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• Family: Rosaceae (rose family)

• Scientific name: Malus domestica

• Morphology of useful part – fruit

Taxonomic position
• Domain: Eukarya
• Kingdom: Plantae (plants)
• Phylum: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
• Class: Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons)
• Order: Rosales (based on phylogenetic
analyses of DNA sequences.)
• Family: Rosaceae ( family of trees, shrubs, and herbs)
• Genus: Malus (small trees or shrubs that are deciduous and grow apple
• Species: Malus domestica
Apple tree
• The apple tree (Malus pumila, commonly
called Malus domestica) is a deciduous tree
in the rose family
• Best known for its sweet, pomaceous fruit,
the apple.
• Apple trees are deciduous, meaning that
they loose their leaves each fall and grow
new leaves each spring
• It is cultivated worldwide as a fruit tree, and
is the most widely grown species in the
genus Malus.
• The tree originated in Central Asia
• Apples have religious and mythological significance in many
cultures, including Norse, Greek and European Christian
• Apple trees are large if grown from seed.
• Generally apple cultivars are propagated by grafting onto
rootstocks, which control the size of the resulting tree.
• There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples,
resulting in a range of desired characteristics.
• Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses,
including cooking, eating raw and cider production
• The science of apple growing is called pomology.
Origin of apple
• Malus sieversii is a wild apple native to the mountains of
Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan. It has recently been
shown to be the primary ancestor of most cultivars of the
domesticated apple (Malus pumila). It was first described
(as Pyrus sieversii) in 1833 by Carl Friedrich von Ledebour, a
German naturalist who saw them growing in the Altai
• It is a deciduous tree growing to 5 to 12 metres (16 to 39 ft),
very similar in appearance to the domestic apple. Its fruit is
the largest of any species of Malus except pumila, up to 7 cm
diameter, equal in size to many modern apple cultivars. The
species is now considered vulnerable to extinction.
History of Cultivated Apples
• The center of diversity of the genus Malus is in eastern present-
day Turkey. The apple tree was perhaps the earliest tree to be
cultivated and its fruits have been improved through selection
over thousands of years. Alexander the Great is credited with
finding dwarfed apples in Kazakhstan in 328 BCE; those he
brought back to Macedonia might have been the progenitors of
dwarfing root stocks.
• Apples were introduced to North America by colonists in the
17th century, and the first apple orchard on the North American
continent was planted in Boston by Reverend William Blaxton in
1625. The only apples native to North America are crab apples,
which were once called "common apples".
• Apple cultivars brought as seed from Europe were spread
along Native American trade routes, as well as being
cultivated on colonial farms. An 1845 United States apples
nursery catalogue sold 350 of the "best" cultivars, showing
the proliferation of new North American cultivars by the
early 19th century. In the 20th century, irrigation projects in
Eastern Washington began and allowed the development of
the multibillion-dollar fruit industry, of which the apple is
the leading product.
Myths about apple
• The apple has long been associated with immortality, as
exemplified by its role in the tempting of Adam and Eve in
the Garden of Eden. The mystical Isle of Avalon, famed
place of eternal rest for Celtic heroes including King Arthur,
is literally "the apple land" or "apple island." In
Scandinavian legends, the North-European gods and
goddesses were fed an apple every evening by Iduna, the
goddess of spring and youth who nurtures an apple orchard
in Asgard.
Botanical information
• The apple is a deciduous
tree, generally standing 1.8
to 4.6 m (6 to 15 ft) tall in
• When cultivated, the size,
shape and branch density
are determined by rootstock
selection and trimming
• The leaves are alternately
arranged dark green-
colored simple ovals with
serrated margins and
slightly downy
Apple blossom (apple flower )
• Most apple blossom petals are
pink when the flower first
blooms, and they fade to white
as the season progresses.
• The flowers are about 2.5–3.5
cm diameter, with five petals,
and with usually red stamens
that produce copious pollen,
and an inferior ovary.
• All flowers are self-sterile, and
self-pollination is impossible,
making pollinating insects
essential. The honeybee is the
most effective pollinator of
domestic apples.
• When fertilized by pollen, the
female ovary at the base of the
flower enlarges and becomes
the fruit.
• Apples set buds at the terminal end
of 4-inch or longer shoots, or on
shorter branches called spurs.
• Each bud cluster usually forms the
same number of flower buds and
leaves, but not all flower buds will
be successfully pollinated to
produce fruit.
• The blossoms produce a sweet
scent that is faintly reminiscent of
apple fruits, which helps attract
bees and insects for pollination.
• Apple blossoms range from white / pale
pink to dark pink. Their colour is
dependent on their variety.
• The central flower of the inflorescence is
called the "king bloom"; it opens first,
and can develop a larger fruit.
Pollination and fruit set
• When an apple tree is ready to grow it produces
flower blossoms in the summer
• Some apple varieties can self-pollinate, but most
