functions
As a percentage. To enter an interest rate as a percentage, type in the interest rate
Iollowed by the º key. For example, to compute a loan with a 3.25° interest rate,
enters 3.25º into the Iunction.
Either way will work. However, iI you enter it as 3.25, the Iunction will treat it as a 325°
interest rate.
Accounting systems vary in the number oI days in a month or a year used in calculations. The
Iollowing table gives the integers used Ior the basis parameter used in some oI the Iinancial
analysis Iunctions.
Table 3. Basis calculation tvpes
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months oI 30 days each.
1 Exact number oI days in months, exact number oI days in year.
2 Exact number oI days in month, year has 360 days.
3 Exact number oI days in month, year has 365 days.
4 European method, 12 months oI 30 days each.
Table 4. Financial analvsis functions
Syntax Description
*ACCRINT(issue:
Iirstinterest: settlement: rate:
par: Irequency: basis)
Calculates the accrued interest oI a security in the case oI
periodic payments. Issue is the issue date oI the security.
First¸interest is the Iirst interest date oI the security.
Settlement is the maturity date. Rate is the annual nominal
rate oI interest (coupon interest rate). Par is the par value oI
the security. Frequency is the number oI interest payments
per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and
indicates how the year is to be calculated.
*ACCRINTM(issue:
settlement: rate: par: basis)
Calculates the accrued interest oI a security in the case oI
one-oII payment at the settlement date. Issue is the issue date
oI the security. Settlement is the maturity date. Rate is the
annual nominal rate oI interest (coupon interest rate). Par is
the par value oI the security. Basis is chosen Irom a list oI
options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.
*AMORDEGRC(cost:
datepurchased: Iirstperiod:
salvage: period: rate: basis)
Calculates the amount oI depreciation Ior a settlement period
as degressive amortization. Unlike AMORLINC, a
depreciation coeIIicient that is independent oI the
depreciable liIe is used here. Cost is the acquisition cost.
Date¸purchased is the date oI acquisition. First¸period is
the end date oI the Iirst settlement period. Salvage is the
salvage value oI the capital asset at the end oI the
depreciable liIe. Period is the settlement period to be
considered. Rate is the rate oI depreciation. Basis is chosen
Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to be
calculated.
Descríptíon of Functíons 7
Financial analysis functions
Syntax Description
*AMORLINC(cost:
datepurchased: Iirstperiod:
salvage: period: rate: basis)
Calculates the amount oI depreciation Ior a settlement period
as linear amortization. II the capital asset is purchased during
the settlement period, the proportional amount oI
depreciation is considered. Cost is the acquisition cost.
Date¸purchased is the date oI acquisition. First¸period is
the end date oI the Iirst settlement period. Salvage is the
salvage value oI the capital asset at the end oI the
depreciable liIe. Period is the settlement period to be
considered. Rate is the rate oI depreciation. Basis is chosen
Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to be
calculated.
*COUPDAYBS(settlement:
maturity: Irequency: basis)
Returns the number oI days Irom the Iirst day oI interest
payment on a security until the settlement date. Settlement
is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date
on which the security matures (expires). Frequency is the
number oI interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is
chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to
be calculated.
*COUPDAYS(settlement:
maturity: Irequency: basis)
Returns the number oI days in the current interest period in
which the settlement date Ialls. Settlement is the date oI
purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on which the
security matures (expires). Frequency is the number oI
interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a
list oI options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.
*COUPDAYSNC(settlement:
maturity: Irequency: basis)
Returns the number oI days Irom the settlement date until the
next interest date. Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the
security. Maturity is the date on which the security matures
(expires). Frequency is the number oI interest payments per
year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and
indicates how the year is to be calculated.
*COUPNCD(settlement:
maturity: Irequency: basis)
Returns the date oI the Iirst interest date aIter the settlement
date, and Iormats the result as a date. Settlement is the date
oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on which
the security matures (expires). Frequency is the number oI
interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a
list oI options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.
*COUPNUM(settlement:
maturity: Irequency: basis)
Returns the number oI coupons (interest payments) between
the settlement date and the maturity date. Settlement is the
date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on
which the security matures (expires). Frequency is the
number oI interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is
chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to
be calculated.
Descríptíon of Functíons 8
Financial analysis functions
Syntax Description
*COUPPCD(settlement:
maturity: Irequency: basis)
Returns the date oI the interest date prior to the settlement
date, and Iormats the result as a date. Settlement is the date
oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on which
the security matures (expires). Frequency is the number oI
interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a
list oI options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.
CUMIPMT(rate: NPER: PV:
S: E: type)
Calculates the cumulative interest payments (the total
interest) Ior an investment based on a constant interest rate.
Rate is the periodic interest rate. NPER is the payment
period with the total number oI periods. NPER can also be a
non-integer value. The rate and NPER must reIer to the
same unit, and thus both must be calculated annually or
monthly. PV is the current value in the sequence oI
payments. S is the Iirst period. E is the last period. Type is
the due date oI the payment at the beginning (1) or end (0) oI
each period.
*CUMIPMTADD(rate:
NPER: PV: startperiod:
endperiod: type)
Calculates the accumulated interest Ior a period. Rate is the
interest rate Ior each period. NPER is the total number oI
payment periods. The rate and NPER must reIer to the same
unit, and thus both must be calculated annually or monthly.
PV is the current value. Start¸period the Iirst payment
period Ior the calculation. End¸period the last payment
period Ior the calculation. Type is the due date oI the
payment at the beginning (1) or end (0) oI each period.
CUMPRINC(rate: NPER:
PV: S: E: type)
Returns the cumulative interest paid Ior an investment period
with a constant interest rate. Rate is the periodic interest
rate. NPER is the payment period with the total number oI
periods. NPER can also be a non-integer value. The rate and
NPER must reIer to the same unit, and thus both must be
calculated annually or monthly. PV is the current value in the
sequence oI payments. S is the Iirst period. E is the last
period. Type is the due date oI the payment at the beginning
(1) or end (0) oI each period.
*CUMPRINCADD(rate:
NPER: PV: startperiod:
endperiod: type)
Calculates the cumulative redemption oI a loan in a period.
Rate is the interest rate Ior each period. NPER is the total
number oI payment periods. The rate and NPER must reIer
to the same unit, and thus both must be calculated annually
or monthly. PV is the current value. Start period is the Iirst
payment period Ior the calculation. End period is the last
payment period Ior the calculation. Type is the due date oI
the payment at the beginning (1) or end (0) oI each period.
Descríptíon of Functíons 9
Financial analysis functions
Syntax Description
DB(cost: salvage: liIe:
period: month)
Returns the depreciation oI an asset Ior a speciIied period
using the double-declining balance method. Cost is the
initial cost oI an asset. Salvage is the value oI an asset at the
end oI the depreciation. Life deIines the period over which
an asset is depreciated. Period is the length oI each period.
The liIe must be entered in the same date unit as the
depreciation period. Month (optional) denotes the number oI
months Ior the Iirst year oI depreciation.
DDB(cost: salvage: liIe:
period: Iactor)
Returns the depreciation oI an asset Ior a speciIied period
using the arithmetic-declining method. Note that the book
value will never reach zero under this calculation type. Cost
Iixes the initial cost oI an asset. Salvage Iixes the value oI an
asset at the end oI its liIe. Life is the number oI periods
deIining how long the asset is to be used. Period deIines the
length oI the period. The period must be entered in the same
time unit as the liIe. Factor (optional) is the Iactor by which
depreciation decreases.
*DISC(settlement: maturity:
price: redemption: basis)
Calculates the allowance (discount) oI a security as a
percentage. Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the
security. Maturity is the date on which the security matures
(expires). Price is the price oI the security per 100 currency
units oI par value. Redemption is the redemption value oI
the security per 100 currency units oI par value. Basis is
chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to
be calculated.
*DOLLARDE(Iractional
dollar: Iraction)
Converts a quotation that has been given as a decimal
Iraction into a decimal number. Fractional¸dollar is a
number given as a decimal Iraction. (In this number, the
decimal value is the numerator oI the Iraction.) Fraction is a
whole number that is used as the denominator oI the decimal
Iraction.
*DOLLARFR(decimal
dollar: Iraction)
Converts a quotation that has been given as a decimal
number into a mixed decimal Iraction. The decimal oI the
result is the numerator oI the Iraction that would have
Fraction as the denominator. Decimal¸dollar is a decimal
number. Fraction is a whole number that is used as the
denominator oI the decimal Iraction.
DURATION(rate: PV: FV) Calculates the number oI periods required by an investment
to attain the desired value. Rate (a constant) is the interest
rate to be calculated Ior the entire duration. Entering the
interest rate divided by the periods per year, can calculate the
interest aIter each period. PV is the present value. FV is the
desired Iuture value oI the investment.
Descríptíon of Functíons 10
Financial analysis functions
Syntax Description
*DURATIONADD
(settlement: maturity:
coupon: yield: Irequency:
basis)
Calculates the duration oI a Iixed interest security in years.
Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity
is the date on which the security matures (expires). Coupon
is the annual coupon interest rate (nominal rate oI interest).
Yield is the annual yield oI the security. Frequency is the
number oI interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is
chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to
be calculated.
*EFFECTADD(nominal
rate: Npery)
Calculates the eIIective annual rate oI interest on the basis oI
the nominal interest rate and the number oI interest payments
per annum. Nominal interest reIers to the amount oI interest
due at the end oI a calculation period. Nominal¸rate is the
annual nominal rate oI interest. Npery is the number oI
interest payments per year.
EFFECTIVE(NOM: P) Calculates the eIIective annual rate oI interest on the basis oI
the nominal interest rate and the number oI interest payments
per annum. Nominal interest reIers to the amount oI interest
due at the end oI a calculation period. NOM is the nominal
interest. P is the number oI interest payment periods per year.
FV(rate: NPER: PMT: PV:
type)
Returns the Iuture value oI an investment based on periodic,
constant payments and a constant interest rate. Rate is the
periodic interest rate. NPER is the total number oI periods.
PMT is the annuity paid regularly per period. PV (optional)
is the present cash value oI an investment. Type (optional)
deIines whether the payment is due at the beginning (1) or
the end (0) oI a period.
*FVSCHEDULE(principal:
schedule)
Calculates the accumulated value oI the starting capital Ior a
series oI periodically varying interest rates. Principal is the
starting capital. Schedule is a series oI interest rates.
Schedule has to be entered with cell reIerences.
*INTRATE(settlement:
maturity: investment:
redemption: basis)
Calculates the annual interest rate that results when a
security (or other item) is purchased at an investment value
and sold at a redemption value with no interest being paid.
Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity
is the date on which the security is sold. Investment is the
purchase price. Redemption is the selling price. Basis is
chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to
be calculated.
