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PURPOSE OF TAKING ADVANCE ROTC

A Research Presented to the Faculty

Of Criminal Justice Education

North Luzon Philippines State College

Candon City, Ilocos Sur

In Partial Fulfillment

of the

Requirements for the Subject

Criminological Research and Statistics

VALDEZ, BENJIE B.

DULI, JAVIER L.

ARELLANO, ESPERANZA H.

North Luzon Philippines State College

2018
CHAPTER I

The Problem

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

According to the Republic Act 9163, otherwise known as the "National

Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001", was Congress' answer to the

clamor for change in the ROTC program. It was promulgated by the 12th Congress

of the Philippines on 23 January 2002. Under the NSTP Program, both male and

female college students of any baccalaureate degree course or technical

vocational course in public or private educational institutions are obliged

to undergo one of three program components, one of which is ROTC, for an

academic period of two semesters. However, ROTC as a pre-requisite for

graduation was rescinded.

Republic Act 7077, otherwise known as the "Citizen Armed Forces of the

Philippines Reservist Act", was enacted by the 8th Congress of the

Philippines on 27 June 1991. The Reservist Act provided for organization,

training and utilization of reservists, referred to in the Act as "Citizen

Soldiers". The primary pool of manpower for the reservist organization are

graduates of the ROTC basic and advance courses.

ROTC in the Philippines began in 1912 when the Philippine Constabulary

commenced with military instruction at the University of the Philippines.

The university's Board of Regents then made representations to the United

States Department of War through the Governor-General and received the

services of a United States Army officer who took on the duties of a professor

of Military Science. Through this arrangement, the first official ROTC unit

in the Philippines was established in the University of the Philippines on

3 July 1922.
In 1921, National University became the first private college in the

Philippines to have an ROTC unit. Later in the same year, Ateneo de Manila

University, Liceo de Manila, and Colegio de San Juan de Letran soon followed

suit and organized their own respective ROTC units. In 1936, the Office of

the Superintendent for ROTC Units under the Philippine Army was activated to

supervise all ROTC units in the country.

National Defense Act of 1935, President Manuel Quezon controlled the

National Assembly which enacted the National Defense Act of 1935

President Ferdinand Marcos issued Presidential Decree No. 1706 in 1980

President Corazon Aquino signed Republic Act 7077 into law in 1991

President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed Republic Act 9163 into law in 2002.

National Defense Act of 1935, President Manuel L. Quezon issued

Executive Order No. 207 in 1939 in order to implement the National Defense

Act of 1935, otherwise known as Commonwealth Act No. 1,[4] the embodiment of

the national defense plan formulated by General Douglas MacArthur for the

Philippine Commonwealth. This executive order made ROTC obligatory at all

colleges and universities with a total enrollment of 100 students and

greater. This measure was made in order to help fill out the reserve force

requirement of 400,000 men by 1946 and especially for junior reserve

officers.

The college from which ROTC originated is Norwich University in

Northfield, Vermont. Norwich was founded in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont as the

American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy.


ROTC at the University of Florida during the 1920s. The concept of ROTC

in the United States began with the Morrill Act of 1862 which established

the land-grant colleges. Part of the federal government's requirement for

these schools was that they include military tactics as part of their

curriculum, forming what became known as ROTC. The college from which ROTC

originated is Norwich University in Northfield, Vermont. Norwich was founded

in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont as the American Literary, Scientific and Military

Academy. The university was founded by former West Point instructor Captain

Alden Partridge, who promoted the idea of a "citizen soldier"—a man trained

to act in a military capacity when his nation required, but capable of

fulfilling standard civilian functions in peacetime. This idea eventually

led to the formation of Reservist and National Guard units with regimented

training in place of local militia forces.

The Department of Military Science, through the Army Reserve Officers

Training Corps (ROTC) offers students the opportunity to receive a commission

as a Second Lieutenant in the Regular Army, Amy Reserve or National Guard.