varieties require cross-pollination from another
tree; even self-pollinating varieties produce
better fruit when pollinated by another tree of a
different variety.
• Some cultivars, called triploids, require a third
nearby tree for successful cross-pollination of all
trees involved because the pollen of triploid
cultivars is infertile and cannot pollinate other
• Apple flowers are pollinated by insects
• Honeybees are attracted to the apple flowers by nectar and
the scent of the petals. As the bee collects nectar, it also
picks up pollen. When the bee lands on a flower on another
tree, it brushes against the pistil of the flower, leaving
pollen grains on the sticky stigma.
• The pollen grains send tubes down through the styles to
reach the ovary (pollination). Through the filament the
sperm present in pollen can reach the ovules that are in the
ovary. The fertilized ovules will become seeds.
• The outer wall of the ovary develops into the fleshy white
part of the apple. The inner wall of the ovary becomes the
apple core around the seeds.
• The bulk of the fleshy edible portion derives from the
hypanthium or floral cup, not the ovary. Seeds are relatively
small and black, and mildly poisonous.
• Fruiting begins 3-5 years after budding, although a few fruit
may be produced in the 2nd year. This varies with rootstock
(dwarfing = more precocious) and cultural practices
(excessive pruning = delay).
• Fruit are usually thinned to 1 per spur, with spurs spaced 4-
6 inches apart for attainment of marketable size. Apples are
generally thinned with chemicals such as the insecticide
Sevin, or the synthetic auxins NAA and NAAm.
Apple – false fruit
• Fruits in general develop from the ovary and they are called
true fruits
• When other accessory floral parts contribute to the
formation of fruit, then such fruits are called as false fruits
or pseudocarp.
• In apple, the thalamus or receptacle grows around the
pericarp to produce the fleshy edible part.Hence, it is a false
• The skin of ripe apples is generally red, yellow, green, pink,
or russetted although many bi- or tri-colored cultivars may
be found.
• The skin may also be wholly or partly russeted i.e. rough and
brown. The skin is covered in a protective layer of
epicuticular wax.
• The exocarp (flesh) is generally pale yellowish-white,
though pink or yellow exocarps also occur.
Epicuticular wax
• Apple is one of the fruits that produces its own wax. This
natural wax:
• helps the apples resist moisture loss,
• enhances the fruit firmness, and
• slows down the natural degradation of the apples.
• helps to protect the apple fruit from shriveling and weight
• for preservation, aesthetic (appearance)
• Apples are alive even after they are picked and will continue
to live, provided they have the sufficient resources and an
acceptable environment.
• The waxy coating produced by the apple and found on its
skin protects it.
• The waxy coating can appear milky sometimes, but if you
rub it gently, you can actually get it to it shine.
• The natural wax on the fruit of the apple contains about fifty
individual components belonging to at least half a dozen
chemical groups.
• The major cyclic component of apple fruit wax is called
ursolic acid and is highly water-repellent. Research has
shown that ursolic acid is capable of inhibiting various types
of cancer cells
Section of an apple
• Apples have five seed
pockets or carpels. Each
pocket contains seeds.
The number of seeds per
carpel is determined by
the vigor and health of
the plant. Different
varieties of apples will
have different number of
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• Soils and Climate
• Deep, well-drained, loamy soils with pH 6-7 are best, but
apples are grown on a wide variety of soils worldwide.
Apples are adaptable to various climates, but can be
considered best adapted to the cool temperate zone from
about 35-50° latitude. They have a more northern range
than many other tree fruits due to relatively late blooming
and extreme cold hardiness. Apples reach maturity about
120-150 days after bloom, with some cultivars maturing in as
short as 70 days, and others as long as 180 days.
• Maturity
• Several methods are available for determining optimal harvest
time. Days from full bloom is relatively constant from year-to-
year, and gives growers a rough estimate of picking date.
Cultivars like ‘Gala’ mature early and ‘Fuji’ very late. Target values
of firmness vary by cultivar and intended storage method, with
firmer fruit reserved for long-term storage.
• Harvest Method
• Apples must be picked by hand to avoid bruising and reduction
of fresh market quality grade. Fruit must be picked carefully to
avoid damaging the spur, where next season’s fruit will be borne.
• Postharvest Handling
• Standard packing line operations are used for apples after
harvest – hydrocooling, washing, culling, waxing, sorting, and
packing (Figure 12). Apples are packed most often in 4/5 bushel
boxes (40 lbs), but polyethylene bags (5-10 lbs) are also popular
for retail marketing. Quality grade is based on size and
appearance of skin; greater prices are obtained for larger fruit
and those with minimal surface blemishes.
• Storage
• Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage has allowed the marketing
of apples on a year round basis. The storage room atmosphere is
altered to retard respiration by reducing oxygen to 2-3%, and
raising CO2 to about 1%. Firmer, less ripe fruit are placed in
long-term CA (150-365 days), while more mature fruit are sold
directly or placed in short-term storage.
Growing Apple

