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over 1.3 billion people. Located in East Asia, China is governed by the Communist Party of China (CPC) under a single-party system. The PRC exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four directly administered municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two highly autonomous special administrative regions (SARs) - Hong Kong and Macau. Its capital city is Beijing. At about 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), the PRC is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area, (depending on the definition of what is included in that total)  and the second largest by land area. Its landscape is diverse, with forest steppes and deserts (the Gobi and Taklamakan) in the dry north near Mongolia and Russia's Siberia, and subtropical forests in the wet south close to Vietnam, Laos, and Burma. The terrain in the west is rugged and at high altitude, with the Himalayas and the Tian Shan mountain ranges forming China's natural borders with India and Central Asia. In contrast, mainland China's eastern seaboard is low-lying and has a 14,500-kilometre long coastline bounded on the southeast by the South China Sea and on the east by the East China Sea beyond which lies the Taiwan, Korea, and Japan. The ancient Chinese civilization—one of the world's earliest—flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River which flows through the North China Plain. For more than 6,000 years, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies (also known as dynasties). The first of these dynasties was the Xia (approx 2000BC) but it was the later Qin Dynasty that first unified China in 221 BC. The last dynasty, the Qing, ended in 1911 with the founding of the Republic of China (ROC) by the Kuomintang (KMT), the Chinese Nationalist Party. The first half of the 20th century saw China plunged into a period of disunity and civil wars that divided the country into two main political camps – the Kuomintang and the communists. Major hostilities ended in 1949, when the communists won the civil war and established the People's Republic of China in mainland China. The KMT-led Republic of China relocated their capital to Taipei on Taiwan, its jurisdiction is now limited to Taiwan, Kinmen, Matsu and several outlying islands. Since then, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has been involved in political disputes with the Republic of China over issues of sovereignty and the political status of Taiwan. China is a major power and the world's third largest economy nominally (or second largest by PPP) and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, as well as being a member of multilateral organizations including the WTO, APEC, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and G-20. It is also one of the BRIC countries. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army with the second-largest defense budget. China has been characterized as a potential superpower by a number of academics, military analysts, and public policy and economics analysts. History Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949 with the Communist Party of China in control of mainland China, and Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China. "Communist China" or "Red China" were two of the names of the PRC. The economic and social plan known as the Great Leap Forward resulted in an estimated 30 million deaths. In 1966, Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, which would last until Mao's death a decade later. The Cultural Revolution, motivated by power struggles within the Party and a fear of the Soviet Union, led to a major upheaval in Chinese society. In 1972, at the peak of the Sino-Soviet split, Mao and Zhou Enlai met Richard Nixon in Beijing to establish relations with the United States. In the same year, the PRC was admitted to the United Nations in place of the Republic of China for China's membership of the United Nations, and permanent membership of the Security Council. After Mao's death in 1976 and the arrest of the Gang of Four, blamed for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping quickly wrested power from Mao's anointed successor Hua Guofeng. Although he never became the head of the Party or State himself, Deng was in fact the Paramount Leader of China at that time, his influence within the Party led the country to economic reforms of significant magnitude. The Communist Party subsequently loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives and the communes were disbanded with many peasants receiving multiple land leases, which greatly increased incentives and agricultural production. This turn of events marked China's transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy with an increasingly open market environment. In 1989, the death of pro-reform official, Hu Yaobang, helped to spark the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, during which students and others campaigned for several months for more democratic rights and freedom of speech. However, they were eventually put down on 4 June when PLA troops and vehicles entered and forcibly cleared the square, resulting in numerous casualties. This event was widely reported and brought worldwide condemnation and sanctions against the government. The "Tank Man" incident in particular became famous. President Jiang Zemin and Premier Zhu Rongji, both former mayors of Shanghai, led post-Tiananmen PRC in the 1990s. Under Jiang and Zhu's ten years of administration, the PRC's economic performance pulled an estimated 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual GDP growth rate of 11.2%. The country formally joined the World Trade Organization in 2001.
