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....

- CONTENTS

FORE WORD .........................................................................................................


................................... 5

Clause

1 Scope and object ..............................................................................................................


2 Refercncc document ..................................:......................................................................
3 Symbols and units .............................................................................................................
4 Examplc I - Mechanical effects on a 10 kV arrangement with single rigid
conductors .........................................................................................................' .................
4.1 Data .........................................................................................................................
4.2 Maximum forcc o n the central main conductor .................................................
4.3 Conductor stress and forces on supports .............................................................
5 .. Examplc 2 - Mechanical effects on a 10 kV arrangemeqt wi01 mulriple rigid
conductors ........;....:............................................................................................................
5.1 Data (additional to the data o f example 1) .........................................................
2 Maximum force on the ccntrrtl main conductor ...............................................
5.3 Maximum forcc on the outer sub-conductor between t ~ adjacent o
connecting pieces ..................................................................................................
5.4 Conductor stress and forces on support ..............................................................
6 Examplc 3.Mechanical effects on 3 high-voltage arrsniemer~t~ v i t hrigid
conductors ..........................................................................................................................
13.1 Data .........................................................................................................................
4

6.2 blaximum force o n the central main conductor .................................................


6-3 Conductor stress and forces o n supports ............................................................
7 Example 4 .. Mechanical effects on a 110 kV alrangerncnt wi:h slack conductors

7.1 Data .........................................................................................................................


7.2 Electrorragnetic forces and characteristic parameters .......................................
7.3 Horizontal span displacement b, and air clearance amin........................................
7.4 Conclusions ............................................................................................................
8 Example 5 - Mechanical effects on strained conductors ............................................
8.1 Common data .........................................................................................................
8.2 Cenue-line distance between sub-conducrors a, = 0.1 m ......................................
8.3 .
Centre-line distance between sub~conductorsa, = 0.4 rn .............................-......
9 Example 6 - Thermal effect on bare conductors ..........................................................
9.1 Data ............................................................................. ...........................................
9.2 Calculations ....................................................:.......................................................
9.3 Conclusion ............................................:..................................................................
TECHNIQUE - TYI'E 2
TECHNICAL
Prerniere 4diiion
REPORT - TYPE 2 First edition
1994-06

Courants de court-circuit - Calcul des effets-


Partie 2 :
Exemples de caicul

Short-circuit currents - Calculation of effects -


Part 2:
Examples of calculation

@ CEI 1994 Droits de reproduction reserve:;- apyright - all rights reserve3


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-
Commission Electrotechnique Internationale CODE P R l X
International Electrolechnlcsl Commission
Memnwpon~ar3ne~rporerw.c1man Kouuc~cn
P R I C E CODE X
Povr prox rolr ~ l r l o g U 8On V 4 u * Y r
F o r p r c s . see curran1 c u f ~ b 7 * ~
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COh' MISSION
..

SHORT'-CIRCUIT CURREN'TS - CALCULATION 31' EFFECTS -


Par1 2: Exarnples of calcirlation

FOREWORD
1) Thl: I E C ( I n t c r n a t i o n r l Electrorecknical Commission) is a worldwide organization f . ~ rstandardizatio;l comprising all
n a ~ i o ~ e~l ca cl t r o t e c h n i c a l committees (IEC National Conlmittces). T h e ohjcct o f thc IEC is i o pronlorc intcrnalionll
c o o p e r a t i o n o n all q u e s t i o n s concerning sfandardization in the electrical a n d e l e c ~ r o n i cfields. To this c n J and in
a d d i t i o n t o o t h e r acrivities. the I E C publisher Internariona1 Standards. f i e i r p r e v r a t i o n i s c n t r u s t c d t o technical
cornmiltccs: a n y ldc ~ & o n a l Committee intcrcsted in t h e subject d e a b with ma: participate in this preparator).
work. I n t e m a t i o n i l . g o v c r n m e r ~ t a land non-govcrnrnentrl organizations liaising wit'! the I E C a l s o participate in l l ~ i s
preparation. ~ h : I E C . c o l l a b o r a t e s closely with t h e International Organizatio:' for S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n (ISO) in
a c c o r d a n c e w i t h c o n d i t i o n s determined by agrecnltnt b e t w e e n the t w o organizations

7,) Th!: f o r m a l d e c i s i o n s o r a g r c e m c n t s of the I E C o n technical matters, prcparcd by technical c o m m i t ~ c c so n which 1 1 1


!he Narional C o m m i t t e : ~ h a v i n g a special interest therein arc represented. c x l r e s s . as n c a r l y as possible. an
international c o n s e n s ~ sof opljrnion o n the subjects dealt with.

3 ) T h e y h a v e the form of'rccomrncndations f o r international u s e published in the fomr ~f standards. technical reports or
g u i d e s and the). are a c c e p t e d by the Kational Cornrnitrecr in that sense.

4 ) 111 o r d e r t o p r o m o t e i n t e m a t ~ o n a l u n t f ~ c a t ~ o nI.E C h'acional


C o m m ~ ~ t c cucn d c n i k c t o a p p l y I t C Inccrnar~onal
S ~ a n d a r d stransparently t o the maxlmurn extent possible In their n a c ~ o n a land reg onal s t a n d a r d s A n ) C ~ b e r g c n c c
bctwe+n the I E C S t a n d a r d and the c o r r c s p o n d ~ n gnattonal o r regional s ~ a n d a r dshall .,c clearly i n d t c a f e d In thc I3tlc.r.

Ttlc m a i n task of IEC technical c o r n n ~ i n c e sis to prcparc Internatic3nalStandards. 111c s c c p -


lion31 circumsran2es, a tcchnical coninlittcc may propost thc pitblicntion o f a t c c h ! l i c ~ l
r c p o n o f orle of the following types:

typc I w h e n t h e required suppon cannot hc obtained for th: publicntiofi o f an 1n:er-


national Standard. d c s p i t e repeated efforts;
typc 2. when the subject is still under technical d c v c l o l ) n i c ~ o~ rt where f o r any o l h - i -
rcason thcrc is the future but not inlrnediate possibility of ar rrgrcenlcnt o n an Irltcr-
n ~ t i o n n Standard;
l '

typc 3. w h e n a rcchnicrtl cornmittec h a s collecred data of a different k i n d frorn t h a t


ivhich-is normally published as an I ~ l t e m a t i g n a Standard.
l f o r e carnplc "state o f the m u .

Technical r c p o n s o f types 1 and 2 are subject to review within t i ~ r e cyears of publ~catiorl


to d e c i d e whether t h e y c a n be transformed into Internarional Star~dards.Technical reporrs
of type 3 d o not necessarily have to be reviewed unril the data they provide are considered
to be n o longer valid o r useful.