Descríptíon of Functíons 11
Financial analysis functions
Syntax Description
IPMT(rate: period: NPER:
PV: FV: type)
Calculates the periodic amortization Ior an investment with
regular payments and a constant interest rate. Rate is the
periodic interest rate. Period is the period Ior which the
compound interest is calculated. NPER is the total number
oI periods during which annuity is paid. Period÷NPER, iI
compound interest Ior the last period is calculated. PV is the
present cash value in sequence oI payments. FV (optional) is
the desired value (Iuture value) at the end oI the periods.
Type (optional) deIines whether the payment is due at the
beginning (1) or the end (0) oI a period.
IRR(values: guess) Calculates the internal rate oI return Ior an investment. The
values represent cash Ilow values at regular intervals: at least
one value must be negative (payments), and at least one
value must be positive (income). Values is an array
containing the values. Guess (optional) is the estimated
value. II you can provide only a Iew values, you should
provide an initial guess to enable the iteration.
ISPMT(rate: period:
totalperiods: invest)
Calculates the level oI interest Ior unchanged amortization
installments. Rate sets the periodic interest rate. Period is
the number oI installments Ior calculation oI interest.
Total¸periods is the total number oI installment periods.
Invest is the amount oI the investment.
*MDURATION(settlement:
maturity: coupon: yield:
Irequency: basis)
Calculates the modiIied Macauley duration oI a Iixed
interest security in years. Settlement is the date oI purchase
oI the security. Maturity is the date on which the security
matures (expires). Coupon is the annual nominal rate oI
interest (coupon interest rate) Yield is the annual yield oI the
security. Frequency is the number oI interest payments per
year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and
indicates how the year is to be calculated.
MIRR(values: investment:
reinvestrate)
Calculates the modiIied internal rate oI return oI a series oI
investments. Values corresponds to the array or the cell
reIerence Ior cells whose content corresponds to the
payments. Investment is the rate oI interest oI the
investments (the negative values oI the array) Reinvest¸rate
is the rate oI interest oI the reinvestment (the positive values
oI the array).
NOMINAL(eIIectiverate:
Npery)
Calculates the yearly nominal interest rate, given the
eIIective rate and the number oI compounding periods per
year. Effective¸rate is the eIIective interest rate Npery is
the number oI periodic interest payments per year.
*NOMINALADD(eIIective
rate: Npery)
Calculates the yearly nominal rate oI interest, given the
eIIective rate and the number oI compounding periods per
year. Effective¸rate is the eIIective annual rate oI interest.
Npery is the number oI interest payments per year.
Descríptíon of Functíons 12
Financial analysis functions
Syntax Description
NPER(rate: PMT: PV: FV:
type)
Returns the number oI periods Ior an investment based on
periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.
Rate is the periodic interest rate. PMT is the constant
annuity paid in each period. PV is the present value (cash
value) in a sequence oI payments. FV (optional) is the Iuture
value, which is reached at the end oI the last period. Type
(optional) deIines whether the payment is due at the
beginning (1) or the end (0) oI a period.
NPV(Rate: value1: value2:
... value30)
Returns the net present value oI an investment based on a
series oI periodic cash Ilows and a discount rate. Rate is the
discount rate Ior a period. Value¸1; value¸2;... value¸30 are
values representing deposits or withdrawals.
*ODDFPRICE(settlement:
maturity: issue: Iirstcoupon:
rate: yield: redemption:
Irequency: basis)
Calculates the price per 100 currency units par value oI a
security, iI the Iirst interest date Ialls irregularly. Settlement
is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date
on which the security matures (expires). Issue is the date oI
issue oI the security. First¸coupon is the Iirst interest date
oI the security. Rate is the annual rate oI interest. Yield is
the annual yield oI the security. Redemption is the
redemption value per 100 currency units oI par value.
Frequency is the number oI interest payments per year (1, 2
or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates
how the year is to be calculated.
*ODDFYIELD(settlement:
maturity: issue: Iirstcoupon:
rate: price: redemption:
Irequency: basis)
Calculates the yield oI a security iI the Iirst interest date Ialls
irregularly. Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the
security. Maturity is the date on which the security matures
(expires). Issue is the date oI issue oI the security.
First¸coupon is the Iirst interest period oI the security. Rate
is the annual rate oI interest. Price is the price oI the
security. Redemption is the redemption value per 100
currency units oI par value. Frequency is the number oI
interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a
list oI options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.
*ODDLPRICE(settlement:
maturity: lastinterest: rate:
yield: redemption: Irequency:
basis)
Calculates the price per 100 currency units par value oI a
security, iI the last interest date Ialls irregularly. Settlement
is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date
on which the security matures (expires). Last¸interest is the
last interest date oI the security. Rate is the annual rate oI
interest. Yield is the annual yield oI the security.
Redemption is the redemption value per 100 currency units
oI par value. Frequency is the number oI interest payments
per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and
indicates how the year is to be calculated.
Descríptíon of Functíons 13
Financial analysis functions
Syntax Description
*ODDLYIELD(settlement:
maturity: lastinterest: rate:
price: redemption: Irequency:
basis)
Calculates the yield oI a security iI the last interest date Ialls
irregularly. Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the
security. Maturity is the date on which the security matures
(expires). Last¸interest is the last interest date oI the
security. Rate is the annual rate oI interest. Price is the price
oI the security. Redemption is the redemption value per 100
currency units oI par value. Frequency is the number oI
interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a
list oI options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.
PMT(rate: NPER: PV: FV:
type)
Returns the periodic payment Ior an annuity with constant
interest rates. Rate is the periodic interest rate. NPER is the
number oI periods in which annuity is paid. PV is the present
value (cash value) in a sequence oI payments. FV (optional)
is the desired value (Iuture value) to be reached at the end oI
the periodic payments. Type (optional) deIines whether the
payment is due at the beginning (1) or the end (0) oI a
period.
PPMT(rate: period: NPER:
PV: FV: type)
Returns Ior a given period the payment on the principal Ior
an investment that is based on periodic and constant
payments and a constant interest rate. Rate is the periodic
interest rate. Period is the amortization period. NPER is the
total number oI periods during which annuity is paid. PV is
the present value in the sequence oI payments. FV (optional)
is the desired (Iuture) value. Type (optional) deIines whether
the payment is due at the beginning (1) or the end (0) oI a
period.
*PRICE(settlement: maturity:
rate: yield: redemption:
Irequency: basis)
Calculates the market value oI a Iixed interest security with a
par value oI 100 currency units as a Iunction oI the Iorecast
yield. Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the security.
Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).
Rate is the annual nominal rate oI interest (coupon interest
rate). Yield is the annual yield oI the security. Redemption
is the redemption value per 100 currency units oI par value.
Frequency is the number oI interest payments per year (1, 2
or 4). Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates
how the year is to be calculated.
*PRICEDISC(settlement:
maturity: discount:
redemption: basis)
Calculates the price per 100 currency units oI par value oI a
non-interest- bearing security. Settlement is the date oI
purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on which the
security matures (expires). Discount is the discount oI a
security as a percentage. Redemption is the redemption
value per 100 currency units oI par value. Basis is chosen
Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to be
calculated.
Descríptíon of Functíons 14
Financial analysis functions
Syntax Description
*PRICEMAT(settlement:
maturity: issue: rate: yield:
basis)
Calculates the price per 100 currency units oI par value oI a
security, that pays interest on the maturity date. Settlement
is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date
on which the security matures (expires). Issue is the date oI
issue oI the security. Rate is the interest rate oI the security
on the issue date. Yield is the annual yield oI the security.
Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates how the
year is to be calculated.
PV(rate: NPER: PMT: FV:
type)
Returns the present value oI an investment resulting Irom a
series oI regular payments. Rate deIines the interest rate per
period. NPER is the total number oI payment periods. PMT
is the regular payment made per period. FV (optional)
deIines the Iuture value remaining aIter the Iinal installment
has been made. Type (optional) deIines whether the payment
is due at the beginning (1) or the end (0) oI a period.
RATE(NPER: PMT: PV: FV:
type: guess)
Returns the constant interest rate per period oI an annuity.
NPER is the total number oI periods, during which
payments are made (payment period). PMT is the constant
payment (annuity) paid during each period. PV is the cash
value in the sequence oI payments. FV (optional) is the
Iuture value, which is reached at the end oI the periodic
payments. Type (optional) deIines whether the payment is
due at the beginning (1) or the end (0) oI a period. Guess
(optional) determines the estimated value oI the interest with
iterative calculation.
*RECEIVED(settlement:
maturity: investment:
discount: basis)
Calculates the amount received that is paid Ior a Iixed-
interest security at a given point in time. Settlement is the
date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on
which the security matures. Investment is the purchase sum.
Discount is the percentage discount on acquisition oI the
security. Basis is chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates
how the year is to be calculated.
RRI(P: PV: FV) Calculates the interest rate resulting Irom the proIit (return)
oI an investment. P is the number oI periods needed Ior
calculating the interest rate. PV is the present value (must be
~0). FV is determines what is desired as the cash value oI
the deposit.
SLN(cost: salvage: liIe) Returns the straight-line depreciation oI an asset Ior one
period. The amount oI the depreciation is constant during the
depreciation period. Cost is the initial cost oI an asset.
Salvage is the value oI an asset at the end oI the
depreciation. Life is the depreciation period determining the
number oI periods in the depreciation oI the asset.
Descríptíon of Functíons 15
Financial analysis functions
Syntax Description
SYD(cost: salvage: liIe:
period)
Returns the arithmetic-declining depreciation rate. Use this
Iunction to calculate the depreciation amount Ior one period
oI the total depreciation span oI an obiect. Arithmetic
declining depreciation reduces the depreciation amount Irom
period to period by a Iixed sum. Cost is the initial cost oI an
asset. Salvage is the value oI an asset aIter depreciation. Life
is the period Iixing the time span over which an asset is
depreciated. Period deIines the period Ior which the
depreciation is to be calculated.
*TBILLEQ(settlement:
maturity: discount)
Calculates the annual return on a treasury bill. Settlement
is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date
on which the security matures (expires). (The settlement and
maturity date must be in the same year.) Discount is the
percentage discount on acquisition oI the security.
*TBILLPRICE(settlement:
maturity: discount)
Calculates the price oI a treasury bill per 100 currency units.
Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity
is the date on which the security matures (expires). Discount
is the percentage discount upon acquisition oI the security.
*TBILLYIELD(settlement:
maturity: price)
Calculates the yield oI a treasury bill. Settlement is the date
oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on which
the security matures (expires). Price is the price (purchase
price) oI the treasury bill per 100 currency units oI par value.