the liberalization of the PRC is such that the administrative climate is less restrictive than before. The level of support to the government action and the management of the nation is among the highest in the world. contributing to the 87.non-interference in other states' affairs. Sweden was the first western country to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic on 9 May 1950. The PRC is also a founding member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO). under current President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao. Laos. Compared to its closed-door policies until the mid-1970s. However. such as Zimbabwe. Under its interpretation of the One-China policy. and the National People's Congress has been described as a "rubber stamp" body. held its inaugural summit in 2005. North Korea. usually for economic development. the PRC proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit (EAS) framework as a forum for regional security issues that pointedly excluded the United States. peaceful coexistence. India. China's foreign policy is also driven by the concept of "harmony without uniformity" which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences. with heavy restrictions remaining in many areas.Although the PRC needs economic growth to spur its development. with Russia and the Central Asian republics. and freedom continues to expand. The PRC's incumbent President is Hu Jintao and its Premier is Wen Jiabao. the U. Its foreign relations with many Western nations suffered for a time following the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. the CPC wins by default most of the time. it has acted furiously when any country shows signs of diplomatic overture. the Party retains effective control over government appointments: in the absence of meaningful opposition.-China spy plane incident in April 2001. The PRC has been playing an increasing role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its Asia-Pacific neighbors. the PRC has initiated policies to address these issues of equitable distribution of resources.  The PRC government has been variously described as communist and socialist. The EAS.S. but the outcome remains to be seen. Politics The PRC is regarded by several political scientists as one of the last five Communist states (along with Vietnam. but political controls remain tight and rural areas poor. though they have since recovered. Much of the current foreign policy is based on the concept of Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence of Zhou Enlai . reproductive rights. the government has begun to worry that rapid economic growth has negatively impacted the country's resources and environment. or sells armaments to Taiwan. or Iran. for example.  Conflicts with foreign countries have occurred at times in its recent history. Another concern is that certain sectors of society are not sufficiently benefiting from the PRC's economic development. which participate in the People's Political Consultative Conference and the National People's Congress. in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels. which includes ASEAN Plus Three. and equality and mutual benefits. The PRC was also a former member and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement. and Cuba). the press.  More than 40 million farmers have been displaced from their land. There have been some moves toward political liberalization. most notably on the Internet. North Korea. non-aggression.S. however the PRC is still far from the liberal democracy practiced in most of Europe or North America. and that legislatures have shown some assertiveness from time to time. The country is ruled by the Communist Party of China (CPC). In 1971. For much of the PRC's population in major urban centres. whose power is enshrined in China's constitution. . but simple characterizations of PRC's political structure since the 1980s are no longer possible. but also as authoritarian.000 demonstrations and riots across China in 2005. In 2004. referred to in China as democratic parties. Political concerns in the PRC include lessening the growing gap between rich and poor and fighting corruption within the government leadership. with 86% of people who express satisfaction with the way things are going in their country and with their nation's economy according to a 2008 Pew Research Center survey Foreign relations China maintains diplomatic relations with most major countries in the world. living standards have seen extremely large improvements. the PRC has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the Republic of China government. the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. There are other political parties in the PRC. although these experiments have been marred by corruption. particularly with the United States. Australia and New Zealand. freedom of assembly. bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade during the Kosovo conflict in May 1999 and the U. and freedom of religion. The political system is very decentralized with limited democratic processes internal to the party and at local village levels. As a result. This has led China to support states that are regarded as dangerous by Western nations.
