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ENG60503 /ENG60504

Properties and Application of Materials

Chapter 8: PhaseDiagram,
Engineering Alloy and Steel



Background of Phase Diagram
• Many material system and alloy system exist in more that none
phase depending on the conditions of temperature, pressure and
• Each phase have different microstructure and it related to the
mechanical properties of material or alloy.
• Phase diagram will lead to design and control of heating process for
developing the required microstructure and properties of materials

For example, bronze is a

metal alloy comprised of
coper and tin. It consists
of two different phase as
α- phase and β-phase

Bronze sword (Copper + Tin)

(darker region) β-phase
(brighter region)
Solid Solution
Solid solution: a solid mixture containing a minor component
uniformly distributed within the crystal lattice of a major component.


Copper Tin

Solvent: primary Solute: The impurities.

atomic species. Host Normally the minor
atoms atoms
Unlimited Solubility Limited Solubility No Solubility
water + alcohol, only a water + salt, at small amount of Water + oil, it will form 1 phase
phase will appear salt, it only show a phase, but of water and another phase of
when content of salt reach oil.
Examples: Cu-Ni, Pt-Au, saturated condition, salt will
Ge-Si, and Ag-Au form precipitate. Now, the
solution show 2 different phase
Examples: Fe-C (steel), Cu-Zn,
and Cu-Sn
Unlimited Solubility

Condition for Unlimited Solubility(Hume-

Rothery rules): For example: Copper and nickel
1. Atomic size factor: atomic radius Complete soluble in one another at all
difference less than 15% proportion.
2. Crystal Structure: same crystal structure Atomic radii for copper (0.128nm)
3. Electronegativity: less different between nickel (0.125nm)
Both have FCCstructure
4. Valence: same valence electrons
Electronegativity for copper (1.9),
nickel (1.8)

Valence for copper (+2), nickel (+2)

Limited Solubility
Solid Solution Strengthening
In metallic materials, forming a solid solution often
results in solid-solution strengthening, due to
increased resistance to dislocation movement.

Degree of Solid-Solution Strengthening:

It depends on 2 factors
 First, a large difference in atomic sizes results in
increased strength for the alloy
 Second, the greater the amount of alloying
element added, the greater the strengthening.
Solid Solution Strengthening
Solid Solution Strengthening
• Effect of Solid-Solution Strengthening on
• Yield strength, tensile strength & hardness of the alloy are
better than those of pure metals
• Nearly always, the alloy’s ductility is lower than that of the
pure metal
• Electrical conductivity in alloys is lower than in pure
• Resistance to creep and strength at elevated temperatures is
improved by solid-solution strengthening.
• A phase diagram shows the phases and their
compositions at any combination of temperature &
alloy composition
• A binary phase diagram represents a system with only two
- binary isomorphous phase diagram can be constructed
for systems in which only one solid phase forms.

• A phase diagram can provide many kinds of

information about a system, which are discussed in
the following slides.
One component phase diagram

Pressure temperature phase diagram for H2O

Isomorphous PhaseDiagrams
Tm of Zn

Tm of Cu

100% Cu
100% Ni
Isomorphous PhaseDiagrams
Rule 1: know the Temperature (T) and Composition (Co) to determine the phase

A) Temperature at
1200oC and 60 wt% of Ni

B) Temperature at
1400oC and 40 wt% of Ni

Lever Rule 1) Draw the arrow diagram
α L
32 45
2) Calculate the %of α-phase
32 A
Ca = X100% = percentage
45 A+B of phase

40wt% − 32wt%
Ca = x100%
45wt% − 32wt%
3) Calculate the %of L-phase
Ca + CL = 1 0 0 %
Determine the composition of each phase in a60%Cu- CL = 1 0 0 % −C a
40% Ni Alloy at temperature 1250oC CL = 1 0 0 % − 61.5% = 38.5%
Cu-Ni alloy with 40 wt% Ni at 1250o comprised
61.5% alpha-phase and 38.5% liquid phase
Equilibrium Solidification of Cu-NiAlloy

• Phase diagram:
Cu-Ni system.