VDB(cost: salvage: liIe: start:
end: Iactor: type)
Returns the depreciation oI an asset Ior a speciIied or partial
period using a variable declining balance method. Cost is the
initial value oI an asset. Salvage is the value oI an asset at
the end oI the depreciation. Life is the depreciation duration
oI the asset. Start is the start oI the depreciation entered in
the same date unit as the liIe. End is the end oI the
depreciation. Factor (optional) is the depreciation Iactor.
FA÷2 is double rate depreciation. Type (optional) deIines
whether the payment is due at the beginning (1) or the end
(0) oI a period.
*XIRR(values: dates: guess) Calculates the internal rate oI return Ior a list oI payments
which take place on diIIerent dates. The calculation is based
on a 365 days per year basis, ignoring leap years. II the
payments take place at regular intervals, use the IRR
Iunction. Values and dates are a series oI payments and the
series oI associated date values entered as cell reIerences.
Guess (optional) is a guess Ior the internal rate oI return.
The deIault is 10°.
Descríptíon of Functíons 16
Financial analysis functions
Syntax Description
*XNPV(rate: values: dates) Calculates the capital value (net present value) Ior a list oI
payments which take place on diIIerent dates. The
calculation is based on a 365 days per year basis, ignoring
leap years. II the payments take place at regular intervals,
use the NPV Iunction. Rate is the internal rate oI return Ior
the payments. Values and dates are a series oI payments and
the series oI associated date values entered as cell reIerences.
*YIELD(settlement:
maturity: rate: price:
redemption: Irequency: basis)
Calculates the yield oI a security. Settlement is the date oI
purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on which the
security matures (expires). Rate is the annual rate oI interest.
Price is the price (purchase price) oI the security per 100
currency units oI par value. Redemption is the redemption
value per 100 currency units oI par value. Frequency is the
number oI interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). Basis is
chosen Irom a list oI options and indicates how the year is to
be calculated.
*YIELDDISC(settlement:
maturity: price: redemption:
basis)
Calculates the annual yield oI a non-interest-bearing security.
Settlement is the date oI purchase oI the security. Maturity
is the date on which the security matures (expires). Price is
the price (purchase price) oI the security per 100 currency
units oI par value. Redemption is the redemption value per
100 currency units oI par value. Basis is chosen Irom a list
oI options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.
*YIELDMAT(settlement:
maturity: issue: rate: price:
basis)
Calculates the annual yield oI a security, the interest oI
which is paid on the date oI maturity. Settlement is the date
oI purchase oI the security. Maturity is the date on which
the security matures (expires). Issue is the date oI issue oI
the security. Rate is the interest rate oI the security on the
issue date. Price is the price (purchase price) oI the security
per 100 currency units oI par value. Basis is chosen Irom a
list oI options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.
Descríptíon of Functíons 17
5tatistical analysis functions
Statistical analysis functions
Calc includes over 70 statistical Iunctions which enable the evaluation oI data Irom simple
arithmetic calculations, such as averaging, to advanced distribution and probability
computations. Several other statistics-based Iunctions are available through the Add-ins
which are noted at the end oI this appendix.
Table 5. Statistical analvsis functions
Syntax Description
AVEDEV(number1:
number2: ... number30)
Returns the average oI the absolute deviations oI data points
Irom their mean. Displays the diIIusion in a data set.
Number¸1; number¸2; ... number¸30 are values or ranges
that represent a sample. Each number can also be replaced by a
reIerence.
AVERAGE(number1:
number2: ... number30)
Returns the average oI the arguments. Number¸1; number¸2;
... number¸30 are numerical values or ranges. Text is ignored.
AVERAGEA(value1:
value2: ... value30)
Returns the average oI the arguments. The value oI a text is 0.
Value¸1; value¸2; ... value¸30 are values or ranges.
B(trials: SP: T1: T2) Returns the probability oI a sample with binomial distribution.
Trials is the number oI independent trials. SP is the probability
oI success on each trial. T¸1 deIines the lower limit Ior the
number oI trials. T¸2 (optional) deIines the upper limit Ior the
number oI trials.
BETADIST(number: alpha:
beta: start: end)
Returns the cumulative beta probability density Iunction.
Number is the value between Start and End at which to
evaluate the Iunction. Alpha is a parameter to the distribution.
Beta is a parameter to the distribution. Start (optional) is the
lower bound Ior number. End (optional) is the upper bound
Ior number.
BETAINV(number: alpha:
beta: start: end)
Returns the inverse oI the cumulative beta probability density
Iunction. Number is the value between Start and End at
which to evaluate the Iunction. Alpha is a parameter to the
distribution. Beta is a parameter to the distribution. Start
(optional) is the lower bound Ior number. End (optional) is the
upper bound Ior number
BINOMDIST(X: trials: SP:
C)
Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. X
is the number oI successes in a set oI trials. Trials is the
number oI independent trials. SP is the probability oI success
on each trial. C ÷ 0 calculates the probability oI a single event
and C ÷ 1 calculates the cumulative probability.
Descríptíon of Functíons 18
5tatistical analysis functions
Syntax Description
CHIDIST(number:
degreesIreedom)
Returns the probability value that a hypothesis will be
conIirmed Irom the indicated chi square. The probability
determined by CHIDIST can also be determined by CHITEST.
Number is the chi-square value oI the random sample used to
determine the error probability. Degrees¸freedom is the
degrees oI Ireedom oI the experiment.
CHIINV(number:
degreesIreedom)
Returns the inverse oI the one-tailed probability oI the chi-
squared distribution. Number is the value oI the error
probability. Degrees¸freedom is the degrees oI Ireedom oI the
experiment.
CHITEST(dataB: dataE) Returns the chi-square distribution Irom a random distribution
oI two test series based on the chi-square test Ior
independence. The probability determined by CHITEST can
also be determined with CHIDIST, in which case the chi square
oI the random sample must then be passed as a parameter
instead oI the data row. Data¸B is the array oI the
observations. Data¸E is the range oI the expected values.
CONFIDENCE(alpha:
STDEV: size)
Returns the (1-alpha) conIidence interval Ior a normal
distribution. Alpha is the level oI the conIidence interval.
STDEV is the standard deviation Ior the total population. Size
is the size oI the total population.
CORREL(data1: data2) Returns the correlation coeIIicient between two data sets.
Data¸1 is the Iirst data set. Data¸2 is the second data set.
COUNT(value1: value2:
... value30)
Counts how many numbers are in the list oI arguments. Text
entries are ignored. Value¸1; value¸2; ... value¸30 are values
or ranges which are to be counted.
COUNTA(value1:
value2: ... value30)
Counts how many values are in the list oI arguments. Text
entries are also counted, even when they contain an empty
string oI length 0. II an argument is an array or reIerence,
empty cells within the array or reIerence are ignored. value¸1;
value¸2; ... value¸30 are up to 30 arguments representing the
values to be counted.
COVAR(data1: data2) Returns the covariance oI the product oI paired deviations.
Data¸1 is the Iirst data set. Data¸2 is the second data set.
CRITBINOM(trials: SP:
alpha)
Returns the smallest value Ior which the cumulative binomial
distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value. Trials is
the total number oI trials. SP is the probability oI success Ior
one trial. Alpha is the threshold probability to be reached or
exceeded.
DEVSQ(number1:
number2: ... number30)
Returns the sum oI squares oI deviations based on a sample
mean. Number¸1; number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical
values or ranges representing a sample.
Descríptíon of Functíons 19
5tatistical analysis functions
Syntax Description
EXPONDIST(number:
lambda: C)
Returns the exponential distribution. Number is the value oI
the Iunction. Lambda is the parameter value. C is a logical
value that determines the Iorm oI the Iunction. C ÷ 0 calculates
the density Iunction, and C ÷ 1 calculates the distribution.
FDIST(number:
degreesIreedom1:
degreesIreedom2)
Calculates the values oI an F probability distribution. Number
is the value Ior which the F distribution is to be calculated.
Degrees¸freedom¸1 is the degrees oI Ireedom in the
numerator in the F distribution. Degrees¸freedom¸2 is the
degrees oI Ireedom in the denominator in the F distribution.
FINV(number:
degreesIreedom1:
degreesIreedom2)
Returns the inverse oI the F probability distribution. Number
is probability value Ior which the inverse F distribution is to be
calculated. Degrees¸freedom¸1 is the number oI degrees oI
Ireedom in the numerator oI the F distribution.
Degrees¸freedom¸2 is the number oI degrees oI Ireedom in
the denominator oI the F distribution.
FISHER(number) Returns the Fisher transIormation Ior the given number and
creates a Iunction close to a normal distribution.
FISHERINV(number) Returns the inverse oI the Fisher transIormation Ior the given
number and creates a Iunction close to a normal distribution.
FORECAST(value:
dataY: dataX)
Extrapolates Iuture values based on existing x and y values.
Value is the x value, Ior which the y value oI the linear
regression is to be returned. Data¸Y is the array or range oI
known y`s. Data¸X is the array or range oI known x`s. Does
not work Ior exponential Iunctions.
FTEST(data1: data2) Returns the result oI an F test. Data¸1 is the Iirst record array.
Data¸2 is the second record array.
GAMMADIST(number:
alpha: beta: C)
Returns the values oI a Gamma cumulative distribution.
Number is the value Ior which the Gamma distribution is to be
calculated. Alpha is the parameter Alpha oI the Gamma
distribution. Beta is the parameter Beta oI the Gamma
distribution. C ÷ 0 calculates the density Iunction, and C ÷ 1
calculates the distribution.
GAMMAINV(number:
alpha: beta)
Returns the inverse oI the Gamma cumulative distribution.
This Iunction allows you to search Ior variables with diIIerent
distribution. Number is the probability value Ior which the
inverse Gamma distribution is to be calculated. Alpha is the
parameter Alpha oI the Gamma distribution. Beta is the
parameter Beta oI the Gamma distribution.
GAMMALN(number) Returns the natural logarithm oI the Gamma Iunction, G(x), Ior
the given number.
GAUSS(number) Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution Ior the
given number.
Descríptíon of Functíons 20
5tatistical analysis functions
Syntax Description
GEOMEAN(number1:
number2: ... number30)
Returns the geometric mean oI a sample. Number¸1;
number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical arguments or ranges
that represent a random sample.
HARMEAN(number1:
number2: ... number30)
Returns the harmonic mean oI a data set. Number¸1;
number¸2; ... number¸30 are values or ranges that can be
used to calculate the harmonic mean.
HYPGEOMDIST(X:
nsample: successes:
npopulation)
Returns the hypergeometric distribution. X is the number oI
results achieved in the random sample. N¸sample is the size oI
the random sample. Successes is the number oI possible results
in the total population. N¸population is the size oI the total
population.