and increasing international influence but others claiming it is headed for economic collapse. Xinhua. Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move to a market-oriented mixed economy under one-party rule. an undervalued exchange rate.com found that in 1998. and Chinese folk religions. along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs) were restructured by introducing western-style management system and the unprofitable ones were closed. 59% (over 700 million) of the population was irreligious. Despite the surveys' varying results. military might. China's economy is mainly characterized as a market economy based on private property ownership.  Collectivization of the agriculture was dismantled and farmlands were privatized to increase productivity. Taoism. the PRC since the 1990s seeks to maintain a policy of quiet diplomacy with its neighbors. grasslands can be seen. China's official news agency. Southern China is dominated by hill country and low mountain ranges. In the east. good infrastructure. and Chinese folk religions – are the dominant faiths. A survey by Phil Zuckerman on Adherents. The territory of China contains a large variety of landscapes. the PRC's investment. most agree that the traditional religions – Buddhism.000 Chinese nationals working or living in Africa. Geography and climate The People's Republic of China is the second largest country in the world by land area  and is considered the third or fourth largest in respect to total area. Other major rivers include the Xi. The PRC has started a policy of wooing African nations for trade and bilateral co-operation. medium level of technology and skill. Meanwhile. there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains. However. Economy From its founding in 1949 to late 1978.  . the government allows a limited degree of religious freedom. Buddhism in China accounts for between 660 million (~50%) and over 1 billion (~80%) while Taoists number 400 million (~30%). Foreign trade was focused upon as a major vehicle of growth. To propel the country towards a modern. An accurate number of religious adherents is hard to obtain because of a lack of official data. because of the fact that one person may subscribe to two or more of these traditional beliefs simultaneously and the difficulty in clearly differentiating Buddhism. favorable government policy. the number of adherents to these religions can be overlaid. This is attributed to a combination of cheap labor. with China's highest point at the eastern half of Mount Everest at 8. industrialized communist society. It does so by keeping economic growth steady and participating in regional organizations and cultivating bi-lateral relations in order to ease suspicion over China's burgeoning military capabilities. but there is general consensus that religion has been enjoying a resurgence over the past 20 years. In the central-east are the deltas of China's two major rivers. the People's Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy. with certain commentators pointing out its economic progress. Mao Zedong instituted the Great Leap Forward. resulting in massive job losses. There are some discussions about whether China will become a new superpower in the 21st century. another survey in 2007 found that there are 300 million (23% of the population) believers as distinct from an official figure of 100 million. notably the Himalayas. the Yellow River and Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). and some say.848 m. According to a number of sources. states that there are no less than 750. very large population. Taoism. while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north. To the west.and export-led economy has grown 70 times bigger and is the fastest growing major economy in the world. such as house churches. Following Mao's death and the end of the Cultural Revolution. Since economic liberalization began in 1978. Private businesses and capitalism did not exist. The PRC's success has been primarily due to manufacturing as a low-cost producer.While accompanying a rapid economic rise. Mekong. relatively high productivity. A wide variety of small-scale enterprises were encouraged while the government relaxed price controls and promoted foreign investment. In addition. subscribing to Buddhism and Taoism is not necessarily considered religious by those who follow the philosophies in principle but stop short of subscribing to any kind of divinity. major mountain ranges. which led to the creation of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) first in Shenzhen (near Hong Kong) and then in other Chinese cities. however official tolerance is only extended to members of state-approved religious organizations and not to those who worship underground. and high plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. Religion In mainland China. Brahmaputra and Amur.
