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LABORATORY REPORT

TASK: To build a simple DC motor by applying physics fundamental laws.

Student Name: Jehan Areeba Javaid


Roll No: 18B-010-CE
Section: C
Teacher Name: Ma’am Mehr Un Nisa
Course Title: Applied Physics
Submission Date: 14th, January 2019
Lab Contents:
1. The Anatomy of the motor.
2. The Physiology of the motor.
3. The Blueprint.
4. Troubleshooting
5. Pre / Post Assessment.
6. Supply List.
7. Describe the physics fundamental laws observed in DC motor experiment.

Diagram Of DC Motor:

Courtesy of: www2.ece.ohio-state.edu/~anderson/Outreach_motor.html

1.The Anatomy of the motor:


What are its components?
Every DC motor has six basic parts –
 Axle,
 Rotor (a.k.a., armature),
 Stator,
 Commutator,
 Field magnet(s),
 And Brushes.
2. The Physiology of the Motor:
How does it work?
In any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A current-
carrying conductor generates a magnetic field; when this is then placed in an
external magnetic field, it will practice a force proportional to the current in the
conductor, and to the power of the external magnetic field.
3. The Blueprint :
How to build a simple DC Motor?
1. To make a bundle, wrap each end of wire several times around the loops to hold them in
place. Position the ends so they are directly across from each other and extending out in
a straight line on either side of the bundle, to form an axle. What you just made is called
the armature.
2. Hold the wire bundle you have made so that it would be flat against a wall, rather than a
table, and color the top side of each wire end using the marker. Leave the bottom side of
each wire bare.
3. Carefully bend each paperclip, forming a small loop by wrapping one end around a small
object such as a pencil or pen. Thick wire and pliers may be used instead of a paper clip if
you want. Be sure to use caution when using the pliers.
4. If you are using a battery holder, attach a paper clip to either side, and insert the battery.
If you don’t have a battery holder, wrap the rubber band tightly around the length of the
battery. Insert the paperclips so each one is touching one of the terminals, and they are
securely held by the rubber band. Attach the curved side of the battery firmly to a table
or other flat surface using the clay or sticky tack.
5. Set one neodymium magnet on top of the battery, in the center. Position the armature in
the paper clip loops, with the shiny, uncolored side touching the paperclips. Make sure it
doesn’t touch the magnet.
6. If your motor doesn’t start immediately, try giving it a start by spinning the wire bundle.
Since the motor will only spin in one direction, try spinning it both ways.
7. If your motor still is not working, make sure that the paperclips are securely attached to
the battery terminals. You may also need to adjust the insulated wire so both ends are
straight, and the bundle you have made is neat, with the wire ends directly opposite of
each other.
8. With the motor spinning, hold up the other magnet, above the armature. As you move it
closer, what happens? Turn the magnet over and try again to see what happens.
4. Troubleshooting:
What if it does not work?
There are lots of reasons a motor might not work. The magnets have to be of opposite
polarity. Are they? Get a compass and check them or note which way the magnets attract
each other. The coils have to produce magnetic fields that are strong enough and of
opposite polarity. This means you have to have a lot of turns or a lot of current. A 9v battery
is unlikely to give much current. Coils with a soft iron core can generate stronger fields than
coils without cores. You may have a poor connection to the aluminium commutator.
Connecting copper wire to aluminium is difficult. The rotor needs to have as much mass as
needed to keep the rotor turning when it isn't getting power. Simple motors only get power.
5. Pre\Post Assessment:

What do I know about motors?


I have found that, Motors converts electrical energy into mechanical energy so that we can
move things in the physical world. They are based on the electrical principle of induction.
 A DC motor's speed can be controlled over a wide range, using either a variable
supply voltage or by changing the strength of current in its field windings.

 Motors are used in propulsion of electric vehicles, elevator and hoists, or in drives
for steel rolling mills.
6. Supply List:

Where can I get the materials?


I have bought the parts of DC motor from electronic shop the parts which I have used to
make simple DC motor are following with their prices
 Battery is to induced EMF. Price=70Rs.
 Copper is used for coiling. Price=50RS.
 Paper Clips were used as stand of coil and attached with the battery terminal.
Price=10Rs.
 Permanent Magnet is used to produce magnetic field. Price=60Rs.
7. Describe the physics fundamentals laws observed in DC motor
experiment.
The laws observed in DC Motors experiment are
Ampere's law and Faraday's law.

Ampere's law
This law states that an electrical conductor sitting in a magnetic field will experience a
force if any current flowing through the conductor has a component at right angles to
that field. Reversal of either the current or the magnetic field will produce a force acting
in the opposite direction.

Faraday's law
The principle states that if a conductor is moved through a magnetic field, then any
component of motion perpendicular to that field will generate a potential difference
between the ends of the conductor.
References:
www.ni.com/white-paper/14925/en/
http://www2.ece.ohio-state.edu/~anderson/Outreach_motor.html

https://www.homesciencetools.com/article/build-motor-project/
https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/why-isnt-my-homemade-dc-motor-
working.752564/
science.jrank.org/pages/2315/Electric-Motor.html