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VECTOR BORNE DISEASES

The counts ………

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What is a VECTOR ??

Pathogens transmitted by arthropod (insect) vectors are some of the most


dangerous and unpredictable on earth

Vectors are facilitators of many dangerous disease-causing organisms


and help pathogens bridge the gap from a diverse array of host
animals (mice, rats, monkeys, birds, prairie dogs, pigs, etc.) to humans

Mosquitoes and ticks account for the majority of transmissions of the


most important
p vector-borne diseases

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Vector Borne Diseases …

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Disease transmission …

The pathogens transmitted by arthropods fall into four main types of


microorganisms: nematodes or ‘roundworms’, protozoa, bacteria
(including rickettsia and borrelia spp) and viruses

H
Humans and
dddomestic
ti animals
i l are iincidental
id t l hhosts
t ffor mostt vector-borne
t b
pathogens, and they may or may not contribute to the transmission cycle
on a temporary
p y basis;; as a result,, theyy are not usuallyy required
q for
survival of the pathogen in nature

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Common Vector Borne Disease in India…

There are six diseases, which are common in India and have been addressed
under National Vector Borne Diseases (VBDs) Control Programme (NVBDCP):

Malaria
Fil i
Filaria
Dengue
Chikungunya
g y
Japanese Encephalitis
Kala-azar

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Malaria

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by


parasitic protozoans (a type of unicellular microorganism) of the genus Plasmodium

Transmission : Malaria is transmitted by a bite from an infected female Anopheles


mosquito, which introduces the organisms from its saliva into a person's circulatory
system. In the blood, the parasites travel to the liver to mature and reproduce
Symptoms : fever and headache, which in severe cases can progress to coma or death

Complications : Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Renal failure,


P. falciparum may result in Cerebral malaria, Splenomegaly, severe headache,
hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), hypoglycemia, and hemoglobinuria with renal failure.

Treatment : antimalarial medications,


medications for severe malaria is the intravenous use of
antimalarial drugs, supportive measures, monitoring for poor breathing effort, low blood
sugar, and low blood potassium etc

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Dengue

Also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the


dengue virus

The virus has five different types;


yp infection with one type
yp usuallyy gives
g lifelong
g
immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others.
Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications

Transmission : Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus


Aedes , principally A. aegypti

Symptoms : include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin
rash that is similar to measles

Complications : In a small proportion of cases the disease develops into the life-
threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets
and blood plasma leakage,
leakage or into dengue shock syndrome
syndrome, where dangerously low blood
pressure occurs

Treatment : Usually supportive, using either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or
moderate disease,
disease and intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases

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Filariasis
Filariasis (or philariasis) is a parasitic disease that is caused by thread-like roundworms
belonging to the Filarioidea type

Transmission : These are spread from by blood-feeding black flies and mosquitoes
• Lymphatic filariasis - worms occupy the lymphatic system, including the lymph
nodes; in chronic cases, these worms lead to the disease elephantiasis
py the subcutaneous layer
• Subcutaneous filariasis - worms occupy y of the skin,, in the
fat layer, may cause river blindness
• Serous cavity filariasis – worms occupy the serous cavity of the abdomen

Symptoms :
• Lymphatic filariasis - edema with thickening of the skin and underlying tissues
• Subcutaneous filariasis - The subcutaneous worms present with skin rashes,
urticarial papules, and arthritis, as well as hyper- and hypopigmentation macules
• Serous cavity filariasis - presents with symptoms similar to subcutaneous filariasis,
in addition to abdominal pain
pain, because these worms are also deep-tissue dwellers

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Complications : permanent and long-term disability are common.
• bacterial infections in the skin and lymph system
• hardening and thickening of the skin
• disfigurement
• sexual disability

Treatment : should be specific and based on the microfilariae isolated

• Oral Medicines : are available for treatment


• Surgery :
• Lymphatic filariasis - Large hydroceles and scrotal elephantiasis can be managed
with surgical excision

• Onchocerciasis - Nodulectomy with local anesthetic is a common treatment to


reduce skin and eye complications

• Diet and activity


• Fatty foods are restricted in individuals with lymphatic filariasis
• Individuals with chronic lymphatic filariasis are encouraged to mobilize (with
compression bandage support) the affected limb

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Chikungunya

Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne virus, of the genus Alphavirus

T
Transmission
i i : that
h isi transmitted
i d to humans
h by i Aedes
b virus-carrying
i A d mosquitoes.
i

