© All Rights Reserved

0 views

© All Rights Reserved

- third grade math i can statements
- designazoointegratedgeometryareaperimeterproject
- Class-7 NCERT Test Paper
- measurent
- 3rd Grade Math
- quanttipsedited
- 4
- Calculus 3 Rules
- 12 Mathematics Impq Applications of Derivatives 01
- Things You Must Know (1)
- Sat Geometry
- Color Rama
- Sample Test LMAT
- 8th grade math practice 3
- C ++ Practical File
- ieep212
- Maths 10 Final
- wuamcqup09
- PaveDrain ASTM C1781 Permeable Unit Infiltration Test
- fnmi

You are on page 1of 8

Natural coordinate system is basically a local coordinate system which allows the specification of a

point within the element by a set of dimensionless numbers whose magnitude never exceeds unity.

This coordinate system is found to be very effective in formulating the element properties in finite

element formulation. This system is defined in such that the magnitude at nodal points will have

unity or zero or a convenient set of fractions. It also facilitates the integration to calculate element

stiffness.

The line elements are used to represent spring, truss, beam like members for the finite element

analysis purpose. Such elements are quite useful in analyzing truss, cable and frame structures. Such

structures tend to be well defined in terms of the number and type of elements used. For example, to

represent a truss member, a two node linear element is sufficient to get accurate results. However,

three node line elements will be more suitable in case of analysis of cable structure to capture the

nonlinear effects. The natural coordinate system for one dimensional line element with two nodes is

shown in Fig. 3.1.1. Here, the natural coordinates of any point P can be defined as follows.

x x

N1 = 1- and N2 = (3.1.1)

l l

Where, x is represented in Cartesian coordinate system. Similarly, x/lcan be represented as ξ in

natural coordinate system. Thus the above expression can be rewritten in the form of natural

coordinate system as given below.

N1 = 1- x and N2 = x (3.1.2)

Now, the relationship between natural and Cartesian coordinates can be expressed from eq. (3.1.1) as

ì

ï1ü ï é1 1ù ïì ïN ü ï

íï ï = êê ú í 1 ï

ú

(3.1.3)

ï

ïî xï

ï ë0 l û îïï N 2 ïï

Here, N1 and N2is termed as shape function as well. The variation of the magnitude of two linear

shape functions (N1 and N2) over the length of bar element are shown in Fig. 3.1.2. This example

displays the simplest form of interpolation function. The linear interpolation used for field variable

can be written as

f (x ) = f1 N1 + f2 N 2 (3.1.4)

2

Fig. 3.1.2 Linear interpolation function for two node line element

Similarly, for three node line element, the shape function can be derived with the help of natural

coordinate system which may be expressed as follows:

3

ì

ï 3 x 2 x 2 üï

ï

ï 1 - + 2 ïï

ï l l ïï ìï1 - 3x + 2x 2 üï

ì

ï N1 üï ïï

ï ï

ï ï ï4x 4x ï 2 ïïï ï ï ïï (3.1.5)

{N } = í N 2 = í - 2 ï

= í4x - 4x

2 ï

ïï ï ï l l ï ï ïï

ïîï N 3 ï

ï ï

ï

ï ï x 2x

ïï ïï

ïï îï -x + 2 x 2

ï

ï

2

ï

ï

ï - + ï

ï

îï l l2 ï

The detailed derivation of the interpolation function will be discussed in subsequent lecture. The

variation of the shape functions over the length of the three node element are shown in Fig. 3.1.3

Fig. 3.1.3 Variation of interpolation function for three node line element

Now, if is considered to be a function of L1 and L2, the differentiation of with respect to xfor two

node line element can be expressed by the chain rule formula as

df ¶f ¶L1 ¶f ¶L 2 (3.1.6)

= . + .

dx ¶L1 ¶x ¶L 2 ¶ x

Thus, eq.(3.1.4) can be written as

¶L1 1 ¶L2 1

= - and = (3.1.7)

¶x l ¶x l

Therefore,

4

d 1çæ ¶ ¶ ÷ö

= ç - ÷ (3.1.7)

dx l çè ¶L2 ¶L1 ÷÷ø

The integration over the length lin natural coordinate system can be expressed by

p !q !

òL L2 q dl = (3.1.9)

p

l

l

1

( p + q +1)!

Here, p! is the factorial product p(p-1)(p-2)….(1) and 0! is defined as equal to unity.

The natural coordinate system for a triangular element is generally called as triangular coordinate

system. The coordinate of any point Pinside the triangle is x,y in Cartesian coordinate system. Here,

three coordinates, L1, L2 and L3 can be used to define the location of the point in terms of natural

coordinate system. The point P can be defined by the following set of area coordinates:

; ; (3.1.10)

Where,

= Area of the triangle P23

= Area of the triangle P13

= Area of the triangle P12

A=Area of the triangle 123

Thus,

and

1 (3.1.11)

Therefore, the natural coordinate of three nodes will be: node 1 (1,0,0); node 2 (0,1,0); and node 3

(0,0,1).