INTERCEPT(dataY:
dataX)
Calculates the y-value at which a line will intersect the y-axis
by using known x-values and y-values. Data¸Y is the
dependent set oI observations or data. Data¸X is the
independent set oI observations or data. Names, arrays or
reIerences containing numbers must be used here. Numbers
can also be entered directly.
KURT(number1:
number2: ... number30)
Returns the kurtosis oI a data set (at least 4 values required).
Number¸1; number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical
arguments or ranges representing a random sample oI
distribution.
LARGE(data: rankc) Returns the Rankc-th largest value in a data set. Data is the
cell range oI data. Rank¸c is the ranking oI the value (2nd
largest, 3rd largest, etc.) written as an integer.
LOGINV(number: mean:
STDEV)
Returns the inverse oI the lognormal distribution Ior the given
Number, a probability value. Mean is the arithmetic mean oI
the standard logarithmic distribution. STDEV is the standard
deviation oI the standard logarithmic distribution.
LOGNORMDIST(number:
mean: STDEV)
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution Ior the given
Number, a probability value. Mean is the mean value oI the
standard logarithmic distribution. STDEV is the standard
deviation oI the standard logarithmic distribution.
MAX(number1:
number2: ... number30)
Returns the maximum value in a list oI arguments. Number¸1;
number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical values or ranges.
MAXA(value1: value2:
... value30)
Returns the maximum value in a list oI arguments. Unlike
MAX, text can be entered. The value oI the text is 0. Value¸1;
value¸2; ... value¸30 are values or ranges.
MEDIAN(number1:
number2: ... number30)
Returns the median oI a set oI numbers. Number¸1;
number¸2; ... number¸30 are values or ranges, which
represent a sample. Each number can also be replaced by a
reIerence.
MIN(number1: number2:
... number30)
Returns the minimum value in a list oI arguments. Number¸1;
number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical values or ranges.
Descríptíon of Functíons 21
5tatistical analysis functions
Syntax Description
MINA(value1: value2: ...
value30)
Returns the minimum value in a list oI arguments. Here text
can also be entered. The value oI the text is 0. Value¸1;
value¸2; ... value¸30 are values or ranges.
MODE(number1:
number2: ... number30)
Returns the most common value in a data set. Number¸1;
number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical values or ranges. II
several values have the same Irequency, it returns the smallest
value. An error occurs when a value does not appear twice.
NEGBINOMDIST(X: R:
SP)
Returns the negative binomial distribution. X is the value
returned Ior unsuccessIul tests. R is the value returned Ior
successIul tests. SP is the probability oI the success oI an
attempt.
NORMDIST(number:
mean: STDEV: C)
Returns the normal distribution Ior the given Number in the
distribution. Mean is the mean value oI the distribution.
STDEV is the standard deviation oI the distribution. C ÷ 0
calculates the density Iunction, and C ÷ 1 calculates the
distribution.
NORMINV(number: mean:
STDEV)
Returns the inverse oI the normal distribution Ior the given
Number in the distribution. Mean is the mean value in the
normal distribution. STDEV is the standard deviation oI the
normal distribution.
NORMSDIST(number) Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution Ior the
given Number.
NORMSINV(number) Returns the inverse oI the standard normal distribution Ior the
given Number, a probability value.
PEARSON(data1: data2) Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coeIIicient r.
Data¸1 is the array oI the Iirst data set. Data¸2 is the array oI
the second data set.
PERCENTILE(data: alpha) Returns the alpha-percentile oI data values in an array. Data is
the array oI data. Alpha is the percentage oI the scale between
0 and 1.
PERCENTRANK(data:
value)
Returns the percentage rank (percentile) oI the given value in a
sample. Data is the array oI data in the sample.
PERMUT(count1:
count2)
Returns the number oI permutations Ior a given number oI
obiects. Count¸1 is the total number oI obiects. Count¸2 is the
number oI obiects in each permutation.
PERMUTATIONA(count
1: count2)
Returns the number oI permutations Ior a given number oI
obiects (repetition allowed). Count¸1 is the total number oI
obiects. Count¸2 is the number oI obiects in each permutation.
PHI(number) Returns the values oI the distribution Iunction Ior a standard
normal distribution Ior the given Number.
POISSON(number: mean:
C)
Returns the Poisson distribution Ior the given Number. Mean
is the middle value oI the Poisson distribution. C ÷ 0 calculates
the density Iunction, and C ÷ 1 calculates the distribution.
Descríptíon of Functíons 22
5tatistical analysis functions
Syntax Description
PROB(data: probability:
start: end)
Returns the probability that values in a range are between two
limits. Data is the array or range oI data in the sample.
Probability is the array or range oI the corresponding
probabilities. Start is the start value oI the interval whose
probabilities are to be summed. End (optional) is the end value
oI the interval whose probabilities are to be summed. II this
parameter is missing, the probability Ior the Start value is
calculated.
QUARTILE(data: type) Returns the quartile oI a data set. Data is the array oI data in
the sample. Type is the type oI quartile. (0 ÷ Min, 1 ÷ 25°, 2 ÷
50° (Median), 3 ÷ 75° and 4 ÷ Max.)
RANK(value: data: type) Returns the rank oI the given Value in a sample. Data is the
array or range oI data in the sample. Type (optional) is the
sequence order, either ascending (0) or descending (1).
RSQ(dataY: dataX) Returns the square oI the Pearson correlation coeIIicient based
on the given values. Data¸Y is an array or range oI data points.
Data¸X is an array or range oI data points.
SKEW(number1:
number2: ... number30)
Returns the skewness oI a distribution. Number¸1;
number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical values or ranges.
SLOPE(dataY: dataX) Returns the slope oI the linear regression line. Data¸Y is the
array or matrix oI Y data. Data¸X is the array or matrix oI X
data.
SMALL(data: rankc) Returns the Rankc-th smallest value in a data set. Data is the
cell range oI data. Rank¸c is the rank oI the value (2nd
smallest, 3rd smallest, etc.) written as an integer.
STANDARDIZE(number:
mean: STDEV)
Converts a random variable to a normalized value. Number is
the value to be standardized. Mean is the arithmetic mean oI
the distribution. STDEV is the standard deviation oI the
distribution.
STDEV(number1:
number2: ... number30)
Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample.
Number¸1; number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical values
or ranges representing a sample based on an entire population.
STDEVA(value1:
value2: ... value30)
Calculates the standard deviation oI an estimation based on a
sample. Value¸1; value¸2; ... value¸30 are values or ranges
representing a sample derived Irom an entire population. Text
has the value 0.
STDEVP(number1:
number2: ... number30)
Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire
population. Number¸1; number¸2; ... number¸30 are
numerical values or ranges representing a sample based on an
entire population.
STDEVPA(value1:
value2: ... value30)
Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire
population. Value¸1; value¸2; ... value¸30 are values or
ranges representing a sample derived Irom an entire
population. Text has the value 0.
Descríptíon of Functíons 23
5tatistical analysis functions
Syntax Description
STEYX(dataY: dataX) Returns the standard error oI the predicted y value Ior each x in
the regression. Data¸Y is the array or matrix oI Y data.
Data¸X is the array or matrix oI X data.
TDIST(number:
degreesIreedom: mode)
Returns the t-distribution Ior the given Number.
Degrees¸freedom is the number oI degrees oI Ireedom Ior the
t-distribution. Mode ÷ 1 returns the one-tailed test, Mode ÷ 2
returns the two-tailed test.
TINV(number:
degreesIreedom)
Returns the inverse oI the t-distribution, Ior the given Number
associated with the two-tailed t-distribution. Degrees¸freedom
is the number oI degrees oI Ireedom Ior the t-distribution.
TRIMMEAN(data: alpha) Returns the mean oI a data set without the Alpha proportion oI
data at the margins. Data is the array oI data in the sample.
Alpha is the proportion oI the marginal data that will not be
taken into consideration.
TTEST(data1: data2:
mode: type)
Returns the probability associated with a Student`s t-Test.
Data¸1 is the dependent array or range oI data Ior the Iirst
record. Data¸2 is the dependent array or range oI data Ior the
second record. Mode ÷ 1 calculates the one-tailed test, Mode ÷
2 the two- tailed test. Type oI t-test to perIorm: paired (1),
equal variance (homoscedastic) (2), or unequal variance
(heteroscedastic) (3).
VAR(number1: number2:
... number30)
Estimates the variance based on a sample. Number¸1;
number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical values or ranges
representing a sample based on an entire population.
VARA(value1: value2: ...
value30)
Estimates a variance based on a sample. The value oI text is 0.
Value¸1; value¸2; ... value¸30 are values or ranges
representing a sample derived Irom an entire population. Text
has the value 0.
VARP(Number1:
number2: ... number30)
Calculates a variance based on the entire population.
Number¸1; number¸2; ... number¸30 are numerical values
or ranges representing an entire population.
VARPA(value1: value2:
.. .value30)
Calculates the variance based on the entire population. The
value oI text is 0. Value¸1; value¸2; ... value¸30 are values or
ranges representing an entire population.
WEIBULL(number: alpha:
beta: C)
Returns the values oI the Weibull distribution Ior the given
Number. Alpha is the Alpha parameter oI the Weibull
distribution. Beta is the Beta parameter oI the Weibull
distribution. C indicates the type oI Iunction: C÷ 0 the Iorm oI
the Iunction is calculated, C÷1 the distribution is calculated.
ZTEST(data: number:
sigma)
Returns the two-tailed P value oI a z test with standard
distribution. Data is the array oI the data. Number is the value
to be tested. Sigma (optional) is the standard deviation oI the
total population. II this argument is missing, the standard
deviation oI the sample is processed.
Descríptíon of Functíons 24
Date and time functions
Date and time functions
Use these Iunctions Ior inserting, editing and manipulating dates and times. OpenOIIice.org
handles and computes a date/time value as a number. When you assign the number Iormat
'Number¨ to a date or time value, it is displayed as a number. For example, 01/01/2000 12:00
PM, converts to 36526.5. This is iust a matter oI Iormatting: the actual value is always stored
and manipulated as a number. To see the date or time displayed in a standard Iormat, change
the number Iormat (date or time) accordingly.
To set the deIault date Iormat used by Calc. go to Tools > Options > OpenOffice.org Calc >
Calculate.
Caution

When entering dates, slashes or dashes used as date separators may be interpreted
as arithmetic operators. To keep dates Irom being interpreted as parts oI Iormulas,
and thus returning erroneous results, always place them in quotation marks, Ior
example, "12/08/52".