current global numbers are unknown. Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today. Christianity has been particularly noted as one of the fastest growing (especially since the last 200 years) and today may number between 40 million (3%) and 54 million (4%) according to independent surveys. Artifacts from the history of the silk route. In July 1999. where many aspects of traditional culture were labeled 'regressive and harmful' or 'vestiges of feudalism' by the regime and thus. Chinese culture and the West were linked by the Silk Route. while official estimates suggested that there are only 16 million Christians. however: Falun Gong itself claims to have as many as 100 million practitioners. Many observers believe that the period following 1949 is a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history. are displayed in the Silk Route Museum. Muslims came to China for trade. They became influential in government circles. . In recent years. Christianity in China was first introduced during the Tang period in the 7th century with the arrival of Nestorian Christianity in 635 CE. were destroyed. who believed Legalism departed from the original spirit of Confucianism. such as Legalism. a number of New Confucians have advocated that democratic ideals and human rights are quite compatible with traditional Confucian "Asian values. it is still difficult to estimate accurately the number of Buddhists because they do not have congregational memberships and often do not participate in public ceremonies. such as the individualistic Song Dynasty neo-Confucians. dominating the import/export industry during the Song Dynasty. various forms of traditional Chinese art. the Chinese government has accepted a great deal of traditional Chinese culture as an integral part of Chinese society." The first leaders of the People's Republic of China were born in the old society but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and reformist ideals.Most Chinese Buddhists are nominal adherents because only a small proportion of the population (over 8% or over 100 million) may have taken the formal step of going for refuge. Islam in China dates to a mission in 651. lauding it as an important achievement of the Chinese civilization and emphasizing it as vital to a Chinese national identity. while the China's Ministry of Civil Affairs later claimed that there were as few as 2 million. opportunity for economic and social advancement in China could be provided by high performance on Imperial examinations. literature. such as the family structure and obedience to the state. According to official estimates. Other forms. as well as from the natural history of the Gobi desert. film. There was often conflict between the philosophies. Bön. Even then. and finally Protestants in the 19th century. They further argue that many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture. This was followed by Franciscan missionaries in the 13th century.  Mahayana ( 大 乘 . especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution. while preserving others. Lan Yu and Yeheidie'erding. Of the minority religions. and sparked interest nationally and even worldwide. Culture For centuries. Other estimates have varied. including Zheng He. Some sources also reported up to 130 million Christians in China. such as Theravada and Tibetan. and folk and variety art in particular have gained a new found respectability. such as the belief that calligraphy and literati painting were higher forms of art than dancing or drama. the Falun Gong spiritual practice was officially banned by the authorities. and a Confucian education.  and many international organizations have criticized the government's treatment of Falun Gong that has occurred since then. A number of more authoritarian and rational strains of thought have also been influential. Tiantai and Chán (better known in the west by its Japanese name Zen) are the most widely practiced denominations of Buddhism. As there is no official membership or lists. China's traditional values were derived from various versions of Confucianism and conservatism. Chinese art. They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture. while others say that the CPC's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture. and performing arts like Beijing opera. Dacheng) and its subsets Pure Land (Amidism). literature. The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China. eighteen years after Muhammad's death. sexism. are practiced largely by ethnic minorities along the geographic fringes of the Chinese mainland. and most estimates figures that there are 20 to 30 million Muslims (1. Today. Nanjing became an important center of Islamic study. such as rural land tenure. The Qing Dynasty waged war and genocide against Muslims in the Dungan revolt and Panthay rebellion. Dongbaism. Statistics are hard to find. There are also followers of minority religions including Hinduism. were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time. fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival. 50–70 million Chinese practised Falun Gong in 1998. Jesuits in the 16th century. Since the Cultural Revolution ended. and a number of new religions and sects (particularly Xiantianism).5% to 2% of the population). such as Confucianism. music. during which time Christianity began to make significant foothold in China.