The ROTC Advance course consists of three distinct components which is MS

111, Leadership Development and Assessment Course of LDAC and the MS IV. The

pre-requisite of the ROTC advance course and the requirement can also be

fulfilled by attending an ROTC internship. (Brannan 2015)

According to John Tao of Standard University, Army ROTC is for student

introduce leadership and personal development and provide foundation for

leadership course topics include personal challenge and competencies for

effective leadership, goal setting, time management, physical fitness and

stress management related to leadership and officer ship. In addition,

students learn leadership fundamentals such as setting direction, problem


solving, listening, presenting briefs, providing feedback and effective

writing skills in the contest of practical and interactive exercises.

During the presidency of Manuel L. Quezon an Executive Order No. 207 in

1939 was issued in order to implement the National Defence Act of 1935,

otherwise known as the Commonwealth Act No. 1, the embodiment of the National

Defence plan formulated by General Douglas Mc Arthur for the Philippines

Commonwealth. This Executive Order made ROTC obligatory to all Colleges and

Universities with the total enrolment of 100 students and greater the measure

was made in order to help fill out the reserve from recruitment of 400,000

men by 1946 and especially for juniors reserve officers.

Republic Act 7077, otherwise known as the “Citizen Armed Forces of the

Philippines Reservist Act” was enacted by the 8th Congress of the Philippines

on 27 June 1991. The Reservist Act provided for organization training and

utilization of reservist. The primary organizations are graduates of ROTC

basic and advance course.

In the modern ROTC, Republic Act 9163, otherwise known as the National

Service Training Program or the NSTP Act of 2001 promulgated by the 21th

Congress of the Philippines on January 23, 2002. Under the NTSP program both

male and female college students of any baccalaureate degree course of

technical vocational course in public or private education Constitutions are

mandatory to undergo one of the three components, one of which ROTC for and

academic period of two semester. ROTC as pre-requisite for graduation was

rescinded.

ROTC in the Philippines is one of the three optional components of

National service Training program from Filipino College students, the ROTC

aims was to provide military education and training for students to mobilized
them for National Defence preparedness it include preparation of college

students for service in the Armed Forces of the Philippines in the event of

emergency and their training to become reservist and potential commissioned

office to AFP

The ROTC grants qualified students cadets scholarship benefits through

a merit based incentives program in return for an obligation of Military

Service in the Reserve Force the student participate in Regular ROTC

instruction during the school year (one year for basic ROTC student-cadets

and three years for advance ROTC cadets-officers) and extended training

activities during summer, such as ROTC summer Camp training (RSCTI).

ROTC units in colleges and universities are organized through the

Department of Military Science and Tactics (DMST) which is under joint

supervision of the school administration and Department of National Defence,

these ROTC units are in turn manage by active service, the Philippines Army

Reserve Command of the Philippine Army, and the Philippine Navy Reserve

Command of the Philippine Navy and the Philippine Air force of the Philippines

of the Philippine Air Force.

North Luzon Philippines State College accommodates and offers ROTC as

one components of NSTP, the mandatory requirement course for all students

definitely to all the students who taking up BS Criminology. Through this,

NLPSC shows their participation to the said, sovereignty and to impart

knowledge and skills about leadership and defence. ROTC students are the

volunteers who facilitate the students during school programs and to control

the crowd. They are also the volunteers in some outreach program like tree

planting and cleaning operations.


The following are the benefactors of the study:

Researchers. The implication drawn from this study would be a basis

for helping and encouraging the students who plan to take and choose

Advance ROTC Course.

ROTC Officer. The study will be a great help to create new learning

techniques and strategies.

Students. They could able to know why they need to take up an advance

ROTC.

ROTC Coordinator. The result of this study will be great help for them

to create new learning techniques and strategies that helps them to improve

their teaching ROTC.

School. They could be able to implement and facilitate projects

concerning in development of the curriculum of Advance ROTC.

Future Researcher: The result of this study might be used as their

future basis reference assignment or paper work.