5

The area of the triangles can be written using Cartesian coordinates considering x, y as coordinates

of an arbitrary point P inside or on the boundaries of the element:

1

A = 1

1

1

A1 = 1

1

1

A2 = 1

1

1

A3 = 1

1

The relation between two coordinate systems to define point P can be established by their nodal

coordinates as

1 1 1 1

(3.1.12)

Where,

6

The inverse between natural and Cartesian coordinates from eq.(3.1.12) may be expressed as

1

(3.1.13)

The derivatives with respect to global coordinates are necessary to determine the properties of an

element. The relationship between two coordinate systems may be computed by using the chain rule

of partial differentiation as

¶ ¶ ¶L1 ¶ ¶L2 ¶ ¶L3

= . + . + .

¶x ¶L1 ¶x ¶L2 ¶x ¶L3 ¶x

b1 ¶ b ¶ b ¶

= . + 2. + 3.

2A ¶L1 2A ¶L2 2A ¶L3 (3.1.14)

3

bi ¶

=å .

i=1 2A ¶Li

¶ 3

c ¶

=å i .

¶y i=1 2A ¶Li (3.1.15)

However, the main advantage is the ease with which polynomial terms can be

cumbersome.

integrated using following area integral expression.

p!q!r!

òL

p

L 2 q L 3r dA = 2A (3.1.16)

A

1

(p + q + r + 2)!

The interpolation functions for the triangular element are algebraically complex if expressed in

Cartesian coordinates. Moreover, the integration required to obtain the element stiffness matrix is

quite cumbersome. This will be discussed in details in next lecture. The interpolation function and

subsequently the required integration can be obtained in a simplified manner by the concept of area

7

3.1.5, the displacement at any point can be written in terms of its area coordinates.

u = a1L1 +a 2L2 +a3L3

T

Or, u = {f} {a } (3.1.17)

T T

where, {f} = [ L1 L2 L3 ] and {a } = {a1 a 2 a 3 }

And ; ; (3.1.18)

Here, A is the total area of the triangle. It is important to note that the area coordinates are dependent

as 1 . It may be seen from figure that at node 1, L1 = 1 while L2 = L3 = 0. Similarly

for other two nodes: at node 2, L2 = 1 while L1 = L3 = 0, andL3 = 1 while L2 = L1 = 0. Now,

substituting the area coordinates for node 1, 2 and 3, the displacement components at nodes can be

written as

ì

ï u ü é1 0 0ù

ï 1ï ï ê ú

{u i } = íu 2 ï = êê0 1 0úú {a}

ï (3.1.19)

ï

ï ï

ï ê0 0 1ú

ï

ï 3ï

î u ï ë

û

Thus, from the above expression, one can obtain the unknown coefficient a :

é1 0 0ù ìï u1 ü

ï

ê úï ï

{a} = ê0 1 0ú íu 2 ï

ê ú ï

(3.1.20)

ï ï

ê 0 0 1ú ï

ï ï

ë ûîïu 3 ï

ï

8

é1 0 0ù ì ï u1 üï é1 0 0ù

ê ú ï ï Tê ú

{u} = {f} êê0 1 0úú ïíu 2 ï = {f} êê0 1 0úú {u i }

T

(3.1.21)

ï ï

ê 0 0 1ú ï ï ê 0 0 1ú

ë ûï ïu 3 ï

î ï

ë û

T

The above expression can be written in terms of interpolation function as u = {N} {u i }

Where,

é1 0 0ù

T ê ú

{N} = [ L1 L2 L3 ] ê0 1 0ú = [ L1 L2 L3 ] (3.1.22)

ê ú

ê 0 0 1ú

ë û

Similarly, the displacement variation v in Y direction can be expressed as follows.

T

v = { N } {v i } (3.1.23)

Thus, for two displacement components u and v of any point inside the element can be written as:

T

ï

ïuïï ê

{d } = í = ê T T úí

(3.1.24)

ï

ïv ï

î ï êë {0}

{ N } úû îïïvi ïï

Thus, the shape function of the element will become

é L1 L 2 L3 0 0 0ù

[ N ] = êê ú (3.1.25)

ë0 0 0 L1 L 2 L3 úû

It is important to note that the shape function Ni become unity at node i and zero at other nodes of

the element. The displacement at any point of the element can be expressed in terms of its nodal

displacement and the interpolation function as given below.

