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overcoming hydraulic resistance which, in its turn, is necessary for correct selection of

machines for liquid or gaseous media pumping.

In the general case drop of pipe pressure can be calculated by the following formula:

p= ·(l/d1)·( /2)·v²

l – length of pipe section, m

- friction coefficient

d1 – pipe diameter, m

– density of pumped medium, kg/m3

v – flow rate, m/s

Hydraulic resistance may occur due to different factors, and two major groups are

distinguished: friction resistances and local resistances.

Friction resistance is caused by all sorts of unevenness and roughness on pipeline surface

being in contact with the pumped medium. Friction, having braking effect and requiring

additional energy consumption for its overcoming, occurs during fluid flow between it and

pipeline walls. Created resistance to a great extent depends on the mode of pumped medium

flow.

With laminar flow and small values of Reynolds number (Re) corresponding to it, characterized

by uniformity and absence of mixing between fluid or gas adjacent layers, influence of

roughness is minor. It is explained by the fact that extreme viscous underlayer is often thicker

than the layer formed by unevenness and bulges on the pipeline surface. Under such

conditions the pipeline is regarded as hydraulically smooth.

With the increase of Reynolds number thickness of viscous underlayer reduces, and interrupts

overlap of irregularities by underlayer, and influence of roughness on hydraulic resistance

increases and becomes dependent on both Reynolds number and average height of bulges

on the pipeline surface.

Further increase of Reynolds number converts the pumped medium into turbulent flow mode,

in which viscous underlayer is completely destroyed and created friction depends only on the

degree of roughness.

[w2/(2g)] – velocity head, m

– friction coefficient

l – pipeline length, m

d – pipeline equivalent diameter, m

w – flow rate, m/s

g – gravity acceleration, m/s2

In table:

– pipe absolute roughness (mm)

– pipe equivalent diameter (mm)

Re – Reynolds number

w – flow rate (m/s)

d – pipe equivalent diameter (mm)

– medium density (kg/m3)

– dynamic viscosity (Pa·s)

Equivalent diameter in calculations of pipelines

rectangular), and corresponds to the diameter of the round pipeline which creates friction

losses similar to that of non-cylindrically shaped pipeline with the similar length. There are

various formulae for calculation of pipelines having different geometrical shapes, but in the

general case the following formula is used:

d = 4F/P

F – pipeline cross-sectional area, m2

– inside perimeter of pipeline cross-sectional area, m

For cylindrically shaped pipelines equivalent and inside diameters will evidently coincide. In the

case of open conduits the formula for equivalent diameter calculation is another:

d = 4F/P

F – cross-sectional area of fluid flow, m

c – wetted perimeter, m

Wetted perimeter is a length of line of flow contact with conduit or pipe walls that restrain this

flow.

Local resistances are created by different pipeline elements in which flow of the pumped

medium is subjected to sudden deformations with change of direction, velocity or vortex

effects. These can be gates, valves, pipeline turns, junctions, etc.

H ·[w2/(2g)]

w2/(2g) – velocity head, m

– local resistance coefficient

w – flow rate, m/s

g – gravity acceleration, m/s2

As can be seen from the formula, head losses in local resistance depend not only on the rate

and local resistance coefficient, values of which are summarized in the table for different types

of local resistances to simplify calculations.

In the majority of cases local resistance coefficients do not depend on the flow rate of the

pumped fluid and are determined depending on characteristics of the local resistance. Values

of resistance coefficients for most wide-spread cases are given below:

Sharp edges Rounded edges

0.5 0.2 1

R/d 1 2 4 6 15 30 50

Local resist. coefficient 10.8 8.0 4.9 4.0 4.1 4.4 4.7 5.1 5.5

At Re > 3·105

Local resist. coefficient 1.04 0.85 0.79 0.65 0.6 0.5 0.42 0.36 0.3

At Re < 3·105

(relevant local resistance coefficient is multiplied by coefficient k the value of which depends on the Reynolds number)

