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INTRODUCTION

A large number of figures in confusing to mind. It is also difficult to analyse


them in order to reduce the complexity of data and to make the comparable
it is essential that the various figures which are being compared are
reduced to one single figure each. If, for example a comparison is made
between the marks obtained by 100 students of B.Com. 11 class of a collage
and the marks obtained by 700 students belonging to B. Com 11 class of
another college, it would be impossible to arrive at any conclusion. If the
two series relative to these marks are directly compared. On the other hand
if each of these series is represented by one single figure comparison and
understanding would become very easy. The single figure which represents
the whole set of data is called an average. Averages are also called
measures of central tendency or measures of location.

PROPORTIES

- It should be easy to understand.


- It should be simple to compute.
- It should be uniquely defined.
- It should be based on all observations.
- It should not be underly affected.
- It should be capable of further algebraic treatment.

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MEAN

Arithmetic mean is the most popular and widely used measure of central
tendency. it is a mathematical average. Generally, when we talk of ‘average’
it signifies arithematic mean. It is generally known as ‘Mean’ Arithmatic is
defined as the values which is obtained by adding all the items of a series
and dividing this total by the number of items.

METHODS

Direct, Method

x
x
N

x = Mean

X = Sum of the values of the items of a series

N = Number of observation

STEP DEVIATION METHOD

fd 1
x  A i
N

M A
D1  m = mid value of the class
i

P = Common magnitude of class interval

R = Assumed Mean

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MERITS

01. It is easy to calculate and simple to understand


02. It is based on all observation
03. It is capable of further algebraic treatment
04. It is rigidly defined

DEMERITS

01. It cannot be calculated in open end series


02. It cannot be ascertained graphically.
03. It cannot be determined in a situation when any value is missing.
04. It is highly affected by extreme values. It is not advised if the series
has a few extreme items advised if the series gas a few extreme items.

MEDIAN

Median is another important measure of central tendency. It is a positional


average, it is a positional average. Median is defined as the middle value of
the series when arranged either in ascending or descending order. It is a
value which divides the arranged series in two equal parts in such a way
that the number of observations smaller than the median is equal to the
number greater than it. Median is denoted way the symbol ‘M’.

METHOD

Individual Series

𝑛+1
M = Size of ( )th item.
2

M = Mealpan

N = Total number of items in the series.

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COUNTINIOUS SERIES

N  C.F .
M = l1  2 i
f

L1 = Lower limit of the median class

C.F = Cumulative frequency of the class preceding modern

f = Frequency of median class

I = size of class internal of the median class.

MERITS

- It is not based on all observation of the services since it is a positional


average.
- It is not capable of further algebraic treatment like arithmetic means.
- It cannot be computed exactly where the number of items in a series
is even.
- It is very difficult to calculate if the number of items is very smaller or
large.

MODE

Mode is another important measure of central tendency. it is positional


average mode is defined as the values which occurs most frequently in a
series. In other words it is a value which has the greater frequency in a
distribution. So mode is denoted by the symbols ‘Z’.

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METHOD

f1  f 0
Z  l1  i
2 f1  f 0  f 2

Z = mode

l1 = lower limit of modal class

f1 = frequency of modal class

f0 = frequency of the modal class

f2 = frequency of the post modals class

I = size of the modal group.

MERITS

- It is easy to understand and simple to calculate.


- It is not affected by extreme value.
- It can be located graphically with the histogram.
- It can be easily calculated in case of opened ended classes.
-

DEMERITS

- it is not suited to algebraic treatment


- there can be bi-modal frequency series
- It is not based on all the items of the series
- it is not rigidly defined
- It has no mathematical property.

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PROBLEMS

Marks 0-10 10- 20- 30- 40- 50- 60- 70- 80- 90-
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Students 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18

FIND MEAN, MEDIAN, MODE

D
X F M (A-M) Dl = fDl
I

0-10 2 5 -40 -4 -8

10-20 4 15 -30 -3 -12

20-30 6 25 -20 -2 -12

30-40 8 35 -10 -1 -8

40-50 10 45 0 0 0

50-60 12 55 10 1 12

60-70 14 65 20 20 28

70-80 16 75 30 3 48

80-90 18 85 40 4 72

90-100 20 95 50 5 100

N = 110 FDI =220

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A = 45, I = 10, N = 110,  D1

FD1
x  A i
N

220
= 45  10 = 65
110

MEDIAN

X F CF

0-10 2 2

10-20 4 6

20-30 4 12

30-40 8 20

40-50 10 30

50-60 12 42 = C.F

60-70 14 F 56 = M

70-80 16 72

80-90 18 90

90-100 20 110

N = 110

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n
M= th item
2

110
= = 55th item
2

The next best c.f = 56

Hence the modal class = 60 – 70

n  CF
M = l1  2 i
f

55  42
Z = 60+  10
14

= 60+9.28 = 69.28

MODE (Grouping Table)

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ANALYSIS TABLE

0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100

1 1

1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 2 4 4 3

MODE = 3M - 2 X

= (3x69.28) – (-2x65)

= 207.84 – 130

= 77.84

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MARKS IN COSTING

Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70

No. of students 5 17 23 41 23 17 5

FIND MEAN, MEDIAN, MODE

MEAN

X F M D(A-M) D1 
D FD1
I

0-10 5 5 -30 -3 -15

10-20 17 11 -20 -2 -14

20-30 23 25 -10 -1 -23

30-40 41 35=A 0 0 0

40-50 23 45 10 1 23

50-60 17 55 20 2 34

60-70 5 65 30 3 15

N=B1 0

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A = 35  FD1 = 0

I = 10 N = 131

FD1
x  A i
N

0
= 35 +  10 = 35
131

MEDIAN

X F Cf

0-10 5 5

10-20 17 22

20-30 23 45=cf

30-40 41 86=M

40-50 23 109

50-60 17 126

60-70 5 131

M = n/2th item

= 131/2 = 65.5 the item


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The next best CF = BF

Hence the modals class = 30 – 40, f = 41

n
m  l1  2  CF  i
F

65.5  45
= 30  10
41

= 35

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MODE

0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70

I 1

II 1 1

III 1 1

IV 1 1 1

V 1 1 1

VI 1 1 1

TOTAL 1 3 6 3 1

MODAL CLASS = 30 – 40

l1 = 30, f1 = 41, f0 = 23, f2 = 23, I = 10

41  23
30  10
2(41)  23  23

18
= 30  10
82  46

180
= 30 + = 30 + 5 = 35
36

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CONCLUSION

From the above study about the average marks in accounting the value

mode is maximum. While the value of mean is minimum and median lies

between the two. So the distribution of marks is a symmetrical. Where as in

costing the value of mean, median, mode are same as a result. the

distribution of marks is a nomal distribution or semetrical distribution.

REFERENCE

 Books: Business Mathematics And Statistics Published By Kalyani


Publisher.
 Business mathematics and statistics published by VK
 "mathematics, n.". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
2012. Retrieved June 16, 2012. The science of space, number, quantity,
and arrangement, whose methods involve logical reasoning and usually
the use of symbolic notation, and which includes geometry, arithmetic,
algebra, and analysis.
 Einstein, p. 28. The quote is Einstein's answer to the question: "How can
it be that mathematics, being after all a product of human thought
which is independent of experience,

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