Table 6. Data ana time functions
Syntax Description
DATE(year: month: day) Converts a date written as year, month, day to an internal serial
number and displays it in the cell`s Iormatting. Year is an
integer between 1583 and 9956 or 0 and 99. Month is an
integer between 1 and 12. Day is an integer between 1 and 31.
DATEVALUE("Text") Returns the internal date number Ior text in quotes. Text is a
valid date expression and must be entered with quotation
marks.
DAY(number) Returns the day, as an integer, oI the given date value. A
negative date/time value can be entered. Number is a time
value.
DAYS(date2: date1) Calculates the diIIerence, in days, between two date values.
Date¸1 is the start date. Date¸2 is the end date. II Date¸2 is an
earlier date than Date¸1, the result is a negative number.
DAYS360(date1: date2:
type)
Returns the diIIerence between two dates based on the 360 day
year used in interest calculations. II Date¸2 is earlier than
Date¸1, the Iunction will return a negative number. Type
(optional) determines the type oI diIIerence calculation: the
US method (0) or the European method (=0).
*DAYSINMONTH(date) Calculates the number oI days in the month oI the given date.
*DAYSINYEAR(date) Calculates the number oI days in the year oI the given date.
EASTERSUNDAY(integer) Returns the date oI Easter Sunday Ior the entered year. Year is
an integer between 1583 and 9956 or 0 and 99.
*EDATE(startdate:
months)
The result is a date a number oI Months away Irom the given
Start¸date. Only months are considered: days are not used Ior
calculation. Months is the number oI months.
Descríptíon of Functíons 25
Date and time functions
Syntax Description
*EOMONTH(startdate:
months)
Returns the date oI the last day oI a month which Ialls Months
away Irom the given Start¸date. Months is the number oI
months beIore (negative) or aIter (positive) the start date.
HOUR(number) Returns the hour, as an integer, Ior the given time value.
Number is a time value.
*ISLEAPYEAR(date) Determines whether a given date Ialls within a leap year.
Returns either 1 (TRUE) or 0 (FALSE).
MINUTE(number) Returns the minute, as an integer, Ior the given time value.
Number is a time value.
MONTH(number) Returns the month, as an integer, Ior the given date value.
Number is a time value.
*MONTHS(startdate:
enddate: type)
Calculates the diIIerence, in months, between two date values.
Date¸1 is the start (earlier) date. Date¸2 is the end date. Type
is one oI two possible values, 0 (interval) or 1 (in calendar
months). II Date¸2 is an earlier date than Date¸1, the result is
a negative number.
*NETWORKDAYS(start
date: enddate: holidays)
Returns the number oI workdays between start¸date and
end¸date. Holidays can be deducted. Start¸date is the date
Irom which the calculation is carried out. End¸date is the date
up to which the calculation is carried out. II the start or end
date is a workday, the day is included in the calculation.
Holidays (optional) is a list oI holidays. Enter a cell range in
which the holidays are listed individually.
NOW() Returns the computer system date and time. The value is
updated when your document recalculates. NOW is a Iunction
without arguments.
SECOND(number) Returns the second, as an integer, Ior the given time value.
Number is a time value.
TIME(hour: minute:
second)
Returns the current time value Irom values Ior hours, minutes
and seconds. This Iunction can be used to convert a time based
on these three elements to a decimal time value. Hour, minute
and second must all be integers.
TIMEVALUE(text) Returns the internal time number Irom a text enclosed by
quotes in a time entry Iormat. The internal number indicated as
a decimal is the result oI the date system used under OOo to
calculate date entries.
TODAY() Returns the current computer system date. The value is
updated when your document recalculates. TODAY is a
Iunction without arguments.
Descríptíon of Functíons 26
Date and time functions
Syntax Description
WEEKDAY(number: type) Returns the day oI the week Ior the given number (date
value). The day is returned as an integer based on the type.
Type determines the type oI calculation: type ÷ 1 (deIault),
the weekdays are counted starting Irom Sunday (Monday ÷ 0):
type ÷ 2, the weekdays are counted starting Irom Monday
(Monday ÷ 1): type ÷ 3, the weekdays are counted starting
Irom Monday (Monday ÷ 0).
WEEKNUM(number:
mode)
Calculates the number oI the calendar week oI the year Ior the
internal date number. Mode sets the start oI the week and the
calculation type: 1 ÷ Sunday, 2 ÷ Monday.
*WEEKNUMADD(date:
returntype)
Calculates the calendar week oI the year Ior a Date. Date is
the date within the calendar week. Return¸type sets the start
oI the week and the calculation type: 1 ÷ Sunday, 2 ÷ Monday.
*WEEKS(startdate:
enddate: type)
Calculates the diIIerence in weeks between two dates,
start¸date and end¸date. Type is one oI two possible values,
0 (interval) or 1 (in numbers oI weeks).
*WEEKSINYEAR(date) Calculates the number oI weeks in a year until a certain date.
A week that spans two years is added to the year in which most
days oI that week occur.
*WORKDAY(startdate:
days: holidays)
Returns a date number that can be Iormatted as a date. You
then see the date oI a day that is a certain number oI
Workdays away Irom the start¸date. Holidays (optional) is a
list oI holidays. Enter a cell range in which the holidays are
listed individually.
YEAR(number) Returns the year as a number according to the internal
calculation rules. Number shows the internal date value Ior
which the year is to be returned.
*YEARFRAC(startdate:
enddate: basis)
Returns a number between 0 and 1, representing the Iraction oI
a year between start¸date and end¸date. Start¸date and
end¸date are two date values. Basis is chosen Irom a list oI
options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.
*YEARS(tartdate:
enddate: type)
Calculates the diIIerence in years between two dates: the
start¸date and the end¸date. Type calculates the type oI
diIIerence.
Descríptíon of Functíons 27
Logical functions
Logical functions
Use the logical Iunctions to test values and produce results based on the result oI the test.
These Iunctions are conditional and provide the ability to write longer Iormulas based on
input or output.
Table 7. Logical functions
Syntax Description
AND(logicalvalue1:
logicalvalue2:
...logicalvalue30)
Returns TRUE iI all arguments are TRUE. II any element is
FALSE, this Iunction returns the FALSE value.
Logical¸value¸1; logical¸value¸2; ...logical¸value¸30 are
conditions to be checked. All conditions can be either TRUE or
FALSE. II a range is entered as a parameter, the Iunction uses
the value Irom the range that is in the current column or row.
The result is TRUE iI the logical value in all cells within the
cell range is TRUE
FALSE() Set the logical value to FALSE. The FALSE() Iunction does
not require any arguments.
IF(test: thenvalue:
otherwisevalue)
SpeciIies a logical test to be perIormed. Test is any value or
expression that can be TRUE or FALSE. Then¸value
(optional) is the value that is returned iI the logical test is
TRUE. Otherwise¸value (optional) is the value that is
returned iI the logical test is FALSE.
NOT(logicalvalue) Reverses the logical value. Logical¸value is any value to be
reversed.
OR(logicalvalue1:
logicalvalue2:
...logicalvalue30)
Returns TRUE iI at least one argument is TRUE. Returns the
value FALSE iI all the arguments have the logical value
FALSE.. Logical¸value¸1; logical¸value¸2;
...logical¸value¸30 are conditions to be checked. All
conditions can be either TRUE or FALSE. II a range is entered
as a parameter, the Iunction uses the value Irom the range that
is in the current column or row.
TRUE() Sets the logical value to TRUE. The TRUE() Iunction does not
require any arguments.
Descríptíon of Functíons 28
lnformational functions
lnformational functions
These Iunctions provide inIormation (or Ieedback) regarding the results oI a test Ior a speciIic
condition, or a test Ior the type oI data or content a cell contains.
Table 8. Informational functions
Syntax Description
CELL(inIotype:
reIerence)
Returns inIormation on a cell such as its address, Iormatting or
contents oI a cell based on the value oI the info¸type
argument. Info¸type speciIies the type oI inIormation to be
returned and comes Irom a predeIined list oI arguments.
Info¸type is not case sensitive, but it must be enclosed within
quotes. Reference is the address oI the cell to be examined. II
reference is a range, the cell reIerence moves to the top leIt oI
the range. II reference is missing, Calc uses the position oI the
cell in which this Iormula is located.
CURRENT() Calculates the current value oI a Iormula at the actual position.
FORMULA(reIerence) Displays the Iormula oI a Iormula cell at any position. The
Iormula will be returned as a string in the Reference position.
II no Iormula cell can be Iound, or iI the presented argument is
not a reIerence, returns the error value #N/A.
ISBLANK(value) Returns TRUE iI the reIerence to a cell is blank. This Iunction
is used to determine iI the content oI a cell is empty. A cell
with a Iormula inside is not empty. II an error occurs, the
Iunction returns a logical or numerical value. Value is the
content to be tested.
ISERR(value) Returns TRUE iI the value reIers to any error value except
#N/A. You can use this Iunction to control error values in
certain cells. II an error occurs, the Iunction returns a logical or
numerical value. Value is any value or expression in which a
test is perIormed to determine whether an error value not equal
to #N/A is present.
ISERROR(value) The ISERROR tests iI the cells contain general error values.
ISERROR recognizes the #N/A error value. II an error occurs,
the Iunction returns a logical or numerical value. Value is any
value where a test is perIormed to determine whether it is an
error value.
*ISEVENADD(number) Tests Ior even numbers. Returns TRUE (1) iI the number
returns a whole number when divided by 2.
ISFORMULA(reIerence) Returns TRUE iI a cell is a Iormula cell. II an error occurs, the
Iunction returns a logical or numerical value. Reference
indicates the reIerence to a cell in which a test will be
perIormed to determine iI it contains a reIerence.
Descríptíon of Functíons 29
lnformational functions
Syntax Description
ISLOGICAL(value) Returns TRUE iI the cell contains a logical number Iormat.
The Iunction is used in order to check Ior both TRUE and
FALSE values in certain cells. II an error occurs, the Iunction
returns a logical or numerical value. Value is the value to be
tested Ior logical number Iormat.
ISNA(value) Returns TRUE iI a cell contains the #N/A (value not available)
error value. II an error occurs, the Iunction returns a logical or
numerical value. Value is the value or expression to be tested.
ISNONTEXT(value) Tests iI the cell contents are text or numbers, and returns
FALSE iI the contents are text. II an error occurs, the Iunction
returns a logical or numerical value. Value is any value or
expression where a test is perIormed to determine whether it is
a text or numbers or a Boolean value.
ISNUMBER(value) Returns TRUE iI the value reIers to a number. II an error
occurs, the Iunction returns a logical or numerical value. Value
is any expression to be tested to determine whether it is a
number or text.
*ISODDADD(number) Returns TRUE (1) iI the number does not return a whole
number when divided by 2. Number is the number to be
tested.
ISREF(value) Tests iI the content oI one or several cells is a reIerence.