Symptoms : fever up to 40 °C (104 °F), a petechial or maculopapular rash of the

trunk
k and
d occasionally
i ll the
h limbs,
li b arthralgia
h l i or arthritis
h i i affecting
ff i multiple
l i l jjoints,
i

headache, nausea, vomitting, conjunctivitis, slight photophobia and partial loss of

taste. Ocular
O l iinflammation,
fl i P
Pedal
d l oedema
d

Complications : exacerbates any underlying medical condition, cerebral complications

lik dementia
like d i and
d paralysis
l i and
d kidney
kid disorders
di d

Treatment : symptomatic treatment of fever, stiffness, joint pain etc. of this viral illness,

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Japanese Encephalitis

Japanese Encephalitis a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus

Transmission : Domestic pigs and wild birds are reservoirs of the virus; transmission to
humans may cause severe symptoms

Symptoms : Severe rigors, fever, headache and malaise

C
Complications
li ti : Lifelong
Lif l neurological
l i ld defects
f t such
h as d
deafness,
f emotional
ti l li
liability
bilit and
d
hemiparesis may occur in those who have had central nervous system involvement

Treatment : supportive treatment; with assistance given for feeding, breathing or seizure
control as required

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Leishmaniasis
Al k
Also k l
known as kala-azar, bl k fever,
black f d Dumdum
and D d ffever, is
i th
the mostt severe fform
of leishmaniasis

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus

Symptoms : include fever, weight loss, mucosal ulcers, fatigue, anemia, and substantial
g of the liver and spleen
swelling p

Complications :
• Facial disfigurement
• Secondary infection (type of Opportunistic infections)
• Mucosal perforation
• Secondary pus
pus-producing
producing infections
• Secondary gram-negative enteric infections
• Secondary mycobacterial infections

Treatment : A few variety resolve by themselves, others need medications


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PREVENTION OF VECTOR BORNE DISEASES
Environmental Management Strategies

These can reduce or eliminate vector breeding grounds altogether

Use of biological controls

- bacterial larvicides

- larvivorous fish - fish that eat mosquito larvae

- reducing breeding rates by introducing sterilized male tsetse flies

Target and kill vector larvae without generating the ecological impacts of chemical use

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Stagnant water removal, destruction of old tires

Empty air-coolers & flower vases atleast once in 7 days

Keep water tanks tightly covered so that mosquitoes cannot enter them

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Proper solid waste disposal, elimination of stagnant water in domestic environment
and improved water storage practices

Keep grass mowed and remove leaf litter and wood piles

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Chemical Control

Judicious use of chemical methods of vector control are recommended, such as


- indoor residual sprays
- space spraying and
- use of chemical larvicides and adulticides;
these reduce disease transmission by shortening or interrupting the lifespan of vectors

Has proven to be highly effective

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Preventive / Personal Protection Strategies

Li iti exposure tto iinsects


Limiting t or animals
i l ththatt are known
k disease
di vectors
t can reduce
d
infection risks significantly

e.g. Combined environmental management and chemical tools for new synergies; e.g.
insecticide-treated nets (ITNs)

The doors and windows must be kept closed in the dawn and dusk periods to prevent
mosquitoes

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W
Wear t ti clothing
protective l thi after
ft d k llong sleeves
dusk; l d llong pants
and t iin li ht colours
light l are b
bestt
Mosquitoes are attracted to darker colours

Spray
p y yyour clothing
g and mosquito
q nets with an insect repellent
p containing
gppermethrin,,
but be careful not to let the clothing touch your eyes and mouth

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Always try to stay in accommodation that has insect screens and mosquito netting over
the beds

Mosquito coils can be burned and offer some protection for approximately 6 hours.

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NO vaccine is available for Malaria / Dengue / Filariasis / Leishmaniasis /
Chikungunya

However Japanese Encephalitis can be prevented by a vaccine

JE vaccine is recommended for


ƒ travelers
l who
h plan
l to spend
d 1 month
h or more in endemic
d
ƒ areas during the JE virus transmission season
ƒ This includes long-term travelers, recurrent travelers, or expatriates who will be
based in urban areas but are likely to visit endemic rural or agricultural areas
during a high-risk period of JE virus transmission
ƒ Travelers to an area with an ongoing JE outbreak
ƒ Travelers to endemic areas who are uncertain of specific destinations, activities, or
duration of travel

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Thank you