IEC 8 6 5 - 2 . which is a technical r i p o n o f typc 2. has been prl:parcd b y IEC tcchnic:il


conlnlittee 73: Short-circuit currents. -
- ~ l ~ c ' t cof
x t thi:: tcchnicnl rcport is bascd o n t11c follo\viilg docun~cnt';:

..

Full information o n the voting for the approval of this tcchnical rerort can bc found i n t l ~ c
rcpon o n voting indicated in the above table.
. ..
This document is issued in the r p 2 Technical Report series c l publi-
a t i o n s (according to G.4.2.2 o f Part 1 of the IEC/ISO Direc1iv;s) as a .

"prospcrive standard Tor provisi,wal application" in the field of


calculadon of effecls in short-circuit currents. bccausc. h e r e is an.urgent
requirement for guidance on how swndxds in h i s licld should b e x e d to
meet an idcntificd need.

This document is not to be regarded as an "International Stsndml". It is


proposed for provisional application so h a t information and exp:rience
of its use in practicc may be gahcrcd. Comments on the content of this
document should bc sent lo h e IEC Ceneal Office.

A rcview of this b-p 7- Technical R c p n will tw carned out n 11 Ir~tcr


h a n threc y c v s d t c r i u publrc~tion.with the options of cithcr ex.el:sion
. for a funher threc y e a n or conversi~nto an International Shn.lard o r
withdrawal.
SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS - CALCULA'I'ION
. .
C F EFFECTS
P a r t 2: E x a m p l e s of c a l c u l a t i o n

1 Scope a n d object
.' 8

The objcct of this IEC Teclmical Rcpon is to show the applicatioh of p.-occdures for the calcu-
lation of rncchaniial and thcrnral effects due to shon circuits as in IEC 865-1. Tllus.
this technical rcpon is an addition to IEC 865-1. It docs not, howevc:r, change the basis for
sranda:dizcd proccdurcs givcn in that publicarion.
NOTES ..
1 ~ h examples
c in this Technical Report illustrate h,lr to m&e the cslculstion; according to IEC 865- 1 in a
simplified and easy-to-iollow manner. They arc not intended as a check for c c n p u t e r programs.

7 Thc numbers in parenthcses a: the end of the equations rcfrr to thc equari Ins in IEC 865-1
3 Thc system vo,kages are rcferred to as nominal voltages
#.r --

2 ReTerence document

IEC 865- 1: 1993. S h o r r - c i r c r t i ~citrrenrs - Calcularion of e j j c r s - P u r r I : Definirions n n d


colciilorion nlerhods

3 Synlbols a n d t t d t s

For s y n l b o l s and units. reference i s made 10 I E C 865- 1 .


,4 Example I - Mechanical effects on a 1 0 kV arrangement, wit11
. ;ingle rigid
conducl~rs ,

The basis for the calculation in ihis example is a three-phase 10 kV busbar with one
conductor per phase. The conductors are continuous beams wi.h eq'u'idistant simple
suppons. The conductor arrangement is shown in figure 1.

IEC j?..jr

Figure 1 - Conductor arrangement

4.1 Dcra
I
Three-phase initial symmetrical shon-circuit currenr = 16kA
(r.n~.s.)

Facror for calculation of peak short-circuit current K = 1.35

Systen~frequency
No autonlatic reclosing

Nunlber of spans L 3

Distance between suppons I = I m

Centre-line distance between conductors a = . 0,2 rn

Recrangular conductor of AIMgSiO.5

- Dimensions

- Mass 'per unit length n:' = 1.62 kg/m


- Young's modulus E = 7 0 000 ~ / m n '
- Stress corresponding to the yield point -C-120 up tq-- --
lao N/rnm2
lipo.2 -.
- ---
- -.. ~ ~ m- m ~
. ..
.
. ..
' b
.
4
!
. .
. -. 865-2 O IEC:1994 - 13-

4.2 Maxinr~rmforceon the central nrain cond~tctor -

-- 4
- I 4~ lo-' -
vs 47 1 .OO rn
,I
Fm? - 2n $4 - = X- x (30.6 10'
; A)' x - = 803 N (2)
I a, 2x Am 2 0.202 m
'
L

-i where
1. =fixlG==x 1 . 3 5 ~16kA=30.61..4=30.6. l o 3 A
i
5
- ip>
and the effeciive distance between the main conductors ,

a 0,20 m
Om =-
-- -= 0.202 ni
k12 0.99
-
with k , , according to'lEC 865-1 figure 1 for bld = 6 . a , , = n and 'irld = 20.

4.3 Condlrcror srress and forces on slryporrs

I. C;~lcul;ltioncan be made according

4.3.1
--
Sinlp1ifiedmc.rhod
to the following 4.3.1 or 4.3,2.

4.3.1.1 Cond~rcrorbending srress

Frn3 I
aIa= am = Va p-8Z
(9,I?.)
B
I

803 N x l.00m
= 1 .O x 0.73 x -
8 x 1 . 10-~n1
= 73.:.
!
10' N/II = 73.3 h./nirn2' :
O
D
"
"
"
. wlicrc
l f r = 1.0 = (Va \/r)n,3x according to IEC 8 6 5 - 1 , tablc 2
p = 0.73 accordins to IEC 8 6 5 - 1 . tablc 3
6d3 0.06 x 0.010~
J =- - m4 = 0.5 - lo-' m4
12 12
% =-
J
- 0.5 . 1n4
= 1. ,n3
dl 2 0.005 n~

T h c busbars arc assumed to withstand the sho-n-circuit forcc i f

am,5 q Rp.2 (1 3;

With the lower value of Rfl.?. For a rectangular cross-section q = 1:5. scc IEC $ 6 5 - I .
tablc 4. T h i s gives:

a,, = 73.3 N/rnm2 lessthan 1.5 x 120 ~ / r n r n=~1 € 0 N/rnrn2


. s

4.3.1 - 2 Bending force on the supporrs -----

Fd= VF Vr a Fm3 !15)


I

y#i$TF$?!',.
-I
- 4
.r
... . ' mp-f '"":'f"
. . :. -
": '."C"
. :; .?' *" :'. -'-
.: _.
'3 ':.T q
- - . - - *,
h:.! 3..,. 9
,

865-1. table 2 with the upper vnlr~eof RPo,


According to ~ E C 11 Fs.. -

therefore. nlith a three-phase short circuit

For the outer supnons (A) is with a , = 0,4, see IEC 865- 1. table 3:

F d , = VFVra A F m 3= 1.97 x 0.4 x 803 N = 633 N

f:or rhc inner support:. ( B ) is with ag= 1.1. see IEC 865-1. table 3:

4.3.2.1 Narllrfll fr-eqicency f, andfacrors VF. I r a n d Yo


f

7 - 10" h'/n12 x 0.5 . rn4


f, = 7
I nr' ( 1.00 m)' 1.62 kg/m
= 52.3 H z (16)

Y = 3.56 according 10 IEC 865-1. [able 3


4
J = 0.5 lo-' m (see 4.3.1.1).

TIlc ratio fclf is 1.05. From IEC 865-1. figure 4 and 2.2.2.6.2 the follo\~ingvalues for rhe
facrors VF, Va and Vr are obtained:

4.3.2..2 Conductor bending stress '

Tllc conducror bending stress is:


I
865-2 0 IEC:1994

where
V,Vr = 1 . 0 1.0
~ according to 4.3.2.1 ;bove
p = 0.73 according lo IEC 865-1. tablc 3
z = 1 - 10-~rn~ (see 4.3.1.1).