VeriIies the type oI reIerences in a cell or a range oI cells. II an
error occurs, the Iunction returns a logical or numerical value.
Value is the value to be tested, to determine whether it is a
reIerence.
ISTEXT(value) Returns TRUE iI the cell contents reIer to text. II an error
occurs, the Iunction returns a logical or numerical value. Value
is a value, number, Boolean value, or error value to be tested.
N(value) Returns the number 1, iI the parameter is TRUE. Returns the
parameter, iI the parameter is a number. Returns the number 0
Ior other parameters. II an error occurs, the Iunction returns a
logical or numerical value. Value is the parameter to be
converted into a number.
NA() Returns the error value #N/A.
TYPE(value) Returns the type oI value. II an error occurs, the Iunction
returns a logical or numerical value. Value is a speciIic value
Ior which the data type is determined. Value 1 ÷ number, value
2 ÷ text, value 4 ÷ Boolean value, value 8 ÷ Iormula, value 16
÷ error value.
Descríptíon of Functíons 30
Database functions
Database functions
This section deals with Iunctions used with data organized as one row oI data Ior one record.
The Database category should not be conIused with the Base database component in
OpenOIIice.org. A Calc database is simple a range oI cells that comprises a block oI related
data where each row contains a separate record. There is no connection between a database in
OpenOIIice.org and the Database category in OOo Calc.
The database Iunctions use the Iollowing common arguments:
Database is a range oI cells which deIine the database.
Database¸field speciIies the column where the Iunction operates on aIter the search
criteria oI the Iirst parameter is applied and the data rows are selected. It is not related to
the search criteria itselI. The number 0 speciIies the whole data range. To reIerence a
column by using the column header name, place quotation marks around the header name.
Search¸criteria is a cell range containing the search criteria.. Empty cells in the search
criteria range will be ignored.
Note All oI the search-criteria arguments Ior the database Iunctions support regular
expressions. For example, 'all.*¨ can be entered to Iind the Iirst location oI 'all¨
Iollowed by any characters. To search Ior text that is also a regular expression,
precede every character with a \ character. You can switch the automatic evaluation
oI regular expressions on and oII in Tools > Options > OpenOffice.org Calc >
Calculate.
Table 9. Database average
Syntax Description
DAVERAGE(database:
databaseIield:
searchcriteria)
Returns the average oI the values oI all cells (Iields) in all
rows (database records) that match the speciIied
search¸criteria. The search supports regular expressions.
DCOUNT(database:
databaseIield:
searchcriteria)
Counts the number oI rows (records) in a database that match
the speciIied search¸criteria and contain numerical values.
The search supports regular expressions. For the
database¸field parameter, enter a cell address to speciIy the
column, or enter the number 0 Ior the entire database. The
parameter cannot be empty.
DCOUNTA(database:
databaseIield:
searchcriteria)
Counts the number oI rows (records) in a database that match
the speciIied search¸criteria and contain numeric or
alphanumeric values. The search supports regular expressions.
DGET(database:
databaseIield:
searchcriteria)
Returns the contents oI the reIerenced cell in a database which
matches the speciIied search¸criteria. In case oI an error, the
Iunction returns either #VALUE! Ior no row Iound, or Err502
Ior more than one cell Iound.
Descríptíon of Functíons 31
Database functions
Syntax Description
DMAX(database:
databaseIield:
searchcriteria)
Returns the maximum content oI a cell (Iield) in a database (all
records) that matches the speciIied search¸criteria. The
search supports regular expressions.
DMIN(database:
databaseIield:
searchcriteria)
Returns the minimum content oI a cell (Iield) in a database that
matches the speciIied search¸criteria. The search supports
regular expressions.
DPRODUCT(database:
databaseIield:
searchcriteria)
Multiplies all cells oI a data range where the cell contents
match the search¸criteria. The search supports regular
expressions.
DSTDEV(database:
databaseIield:
searchcriteria)
Calculates the standard deviation oI a population based on a
sample, using the numbers in a database column that match the
search¸criteria. The records are treated as a sample oI data.
Note that a representative result oI a large population can not
be obtained Irom a sample oI Iewer than one thousand.
DSTDEVP(database:
databaseIield:
searchcriteria)
Calculates the standard deviation oI a population based on all
cells oI a data range which match the search¸criteria. The
records Irom the example are treated as the whole population.
DSUM(database:
databaseIield:
searchcriteria)
Returns the total oI all cells in a database Iield in all rows
(records) that match the speciIied search¸criteria. The search
supports regular expressions.
DVAR(database:
databaseIield:
searchcriteria)
Returns the variance oI all cells oI a database Iield in all
records that match the speciIied search¸criteria. The records
Irom the example are treated as a sample oI data. A
representative result oI a large population cannot be obtained
Irom a sample population oI Iewer than one thousand.
DVARP(database:
databaseIield:
searchcriteria)
Calculates the variance oI all cell values in a database Iield in
all records that match the speciIied search¸criteria. The
records are Irom the example are treated as an entire
population.
Descríptíon of Functíons 32
Array functions
Array functions
Table 10. Arrav functions
Syntax Description
FREQUENCY(data:
classes)
Calculates the Irequency distribution in a one-column-array.
The deIault value supply and the number oI intervals or classes
are used to count how many values are omitted on the single
intervals. Data is the array oI, or reIerence to, the set oI values
to be counted. Classes is the array oI the class set.
GROWTH(dataY:
dataX: newdataX:
Iunctiontype)
Calculates the points oI an exponential trend in an array.
Data¸Y is the Y Data array. Data¸X (optional) is the X Data
array. New¸Data¸X (optional) is the X data array, in which the
values are recalculated. Function¸type is optional. II
Iunctiontype ÷ 0, Iunctions in the Iorm y ÷ m`x are
calculated. Otherwise, y ÷ b*m`x Iunctions are calculated.
LINEST(dataY: dataX:
lineartype: stats)
Returns the parameters oI a linear trend. Data¸Y is the Y Data
array. Data¸X (optional) is the X Data array. Linear¸Type
(optional). II the line goes through the zero point, then set
LinearType ÷ 0. Stats (optional): II Stats÷0, only the
regression coeIIicient is calculated. Otherwise, other statistics
will be seen.
LOGEST(dataY: dataX:
Iunctiontype: stats)
Calculates the adiustment oI the entered data as an exponential
regression curve (y÷b*m`x). Data¸Y is the Y Data array.
Data¸X (optional) is the X Data array. Function¸type
(optional): II Iunctiontype ÷ 0, Iunctions in the Iorm y ÷ m`x
are calculated. Otherwise, y ÷ b*m`x Iunctions are calculated.
Stats (optional). II Stats÷0, only the regression coeIIicient is
calculated.
MDETERM(array) Returns the array determinant oI an array. This Iunction returns
a value in the current cell: it is not necessary to deIine a range
Ior the results. Array is a square array in which the
determinants are deIined.
MINVERSE(array) Returns the inverse array. Array is a square array that is to be
inverted.
MMULT(array: array) Calculates the array product oI two arrays. The number oI
columns Ior array 1 must match the number oI rows Ior array
2. The square array has an equal number oI rows and columns.
Array at Iirst place is the Iirst array used in the array product.
Array at second place is the second array with the same
number oI rows.
MUNIT(dimensions) Returns the unitary square array oI a certain size. The unitary
array is a square array where the main diagonal elements equal
1 and all other array elements are equal to 0. Dimensions
reIers to the size oI the array unit.
Descríptíon of Functíons 33
Array functions
Syntax Description
SUMPRODUCT(array 1:
array 2: ...array 30)
Multiplies corresponding elements in the given arrays, and
returns the sum oI those products. Array 1; array 2;...array
30 are arrays whose corresponding elements are to be
multiplied. At least one array must be part oI the argument list.
II only one array is given, all array elements are summed.
SUMX2MY2(arrayX:
arrayY)
Returns the sum oI the diIIerence oI squares oI corresponding
values in two arrays. Array¸X is the Iirst array whose
elements are to be squared and added. Array¸Y is the second
array whose elements are to be squared and subtracted.
SUMX2PY2(arrayX:
arrayY)
Returns the sum oI the sum oI squares oI corresponding values
in two arrays. Array¸X is the Iirst array whose arguments are
to be squared and added. Array¸Y is the second array, whose
elements are to be added and squared.
SUMXMY2(arrayX:
arrayY)
Adds the squares oI the variance between corresponding
values in two arrays. Array¸X is the Iirst array whose
elements are to be subtracted and squared. Array¸Y is the
second array, whose elements are to be subtracted and squared.
TRANSPOSE(array) Transposes the rows and columns oI an array. Array is the
array in the spreadsheet that is to be transposed.
TREND(dataY: dataX:
newdataX: linearType)
Returns values along a linear trend. Data¸Y is the Y Data
array. Data¸X (optional) is the X Data array. New¸data¸X
(optional) is the array oI the X data, which are used Ior
recalculating values. Linear¸type is optional. II linear¸type ÷
0, then lines will be calculated through the zero point.
Otherwise, oIIset lines will also be calculated. The deIault is
linear¸type ·~ 0.
Descríptíon of Functíons 34
5preadsheet functions
Spreadsheet functions
Use spreadsheet Iunctions to search and address cell ranges and provide Ieedback regarding
the contents oI a cell or range oI cells. You can use Iunctions such as HYPERLINK() and
DDE() to connect to other documents or data sources.
Table 11. Spreaasheet functions
Syntax Description
ADDRESS(row: column:
abs: sheet)
Returns a cell address (reIerence) as text, according to the
speciIied row and column numbers. Optionally, whether the
address is interpreted as an absolute address (Ior example,
$A$1) or as a relative address (as A1) or in a mixed Iorm (A$1
or $A1) can be determined. The name oI the sheet can also be
speciIied. Row is the row number Ior the cell reIerence.
Column is the column number Ior the cell reIerence (the
number, not the letter). Abs determines the type oI reIerence.
Sheet is the name oI the sheet.
AREAS(reIerence) Returns the number oI individual ranges that belong to a
multiple range. A range can consist oI contiguous cells or a
single cell. Reference is the reIerence to a cell or cell range.
CHOOSE(index: value1: ...
value30)
Uses an index to return a value Irom a list oI up to 30 values.
Index is a reIerence or number between 1 and 30 indicating
which value is to be taken Irom the list. Value1; ... value30 is
the list oI values entered as a reIerence to a cell or as
individual values.
COLUMN(reIerence) Returns the column number oI a cell reIerence. II the reIerence
is a cell, the column number oI the cell is returned: iI the
parameter is a cell area, the corresponding column numbers are
returned in a single-row array iI the Iormula is entered as an
array Iormula. II the COLUMN Iunction with an area reIerence
parameter is not used Ior an array Iormula, only the column
number oI the Iirst cell within the area is determined.