Re F 1/F2

In the table:

F1 – the smallest of pipeline cross-sections

F2 – the largest of pipeline cross-sections

Re – Reynolds number

Pipeline abrupt contraction

Re F1/F2

In the table:

F1 – the smallest of pipeline cross-sections

F2 – the largest of pipeline cross-sections

Re – Reynolds number

By summing up all the above given equations we obtain general equation for calculation of the

pump head:

Calculation of pipeline optimal diameter

and economic assessments and consideration of numerous particular factors. This is

attributed to close interrelation between parameters of pipeline under design and

characteristics of flow of medium pumped through it. Increase of the pumped medium velocity

makes it possible to reduce pipeline diameter required to maintain set flow rate, thus reducing

consumption of materials and making system erection cheaper and easier. At the same time,

velocity increase inevitably involves losses of head, which requires additional energy

consumption for medium pumping. Excessive reduction of velocity also can result in unwanted

aftermath.

Formula for calculation of the pipeline optimal diameter is based on the flow rate formula (for

circular pipe):

Q = ( d²/4)·w

d – pipeline diameter, m

w – flow velocity, m/s

The flow rate is most often a set quantity in problems on pipeline design. In such case the

unknown quantities are only a pipeline diameter and flow velocity. Comprehensive technical

and economic calculation may be very labor-intensive and complicated, so optimal values of

pumped medium velocity, taken from reference materials, drawn up on the basis of

experimental findings, are used in practice:

Pumped medium Pipeline optimal velocity, m/s

Pumping:

High pressure (compressor) 15 – 25

VAPORS Overheated 30 – 50

Over 105 Pa 15 – 25

(1-0.5)·105 Pa 20 – 40

(0.5-0.2)·105 Pa 40 – 60

(0.2-0.05)·105 Pa 60 – 75

d = (4Q/ w)

d – pipeline diameter, m

w – flow velocity, m/s

selection of pipelines:

Example No. 1

What are the head losses for local resistances in horizontal pipeline having diameter of 20 x 4

mm, through which water is pumped from open reservoir to reactor with pressure of 1.8 bar?

Distance between reservoir and reactor is 30 m. Water flow rate is 90 m3/h. Total head equals

to 25 m. Friction coefficient is taken equal to 0.028.

Solution:

16,85-9,13=7,72 m

Example No. 2

Water is pumped by centrifugal pump across horizontal pipeline at velocity of 1.5 m/s. Total

created head equals to 7 m. What is the pipeline maximal length, if water is taken from open

reservoir, pumped across horizontal pipeline with one gate valve and two 90° elbows and

flows out from pipe to another reservoir? Pipeline diameter equals to 100 mm. Relative

roughness is taken equal to 4·10-5.

Solution:

For pipe with diameter of 100 mm coefficients of local resistances will equal to:

We find total head losses for friction resistance and local resistances from the formula of the

pump total head (geometrical lift head under these conditions equals to 0):

7-0,9125 = 6,0875 m

We calculate value of the Reynolds number for the flow in the pipeline (water dynamic

viscosity is taken as 1·10-3 Pa·s, and density – 1,000 kg/m3):

In accordance with this number using the table we calculate a friction coefficient (the arithmetic

formula is selected on the principle that value Re falls within the range of 2,320<Re<10/e,

corresponding to laminar flow):

We express and find a maximal pipeline length from the formula of head friction losses:

Example No. 3

The pipeline with the inside diameter of 42 mm is given. It is connected to the water pump with

flow rate of 10 m3/h and creating head of 12 m. Temperature of the pumped medium is 20° C.

Pipeline configuration is given in the figure below. It is necessary to calculate the head losses

and check whether this pump is capable of pumping water at pipeline set parameters.

Absolute roughness of pipes is taken as equal to 0.15 mm.