Trees From Seed

Getting the Seeds

Carefully cut
down the middle
of an apple and
take out the
Now we need to get our
Getting the Seeds to Germinate or paper towel and wrap
our seeds in them. Wet
the paper towel and put
it in the plastic bag.
Make sure the plastic
bag is sealed tight, and
put it in the fridge. Your
seeds should take about
a month to germinate
but check every few
weeks and wet again if
dry. Your seeds will start
to have little white
sprouts coming out of
them soon enough thats
when you know there
ready for planting.
Planting Seeds

Once the seeds

have germinated
just drop them
into any pots
about 1 - 2" deep
and cover in
good compost.
The Most Important Step: Grafting
this step is vital or you apple trees will not
produce any apples.
First wait until your apple trees are about 30-
60 cm high.
Now there are many different methods of
grafting apple trees but the one I use and
find most helpful is the "Whip and Tongue"
Firstly you get a piece of wood (Scion wood)
from the variety of apple you want.
Then you cut down at an angle on wood.
Now make an identical cut on the apple tree.
Then cut downwards on the sliced wood. Do
this on both tree and scion wood.
Then push together and wrap with cling film
and then masking tape.
Watch for Results Some Will Be Unsuccessful

Watch closely
for results if you
graft is growing
leaves then it is
successful After
1-3 months take
off the grafting
Different varieties of apple
Red Delicious
• A popular eating apple
• Crisp, juicy taste, sweet flavor
• Great for snacking
• Fast growing apple tree
• Due to overlong storage or
supermarkets' selling the red
delicious out of its natural season,
many specimens
• It has thick skin
• fruit has red and green skin,
• Quickly produces apples
• Easy to grow
• Ideal for baking!
• a tart flavour, and tender
white flesh
• With a soft skin and softer
flesh, the McIntosh strikes a
level balance between sweet
and acidic.
Golden (or Yellow) Delicious
• Considered an all-purpose apple
• Mild and sweet, the flesh is
juicy, but taste-wise isn’t all that
different from the Red
• Amazingly sweet taste
• Grows almost anywhere
• Native to New Zealand,
• It’s a cross between a Kidd’s
Orange Red and a Golden
Delicious apple
• With pinkish-orange striping
over a gold base,
• its skin is thin, concealing a
crisp and juicy flesh that’s
fragrant and fairly sweet.
• Long storage life
• Fast growing apple tree
Granny Smith
• this bright green apple boasts
white, firm, juicy flesh that is
sweet and tart at the same time.
• Fast growing apple tree
• Delicious fruit
• Great for snacking
• Dense, crisp and generally
regarded the sweetest of all
• Ripens quickly
• Grows in many climates
• Fast growing apple tree
• Thin-skinned Braeburns
boast textbook apple flavor
and balance sweet and tart
along with faint notes of
nutmeg and cinnamon.
Pink Lady
• A cross between the Golden
Delicious and Lady Williams,
the Pink Lady is firm and
crunchy with a tart flavor that
finishes sweetly.
• Great for hot climates
• Delicious-crisp apple
• Great for pies
• This large apple, with its
streaks of red and green, has
a juicy, crisp flesh and
mellow flavor. Good for
eating raw
• Sweetest apple
• Stores for months
• Crisp & Juicy
• Red or green-skinned, this
juicy apple with a tart-sweet
flavour and creamy flesh is a
cross between Red Delicious
and McIntosh.
Pests and diseases
• Leaves with significant insect damage.
• Apple trees are susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial
diseases and insect pests. Nearly all commercial orchards pursue
an aggressive program of chemical sprays to maintain high fruit
quality, tree health, and high yields
• Spraying for insect pests must never be done during flowering
because it kills pollinators. Nor should bee-attractive plants be
allowed to establish in the orchard floor if insecticides are used.
White clover is a component of many grass seed mixes, and
many bees are poisoned by insecticides while visiting the flowers
on the orchard floor after a spraying.
• Among the most serious disease problems are fireblight, a
bacterial disease; and Gymnosporangium rust, apple scab,
and black spot, three fungal diseases.
• The plum curculio is the most serious insect pest. Others
include apple maggot and codling moth.
• Apples are difficult to grow organically, though a few
orchards have done so with commercial success, using
disease-resistant cultivars and the very best cultural