• Consider
changes that
accompany the
cooling of a
C0 = 35 wt% Ni alloy
• Slow cooling from 1300oC->1260oC-
Non-equilbrium Solidification of Cu-NiAlloy
Binary Eutectic System


Eutectic reaction

Solubility limit of Solubility limit

Sn in α of Pb in β
Eutectic Point
Example 2: Eutectic PhaseDiagram
• For a 40 wt% Sn-60 wt% Pb alloy at 150ºC, determine:
-- the phases present Pb-Sn
Answer:  +  T(ºC) system
-- the phase compositions
Answer: C = 11 wt% Sn L (liquid)
C = 99 wt% Sn
-- the relative amount  L+ 
200 183ºC L+ 
of each phase 18.3 61.9 97.8
Answer: 150
C - C B A
A 0 100
W =
 B+A
C - C +

= 99 - 40 X 100% = 67%
99 - 11 0 11 20 40 60 80 99100
C0 - C  C C0 C
W = B C, wt% Sn
B+A C - C
= 40 - 11 X 100% = 33%
99 - 11
Microstructure in EutecticSystem
• Solid-Solution Alloys:
• Alloys containing < 2%
Sn are single phase,
and are strengthened
by strain hardening,
controlling grain
structure & solid-
solution strengthening

• Alloys Exceeding
Solubility Limit:
• Alloys with 2% < Sn <
19% also produce a
single phase solid
solution, but after
additional cooling a
second solid phase
precipitates out of the
first one.
Microstructure in EutecticSystem
Eutectic Alloys:
The eutectic composition is exactly 61.9% Sn. This composition has the lowest melting
temperature, and solidification occurs at a single temperature, not a range. A lamellar
microstructure is seen.
Microstructure in EutecticSystem
Important of eutectic alloy

Solder Blazing
Example: lead-tin alloy, Example: nickel-copper alloy
nowadays, copper-silver as blazing bar
alloy or tin-silver alloy as
lead-free solder

For electronic component

For metal joint
Eutectoid system-Iron-iron carbide (steel)
𝜶 Ferrite: Very low solubility of carbon.
Max 0.02 %at 7230C. Iron in BCC
Austenite: Interstitial solid solution
of carbon in 𝜸 ferrite. Solubility
of Cis 2.08% at 11480C. Iron in
Cementite: Intermetallic compound.
A hard, brittle iron carbide. 6.67% C
and 93.3% Fe. Delta-Ferrite (𝜹-Fe):
occur at 13900C to 15390C. Iron in

𝜶 Ferrite Austenite
Phase Diagram of Steel (Iron+carbon)
Three types of
Eutectic reaction
ferrous metal: The ferrite contains
i) Iron 0.0218% Cand the
ii) Steel cementite 6.67% C.
iii) Cast iron
Less than 0.008 %C

Carbon Steel
0.05-1.7% carbon
Low (mild) Carbon Steel
Eutectoid reaction 0.04-0.30% carbon
Medium Carbon Steel
Steel Cast Iron 0.31-0.60% carbon
High Carbon Steel
0.61-1.7% carbon
Eutectoid Phase Diagram of Steel
• The lamellar structure of ferrite and
cementite formed in the iron-carbon
system is called pearlite.
• Pearlite is a micro-constituent and
provides dispersion strengthening
• Mechanical properties: intermediate
between soft, ductile ferrite and hard
brittle cementite
Example 3: Eutectoid PhaseDiagram
Find the phase composition of steel at 1146oC and carbon content of 4%
Example 3: Eutectoid PhaseDiagram
Find the phase composition of steel at 1146oC
1) Draw the arrow diagram
and carbon content of 4% 4
γ-Fe Fe3C
2.14 6.7
2) Calculate the %of γ-Fe/austenite phase
Cy–Fe = X100% = percentage
A+B of phase

6.7wt% − 4.3wt%
C𝛾= x100%
6.7wt% − 2.14wt%
= 52.6 %
3) Calculate the %of Fe3C-phase
C𝛾 + CFe C = 1 0 0 %

CFe C = 1 0 0 % − C𝛾
CFe C = 1 0 0 % − 59.2% = 47.4%
Microstructure for
Hydroeutectoid vs Hypereutetoid
Hypoeutectoid steels contain Hypereutectoid steels above
between 0.022% to 0.76 % C. In 0.76% to 2.14 % C. In
hypoeutectoid steels, α-ferrite is hypereutectoid steels, cementite is
the primary microconstituent the primary microconstituent.
Hypoeutectoid vs Hypereutectoid Steel
Important of hypoeutectic and
hypereutectic alloy
• Car manufacture made cylinder block and head from hypoectectic aluminium-
silicon alloy.
• About 6-9% of silicon that is added to aluminum and it will dissolves into the
solution. It will form hypoeutectic alloy.

Engine cylinder block Engine cylinder head

Controlling the EutectoidReaction
• Controlling the EutectoidAmount:
• Increasing the carbon content of the steel increases cementite
& pearlite, hence increasing the strength until a certain peak is
Coarse pearlite Fine pearlite

Larger grain smaller grain

What phases are present, what are their compositions and what are their
relative amounts for each of the following points on the Fe-C phase diagram?

a) 1% of carbon, 1130° C
b) 1% of carbon, 728° C
c) 0.6% of carbon, 726° C