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

The study highlights the importance of security awareness in

developing a democratic security as postulated by Clausewitz in his Trinity

of War. Clausewitz’ pioneering theory can be utilized to support each of

the following postulates.

Defense preparedness yields better results if added to National

Security Awareness. Educational perennials postulates that education,

especially those programs that are considered of National significance,

should focus on teaching topics having “eternal value” and positive social
effect (Barrow, Robin, and Woods, 1971). A democratic education ought to

give utmost regard to justice, social equality, and nationalism. Thus, ROTC

training should equally focus on both theoretical topics and military

training. Among these essential theoretical topics are security and civic

awareness.

This section presents several theories and pertinent studies in order

to give justification of this research study.

According to John Tao of Standard University, Army ROTC is for student

introduce leadership and personal development and provide foundation for

leadership course topics include personal challenge and competencies for

effective leadership, goal setting, time management, physical fitness and

stress management related to leadership and officer ship. In addition,

students learn leadership fundamentals such as setting direction, problem

solving, listening, presenting briefs, providing feedback and effective

writing skills in the contest of practical and interactive exercises.

The skill theory grew from the obvious flaw in the trait approach;

traits are relatively fixed. Skills theorist sought to discover the skills

and abilities that made leaders effective.

Skills theories are leader-centric and focused on what

characteristics about leaders make them effective. According to Robert Katz

there are three-skill approaches argued that effective leadership required

three skills: technical, human and conceptual. Technical skill can be

defined as knowledge about and proficiency in a specific type of work or

activity. Second, Human skills can be seen in interactions between leaders,

their followers and team members. Lastly, conceptual skills could be


described as leader’s ability to work with ideas and concepts and the

ability to see the enterprise as a whole.

According to North use (2015, p. 6) defines leadership as process

whereby a leader influences followers to perform in a given situation.

Based on this common understanding leadership can be looked in terms of

these individual components; leader, follower or situation) or a

combination of these components.

Skills theory can be used to develop effective leaders, as it

addresses leadership as something that is accessible to everyone. By

covering wide variety of behaviors, skills theory can be used in many

leadership situations. Examples of skills that effective leaders can learn

include listening, flexibility, persuasion and assertiveness.

Research Paradigm.

The input is profile of the ROTC Officers/respondents in terms of the

following: age, sex, course and year. It shall undergo to the process where

proceed ROTC/respondent area, it shall undergo the process where proceed to

ROTC officers/respondent area, starting to float the questionnaire or data,

gather the data or questionnaire, describe or summarize the data, analyze

and synthesize the data or questionnaire, determine the perceived problem,

and evaluate the possible solution.. Finally, the output of the study is

students of North Luzon Philippines State College taking the Advance ROTC

subject.

INPUT PROCESS INPUT

 The Profile of the  Proceed to  The students of


ROTC respondent area. North Luzon
Officers/Respondents  Starting to float Philippines State
in terms of the the questionnaire. College taking the
following:  Gather the data or advance ROTC
Figure 1. Paradigm of the Study

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study determined the purpose of ROTC officer in taking the advance

ROTC of The North Luzon Philippine State College Candon City S.Y. 2017-

2018.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:


1. What is the profile of the respondents ROTC officers/Respondents in

terms of the Following:

a. Age:

b. Sex:

c. Course:

d. Year Level:

2. What is the purpose of the ROTC students in taking Advance ROTC in

terms of

a. Self-development

b. Social-development

c. Educational-development/educational-assistance
Chapter 2

METHODS AND PROCEDURES

Research Design

This study will use descriptive-survey method of research since it

will describe the profile of the respondents in terms of age; sex; address;

and course; and year level and secondly what is the purpose of the ROTC

Officers/respondents in taking advance ROTC.

Descriptive research attempts to describe to and explain conditions of

the present by using many subjects, questionnaires, to fully describe a

phenomenon.

Population and Locale of the study

The respondent of this study will be the students taking the advance

ROTC in North Luzon Philippines State College located at Brgy. San Nicolas,

Candon City.