Solution:

Friction coefficient should be found before the calculation of friction losses in pipes. In the first

place we determine pipe relative roughness:

e = /d = 0,15/42 = 3,57·10-3 mm

Reynolds criterion for water flow in the pipeline (water dynamic viscosity at 20° C is 1·10-

3

Pa·s, and density is 998 kg/m3):

The found value of Reynolds criterion falls within the range of 2667<83,832<156,863 (10/e <

Re < 560/e), hence, friction coefficient should be calculated by the following formula:

Then it is necessary to calculate head losses for local resistances. It is followed from the

pipeline diagram that local resistances are represented by two gate valves, four rectangular

elbows and one pipe outlet.

Tables do not contain values of coefficient of local resistances for normal gate valves and

rectangular elbows with pipe diameter of 42 mm, so we will use one of the methods of

approximate calculation of values we are interested in.

We take table values of coefficients of local resistances of normal gate valve for diameters of

40 and 80 mm. We assume that plot of values of coefficients represents straight line in this

range. We set up and solve system of equations in order to find a plot of dependence of the

local resistance coefficient on the pipe diameter:

{

4,9 = a·40+b

4 = a·80+b

=

{

a = -0,0225

b = 5,8

Sought equation has the view:

= -0,0225·d+5,8

= -0,0225·42+5,8 = 4,855

Similarly we find the value of local resistance coefficient for rectangular elbow. We take table

values for diameters of 37 and 50 mm and solve system of equations, making similar

assumption on the nature of plot at this section:

{

1,6=a·37+b

1,1=a·50+b

=

{

a = -0,039

b = 3,03

= -0,039·d+3,03

= -0,039·42+3,03 = 1,392

4,8+3,3 = 8,1 m

According to the data obtained we conclude that this pump is suitable for water pumping

through this pipeline, as the head, it creates, is larger than total head losses in the system, and

fluid flow velocity stay within the optimum margin.

Example No. 4

Section of straight horizontal pipeline with inside diameter of 300 mm was subjected to repair

by way of replacing 10 m long pipe section with the inside diameter of 215 mm. The total

length of pipeline section under repair is 50 m. Section to be replaced is 18 m away from the

beginning. Water flows at 20°C at velocity 1.5 m/s though the pipeline. I is necessary to find

out how hydraulic resistance of the pipeline section under repair will change. Friction

coefficients for pipes with diameter of 300 and 215 mm are taken equal to 0.01 and 0.012

correspondingly.

Solution:

Initial pipeline created head loss only for fluid friction with walls during pumping. Replacement

of the pipe section resulted in occurrence of two local resistances (abrupt contraction and

abrupt expansion of passage conduit), and section with changed pipe diameter, where friction

losses will be different. The remaining pipeline section was not changed and, consequently,

can not be considered as part of this problem.

As the flow rate does not change throughout pipeline length, we can determine the flow

velocity on the pipe section subjected to repair:

The obtained value of the flow velocity in the pipe replaced section stay within the optimal

range.

In order to determine the local resistance coefficient firstly we calculate Reynolds criterion for

different diameters of pipes and ratio of cross-sectional areas of these pipes. Reynolds

criterion for pipe with diameter of 300 mm (water dynamic viscosity at 20° C is 1·10 -3 Pa·s, and

density – 998 kg/m3):

Reynolds criterion for pipe with diameter of 215 mm (water dynamic viscosity at 20° C is 1·10-

3

Pa·s, and density – 998 kg/m3):

Using the tables we will find values of coefficients of local resistances, rounded the ratio of

areas to 5. For sudden expansion it will equal to 0.25, and for sudden contraction will also

equal to 0.25.

Now we calculate friction losses in replaced pipeline section for initial and new pipe sections.

For pipe with diameter of 300 mm they will equal to:

Therefrom we conclude that friction losses in the pipeline will increase by:

0,243-0,038 = 0,205 m

0,205+0,137 = 0,342 m

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