ReIerence is the reIerence to a cell or cell area whose Iirst
column number is to be Iound. II no reIerence is entered, the
column number oI the cell in which the Iormula is entered is
Iound. Calc automatically sets the reIerence to the current cell.
COLUMNS(array) Returns the number oI columns in the given reIerence. Array
is the reIerence to a cell range whose total number oI columns
is to be Iound. The argument can also be a single cell.
Descríptíon of Functíons 35
5preadsheet functions
Syntax Description
DDE(server: Iile: range:
mode)
Returns the result oI a DDE-based link. II the contents oI the
linked range or section changes, the returned value will also
change. The spreadsheet can be reloaded, or Edit > Links
selected, to see the updated links. Cross-platIorm links, Ior
example Irom an OpenOIIice.org installation running on a
Windows machine to a document created on a Linux machine,
are not supported. Server is the name oI a server application.
OpenOIIice.org applications have the server name 'SoIIice¨.
File is the complete Iile name, including path. Range is the
area containing the data to be evaluated. Mode is an optional
parameter that controls the method by which the DDE server
converts its data into numbers.
ERRORTYPE(reIerence) Returns the number corresponding to an error value occurring
in a diIIerent cell. With the aid oI this number, an error
message text can be generated. II an error occurs, the Iunction
returns a logical or numerical value. Reference contains the
address oI the cell in which the error occurs.
HLOOKUP(searchcriteria
: array: index: sorted)
Searches Ior a value and reIerence to the cells below the
selected area. This Iunction veriIies iI the Iirst row oI an array
contains a certain value. The Iunction returns the value in a
row oI the array, named in the index, in the same column. The
search supports regular expressions.
HYPERLINK(URL) or
HYPERLINK(URL:
celltext)
When a cell that contains the HYPERLINK Iunction is clicked,
the hyperlink opens. URL speciIies the link target. The
optional cell¸text argument is the text displayed in the cell. II
the cell¸text parameter is not speciIied, the URL is displayed.
INDEX(reIerence: row:
column: range)
Returns the content oI a cell, speciIied by row and column
number or an optional range name. Reference is a cell
reIerence, entered either directly or by speciIying a range
name. II the reIerence consists oI multiple ranges, the reIerence
or range name must be enclosed in parentheses. Row
(optional) is the row number oI the reIerence range, Ior which
to return a value. Column (optional) is the column number oI
the reIerence range, Ior which to return a value. Range
(optional) is the index oI the subrange iI reIerring to a multiple
range.
INDIRECT(reIerence) Returns the reference speciIied by a text string. This Iunction
can also be used to return the area oI a corresponding string.
Reference is a reIerence to a cell or an area (in text Iorm) Ior
which to return the contents.
Descríptíon of Functíons 36
5preadsheet functions
Syntax Description
LOOKUP(searchcriterion:
searchvector:
resultvector)
Returns the contents oI a cell either Irom a one-row or one-
column range or Irom an array. Optionally, the assigned value
(oI the same index) is returned in a diIIerent column and row.
As opposed to VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP, search and result
vectors may be at diIIerent positions: they do not have to be
adiacent. Additionally, the search vector Ior the LOOKUP must
be sorted, otherwise the search will not return any usable
results. The search supports regular expressions.
Search¸criterion is the value to be searched Ior: entered either
directly or as a reIerence. Search¸vector is the single-row or
single-column area to be searched. Result¸vector is another
single-row or single-column range Irom which the result oI the
Iunction is taken. The result is the cell oI the result vector with
the same index as the instance Iound in the search vector.
MATCH(searchcriterion:
lookuparray: type)
Returns the relative position oI an item in an array that matches
a speciIied value. The Iunction returns the position oI the value
Iound in the lookuparray as a number. Search¸criterion is
the value which is to be searched Ior in the single-row or
single-column array. Lookup¸array is the reIerence searched.
A lookup array can be a single row or column, or part oI a
single row or column. Type may take the values 1, 0, or 1.
This corresponds to the same Iunction in MicrosoIt Excel. The
search supports regular expressions
OFFSET(reIerence: rows:
columns: height: width)
Returns the value oI a cell oIIset by a certain number oI rows
and columns Irom a given reIerence point. Reference is the
cell Irom which the Iunction searches Ior the new reIerence.
Rows is the number oI cells by which the reIerence was
corrected up (negative value) or down. Columns is the number
oI columns by which the reIerence was corrected to the leIt
(negative value) or to the right. Height is the optional vertical
height Ior an area that starts at the new reIerence position.
Width is the optional horizontal width Ior an area that starts at
the new reIerence position.
ROW(reIerence) Returns the row number oI a cell reIerence. II the reIerence is a
cell, it returns the row number oI the cell. II the reIerence is a
cell range, it returns the corresponding row numbers in a one-
column Array iI the Iormula is entered as an array Iormula. II
the ROW Iunction with a range reIerence is not used in an
array Iormula, only the row number oI the Iirst range cell will
be returned. Reference is a cell, an area, or the name oI an
area. II a reIerence is not indicated, Calc automatically sets the
reIerence to the current cell.
ROWS(array) Returns the number oI rows in a reIerence or array. Array is
the reIerence or named area whose total number oI rows is to
be determined.
Descríptíon of Functíons 37
5preadsheet functions
Syntax Description
SHEET(reIerence) Returns the sheet number oI a reIerence or a string
representing a sheet name. II no parameters are entered, the
result is the sheet number oI the spreadsheet containing the
Iormula. Reference (optional) is the reIerence to a cell, an
area, or a sheet name string.
SHEETS(reIerence) Determines the number oI sheets in a reIerence. II no
parameters are entered, the result is the number oI sheets in the
current document. Reference (optional) is the reIerence to a
sheet or an area.
STYLE(style: time: style2) Applies a style to the cell containing the Iormula. AIter a set
amount oI time, another style can be applied. This Iunction
always returns the value 0, allowing it to be added to another
Iunction without changing the value. Style is the name oI a cell
style assigned to the cell. Time is an optional time range in
seconds. Style2 is the optional name oI a cell style assigned to
the cell aIter a certain amount oI time has passed.
VLOOKUP(searchcriterio
n: array: index: sortorder)
Searches vertically with reIerence to adiacent cells to the right.
II a speciIic value is contained in the Iirst column oI an array,
returns the value to the same line oI a speciIic array column
named by index. The search supports regular expressions.
Search¸criterion is the value searched Ior in the Iirst column
oI the array. Array is the reIerence, which must include at least
two columns. Index is the number oI the column in the array
that contains the value to be returned. The Iirst column has the
number 1. Sort¸order (optional) indicates whether the Iirst
column in the array is sorted in ascending order.
Descríptíon of Functíons 38
Text functions
Text functions
Use Calc`s text Iunctions to search and manipulate text strings or character codes.
Table 12. Text functions
Syntax Description
ARABIC(text) Calculates the value oI a Roman number. The value range must
be between 0 and 3999. Text is the text that represents a
Roman number.
BASE(number: radix:
|minimumlength|)
Converts a positive integer to a speciIied base then into text
using the characters Irom the base's numbering system
(decimal, binary, hexadecimal, etc.). Only the digits 0-9 and
the letters A-Z are used. Number is the positive integer to be
converted. Radix is the base oI the number system. It may be
any positive integer between 2 and 36. Minimum¸length
(optional) is the minimum length oI the character sequence that
has been created. II the text is shorter than the indicated
minimum length, zeros are added to the leIt oI the string.
CHAR(number) Converts a number into a character according to the current
code table. The number can be a two-digit or three-digit integer
number. Number is a number between 1 and 255 representing
the code value Ior the character.
CLEAN(text) Removes all non-printing characters Irom the string. Text
reIers to the text Irom which to remove all non-printable
characters.
CODE(text) Returns a numeric code Ior the Iirst character in a text string.
Text is the text Ior which the code oI the Iirst character is to be
Iound.
CONCATENATE(text1:
text2: ...: text30)
Combines several text strings into one string. Text¸1; text¸2;
... text¸30 are text passages that are to be combined into one
string.
DECIMAL(text: radix) Converts text with characters Irom a number system to a
positive integer in the base radix given. The radix must be in
the range 2 to 36. Spaces and tabs are ignored. The text Iield is
not case-sensitive. Text is the text to be converted. To
diIIerentiate between a hexadecimal number, such as A1 and
the reIerence to cell A1, place the number in quotation marks:
Ior example, "A1" or "FACE¨. Radix indicates the base oI the
number system. It may be any positive integer between 2 and
36.
Descríptíon of Functíons 39
Text functions
Syntax Description
DOLLAR(value: decimals) Converts a number to an amount in the currency Iormat,
rounded to a speciIied decimal place. Value is the number to
be converted to currency: it can be a number, a reIerence to a
cell containing a number, or a Iormula which returns a number.
Decimals (optional) is the number oI decimal places. II no
decimals value is speciIied, all numbers in currency Iormat will
be displayed with two decimal places. The currency Iormat is
set in the system settings.
EXACT(text1: text2) Compares two text strings and returns TRUE iI they are
identical. This Iunction is case-sensitive. Text¸1 is the Iirst text
to compare. Text¸2 is the second text to compare.
FIND(Iindtext: text:
position)
Looks Ior a string oI text within another string. Where to begin
the search can also be deIined. The search term can be a
number or any string oI characters. The search is case-
sensitive. Find¸text is the text to be Iound. Text is the text
where the search takes place. Position (optional) is the
position in the text Irom which the search starts.
FIXED(number: decimals:
nothousandsseparator)
SpeciIies that a number be displayed with a Iixed number oI
decimal places and with or without a thousands separator. This
Iunction can be used to apply a uniIorm Iormat to a column oI
numbers. Number is the number to be Iormatted. Decimals is
the number oI decimal places to be displayed.
No¸thousands¸separator (optional) determines whether the
thousands separator is used or not. II the parameter is a number
not equal to 0, the thousands separator is suppressed. II the
parameter is equal to 0 or iI it is missing altogether, the
thousands separators oI the current locale setting are displayed.
LEFT(text: number) Returns the Iirst character or characters in a text string. Text is
the text where the initial partial words are to be determined.
Number (optional) is the number oI characters Ior the start
text. II this parameter is not deIined, one character is returned.
LEN(text) Returns the length oI a string including spaces. Text is the text
whose length is to be determined.
LOWER(text) Converts all uppercase letters in a text string to lowercase.
Text is the text to be converted.
MID(text: start: number) Returns a text segment oI a character string. The parameters
speciIy the starting position and the number oI characters. Text
is the text containing the characters to extract. Start is the
position oI the Iirst character in the text to extract. Number is
the number oI characters in the part oI the text.