T h e bus'lars a r e assumed to withstand the short-circuit force if

. ,
with the lowcr value of For a rectangular cross-section q = 1.5, see TEC S65-I.
table 4. This givcs:
.'
a,,,= 73.3 ~ / m m ' less than 1.5 x 120 ~ / n l n ~= ' 180 ~ / n l r n '

4.3.2.3 Bending
- -_-_
force on ~ h supporls
e _ -_
.- - -

Fd = \IF Vr a F,, (15)

According to 4.3.2.1 above, VFVr = 1.8 x 1.0 = 1.8 which is IOH er than the value 1.97
l'roni IEC 865-1 tablc 2. see 4.3.1.2.

For 1t:c outer supports ( A ) is with a, = 0,4. see IEC 865-1. table 3:

i For rtlc inncr suppcps (8) is with aB= 1.1. see IEC 865-1. table 3

I
i
4.3.7 Conclrrsions
F d D = \ ' F 1 ' r ~ B F , j = 1.8 x 1 . 0 1.1

,
~ x 803 N = 1 5 9 0 N

t Tir~plified Dcraileil

nrerliod n:rr/ro~!

Tllc busbars will withsrand the short-circuit force.


The calculated bending stresses a,,, are: h'/m m,' 73.3 73.3
The outer supports have to withstand a dynamic
h n d i n g force of d N 633 578
?'he inner suppons have to withstand a dynamic
bending force of ,N 1 740 1 :.9C; y

-
. -- -
- ..- . --.
..
-
.. ~ . .

. .

, . .,
... ,,.. ':+p
, ..< -2 . . :
5 Example 2 - Mechanical effects on a 10 kV arrangement 'with ;li.ultiplc rigid
conductors
I
i ?

The basis for the calculation in this example is the same thrceiphasc 10 k V busbar as in
cxamplc 1, but now with thrcc sub-conductors pcr main condu0:tor as shown in figurc 2.
'The cross-sections of thc sub-conductors arc 60 mm x 10 ;nm as thc conductors of
cxamplc 1.

IEC JJ5,%

~ i g u r 2e - Position of the spacers and s u b - c o i d u c t o r s

5.1 D n t n !cidditionol ro rile dnro of exan~pleI )


Nunlber of sub-conductors n - 3
Dimension ofisub-conductor in the direction of
the force d = 10mm
Numbcr of spacc.rs k = 2
Distancc hetween spacers I, = 0.5m
Dimension of spacers of AIMgSi0.5 6 0 mln x 6 0 rnm x 10 nlnl

5.2 M a x i n ~ u nforce
l or! rhe cenrr.al n ~ o i ncondricror

and the effective distancc between thc main conductors

with k , : accordi& to IEC 865-1 figure 1 for b,ldm, = 60 rnm/50 rnm = 1.2 and
ald, = 200 mm/50 mrn = 4. The dimcn~ions~b,.~andd m > re shown-i,n-IEC 865-1,
figure 2b. - -
0.
5.3 Maxinlunl f o r c c on the outer sub-conducrorI~e~n~cen
tnjo adjac;*ntconnectirfg pieces .

with k 1 2 and k 1 3 from IEC 865, figure 1:


- A,, = 0.60 for a l , l d = 20 mm/lO mm = 2 and bid = 6
- L , =~0.78 for a l j l d = 40 mm/lO mm = 4 and bld = 6
--
or a , from IEC 865-1: t;151(.1.

5.4 Conductor stress and forces 0.7 support

Calculations can be made according to the following 5.4.1 or according,to the following 5.4.2.

5.4.1.1 Bending s:t.css cairscd b~ the forces bcrbc-een nrain condu, .ors

acccrding to IEC 865-1, table 2


according to IEC 865- i , table 3

bd' ' 0.06 x 0.01'


Z =n -= 3 x n13 = 3 . n13 accordin;: to IEC 865-1. 2 . 2 . 2 . 3
6 6

5.4.1.2 Bfnding stress carrsed by the f o ~ x e sberbc.een the sub-condrrctors

where
",, v, = 1.0 = (vosvr)m?x according t o I E C 865-1, table 2
.. .
--- -- - - .. Z, = 1 . m3 as Z in 4.3.1 - 1 (example 1).
>
5.4.1.3 Torql finding stress in the busbar ntatcrinl
. 1
I

=IOC = o m +0, =24.7 ~/rnrn'+ 16.1 ~/mm'=40.11 ~ l m m ' (12)

The busbars are assumed to withstand.the chon-circuit' force if

q = 1.5, see IEC 865-1.


with the lower value of RpOs2.For a rectangular cross-sectio~~
r.~blc4 or 2.2.2.3. This gives:
Q =~ ~ 40.8 Nlmm' less than 1.5 x 120 N/rnm2 = 18C ~ l m m ~
t

o,= 16.1 P!/mrn2 less than 120 ~ / n l r n ~

5 . 1. Bending force on slcpporrs

..It ~ . i , ~ t l ito
~ lIEC
g 865-1 tablc 2. wirh the uppcr valuc of i t 1 ;:

I l ~ c . ~ c . l ~\~v ri c~ l l;i three-phase shon circuit


=jlOl
5 0.37'3
0.8 . RPoa2
I lc.lli (.
v, \', = 3.7

1 ' ' 1 1 1 1 ~ . trutcr supports ( A ) is with aA= 0.4. see IEC 865-1, table 3:

'11' illncr sljppons ( B ) is with as = 1-1. see IEC 865- 1. table 3:

2.7 x 1.1 x 811 N = 2 4 0 9 N

..
.' I)cnrnilcdnlerhod .

' '.' Naffdralfrequency fc of the main condr,ctor-.fc, of the s u t -condtrcrors ond focrors
\IF. vo, \lo; V , and V,,

-= 50.8 Hz (17)
wl!cre
c = 0.97' - .according to IEC 865-1. figure 3c for A. = 2 and :hc ratio

. ..
y = 3.56 from IEC 865-1, table 3
J = 0.5 % lo-' nlJ as J in example 1 .