u = N1u1 + N2u2 + N3u3

(3.1.26)

v = N1v1 + N2v2 + N3v3

- third grade math i can statementsUploaded byapi-268484853
- designazoointegratedgeometryareaperimeterprojectUploaded byapi-356462840
- Class-7 NCERT Test PaperUploaded byNilesh Gupta
- measurentUploaded byapi-3696277
- 3rd Grade MathUploaded byPatti Kendrick Whatley
- quanttipseditedUploaded bysushil4056
- 4Uploaded byinsult2injury
- Calculus 3 RulesUploaded byVakaas Ahmed
- 12 Mathematics Impq Applications of Derivatives 01Uploaded byrajeshm13
- Things You Must Know (1)Uploaded byxpgong
- Sat GeometryUploaded byMonique Danao
- Color RamaUploaded bycraig12267
- Sample Test LMATUploaded byAmna Mushtaq
- 8th grade math practice 3Uploaded byapi-248877347
- C ++ Practical FileUploaded byvishnu0751
- ieep212Uploaded byatul kumar
- Maths 10 FinalUploaded byTushar Kumar
- wuamcqup09Uploaded byDavid Chang
- PaveDrain ASTM C1781 Permeable Unit Infiltration TestUploaded byshshhs
- fnmiUploaded byapi-444824876
- Class IXUploaded bysihg Jaiswal
- class ix contents.pdfUploaded byVandana
- Grade 7 MTAP Sectoral FinalsUploaded byAngel Mikee
- Math IA SL Aniket Patil Final Draft v2.docxUploaded byAniket Patil
- Math 100 Practice Final Exam LectureUploaded byRizwan
- Solution of Herons Formula Test 01Uploaded byDeepak
- 3 Math Module 3 GeometryUploaded byJeycel Patalinghog
- 9thAnnual PMWC Individual Test 2005Uploaded byirwan syah
- Design a ZooUploaded bysplorrk
- FINAL IX.docxUploaded byAkshay

- Finite Element Analysis Using MATLAB ANSYS 16 HrsUploaded byMOHIT PANT
- ANSYS Mechanical APDL Introductory Tutorials huy kljhlkjhlkUploaded byPeja Jusoh
- DirectoryUploaded byMOHIT PANT
- NITH Preventive AspectsUploaded byMOHIT PANT
- dataUploaded byMOHIT PANT
- S.No.106Uploaded byMOHIT PANT
- Team No. 78Uploaded byMOHIT PANT
- Natural.pdfUploaded byMOHIT PANT
- AICTE Degree Pay, Qualifications and PromotionsUploaded byM S R Raju
- CylindersUploaded byMOHIT PANT
- Shape FunctionsUploaded byMOHIT PANT
- Langrange and Serendipity FamilyUploaded bynihal

- Adafruit Ds3231 Precision Rtc BreakoutUploaded byRahul Saini
- Dance_Davis Intubated Ureterotomy in a Child_05202016Uploaded bysirrfs
- Quantum State 2Uploaded byscribdreaderplus
- 40% Tool SBM Assessment FINAL.pdfUploaded byJanice Ollipmer Gallenero
- Airline Reservation System ReportUploaded byTsehayou Sieley
- GEHealthcare Voluson 730 Transducer Guide(1)Uploaded bydantenuevo
- Mormonism - BeliefsUploaded byLawrence Garner
- Grantham UniversityUploaded byajm5335
- 1Uploaded byMuhammad Abdillah
- Windows Server 2008 R2 TDM Whitepaper RTM[1]Uploaded byterzano
- 2013_10_12 Six Sigma an Overview_StudentsUploaded byالمدربة فداء جاد الله
- Abhilakshmi g DocUploaded byABHILAKSHMI G
- MLM Power Series 01 - YouUploaded byJoboy Fritz
- China Coal to-Methanol DeckUploaded byAtanu Mukherjee
- Mantenimiento de Las MaquinasUploaded byCarlos V
- AngkorUploaded bygvikna
- electric circuit labUploaded byapi-254428474
- PsychologyUploaded byRoberts Sam
- Electrochemical SensorsUploaded byhome143
- BME-063_unit-6.pdfUploaded by9966197483
- developmentally appropriate education - chongUploaded byapi-437452656
- MATLAB Programming Fundamentals - Matlab_progUploaded byJérôme Kyabu
- isobel raphaelUploaded byapi-326507735
- A Gospel Interlude - Amazing Grace of God Part 1 - 1 Corinthians 15~9Uploaded byRob Wilkerson
- Criticism of Jean Piaget TheoryUploaded byChiew Shan Tan
- History Spring08Uploaded byAnonymous 9VcxlFErf
- 94961270 Semester 2 Final Exam PL SQL 2Uploaded byBucur Alexandru
- mcs_table.odpUploaded byAli Mhamadi AliHamada Chahidi
- Soil & Plant PhosphateUploaded bytim_scribd
- Hospital TerminologyUploaded byWade Jackson