controls. The latest tool in the organic repertoire is to spray
a light coating of kaolin clay, which forms a physical barrier
to some pests, and also helps prevent apple sun scald.
Health Benefits of Apples
• Apples, being rich in fiber, help in the digestive process.
Regular consumption of apples ensures smooth bowel
movements and helps in preventing constipation and
various stomach disorders. Fiber is an important part of any
diet. stimulates the release of gastric and digestive juices to
ensure efficient uptake of nutrients, while simultaneously
scraping excess cholesterol out of your veins and arteries to
ensure proper heart health and reduce chances of
Cancer Prevention:
• Most fruits and vegetables have some sort of anti-cancer
effects, but apples stand head and shoulders among the rest
in terms of commonly consumed fruits.
• Hypotheses usually speak to the high phytonutrient
content, including kaempferol and quercetin, but the exact
mechanism for apples’ impact on cancer is still largely
• apple has the capability of preventing lung cancer, colon
cancer, liver cancer and breast cancer.
Digestive Health:
• Apples specifically help improve the functioning of the
bacteria living inside of our large intestine, and early studies
show that apples change the metabolism within the
digestive tract, and change the balance of bacteria, which
leads to improved health by maximizing nutrient uptake
and eliminating harmful bacteria and toxins
• Apples are useful in treating anemia since apples are a rich
source of ironBy increasing the amount of red blood cells in
the body, you not only prevent anemia but also ensure
proper oxygenation of essential organ systems to keep them
functioning properly.
Managing Diabetes:
• the polyphenols in apples have been directly linked to
reducing the uptake of carbohydrates by the body. This, in
turn, reduces the fluctuation of blood sugar levels The
polyphenols also lower glucose absorption in our digestive
tract, and they stimulate the release of insulin from our
pancreas, which is necessary to keep blood sugar levels
Finally, the polyphenols stimulate the insulin receptors on
cells throughout our body, which speeds up the removal of
sugar from our bloodstream and gets it to our cells, which
need it for metabolism and proper organ function
Dental Care:
• Eating apples helps in cleaning both the teeth and gums.
Furthermore, it reduces the incidence of cavities in the
teeth. When you eat apples, the fiber in it cleanses the teeth,
while the antibacterial properties of the fruit keep bacteria
and viruses from infecting the body. Eating apples also
stimulates the secretion of saliva, which is an alkalinic
compound, meaning that it further reduces the ability of
bacteria to multiply and grow in your mouth.
Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease:
• they also show a positive impact on neurological issues,
particularly two of the most tragic conditions, Alzheimer’s
and Parkinson’s disease. The antioxidant effects of all the
phytonutrient compounds in apples certainly help reduce
Alzheimer’s disease, since the degeneration of the brain that
leads to Alzheimer’s has been linked to free radical activity.
Apples also increase the amount of acetylcholine in the
brain, which is linked to concentration, problem-solving,
and memory. In terms of Parkinson’s, apples stop the
gradual breakdown of dopamine-producing nerve cells,
which can be an underlying cause of Parkinson’s.
Respiratory Issues:
• Apples have shown tremendous anti-inflammatory
behavior, and in terms of asthmaApples remain a mystery to
the world in terms of their complex mechanisms of healing
these conditions, most likely because there are so many
possible nutrients found in apples that could potentially be
responsible for the health perks!
Heart Disease:
• Apples lower the level of cholesterol in the body, making it a strong
defensive mechanism against cardiovascular disease. The adage of
“an apple a day keeping the doctor away” is more accurate than
you’d think, since the daily dose of an apple deemed healthy for the
heart is approximately one per day.
• The antioxidant activity in apples reduces the oxidation of fats,
called lipid peroxidation and includes neutralizing triglycerides
and various fats found between blood vessels that can exert
dangerous pressure.
• Also, apples contain a very powerful flavonoid called quercetin,