- f,I/is 1 . 0 2
~I'IIc.rr;~lio and f,lf is 4.1 8. This gives from E C 865-1. figure 4 ar:d 2.2.2.6.2 thc follow-

.,.! . -
1-1
Ilcpntlin.c srress catrsed b y the forces between niain conducro -s

\',, t ' , = I .O x 1 .(I according t c 5.4.2.1 ab0t.e


I\ = 0.7.: according rc- IEC 865- 1 . rnhlc 3
J,.!-
' 0.06 x 0.01'
= , i =
ix- 6 m3 = 3 . n13 according t, IEC 8 6 5 - 1. 2.2.2.5
o

a,= \'
0, '.r,
Fs 1s
162, . .
515 N x 0 . 5 m
= 1.11 x 1 ,o x = 16.1 . lo6 ~ / =m16.1~~lrnm'
1 6 x 1 - 104m3
~ l ~ r c

.- - - - --@
" - TTy-1.0
-. -..L.....-.AL-Z_J.
- ... . according to 865-1, table 2
2, = 1 . 1 0 - c . m? .
as Z in 4.3.1.1 (example 1)
CC'---..- ,. .--. L... -
t.-- -m
-, - .- . - .- . . . ..

865 -2 0 IEC:1994 . -27- '

. . ,

5.4.2.4 . Torn1 bending stress in the b~tsbarnlarerial

The busbar is assumed to withstand t h e short-circuit forcei f

=to, L7 RpQ.2

with the lower value df R,,.,. F o r a rectangular cross-section q = 1.5, see IEC 865-1.
table 4 . his gives:

= ' 180 blrnm2


o,,, = 40.8 Nlmnl' less than 1.5 x 120 ~ / n ~ m
less
as = 16.1 ~ / r n n ~ ? than I29 Nlmm' .

5.4.2.5 Bending force on the supports

Fd = \IF V r a Fm3

According to 5.4.2.1 abovc. V F V r = 1.8 x 1.0 = 1.8 which is lov.er than the value 2,7
obtained from IEC 865-1. table 2 in the case of the simplified m e t h o j . see 5.4.1.4.

For the outer suppons (A) is with a, = 0.4. see IEC 865-1. table 3

For thz inner supports ( B ) is with ag = 1.1, see IEC 865-1. table 3

T h e bushars will withstand the shon-circuit force.

T h c calculated bending'stresses are Gto~

CTS

The outer supports have to withstand a dynamic


bending force of.
T h e inner supports have io wirhstand a dynamic
bending force of . -
.--- . - ...- ..- .-..- -- -.... .
. . .. . -. . --
. sc!5-2 1EC: I ' I ' I , ~
- 29 -
<.

}l;anlpIc .r - ri~echanicaleffects on a high-voltage arrangement with rigid


condtrc t o r s ---%
---- ----I-. ..

& - /-- -----.. .--


n l c llrsis I O I I I I C calculation in this example is a three-phase 380 );v busbar,'bith one
l l , t ~ u l ; ~ con'dt~clor
r pcr phase. The conductor arrangement is shown .i,n figuie3. his
c,3nlpIr illcl~~rlrs calculations with and without autc-matic reclosing..

IEC J J 7 &

a) T w o ~ p a narrangement
h) Model neglecting the i n f l u e n c e of support s t r u c t u r e s
I
i
Figure 3 - Conductor and support arrange!nent

! I)ill,l

'1 I~r~.~-llll.l..l. ~liitialsynlmetrical shon-circuit current


(1.111.5.)
I.. .
~ 1 ~1 1 I) I .~Iiulale
~ ~ r the peak shon-circuit current
Sy<rfii~. I~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ l l l ~ ~ n cs
h'llllll~~l 1 1 1 ,I,;\I,S

1 ) I s I ~ I \ ~ ' c ' I\,.( \\.ccn supports


Ccnlrc- 1 1 11,. ,!lsrance between conductors -
IiciC-h[1 1 1 111, insulator with clamp
licighl 0 1 1 1 1 , support

-
'
Tubular I t.~\\juctor160 mrn x 6 rnm of AIMgSiO.5
- Mash 11c1unit length nl' 7.84 kg/m
- O U ~ S Idiameter
~I,. D = 160 a m
- Il\l(kness s = 6 mrn
- Youtl!!
- - ' g- ~. O. d.. U-. .l-.u- S . ;
- -
E = 7 0 030 ~ / r n r n '
- stress ,crresponding . - - -- --
to the yield point R,, = 160 N/mm2 to
, 240 N/mrn2
0.2 Aiaxin~ltn~
force on ttle central main condrtctor
- d

and am = u = 5 ni.

6.3 Condrictor srress andforces on srtpporrs

Calculation can be madeaccording to the following 6.3.1 or according to thc following 6.3.2.

5.3.1 Sinlplified nlerhod

6.3.1.1 Condltcror bending srress ~ ~ i f h orhree-phase


ltl altronraric reclos ing

The maximum bendi~lgstress is:

w he rc
= l , O = (\'oVr)m,x
l'o\'r according to IEC 865- 1, table 2
p = 0.73 according to IEC 865-1, table 3 '

whcrc

The busbars :Ire a'ssumed ro withstand rhc shon-circuit force if

with the lower value of RpO.?.

For a tubular cross-section in accordance with IEC 865-1. table 4

This givcs: --

? 21.1 N h r . ~ ~
o,,,=I55 ~ j r n m ' less than 1.32 x 160 ~ / m m =
-' 6.3.1.2 ~ e i d i force
n ~ on the sicpporrs without three-philse nirtontntic reclosin~
-.
F , = V, V , a Fm3 ( 1 5)
. ..
According to IEC 865-1. table 2 with the upper value of RpOm2it: is:

therefore

Tllc force on the outer suppons ( A ) is with aA= 0.375. see IEC S65- I . table 3:

Thc force on the inner suppons ( B ) is with a, = 1.25. see IEC 865-1. table 3:

F I B = V F V r a B Fm3= 1.24 x 1.25 x 10.2 kN = 15.8 ;N

The bending moments on the substructures are:


'
' I

- on the bottom of the outer insulators


hlIA= F,, h, = 4.74 kN x 3.7 nl = 17.5 kh'm
- on the bottom of the outer suppons
hIsA = F,, h, = 4.74 kh' x 7.0 rn = 3Z.2 kNm
- on the bottom of t l ~ einncr insulalor
= F,,h,= 15.8 kN.x 3.7 m = 58.5 kNm
- on the bottoni of the inncr support d

hIsB = F,, h , = 15,s kN x 7.0 rn = 110.6 k N n ~

0.3.1.3 Corlditcrors Oendirlg srre.rs h:irh rhree-phose orrror?toricrcclosir .q

With three-phase automatic reclosing, the bending stress is


865-2 0 IEC: 1994

where - d

Lb Vr = I .8 = <\Iu Vr)m3x according ~ O ' I E C865- I , tablb 2


p = 0.73 according to IEC 865-1. tabli 3
-6 3
2 = 108. 10 m sec 6.3.1.1 . .