Data Gathering Tools

Questionnaire will be the main instrument in gathering the needed data

for this study

The questionnaire is composed of Two (2) parts. The first part

pertained to the profile of the student taking ROTC, and the second part is

the purpose in taking advance ROTC.

Data Gathering Procedures

After the approval of the research title, the researchers

Conduct Main Reason of student why Taking Advance ROTC at North Luzon

Philippines State College. After collecting all the data the

researchers, with the help of the satisfaction tabulated and survey.

Treatment of Data
The statistical tools that will be used in the treatment of the

gathered data are:

Frequency count and percentage. Since it describe the profile of the

respondent of this study.

Weighted Mean. It will be used to determine the purpose of ROTC

Officers in taking advance ROTC at North Luzon Philippines State College.

CATEGORIZATION OF DATA: The descriptive equivalent rating and the ways

of values are presented below using four (4) point linker scale.

B. How do respondents perceive the purpose of the ROTC Officers in taking

advance ROTC.

Numerical Evaluation Descriptive Equivalent

3.26- 4.00 STRONGLY AGREE

2.51-3.25 AGREE

1.6- 2.50 DISAGREE

1.00- 1.75 STRONGLY DISAGREE

QUESTIONNAIRE
Instruction: Please answer correctly the appropriate questions.
PART I. Profile of Students who are Taking advance ROTC subject

AGE:____

SEX: female_____ Male_____

COURSE: ______________________ YEAR: ______________________

Part II. Please put check on the corresponding box on the space provided
which will best describe your purposed in taking the advance ROTC.

4- Strongly Agree 3- Agree 2- Disagree 1- Strongly Disagree

4 3 2 1
STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE
Self-Development:
1. Taking Advance ROTC helps me to
build strong self-confidence.
2. Taking Advance ROTC helps me to
maintain my physical fitness.
3. Taking Advance ROTC helps me to
develop self-disciplined.
4. Taking Advance ROTC to be more
responsible student/cadet.
5. Taking Advance ROTC to train
myself to be independent.
6. Taking Advance ROTC to train
myself just like military
members to be firm and brave.
7. Taking Advance ROTC to train
myself to make my decisions and
will.
8. Taking Advance ROTC to challenge
myself to become a leader/a
Cadet Officer.
9. Taking Advance ROTC to minimize
my timidity.
10. Taking Advance ROTC to build my
fear to surround by a lot of
people.

Social Development
1. Taking Advance ROTC helps me to
deal with other people.
2. Takes the opportunity to meet
other people.
3. Taking Advance ROTC to develop
good relationship with others.
4. Taking Advance ROTC to resilience
to community in cases of emergency
5. Taking Advance ROTC to prepared in

times of emergency.

6. Taking Advance ROTC to have a

opportunity for the youth to

empower.

7. Promotion of Nationalism and

Patriotism.

8. Taking of Advance ROTC to improve

the leadership.

9. Taking Advance ROTC to referral

of military career or aspirants.

10. Taking Advance ROTC to develop

manpower and leadership.


Educational Development/Assistance
1. Taking Advance ROTC helps me to
gain allowances through ROTC
scholarship program.
2. Taking Advance ROTC helps me to
improve my studies.
3. Taking Advance ROTC helps me to
come to school earlier.
4. Taking advance ROTC helps me to
widen my knowledge for my future
job.
5. Taking Advance ROTC helps me to
become officers in Army Reserve
Command (ARESCOM) and given the
opportunity to priority in the
Officers Candidate School (OCS).
6. Motivational factor students to
excel in their studies.
7. Taking advance ROTC helps me to
become instructor through Active
Duty Training (ADT)
8. Taking Advance ROTC helps me to
familiarize the different parts of
firearms.
9. Taking Advance ROTC helps me to
practice the chain of command.
10. Taking Advance ROTC helps me to
practice the functions of the
Battalion Staff.