such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. such as Chen Duxiu. Additionally. philosopher.  Since Deng Xiaoping assumed power in 1978. society and economy of China. He ruled the People's Republic of China (PRC) as a dictator from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. he laid the economic. many Maoist policies have been abandoned in favour of economic reforms. technological and cultural foundations of modern China. to Beijing in 1919. At age 8 he began studying at the village primary school. The essays. Mao is regarded as one of the most influential figures in modern world history. are blamed for costing millions of lives. Anying. He is officially held in high regard in China as a great revolutionary. the highest level of schooling available in his province. He first encountered Marxism while he worked as a library assistant at Peking University. Following his graduation. military strategies. Mao was first introduced to communism while working at Peking University. He eventually returned to school. and named by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century. and Anying was later sent to his relatives after the KMT killed his mother Political ideas Mao had a strong interest in the political system. During his stay in Shanghai. political strategist. Both essays reflect the guerilla roots of Maoism in the need to build up support in the countryside against a Japanese occupying force and emphasise the need to win over hearts and minds through 'education'. the Republic of China was founded and Mao left the army. despite an existing marriage with Luo Yixiu arranged by his father at home. owing the latter primarily to the cult of personality fostered during his time in power. 1893. 'On Contradiction' and 'On Practice'. with a contentious and ever-evolving legacy. causing severe famine and damage to the culture. warn against the behaviour of the blindfolded man trying to catch sparrows. His theoretical contribution to Marxism-Leninism. the Kuomintang (KMT) captured Yang Kaihui as well as her son. In October 1930. Professor Yang's daughter and a fellow student. who would come to greatly influence Mao's future thought. but left school at 13 to work on the family farm. Many Chinese also believe that through his policies. and visionary. his college teacher and future father-in-law. and savior of the nation. Mao remains a controversial figure to this day. Mao's social-political programs. political theorist and communist leader. in Shaoshan. Hu Shi. and his brand of Communist policies are now collectively known as Maoism. China. Mao worked as an assistant librarian at the University Library under the curatorship of Li Dazhao. His two most famous essays. Conversely. and in 1921 he attended the organizational meeting of the Communist Party of China (or CPC). Professor Yang died in 1920 but prior to his death had held a faculty position at Peking University. Hunan Province. he engaged himself as much as possible in reading which introduced him to Communist theories. Mao registered as a part-time student at Beijing University and attended a few lectures and seminars by intellectuals. military mastermind.Mao Zedong Mao Zedongwas a Han Chinese revolutionary. Mao spent six months studying independently. the capital of Hunan province. He married Yang Kaihui. transforming the country from an agrarian society into a major world power. Early life Mao was born on December 26. grass-roots knowledge.  and in 1918 graduated from the First Provincial Normal School of Hunan. encouraged by his father. He later left the farm to continue his studies at a secondary school in Changsha. After graduating from Hunan Normal School. and at his recommendation. which Mao never acknowledged. The KMT imprisoned them both. Mao's portrait continues to be featured prominently on Tiananmen and on all Renminbi bills. In the spring of 1912 the war ended. His father was a poor peasant who had become a wealthy farmer and grain dealer. Mao's policies and political purges from 1949 to 1976 are widely believed to have caused the deaths of between 50 to 70 million people. are concerned with the practical strategies of a revolutionary movement and stress the importance of practical. both from 1937. it is believed that Mao traveled with Professor Yang Changji. obtained through experience. and the 'Imperial envoy' descending from his carriage to 'spout opinions' . reproduced later as part of the 'Red Book'. . and Qian Xuantong. Mao is viewed as a poet. When the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing Dynasty broke out in 1911 he joined the Revolutionary Army in Hunan.