Thc busbars are assumed to uirhstand thc short-circuit force if:

with !he lowcr value of A,,.: and where q = 1;32, see 6.3.1.1

This gives:

ole, = 779 ~ l m m ' greater than 1.32 x 160 ~ l r n n l '= '? 1 l S 1:::11'

Considering only the result of the simplified method, the busbars ;re IIOI . ~ , ~ u m ctod \viri'.
stand the short-circuit force.
KOTE - Therefore i t is necessary to apply the detailed method

6.3.1.4 Bending forces 011the supports wirh rhree-phose alllomar 'c rr-I.!.*.\:
':8
NOTE - The following calculallon i s made only for information, 1% 1 rcr;l, of th,: b u < ~ * x f us"
i. ~ ' l h s l a n d ' r ~'"
short-circuit force according to thc rimplif~cdmethod.

According to IEC 865-1. [able 2 with tlle upper value of i t is:

therefore
1< - alol
0.8. RpO,?
Hencc
..
v, vr= 1 .o
Thc forcc on the outer suppons (A) is with a, = 0,375. see IEC 865- 1 . tal)l(' %:

F,, = VF_l_Ir a , F,, = 1.0 x 0.375 x 10.2 kN = 3.8: kN

-
The force on the inner suppons (B) is with ag 1,25. see IEC 865-1. tahlc
-- .-
'{:

FdB= V F , V r a , . E , = ~ , O X1 . 2 5 ~10.2 k N = 12;75 kN - . - ..


6.3.2 Del'ailed n~etlrod

6.3.2.1 Natlcral frequent? fc and factors \ I F . \la and V,

--
where
y = 2.45 according to IEC 865-1. table 3
J = 8.62 . m%ee 6.3.1.1

The ratio fc/f is I

-fc= - 2.10
= 0,042
f
50
,* ..
for this ratio. the factors VF, V o and V, arc according to IEC 865-1. 2.~1.2.6.2,figure 4 and
figure 5:
V, = 0.36
V, = 0.31
V, = 1.0 without three-phase automatic reclosing
V, = 1.8 with three-phase automatic reclosing

6.3.2.2 ~ o n d r t c l o bending
r srress wirhout three-phase alcfornaficreclos'ng

The maxirnum bending stress is:

where

Vo V, = 0.3 1 x 1 .O * 0.3 1 accord in^ to 6.3.2.1 above, value uf::ich is lowe: than
1.0 = (V,V,),,, according !o IEC i;65-1. table 2
p = 0.73 according [of EC 865- 1. table 3

The busbars arc assumed to withstand tllc sliort-circuit forcc if:

with thc -lower valie pf R f l S 2and where q = 1.32, see 6.3.1 .l.
. .

a,,, = 48.1 ~ / m r n ~less


. than 1.32 x 160 ~ / m m
= 21
~ ~ / m m ~
6.3.2.3 Bending force on the supports without rhr~c-phasea~rrontaricreclosing

Fd= VF Vr a F,, . . (15)

According i o 6.3.2.1 above, VF Vr = 0.36 x 1,O = 0,36 which is lowcr than the value 1.24 .
obtained from IEC 865-1, table 2 in the case of the simplified &ihod.
I;
see 6.3.1.2. "

For thc outcr suppons ( A ) with aA= 0,375. see IEC 865-1. table 3:

F,, = lJF:i a, F m 3 = 0.36 X 1.0 X 0.375 X 10.2 kN = 1.38 kN


t

For the ir xer suppons (B) with aB= 1.25. see IEC 865- 1. tablc 3: . .

F d B= VF Vr aDF m 3 = 0.36 x l , 0 x 1,25 x 10,2 kN = 4 2 9 kN

The bending moments on the substructures are:


- on the bottom of the outer insulators
M I A= F d A hl = 1.38 kN x 3.7 m = 5.1 1 kNm
- "on the bottom of the outer supports
MS, = F,, h, = 1.38 kh' x 7.0 m = 9.66 kNm
- on the bottom of the inner insulator

- on the bottom of t h e i n n e r support


MsB = F d B hS = 4.59 kN x 7,O m = 32,l kNnl

6.3.2.4 C o n d ~ t c r o rb. e n d i n g s t r e s s with ihrce-phase arrromaric reclosing


. .

The maximunl bending stress is: . ...- -.

where
Va Vr = 0,31 x 1.8 = 0.558 accordii~gto 6.3.2.1 above. value wtlich is lower than
.. 1.8 = (Va VJrnax according to IEC :;65-1, table 2
P = 0.73 according to IEC 865-1. table 3
Z = 108 - ~ o - ~ r n ~ see 6.3.2.2

The busbnrs are assumed to withstand the shon-circuit force if:

with the lower value of R f l , , and where q = 1.32, see 6.3.1 . l .


This gives:
... . . .. -.. . . .
.'
6.3.2.Sa.. Bcndiiig force on fhe'supports ~ ~ ithree-phase
rh atcromatic reclosing

. .
,According to 6..3.2.1 hbove. VF V, = 0.36 x 1.8 = 0.05 which is lower than the value 1.0
' obtained from IEC 865-1. table 2 in the case of the sinlplified method, see t.3.1.4.
.! .
-
... ,
.For the outer $upports-(A) .wilh a,, = 0.375. see IEC 865-1, table 3:,:
--
F,, = VF V r a AF", r 0.36 x 1 . 8 x 0.375 x 10.2 kN = 2.48 kFl

For the inner supports (B) with as = 1.25. see IEC 865-1. table 3:

T h e bending moments o n the substructures are:


- on the bottom o f the 8"llter insulators
MI, = F,, hl = 2,48.kN
.. x 3.7 m = 9.18 kNm
;

- on the bottom of the outer Supports


Ms, = FdAhS = 2.48 kN x 7.0 m .= 17.4 k N m
- on thc bottom of the inner insulator

- on the b o t t o m o f the inner su pp ort


MsB = F,, hs = 8.26 kN x 7.0 m = 57.8 kNm

6.3.3 Conclusions

' '!
a) Without three-phase automatic reclosing
. .
The busbars will withstand the short-circuit force.
The calculated bending stresses a,,,are:
The outer s u p p o n s have.10 withstand a dynamic
bending force of d

Thc inner s u p p o n s have to withstand a dynamic


bending force of
b) With three-phase autonlatic reclosing
. The calculated bending stresses a,,, arc:
The busbars are assumed to withstand the short-
circuit forcc when using the detiiled method but
not when using the simplified method.
The ollter supports have to withstand a dynamic
bending force of,
.. - to withstand a dynamic . -
-. . . T h e inner supports have
bending'force-of----- . . . . .
-..
- ... ..-. ---. .
7 ~ x a m ~4l -e Mechanical effects o n a 110 k V arrangement with slack conductors
- d ..