PROPER(text) Capitalizes the Iirst letter in all words oI a text string. Text
reIers to the text to be converted.
Descríptíon of Functíons 40
Text functions
Syntax Description
REPLACE(text: position:
length: newtext)
Replaces part oI a text string with a diIIerent text string. This
Iunction can be used to replace both characters and numbers
(which are automatically converted to text). The result oI the
Iunction is always displayed as text. To perIorm Iurther
calculations with a number which has been replaced by text,
convert it back to a number using the VALUE Iunction. Any
text containing numbers must be enclosed in quotation marks
so it is not interpreted as a number and automatically converted
to text. Text is text oI which a part will be replaced. Position is
the position within the text where the replacement will begin.
Length is the number oI characters in text to be replaced.
New¸text is the text which replaces text..
REPT(text: number) Repeats a character string by the given number oI copies. Text
is the text to be repeated. Number is the number oI repetitions.
The result can be a maximum oI 255 characters.
RIGHT(text: number) DeIines the last character or characters in a text string. Text is
the text oI which the right part is to be determined. Number
(optional) is the number oI characters Irom the right part oI the
text.
ROMAN(number: mode) Converts a number into a Roman numeral. The value range
must be between 0 and 3999: the modes can be integers Irom 0
to 4. Number is the number that is to be converted into a
Roman numeral. Mode (optional) indicates the degree oI
simpliIication. The higher the value, the greater is the
simpliIication oI the Roman numeral.
*ROT13(text) Encrypts a character string by moving the characters 13
positions in the alphabet. AIter the letter Z, the alphabet begins
again (Rotation). Applying the encryption Iunction again to the
resulting code, decrypts the text. Text: Enter the character
string to be encrypted. ROT13(ROT13(Text)) decrypts the
code.
SEARCH(Iindtext: text:
position)
Returns the position oI a text segment within a character string.
The start oI the search can be set as an option. The search text
can be a number or any sequence oI characters. The search is
not case-sensitive. The search supports regular expressions.
Find¸text is the text to be searched Ior. Text is the text where
the search will take place. Position (optional) is the position in
the text where the search is to start.
SUBSTITUTE(text:
searchtext: new text:
occurrence)
Substitutes new text Ior old text in a string. Text is the text in
which text segments are to be exchanged. Search¸text is the
text segment that is to be replaced (a number oI times). New
text is the text that is to replace the text segment. Occurrence
(optional) indicates how many occurrences oI the search text
are to be replaced. II this parameter is missing, the search text
is replaced throughout.
Descríptíon of Functíons 41
Text functions
Syntax Description
T(value) Converts a number to a blank text string. Value is the value to
be converted. Also, a reIerence can be used as a parameter. II
the reIerenced cell includes a number or a Iormula containing a
numerical result, the result will be an empty string.
TEXT(number: Iormat) Converts a number into text according to a given Iormat.
Number is the numerical value to be converted. Format is the
text which deIines the Iormat. Use decimal and thousands
separators according to the language set in the cell Iormat.
TRIM(text) Removes spaces that are in Iront oI a string, or aligns cell
contents to the leIt. Text reIers to text in which leading spaces
are removed, or to the cell in which the contents will be leIt-
aligned.
UPPER(text) Converts the string speciIied in the text parameter to
uppercase. Text reIers to the lower case letters you want to
convert to upper case.
VALUE(text) Converts a text string into a number. Text is the text to be
converted to a number.
Add-in functions
You can extend Calc`s Ieatures with Add-ins programmed to be compatible with OOo's
Application Programming InterIace (API). Add-ins are either Dynamically Linked Libraries
(*.dll) or shared libraries (such as Shared Obiect libraries, *.so), depending on the operating
system under which OOo is running. When placed in the directory (or Iolder) deIined in
Tools > Options > OpenOffice.org > Paths > Add-ins dialog, these libraries are recognized
and can be utilized by Calc. Installing a Iunction Add-in library makes its Iunctions available
through the Function Wizara (Insert > Function or Ctrl·F2) and the Function List (Insert >
Function List).
OOo provides samples oI the add-in interIace oI Calc which can be selectively installed or
uninstalled through the OOo Setup program. These add-ins are listed in the Iollowing table. II
these add-ins are not installed, neither the Iollowing described Iunctions, nor the Iunctions
marked with a * in the previous lists, will be available.
More detailed inIormation on programming add-ins Ior OpenOIIice.org can be Iound in the
OpenOIIice.org Developer's Guide or on the OOo developers` website:
http://development.openoIIice.org/.
Descríptíon of Functíons 42
Add-in functions
Table 13. Aaa-in functions
Syntax Description
*BESSELI(x: n) Calculates the modiIied Bessel Iunction In(x). x is the value
on which the Iunction will be calculated. n is the order oI
the Bessel Iunction
*BESSELJ(x: n) Calculates the Bessel Iunction Jn(x) (cylinder Iunction). x is
the value on which the Iunction will be calculated. n is the
order oI the Bessel Iunction
*BESSELK(x: n) Calculates the modiIied Bessel Iunction Kn(x). x is the
value on which the Iunction will be calculated. n is the
order oI the Bessel Iunction
*BESSELY(x: n) Calculates the modiIied Bessel Iunction Yn(x), also known
as the Weber or Neumann Iunction. x is the value on which
the Iunction will be calculated. n is the order oI the Bessel
Iunction
*BIN2DEC(number) Returns the decimal number Ior the binary number entered.
Number is the binary number.
*BIN2HEX(number: places) Returns the hexadecimal number Ior the binary number
entered. Number is the binary number. Places is the number
oI places to be output.
*BIN2OCT(number: places) Returns the octal number Ior the binary number entered.
Number is the binary number. Places is the number oI
places to be output.
*COMPLEX(realnum:
inum: suIIix)
Returns a complex number Irom a real coeIIicient and an
imaginary coeIIicient. Real¸num is the real coeIIicient oI
the complex number. I¸num is the imaginary coeIIicient oI
the complex number. Suffix is list oI options, "i¨ or "i¨.
*CONVERTADD(number:
Iromunit: tounit)
Converts a value Irom one unit oI measure to the
corresponding value in another unit oI measure. Number is
the number to be converted. From¸unit is the unit Irom
which conversion is taking place. To¸unit is the unit to
which conversion is taking place.
*DEC2BIN(number: places) Returns the binary number Ior the decimal number entered
between -512 and 511. Number is the decimal number.
Places is the number oI places to be output.
*DEC2HEX(number: places) Returns the hexadecimal number Ior the decimal number
entered. Number is the decimal number. Places is the
number oI places to be output.
*DEC2OCT(number: places) Returns the octal number Ior the decimal number entered.
Number is the decimal number. Places is the number oI
places to be output.
*DELTA(number1:
number2)
Returns TRUE (1) iI both numbers are equal, otherwise
returns FALSE (0).
Descríptíon of Functíons 43
Add-in functions
Syntax Description
*ERF(lowerlimit:
upperlimit)
Returns values oI the Gaussian error integral. Lower¸limit
is the lower limit oI integral. Upper¸limit (optional) is the
upper limit oI the integral. II this value is missing, the
calculation takes places between 0 and the lower limit.
*ERFC(lowerlimit) Returns complementary values oI the Gaussian error
integral between x and inIinity. Lower limit is the lower
limit oI integral (x).
*FACTDOUBLE(number) Returns the Iactorial oI the number with increments oI 2. II
the number is even, the Iollowing Iactorial is calculated:
n*(N-2)*(n-4)*...*4*2. II the number is uneven, the
Iollowing Iactorial is calculated: n*(N-2)*(n-4)*...*3*1.
*GESTEP(number: step) Returns 1 iI Number is greater than or equal to Step.
*HEX2BIN(number: places) Returns the binary number Ior the hexadecimal number
entered. Number is the hexadecimal number. Places is the
number oI places to be output.
*HEX2DEC(number) Returns the decimal number Ior the hexadecimal number
entered. Number is the hexadecimal number.
*HEX2OCT(number: places) Returns the octal number Ior the hexadecimal number
entered. Number is the hexadecimal number. Places is the
number oI places to be output.
*IMABS(complexnumber) Returns the absolute value (modulus) oI a
complex¸number. The complex number is entered in the
Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"
*IMAGINARY(complex
number)
Returns the imaginary coeIIicient oI a complex¸number.
The complex number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹
yi"
*IMARGUMENT(complex
number)
Returns the argument (the phi angle) oI a complex¸number.
The complex number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹
yi"
*IMCONJUGATE(complex
number)
Returns the coniugated complex complement to a
complex¸number. The complex number is entered in the
Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"
*IMCOS(complexnumber) Returns the cosine oI a complex¸number. The complex
number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"
*IMDIV(numerator:
denominator)
Returns the division oI two complex numbers. Numerator,
Denominator are entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"
*IMEXP(complexnumber) Returns the power oI e (the Eulerian number) and the
complex number. The complex¸number is entered in the
Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"
*IMLN(complexnumber) Returns the natural logarithm oI a complex¸number. The
complexnumber is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi¨
Descríptíon of Functíons 44
Add-in functions
Syntax Description
*IMLOG10(complex
number)
Returns the common logarithm oI a complex¸number. The
complex number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"
*IMLOG2(complex number) Returns the binary logarithm oI a complex¸number. The
complex number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"
*IMPOWER(complex
number: number)
Returns the integer power oI a complex¸number. The
complex number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi".
Number is the exponent.
*IMPRODUCT(complex
number: complexnumber1:
...)
Returns the product oI up to 29 complex¸numbers. The
complex numbers are entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹
yi"
*IMREAL(complex number) Returns the real coeIIicient oI a complex¸number. The
complex number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"
*IMSIN(complexnumber) Returns the sine oI a complex¸number. The complex
number is entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹ yi"
*IMSQRT(complexnumber) Returns the square root oI a complex¸number. The
complex numbers are entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹
yi"
*IMSUB(complexnumber1:
complexnumber2)
Returns the subtraction oI two complex¸numbers. The
complex¸numbers are entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹
yi"
*IMSUM(complexnumber:
complexnumber1: ...)
Returns the sum oI up to 29 complex numbers. The
complex¸numbers are entered in the Iorm "x ¹ yi" or "x ¹
yi"
*OCT2BIN(number: places) Returns the binary number Ior the octal number entered.
Number is the octal number. Places is the number oI places
to be output.
*OCT2DEC(number) Returns the decimal number Ior the octal number entered.
Number is the octal number.
*OCT2HEX(number: places) Returns the hexadecimal number Ior the octal number
entered. Number is the octal number. Places is the number
oI places to be output.
Descríptíon of Functíons 45

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