 Starting in 1951. Programs pursued during this time include the Hundred Flowers Campaign. and death of many citizens. and thus he cultivated his reputation among the farmers and peasants and introduced them to Marxism. the Party in what is called the Anti-Rightist Movement. silencing.5 million people. State department in 1976 estimated that there may have been a million killed in the land reform. who criticized. and unarmed labour struggles could not resolve the problems of imperial and feudal suppression.000 killed in the counterrevolutionary campaign. the Chinese literary works: Outlaws of the Marsh and Romance of the Three Kingdoms. The CPC introduced price controls as well as a Chinese character simplification aimed at increasing literacy. because there was a policy to select "at least one landlord. However. A climate of raw terror developed as workers denounced their bosses. Mao led several labour struggles based upon his studies of the propagation and organization of the contemporary labour movements. which were often exceeded. Others such as Dr Li Zhisui have suggested that Mao had initially seen the policy as a way of weakening those within his party who opposed him. new industrial plants were built and agricultural production eventually fell to a point where industry was beginning to produce enough capital that China no longer needed the USSR's support. Following the consolidation of power. Mao sought to subvert the alliance of imperialism and feudalism in China. wives turned on their husbands.S.  the number of deaths range between 2 million and 5 million. according to some scholars.000 people were executed during the years 1949–53. Mao insisted that minor offenders be criticized and reformed or sent to labor camps. Nevertheless he defended these killings as necessary for the securing of power. Throughout the 1920s. also linked to Mao's Anti-Rightist Movement. Authors such as Jung Chang have alleged that the Hundred Flowers Campaign was merely a ruse to root out "dangerous" thinking. in virtually every village for public execution". Large scale industrialization projects were also undertaken. This was initially tolerated and encouraged. Mao launched the First Five-Year Plan (1953–8). In addition. with death tolls possibly in the millions. Leadership of China Along with Land reform. 800. With the Soviet Union's assistance. After a few months. and usually several. the victims often being humiliated at struggle sessions. Mao himself was from a peasant family. which involved public executions targeting mainly former Kuomintang officials. totalling perhaps 500.000. However. in 1958. The success of the First Five Year Plan was to encourage Mao to instigate the Second Five Year Plan. Mao's government reversed its policy and persecuted those. during which significant numbers of landlords were beaten to death at mass meetings organized by the Communist Party as land was taken from them and given to poorer peasants. Mao also launched a phase of rapid collectivization. the vast majority via suicide. Mao began to depend on Chinese peasants who later became staunch supporters of his theory of violent revolution. liberal and intellectual Chinese began opposing the Communist Party and questioning its leadership. "while the worst among them should be shot. as well as those who were merely alleged to have criticized." These campaigns took several hundred thousand additional lives. former employees of Western companies and intellectuals whose loyalty was suspect. these struggles were successfully subdued by the government. Given the freedom to express themselves. Mao initiated two successive movements in an effort to rid urban areas of corruption by targeting wealthy capitalists and political opponents. The Hundred Flowers movement led to the condemnation.  perhaps as many as 4 to 6 million. at least 1. Mao played a personal role in organizing the mass repressions and established a system of execution quotas. were sent to "reform through labour" camps where many perished. Mao himself claimed that a total of 700. the Great Leap Forward. Hunan after he was labeled a radical activist. businessmen accused of "disturbing" the market. in which Mao indicated his supposed willingness to consider different opinions about how China should be governed. This dependence on the rural rather than the urban proletariat to instigate violent revolution distinguished Mao from his predecessors and contemporaries. The plan aimed to end Chinese dependence upon agriculture in order to become a world power. He pondered these failures and finally realized that industrial workers were unable to lead the revolution because they made up only a small portion of China's population. known as the three-anti/five-anti campaigns. He thought the KMT to be both economically and politically vulnerable and thus that the revolution could not be steered by Nationalists. and Mao fled from Changsha. Legacy . but was surprised by the extent of criticism and the fact that it began to be directed at his own leadership. there was also the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries.Other important influences on Mao were the Russian revolution and. and children informed on their parents.  It was only then that he used it as a method of identifying and subsequently persecuting those critical of his government.  The U. a method designed to intimidate and terrify people to the maximum.