The basis for the calculations in this example is a three-phase flexible busbar connection
with one all-aluminium stranded conductor per phase with varying di! lances bctwcen the
conductors. T h e anchor points at each end of the span arc post insu'ators on steel sub-
stmctures as shown in figure 4.

?
. . 4 - Arrangement with slack c o n d u c t o r s
Figure
\
. 7.1 Dara,
Thicc-phase initial symmetrical short-circuit currenl
(r.m.s.) '" L? = 19kA
Duration of the first'cu~.rentflow , .,, = 0.3 s
Distance bet ween supports = '1 1.5 n~
Centre-line distance between conductors . ,I, = 1.6 m .
,I? = 2.4 m
I

Resulting spring constzzt of both span supports ;. .= 1 0 0 N/mnl

All-aluminium stranded conductorAAC 240

- Mass per unit Length


-.

- Young's nlodulus
Star ic conductor .tensile force at a conductor temperature
' of - 20 "C (local minimum winter temperature)
7

st.-20
-
- 400 N
Stntic conductor [ensilc forcc at a conductor temperature
of 60 "C , .'sr .60 = 27 3 h'
Conventional value of accclcrstion of zravity

I
7.2 Elecrron~agnCric
.
forces and characrerisfic paraniefers

Tlic electromagnetic forcc per unit length is: -

0 ,+ a, 1.6 m !. 2.4 rn
w i t h 1,11 = 1.0 and an equivalent distance n= -- = 2 nl
2 ?

The pnrametcr r is:

The direction of the resulting force is:


The equivalent static conductor sags at midspan are:
. .
7 1 2
n mi gn l2 - 1 x 0.670 kglm x 9.81 nl/s2 $ 1 1.5. n
4.-20 = - = 0.272 n (22)
t3 F~t,-20, 8 x 400 N i ..,

n. mi gn P - 1 x 0.670 kglm x 9.81 mls' x 1 1.5' in'


bc,t,o -
-
.
- - = 0,398 m (22)
F~t,60 8 x 273 N
t

The pcriods of thc eonducror oscill.?rionarc: - .

The resulting periods of~oscillationarc:


I

The stiffness norms are:


with . ..
-

1.65 - I o6 N/m2 N.
= 5 5 . lo9 x
[ -- 0.3.+ 0.7 x sin -
(
5 . 107N/m2
90°)] = 1.85 - lolo-
m2

because

-F ~-~ . - 2 -~ 400 N =1.65.106- N less than Orin '= 5 N


. 1O7 7 (27)
nA, . 1 x242-.10-~m m2 m'

because I

273 N. N N
-Fs~.60
- - = 1.13 - lo6- less than Of,, =5 - lo7 - (27)
"As 1 x 242.. m' m2 m2

The stress factors are:

(nm', g, I ) ?
C-20 = -- ( 1 x 0,670 kg/m x 9.8 1 rn/s2 x 11.5 m)2
= 3.40 (2s)
24 F:,,-zo q0 24 x (400 N)' x 1.093 I O - ~ ' I / N

(nm', g, (1 x 0.670 kg/m x 9.81 m/s2 x 11.5 m)"


4'
-
a

(60 = - . - = 10.6 (28)


24 F~
: -60 v 6 0 24 x (273 N ) x~ 1,100 1/N

The span swing-out angles are:


Tkl .
. - -0.3 s
0.511 s
= 0,587 greater than Ol5
!
T r c r .-20
' .

0,3 s
T k1
-- = 0,485 less than 0.5
T r e s .60 0.618 s

.IC maximum swing-out an~les6,,,-20 and 6,.,, depend respectively O r Xd20 alld %60
which dcpcnd on 6k.-20 "d 6d,60.60

For 6k,-20= 153O greater than 90' is:

snd for x - =~ -3.12


~ less than -0.985 is:
6m.-20 = 180"

For 6,, = 152.5' greater than 90' is:

x60
-1
- - r. = 1 - 4-12 = - 3.12

. for x , ~= -3.12 less than -0.985 is:


. .. 8m.60= 180°

7.2.1 Tensile force F , dllring the short ~ir~ilit

The load parameter is: --

because T k l = 0.3 s greater-than


Tre!.-?o
4
-
- .0.511 s = 0.128 s
4
According t,o IEC 865-1. figure 7 , thc factors y- ,and v60are: !:,' :.

- for p-,, = 9.72 and ci2053,.40: t;


.:,

y-20 = 0.58 t

- for V6, = 9.72 and c60 = 10.6: %

y16, = 0,75

Thc tensile forces during the s h o n circuit are for n = 1:

F , . , ~ =F,,,,, ( 1 + q ) 6 0 ~ 6 0=) 273 N ( 1 + 9,72 x 0.75) = 2 263 N = 2.26 kN (34)


1:

The tensilc forcc F, is the maximum value of F,.-,, and F,,,,:

7.2.2 Tc~nsileforce Ff a f t e r the short circuir .


Because r = 4.12 is greater than 0.6 o: 6,.-,, = 6m.60= 1 80". is greater I t a n 70" the tensile
forcc aftcr the shon circuir Ff
i s significant:

The tensilc force Ff is t h i maximum valuc of Ff,-20and Ff.60:


865-2 .O IEC:1994

t bh and air clearance


7.3 .. amin ,
i

All the following quantities are calculated at a conductor temperhture of 60 "C which
leads to a greater span d.isplacement than a conductor temperature of -20 "C.

The elastic expansion is:

Thc thermal exparlsion is:

because
Trcs.60 - 0.6 18
T,, = 0.3 s is grcaler than - = 0.155 s
4 4
m4
and c,,, = 0.27 10-ls - for all-aluminium corlductors
A ~ S
The factor CD is:

--
For r = 4.12, greater than 1.8. the factor CF = 1.15 shall bc used (see IEC 865-1,
equation (39)).

The maximum horizontal span displacement 6 , for = 180" grc arer than 90":

-The minimum air clearance


-
is:.-.-
.-
The supports (post insulatars and steel sub-structures) have, to withstand a .dynamic
- bending force of 3.04 kN. giber: by.
.] the tensile.---
- -.---: ----.,
force Ff after
.. . - .
the
.
sfiortc:ircuit.'
...--. *<,
'. -:
-..--
p ~ , c
, ,
C.. -.

From IEC 865-1. 2.4.l,.the clamping device for the condyclor anchoring shall be specified

max ('1.5 . F,, 1.0. F f ) = max (1.5 x 2.66 kN, 1.0 x 3.04 kN) = max I 3.99 kN, 3.04 kN)
= 3.99 kN
!