found in the skin of the fruit, can reduce inflammation in our
blood vessels by reducing the amount of C-reactive protein (CRP).
This protein has been linked to inflammation of the cardiovascular
system, so a reduction of it through quercetin makes apples very
strong heart boosters!
• Patients who are suffering from rheumatism find apples
very useful as they aid in the healing process. Along with the
healing process, and perhaps more importantly, are the
huge amount of flavonoid compounds found in apples. This
has been the most exciting recent development in apple
research, and flavonoid compounds like kaempferol,
quercetin, and myricetin have been linked to reducing
rheumatoid conditions, and inflammatory conditions like
arthritis and gout.
Eye Disorders:
• Apples are believed to make the eyes stronger and improve
eyesight. They also help in treating night blindness. Much
of this is due to the fact that apples are rich in flavonoid
compounds and antioxidant phytonutrients, which can
reduce the impact of free radicals on the eyes, while
preventing conditions like macular degeneration, cataracts,
and glaucoma.
Cosmetic Benefits of Apples
• Application of apple pulp on the face cures and improves
• Keeping the apple pulp on the eyelids for 15 to 20 minutes
reduces strain of the eyes.
• Paste made up apple leaves and used as shampoo cures
dandruff, prevents hair fall and promotes hair growth.
Products from apple
Apple jam
• made from the pulp and juice of the fruit.
• contains both fruit juice and pieces of the
• The pulp or pieces and the juice are heated
with sugar and water, to activate the pectin
in the fruit.
• A good jam has a soft and even consistency
with good fruit flavor, bright color and a
semi jellied texture, that is easy to spread
over, but has no free liquid.
• Apple Jelly- semi solid food made from
fruit juice, sugar and pectin. Generally
the pectin present in the fruit should act
as a gelling agent, but since it is
insufficient to form a proper gel, pectin
is added externally to help enhance the
gelling capacity.
• Apple juice is one of the fruit juice which
is manufactured by pressing of apples.
The expelled juice is further processed
by centrifugal and enzymatic
clarification to remove the pectin and
starch. The resulting juice just holds the
fine particulate in suspension which is
then pasteurized for packing in glass,
metal or aseptic processing system
• Apple pulp is manufactured by
picking fresh fruits, which are
clean, sound and properly
matured. The fruit as such as
slices or as pulp is pre heated and
then packaged. These kind of
pulp or slices apples are mostly
used in the processing of apple
juice and then they are sold as
such. Since it is packaged in
aseptic method, they generally
have a long shelf life.
• Apple juice concentrate is
generally produced by
evaporating the fresh apple
juice, which is extracted from
farm fresh juicy apples.
Evaporating the fresh juice,
yields a good apple concentrate.
This is very helpful for
packaging and the same time
reduces the spoilage, giving an
extended shelf life.
Dried apples and apple chips - Apples last in cold
storage for a very long time so they may not be
first priority for drying, but that said, they are
excellent candidates for the results they provide.
Dried apples retain some chewiness, apple chips
are crunchy and make for a fine, fine garnish on
desserts and salads.
Apple cider vinegar
• Apple cider vinegar, otherwise known as cider
vinegar or ACV, is a type of vinegar made from
cider or apple must and has a pale to medium
amber color.
• ACV is used in salad dressings, marinades,
vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys.
It is made by crushing apples and squeezing
out the liquid. Bacteria and yeast are added to
the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation
process, and the sugars are turned into
alcohol. In a second fermentation process, the
alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic
acid-forming bacteria (acetobacter). Acetic
acid and malic acid give vinegar its sour taste

Quaker Apple & Cinnamon

Instant Oatmeal
Apple pie pudding Apple flavored blacktea

Apple flavored Japanese kitkat

Apple Juice Flavored Drink Apple Flavoured Soft Candy. Caramel apple flavored cookie

Apple flavored popcorn Cider Apple Flavour Lip

Apple Flavoured Apple Flavoured
Apple Flower Mineral Water OrganicSmile
Green Tea Bags
Whitening Gel