Electric fields ( a requirement of lorenz bertulfo in physics)

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Electric fields ( a requirement of lorenz bertulfo in physics)

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I. Electric Charge

II. Conductors, Insulators and Induced Charges

III. Coulomb's Law

Reference:

IV. Electric Field and Electric Forces

V. Electric-Field Calculations

Electric Charge

I. Electric Charge •

The word "electric" is derived from the Greek word elektron, meaning amber.

When you scuff your shoes across a nylon carpet, you become electrically charged, and you can

charge a comb by passing it through dry hair. Plastic rods and fur (real or fake) are particularly good for

demonstrating electrostatics, the interactions between electric charges that are at rest (or nearly so).

• Electric Charge

Initially the printer's light-sensitive imaging drum is given a positive charge. As the

drum rotates, a laser beam shines on selected areas of the drum, leaving those areas

with a negative charge. Positively charged particles of toner adhere only to the areas of

the drum "written" by the laser. When a piece of paper is placed in contact with the drum,

the toner particles stick to the paper and form an image.

• Electric Charge

First is the principle of conservation of charge:

The algebraic sum of aU the electric charges in any closed system is constant.

If we rub together a plastic rod and a piece of fur, both initially uncharged, the rod acquires a

negative charge (since it takes electrons from the fur) and the fur acquires a positive charge of the

same magnitude (since it has lost as many electrons as the rod has gained). Hence the total electric

charge on the two bodies together does not change. In any charging process, charge is not created or

destroyed; it is merely transferred from one body to another.

Every observable amount of electric charge is always an integer mUltiple of this basic unit. We

say that charge is quantized.

II. Conductors, Insulators, and Induced Charges

21.6 Copper is a good conductor of electricity; nylon is a good insulator. (a) The copper wire

conducts charge between the metal ball and the charged plastic rod to charge the ball negatively.

Afterward, the metal ball is (b) repelled by a negatively charged plastic rod and (c) attracted to a

positively charged glass rod.

• Conductors, Insulators, and Induced Charges

Charging by Induction

There is a different technique in which the plastic rod can give another body a

charge of opposite sign without losing any of its own charge. This process is called

charging by induction.

• Conductors, Insulators, and Induced Charges

21.8 The charges within the molecules of an insulating material can shift slightly. As a

result, a comb with either sign of charge attracts a neutral insulator. By Newton's third law

the neutral insulator exerts an equal-magnitude attractive force on the comb.

• Conductors, Insulators, and Induced Charges

and an uncharged one has many important

practical applications, including the

electrostatic painting process used in the

automobile industry. A metal object to be

painted is connected to the earth ("ground"),

and the paint droplets are given an electric

charge as they exit the sprayer nozzle.

Induced charges of the opposite sign appear

in the object as the droplets approach, and

they attract the droplets to the surface. This

process minimizes overspray from clouds of

stray paint particles and gives a particularly

smooth finish. 21.9 The electrostatic painting process.

• Conductors, Insulators, and Induced Charges

Example:

insulating nylon thread. One of the spheres has a net negative charge, while

the other sphere has no net charge. (a) If the spheres are close together but

do not touch, will they (i) attract each other, (ii) repel each other, or (iii) exert

no force on each other? (b) You now allow the two spheres to touch. Once

they have touched, will the two spheres (i) attract each other, (ii) repel each

other, or (iii) exert no force on each other?

III. Coulomb’s Law

of charged particles in detail in 1784. He used a torsion balance (Fig.

21.lOa) similar to the one used l3 years later by Cavendish to study the

much weaker gravita tional interaction. For point charges, charged bodies

that are very small in comparison with the distance r between them,

Coulomb found that the electric force is proportional to 1/ r 2 . That is,

when the distance r doubles, the force decreases to 1/4 of its initial value;

when the distance is halved, the force increases to four times its initial

value.

The magnitude of the electric force between two point charges is directly

propor tional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the

square of the distance between them.

• Coulomb’s Law

21.10 (a) Measuring the electric force between point charges. (b) The electric

forces between point charges obey Newton's third law.

• Coulomb’s Law

In mathematical terms, the magnitude F of the force that each of two point charges

q1 and q2 a distance r apart exerts on the other can be expressed as

of units used. The absolute value bars are used because the charges q1 and q2 can

be either positive or negative, while the force magnitude F is always positive.

• Coulomb’s Law

The SI unit of electric charge is called one coulomb (l C). In SI units the

constant k is:

N.m2 N.m2

k = (8.98755 x 109 ) k = (9.0 x 109 )

C2 C2

Coulomb Charge. Since the coulomb unit is a large unit for point

charges the unit microcoulomb (µC) is used. Micro means 10-6 .

• Coulomb’s Law

Example:

What is the force between two point charges which are +50µC and -100µC,

respectively if they are 50 cm apart? (Hint: convert µC to C).

Solution:

F = k r2 = (9.0 x 10 9 )

C2 (0.5m)2

F = -180 N

Where the negative sign indicates that the force is attractive and the charges are unlike.

IV. Electric Field and Electric Forces

the electric field created by other charged bodies.

• Electric Field and Electric Forces

the electric field E at a point as the electric force Fo experienced by a test charge qo

at the point, divided by the charge qo· That is, the electric field at a certain point is

equal to the electric force per unit charge experienced by a charge at that point:

the unit of electric field magnitude is 1 Newton per Coulomb (1 N/C).

• Electric Field and Electric Forces

Example:

What is the magnitude of the electric field at a field point 2.0 m from a point

charge q = 4.0 nC? (The point charge could represent any smail charged object with

this value of q, provided the dimensions of the object are much less than the

distance from the object to the field point.)

Fo |q1q2| q

𝐸= 𝐹o = 𝑘 2 𝐸=𝑘

𝑞 𝑟 𝑟2

𝐸=𝑘 = 9.0 𝑥 109

𝑟2 C2 (2.0m)2

N

𝑬 = 𝟗. 𝟎

𝑪

V. Electric-Field Calculations

`To find the field caused by a charge distribution, we imagine the distribution to be made

up of many point charges q1, q2, q3, .... At any given point P, each point charge produces

its own electric field E1, E2, E3, . . . , so a test charge qo placed at P experiences a force P, =

qoE1, from charge q1, a force F2 = qoE2 ? from charge q2, and so on. From the principle of

superposition of forces, the total force Po that the charge distribution exerts on qo is the

vector sum of these individual forces:

The combined effect of all the charges in the distribution is described by the total

electric field E at point P. From the definition of electric field, this is :

• Electric-Field Calculations

sum of the fields at P due to each point

charge in the charge distribution. This is the

principle of superposition of electric fields.

• Electric-Field Calculations

Example:

and -12 nC, respectively, are placed 0.10

m apart (Fig. 21.23). This combination of

two charges with equal magnitude and

opposite sign is called an electric dipole.

Compute the electric field caused by q1,

the field caused by q2, and the total

field (a) at point a; (b) at point b; and (c)

at point c.

Reference:

University Physics with Modern Physics(12th Edition ). Pearson

Addison-Wesley, 1301 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 9411:

Pearson Education, Inc.

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