The.horizonta1 span displacement is 0.61 m and the mini~numair clear ince is 0,78 m
I
8
I-,
.
, <.
,/
)' .'
, . ,'.
'. ..! . '

I;. C:;
..
-. &.*-.

.
Example 5 - hlechanical effects on strained conductors
- .
'\ -
8 I..'(
/-- , a

-.
.... ... . . ~. - ' I.-- .

The basis for the.calculations in this example is a three-phase 380 kV arrangement with
\
strained twin-bundle conductors as shown in figure 5. In the spar1 there arc three conncc-
tions o f pantograph-disconnectors, which also operate as spacers.

The calculation is carried out for two different centrc-line distznccs between sub-
conductors showing the effect of the pinch force.

IEC J 5 . W

Figure 5 - Arrangement w i t h strained conductor:^


.
.
8.1 Conln~ondata
. .
Three-phase initiai symmetrical short-circuit current
(r.in.s.1 Ir3 = 63 kA
Factor for calculation of peak short-circuit current \ K = l,8l

Duration of the first short-circuit current flow ; T,, = 0.5 s


Distance between supports ... 1 =4Sm
L e n g ~ hof ~ h conductor
c carrying shon-circuit
current
(I, = i - 2 1,. where l i is the length of one insulator chain . li =' 5,3 m
Cenlrc-linc distance between phase conductors a =5m
Resulting spring constant of both supports
of orlc span .S = 500 N/mm

Twin conductor 2 ACSR 1045145


- Number of sub-conductors n = 2
2
- Sub-conductor cross-section A, = 1 090 mm
- Sub-conductor mass per unit lcngth n( = 3,25kglrn

- Young's modulus
- - Sub-conductor diameter

Static conductpr tensile force at a conductor


tcrnperature of -20 "C (local minimum
winter temperature)
Staric conductor'tensile force at a conducror
temperature of 60 " C
Additional concentrarkd masses representing
tllc connections of pantograph disconnectors.
A
- Numher '1
--,
- Mass of onc connzc-ion
- Distances

Conventional value of acceleration of gravity


8.2 Centre-line distance ~crntecnsub-conducforsa , = 0.1 .

8.2.1 Electronlagnerc force and characteristic par'anlctcrs


1 .
The clcctroniagnetic force per unit Icnglh is

The parameter r is:


F' 9 2 , 8 Nlni
r = = = 1.0C9
nn1:,gn 2 x 4.69 kglm x 9.81 m/s2

m lie re n12is the resulting mass per unit length o f one sub-conducl~r:

The direction o f the resulting force is:

6 , = arctan r = arcl;in 1.009 = 45.3'


--
The equivalent static coriductor sags at niidspan are:

n n::, g n 1: 2 x 4.69 kglm x 9.8 1 mls' x 48' HI'


bc.60 =
- = 1.40 nI
8 F~!.60 . 8 x 1 8 . 9 . lo3 N

The periods of the conduc~oroscilla~ionare

T,, = 2~i
9.81 mls
-. . .
- The resc-lting periods of oscillation are:
>
- T-20 I

Tress-20 -

The stiffness norms are:

becausc

-F~t.-20 23.1 . lo3 N N N


= = 10.6.-lo6-- less than .Jfi, = 5 10' - (27)
"A, 2 x 1090. 104m2 mz mz
'with.

0.3 + 0.7 s i n (- 90"))


F s ~60

"*s Ofin

because

The stress factors are

Thc span swing-out angles are.

6k,-20= 6
[ 1 - cos
(360° .
]
- = 45.3"
[ (
1 - cos 360" X--
;8::: )] = 58'70 (29)

because
b

Tk I -
- 0.5 s = 0.30 Icss than 0.5
Trcs.-2~ 1.68 s

6,.,-= 6, [ 1 - cos 360". -


, (
T ~ ~ ~ o ) ] ~ ~ 5 . 3 0 [ l - ~ ~ ~ ( 3 6(29)
0 0 ~ ~ ~ ) ] ~ ~

because

T~I - 0.5 s = 0.27 less than 0.5


TrcS .ao 1.85 s
.. . .
'E5t r.axirnum swing-out angles 6,.-20 and 6m.60depend respectively i)n ~ ~ xao
- and d and
.A;-.::.'. depend c x 6k.-20and

F: r :ess than %.-20 = 58.7' less than 90" is:

x - =~1 -~r sin 6k,-20= I - 1.009 x sin 58.7" = 0.135 (30)


. -
:.?: -1'.9S-i icss than xezo= 0.138 lcss than 0;766 is:
2-.:
. I

'm.-20 = 10" + arccos x - =~10"~+ arccos 0.1 38 = 92! l o (31)

F.-r .: I e s s than 3L.60


= 51.1" less than 90":

X60 =1 - r sin ti,.,, = 1 - 1.009 x sin 5 1.1 " = 0.21:; (30)

t.,,
- -11.9S5 less than X,
..- 4 r.?r = 0.215 lcss than 0.766 is:

'm.60
= 10" + arccos x,, = 10" + nrccos 0.215 = 87.1i0 (31)

5.- .-
7 - -
Tensile Yorce F , dlrring the short circuil

Ths sub-conductors of the bundle clash effectively during .tllc shon c i ~ c u i tbccausc:
a, = 0.1 m less than 2.5 . d, = 2.5 x 0,043 m = 0.1075 m
mil I, = 9.4 rn greaterlhan 70 . a, = 7 0 x 0.1 m = 7 m

1sl+1,2+1s3+1s4 -- 5 . 7 + 1 0 + 1 0 + 1 1 . 7 m = 9.4 m
r
1 --
4 4
Therefore the pinch force F g can be ignored in contrast to the tensile force F, calculated
according to IEC S65-1.2.3.3.

The l m d p ; ~ r a ~ ~ ~ (P
c tare:
crs

because T,, = 3.5,s greater than -'re,.-20


- - 1.68 s = 0.42 s
4 4

and T,, = 0.5 s greater than 're r .60


- 1.85 s = 0.4t s
4 4
According to figure 7 of IEC 865-1.thc factors v --., and
~ W60 are:
- for q-20= 1.26 and ( - z o = 1.176: 9
1.; .
w - =~0.6~ I ,?''
.
.
:
.
.
- for qho= 1.26 and (,, = 2,101:
= 0.71

T h e tensilc forces during the short circuit for n = 2 are: [

F,.-20 = 1 * l Fs1,-,0 (1 + 9-20W-20)


= 1.1 x23.1 kNx(1 + 1,26~0,6)=44,6kb.

T h c tensile force F , is the maximum value of F,,-

F, = max (Fr.-20,Fr.60)= max (44.6 kN. 39.4 kN) = 43.6 kN

8.2.3 Ter~sileforce F f after the sltorr circlrir


Because r = 1.009 greater than 0,6 and 6,.-20 = 9211" o r 6,.,, = t 7.6O greatcr than 70°,so
the tensile force af$r the s h o n circuit F, is significant.

