Historical background

• Learning from the experience of microelectronics • The advantages of miniaturizing systems for chemical analysis • From concept to µTAS

Learning from the experience of microelectronics
• First breakthrough from electronics to microelectronics
1947 @ Bell Lab Invention of transistor

John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain

Evolution of computer

19,000 vacuum tubes 30 tons 200 kW of power consumption Vacuum tubes (circuit device) ENIAC (in 1946 at U. Penn)

High energy consumption High heat generation Cooling system required Large space owing to large volume
EDSAC (in 1949)

EDVAC (in 1951) UNIVAC (in 1951)

• What is a transistor? Standard electronic component for switching and modulating electronic signal Provide a better, cheaper alternative to mechanical relay Smaller, cheaper, functionally improved transistors were made possible by the semiconductor technology

• Second breakthrough from electronics to microelectronics 1952 Introduction of integrated circuit Numerous transistors and other electronic components were organized together with necessary wiring on a thin silicon disk or wafer Intel Pentium II inside front .

• Moore’s Law 1965 by Gordon Moore (Cofounder of Intel) Prediction of an exponential growth of the number of transistors in an integrated circuit circuit integration doubles every 18 months .

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Photolithography .

• Successful microelectronics = A combination of MINIATURIZATION Microfabrication of transistors miniaturization of electronic components functional integration of the above .

12.“A gas chromatographic air analyzer fabricated on a silicon wafer” 1979 by Terry IEEE Trans. 1880-1886 (1979) First application discussed the use of technique borrowed from microelectronics to fabricate a structure for chemical analysis . Electron Devices. ED-26.

Miniaturized Gas Chromatography (1989) .

Gas chromatography .

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GC column Thin film stationary phase is coated on the surface .

1 . especially in chromatographic separation . Actuators B. 244-248 (1990) First introduction of the concept of micro total analysis systems (µTAS) for chemical analysis.“Miniaturized total chemical analyses systems” 1990 by Andreas Manz Sens.

• What is micro total analysis systems (µTAS) Integration and automation of all the stages of chemical analyses sample preparation chemical reaction analyte separation analyte purification analyte detection data analysis .

• What is microfluidics? manipulation of small amounts of reagents and sample on a microscale platform fabrication of microsystems for chemical analysis in silicon. and plastics packaging of microsystems . glass.

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The advantages of miniaturizing systems for chemical analysis • Disadvantages of conventional chemical analyses Require skilled personnel Require specialized equipments Require central laboratory .

• Advantages of µTAS Aimed for general users without specialized skill Portability Reduction of sample and reagent consumption Automation of chemical analyses High-throughput screening (HTS) Online analyses .

electronic components Packaging technologies necessary for handling delicate microstructures µTAS is a product of interdisciplinary activity aimed for “COMMERCIALIZATION” . mechanic. optical.• Issues in µTAS Interfacing to the macroworld of general users Interconnection of fluidic.

From concept to µTAS Things to consider for developing a µTAS .

• Specification Which reagents are used? What are the reaction kinetics? What is the reaction temperature? What detection method is needed? What is the desired range of detection? What is the required limit of detection? Determines the material for the fabrication .

a simple unit component) Process compatibility (no loss of individual functionality?) Computer simulation (due to difficulty in performance prediction) .• Design Which is a proper process sequence? (vs.

hybrid…) Fabrication method Interconnection & packaging µTAS is a paradigm shift in chemical and biochemical analyses . glass. plastic.• Fabrication Choice of materials (silicon.

Microfluidics .Theoretical aspects .

Microscale system High surface-tovolume ratio • Fast reaction • Increased heat transfer • Increased surface effect .

300 Transition Laminar D: diameter µ: liquid viscosity .Microscale system High surface-tovolume ratio • Fast reaction • Increased heat transfer • Increased surface effect Low Reynold’s number • Laminar flow • Viscosity > inertia ρ uD Re = µ ρ: liquid density u: flow rate 4.000 Turbulent 2.

Microscale system High surface-tovolume ratio • Fast reaction • Increased heat transfer • Increased surface effect Low Reynold’s number • Laminar flow • Viscosity > inertia Small diffusion length • Rapid mixing .

Microfabrication • Photolithography .

Silicon ingot 300 mm silicon ingot .

Silicon wafer .

Photoresist .

Photolithography light .

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Light wavelength .

Light sources .

Effect of diffraction .

Etching & Lift-off process .

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