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Practical Research-2
Engr. Jhon Zen I. Capulong (0938-416-2864)

Samples and sampling Techniques Used

1. Sample: persons, events, places or things use as sources of data.

2. Population: refers to a group of people, objects or events
3. Sampling: the process of selecting a representative portion of the population that can be the source of data to test
the hypothesis
4. Target population or universe: the totality of possible individuals, or items or cases where data can be obtained
5. Sample size: how many of the sampling elements are needed as sources of data

Essential concepts and steps in sampling

1. Determine the population of individuals, or items or cases where to find the data needed
2. Determine the kind of sample you want to have: Identify the basic units of the population, (sampling element) or
the feature of the population where you can get your sampling element (sampling unit)
3. Make a listing of all the sampling units, or directly, of all sampling elements (sampling frame)
4. Find out what is the appropriate size of the sample by using the Slovin formula as follows:
n= N
1 + Ne2
where: n = sample size
N = population size
e = desired margin of error
Error is the percentage allowable for non-precision since a sample is used instead of a population

5. Get the sample size, get the samples from the sampling frame, based on the sampling method that you want to use

Sample sizes as small as 30 are generally adequate to ensure that the sampling distribution of the mean will
approximate the normal curve (Shott, 1990).

Factors to Consider Determining the Sample Size

1. Homogeneity of the population

2. Degree of precision desired by the researcher
3. Types of sampling procedure

Two General Types of Sampling Designs/Methods

1. Probability sampling:
 Each of the units in the target population has the same chance of being included in the sample; greater
possibility of representative sample of the population;
 conclusion derived from data gathered can be generalized for the whole population
2. Non-probability sampling:
 No way that each of the units in the target population has the same chance of being included in the
sample; no assurance that every unit has some chance of being included;
 conclusion derived from data gathered is limited only to the sample itself

Types of probability sampling

1. Simple Random Sampling : every unit of the population has an equal chance and non-zero probability of being
included in the sample; lottery and use of table of random numbers
2. Systematic Sampling: used when there is a ready list of the total universe or population; obtained by dividing the
population by the desired sample size to get the sampling interval
3. Stratified Sampling; used to ensure that different groups of a population are adequately represented in the sample by
determining the different groups according to criteria
4. Cluster Sampling: used for large –scale surveys
5. Multi – stage Sampling: used for national, regional , provincial or country level studies.
Types of Non-probability sampling

1. Accidental or Convenience
 Using most convenient available people as study participants
 Ex. Stopping students at a hallway for interview
2. Purposive or Judgmental Sampling
 “deliberate sample”
 based on the belief that researcher’s knowledge about the population can be used to hand-pick sample
 Researcher purposely decide to select a subject that is a typical of the population or particularly
knowledgeable on the issues under study
 Ex. A sample of experts
3. Quota Sampling
 often used for infinite population frames
 The researcher identifies population strata and determines how many participants are needed from
each stratum
4. Snowball / Chain Sampling / Network Sampling / Referral Sampling
 a type of accidental or convenience sampling
 a.k.a. network sampling or chain sampling. Sampling process gains momentum and “snowballs down a
 Begins with few participants and then continues on the basis of referrals until the desired sample has
been obtained
 Ex. Vulnerable People who are claustrophobic; homosexuals; addicts; rapists; transexual; women who
had abortion

Sampling in Qualitative Research:

 Qualitative- Aim is to discover “meaning” and to uncover multiple realities, generalizability is NOT a guiding
 Researcher’s sampling question in mind: Who would be an information- rich data source for my study?

Convenience sampling
 sample is called volunteer sample
 Ex. Recruiting sample by placing a notice on a bulletin board
Snowball Sampling
 Asking early informants to make referrals
 A.k.a. nominated sampling
 Weakness: sample might be restricted to small group of acquaintances

Purposive sampling
 Hand-picking cases that will most benefit the study
 Maximum variation sampling- ex. Men and women; rich and poor
 Homogenous-reduces variation; more focused inquiry; used for group interview
 Extreme ( deviant) case sampling- most unusual and extreme informants ex. Outstanding Success and failure and
notable failure
 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Sampling in Ethnography
 “Big net” approach- mingling with many members of the culture under study as possible
 Key informants- smaller number who are highly knowledgeable with the culture; main link to the inside; chosen
puposively by the ethnographer; help ethnographer what to sample ( events, activities, records , artifacts)

Sampling in Grounded Theory

 Rely on about 20-30 people,
 Theoretical sampling
 Goal: to select informants who could best contribute to the evolving theory
Guidelines for Determining Adequate Sampling

1. When the universe or population is more or less homogenous and typical, normal or average is desired to be known, a
smaller sample is enough; if difference is desired to be known, a larger sample is needed
2. When the population is more or less heterogeneous and only the typical, normal or average is desired to be known, a
larger sample is needed; if only their differences are desired to be known, a smaller sample is sufficient
3. The size of a sample varies inversely as the size of the population; a larger proportion is required of a smaller
population and a smaller proportion may do for a bigger population
4. For greater accuracy, and reliability of results, a greater sample is desirable

Gay (1976) recommends minimum acceptable sizes as follows:

Descriptive- 10 percent of the population for a large population and 20 percent for a small population
Correlational- around 30 subjects ex post facto or causal
Comparative- 15 subjects experimental of at least 15 per group

 the people who are being studied in a quantitative research
 also called study participants

 those who provide information to the researchers by answering questions directly

Co-researcher/co-participants/Informants or key informants

 people cooperating in the study in qualitative research

Researcher or investigator
 the person who undertakes the research project director or principal investigator- the person directing the
investigation in a collaborative research

 objects, entities, or non-human subjects

 numeric characteristic of a population

 numeric characteristic of a sample