The tensile force F, is the maximum value of Ff.-20 and Ff.60:

F f = max ( F f , - , o , F f.6 0 ]= tnax (66.8 kN.68.7 kN]= 65.7 kN

.-
8.2.4 Horizontal span displacenient hh and nlininlrtnl pir clearance a:,i,
All the following qdtntities are calculated at a conductor te*pera*ure o f 6 0 ' C which
leads to a greater span~isplaccmcntthan at a conductor tcmperaturc ( ' f -20 "C. .

The elastic expansion is:

'elr = (F1.60 - Fs~.60) N60

The thermal expansion is:

because
Trcr.60 1.85 S
T,, = 0.5 s grcatcr than - = 0.46 s
4 4
A,, 1 0 4 5 rnm
and where c , for
~ - -- = 23.2 greater than 6 is:
A,, 45 mni

The factor C D is:

The factor C, for 0.8'less than r = 1.009 less than 1.8 is:
1

The maximum horizontal span displacement b,, for span length over 2 0 m and for 6m.60=
87.6" greater than 6, = 45.3' is for strained conductors with I, = I - 2 li: . /

..-
. ..- - -- -.
.- -- ... - --.
-bh= CFCDb,.60sin 6, = 1.07 x 1.25 x 1.40 m x sin 45.3' .='1.33 m (4 1)
T h e minimum air clearance is:
-.

.
I...,

To the StrucIure. the insulators and [he connectors the maximum value c f F, and F, shah be
applied as a static load:

max { F , . F f ) = nlax (44.6 kN. 68.7 kN) = 68,7 kN

T h e horizontal span digplacement is 1,33 m and the minimum air clkara Ice is 2.34 nl.

8.3 Cenfre-line disrance between sub-conductors a , = 0.4 nl

8.3.1 Preliminary ren~arbs

In this case

I
d

and neither equation (43) nor equation (44) of IEC 865-1 arc fulfilled.'Thcrefor~ the pinch
force Fpiis to be calculated. The other rcsults arc the same as 8.2.3. 8.:!.4 and 8.2.5:
-
Tensile force during s h o n circuit F, = 44.6kh'
Tensile force after sho17 circuit F, = 68.7kK
Minimum horizontai span displacement 6, = 1.33r1
Minin~uniair clearance amin= 2.34 r l

8.3.2 Pinch force Fpi


The factor

v, = f
sin
\.I,

-
is:

I
180'

n
1
ill0
- - .-
271
( a s- d , )
[li3r 17-1

OS

Aceording to figure 8 of IEC 865-1. the factor v2 for v , = 2.42 and K= 1.81 is:
According to fipurc 9 of IEC 865-1, the factor v3 for asld,= 9.3 is:

The short-circui; current force is:

The strain factors are:

= 1.5 x
.
23,l 10' N x (9.4 rn)'
x 5.61 . lo-'- 1
x (sin -
, (0,400 m - 0.043 m)' N 2

= 1 .5 .
.
-
Fs1.60 I;Z
(as-,d,)?
N~~ (sin 1800
n
):

= 0.375 x 2 x
. lo9 N x ( 9 3 m)'
4 1 ,O
-x 5.61 i 0-'- x sin --
(0.400 m - 0.013 rnl3 N

= 0.375 . n
F" 1:
N, (sin -
(0,- dJ3 n

= 0.375 x x
4 1.0. 10' N x (9.4 m)' 5,73 . --!-x ( s i n -
(0.400 m - 0.043 m)3 ' N - 2
-
The parameters j-?,b and j60 are:

Because j-2P,and jM are largcr than 1 , the sub-conductors clash a11d FPi,-,, and F,,,.,, arc:

. According to IEC 865-1. figure 10 and


- with j-,, = 3.66 and & ,,,-20 = 1.35. the factor 5-,, is:
€,-zo = 2,77
4

- with j6, = 3 , 8 9 and ,&., = 1, l 3 , the factor c6, is:


560 = 2.85
The factor v, is:

The factors v , . - ~and


~ V,s60 arc:

x ( 63 ' 1" A )'x2.2. ( 9,4 m ;


X
(sin 7
0.400 m - 0.043 m : 2.77)
,865-2 0 IEC: 1994 - 79 -

lSOO '
f 63.10'~ ) ? f 9.4 m ( s i n -7- ,

The tensile force Fpii s the maximum value o f Fpi,-20and Fdfp;.60:

F P i= max ( Fpi.L20.
Fpi.60}= m3x (79.0 kN, 73,7 kN] = 79,(: kN

8.3.3 Conclirsions
To the structure. the insulators and the connectors the maximum value )f F , F f and Fpi,
shall be applied a s a static load:-- ,

. rnax ( F , .F ~ , ' F , ,=
~ )rnax (44.6 kN. 68.7 kN.79.0 kN) = 79.0 k N

The horizontal span displacement is 1.33 m and the minimum air clearancl: is 2,34 m .
Example 6 - Thermal effect on bare conductors ..
- 9
= -- -A---- -------.- . .
--... - -..- ---.--
The basis for the calculation is a three-phase 10 kV busbar with one contluctor per phase.

Three-phase initial symmetrical short-circuit current


(r.m.s.) . I.,.! := 24,O k A
Three-phase ~ t e a d y ~ s t ashort-circuit
te current (r.m.s.) Ik3 := .19.2' k~
Factor for the calculation of the peak short-circuit
current ! K :'= 1.8
Duration of the short-circuit current Tk := 0.8 s
System frequency . .. f :.=50Hz
..
. Rectangular conductpr of Al-Mg-Si alloy with CI-oss-section A :,:600 mm'
Conductor tem p erature at the bepinnin~of the short circuit 0, := 65 OC
Conduc!or temperature at the end of the sliort circuit 0, := 170 OC
a-

9.2 Calculations

For 8, = 65 OC and 0, = 170 OC. s , , , is found from IEC 865-1. figurel13 I)):

The thermal equivalent s 9 r t - t i m e current is:


1

nl a n d n are found from hpures 12 a) and 12 b) of IEC 865-1 for f Tk = 51 11s x 0.8 s = 40.
K = 1.8 and II;lIk3 = 24.0 kA/19.2 kA = 1.25.
..
I
For the conductor cross-section A = 600 mm':

- 22.8 . l o 3 A
! Sth=-- = 38.0 ~ / m m '
A 600 mm2
-t
The busbnrs have sufficiint thermal strength if:

S,,,= 38.0 A/mrn2 less than S,,, dT = 80 -


A
rn m=
X \izs = 8.11 */mm2 (67)

The busbars have sufficient thernial short-circuit strength.