the Chinese government has never officially repudiated the tactics of Mao. at which Mao is popularly regarded as a genius. If not half. a story in the People's Daily reported that a proposal had been made to print the portraits of Sun Yat-sen and Deng Xiaoping. This accompanied a decline in state recognition of Mao in later years in contrast to previous years when the state organized numerous events and seminars commemorating Mao's 100th birthday. including revolutionary movements such as Cambodia's Khmer Rouge. lasting until Richard Nixon decided that developing relations with the PRC would be useful in dealing with the Soviet Union. Deng Xiaoping. or one-tenth . famously saying that Mao was "70% right and 30% wrong". and the Nepalese revolutionary movement. Mao's major contribution to the military science is his theory of People's War. not that he intended to. While discussing labor-intensive projects such as waterworks and making steel. In 2006. mainly in the Third World. and most people outside of China who describe themselves as Maoist regard the Deng Xiaoping reforms to be a betrayal of Maoism. half of China may well have to die. China opened the Mao Zedong Square to visitors in his hometown of central Hunan Province to mark the 115th anniversary of his birth. with not only guerilla warfare but more importantly. He put no value on human life. Mao's personal secretary. the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) followed Mao's examples of guerrilla warfare to considerable political and military success even in the 21st century. 2006. with all these projects. goes further and claims he was dismissive of the suffering and death caused by his policies: "Mao's way of thinking and governing was terrifying. Mao had successfully applied Mobile Warfare in the Korean War.'" The ideology of Maoism has influenced many communists. who wanted to continue the policy of revolutionary mass mobilization. Among the latter group. there was a power struggle for control of China. Eventually. On one side was the left wing led by the Gang of Four. as do other Communist Parties around the world which are part of the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement. and also a great criminal because. Mao's English interpreter Sidney Rittenberg wrote in his memoir The Man Who Stayed Behind that he believes Mao never intended to cause the deaths and suffering endured by people under his chairmanship. not that he wanted to. As the Chinese government instituted free market economic reforms starting in the late 1970s and as later Chinese leaders took power. led by Chairman Hua Guofeng." The United States placed a trade embargo on the People's Republic as a result of its involvement in the Korean War.die. Mobile Warfare methodologies. has to a certain extent rejected Mao's legacy. the restorationists. Nevertheless. wanted to overhaul the Chinese economy based on market-oriented policies and to de-emphasize the role of Maoist ideology in determining economic and political policy. one-third. especially in manners of guerrilla warfare. less recognition was given to the status of Mao. Deng Xiaoping. his wild fantasies led to the deaths of tens of millions of people. USA also claims Marxism-Leninism-Maoism as its ideology. but in fact.As anticipated after Mao’s death. whereas the reformers. John McCain misattributed a campaign quote to Mao several times during his 2008 presidential election bid. the reformers won control of the government. advocated a return to central planning along the Soviet model. In his remarks on the matter Rittenberg has declared that Mao "was a great leader in history.50 million . In the mid-1990s." Biographer Jung Chang goes further still and argues that Mao was well aware that his policies would be responsible for the deaths of millions. with clear seniority over Hua Guofeng. defeated Hua in a bloodless power struggle a few years later. The deaths of others meant nothing to him. On the other side was the right wing opposing these policies. in line with Mao's view of "Capitalist roaders" within the Communist Party. As an example. push back and then halt the UN forces in Korea. The Revolutionary Communist Party. In 2008. The official Chinese translation of President Barack Obama's inauguration speech used a famous line from one of Mao's poems. Chang claims Mao said to his inner circle in November 1958: "Working like this. Mao's military writings continue to have a large amount of influence both among those who seek to create an insurgency and those who seek to crush one. . The Chinese government officially regards Mao as a national hero. who was opposed to the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. with the exception of a single mention in a section on etiquette. China itself has moved sharply away from Maoism since Mao's death. Mao Zedong's picture began to appear on all new renminbi currency from the People’s Republic of China. led by Deng Xiaoping. and was able to encircle. the government in Shanghai issued a new set of high school history textbooks which omit Mao. On March 13. despite the clear superiority of UN firepower. saying "Remember the words of Chairman Mao: 'It's always darkest before it's totally black." Li Rui. This was officially instituted as an anti-counterfeiting measure as Mao's face is widely recognized in contrast to the generic figures that appear in older currency.  Mao's poems and writings are frequently cited by both Chinese and non-Chinese. Peru's Shining Path. Students in Shanghai now only learn about Mao in junior high school.