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Baker Petrolite

Bacterial Control in Oilfield


Systems

Joseph Arensdorf, Ph.D.


Acrolein and Microbial Control Group
Baker Petrolite Corporation

COQG
May 25, 2006
Bacteria
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1,000 X

10,000 X
Location of Bacteria
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Scale & Solids

Slime
Bacteria

PIPE
WALL

PIT IN WALL SEDIMEN


T
Bacteria Require Water
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Gas

Pipe Sessile Bacteria


Condensate
Colony
Water

Planktonic Bacteria
Sessile Bacteria
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Sessile Bacteria
Biofilm in flowing system
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Bacteria Related Oilfield
Problems Baker Petrolite

¾ Biogenic Souring (H2S)


¾ Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC)
¾ Plugging
¾ Emulsion problems
Sulfate Reducing Bacteria
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Sulfate H2 S
SRB

Carbon
Alcohols,
Organic Acids
Biogenic Souring
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Hydrogen Sulfide Concentration in Sturgeon B3HI


Production Well

70
Hydrogen Sulfide (ppm)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Time (year)
MIC - SRB Pitting
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MIC – APB Pitting
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Biomass Plugging
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Iron Sulfide Plugging
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Emulsions
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ƒ Bacterial slime and iron


sulfide accumulate at oil-
water interface
→ pads in tanks
→ emulsions
ƒ Bacterial slime and iron
sulfide become coated
with oil (oil-wet) and fall
into water layer
→ oil carryover
Mechanical and Operational Control
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¾ Avoid build-up of solids

¾ Eliminate stagnant areas

¾ Remove solids from system

¾ Pig flowlines

¾ Avoid Mixing waters


Biocide Treatments
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¾ Effective treatment requires


¾ CONTACT TIME
¾ CONCENTRATION

¾ Periodic Treatments Are Necessary


¾ Bacterial survivors re-establish
High Throughput Biocides
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CH2OH

HOCH2 P CH2OH SO4

CH2OH
2
THPS ƒ water-soluble
TetrakisHydroxymethyl Phosphonium Sulfate
ƒ non-foaming
ƒ good system
H H H
throughput
C-CH2 CH2 CH2 -C ƒ reservoir compatible
R O O

GLUTARALDEHYDE
Filming Biocides
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R1 +
|
R4 ⎯ N ⎯ R2 Cl-
ƒ excellent cleaner |
R3
ƒ penetrate biofilms
QUATERNARY AMINE
ƒ can cause foaming
ƒ filming can limit system
throughput H H

H 2N-CH 2CH2CH 2-N

R O

COCODIAMINE

R = coconut oil
Acrolein
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ƒ Penetrates oily films H_ H


O

_
ƒ non-foaming
C = C _ C_=
ƒ good system
throughput
_
ƒ reservoir compatible
H H
ƒ scavenges H2S
Acrolein Degradation
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H H
H O H O
C C C H2O C C C
H H HO H
H
Acrolein 3-Hydroxypropanal
Acrolein Degradation
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[H20] = hydrolysis
Water Metabolism CH2=CH-CHO [H] = reduction
[H] Acrolein [O] [O] = oxidation
[H2O]
CH2=CH-CH2OH CH2-CH2-CHO CH2=CH-COOH
allyl alcohol OH acrylic acid
3-hydroxypropanal [H] [O]
[O]
CH2-CH2-COOH CH3-CH2-COOH CH2-CH-COOH
OH propionic acid
OH OH
3-hydroxypropionic glyceric acid
acid

HOOC-COOH CO2
oxalic acid
EnviroSweetTM – A Biostat
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„ 9,10-athraquinone
„ Active against SRB - metabolic inhibitor
„ Oil soluble
Oil Well Biocide Application
Batch and Flush
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¾ Open Annulus (No Packer)


¾ Weekly to monthly application flush

¾ Dosage biocide

annular
ƒ 50 to 300 BPD 3 gallons space
ƒ 500 to 1,000 BPD 5 gallons

oil layer
¾ Flush water volume based on fluid
level (also biocide treated, 2 gal per production
35 Bbl) mixture
Fracturing fluids
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Oil or gas zone


Frac Fluid Biocides
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CH2OH

+
HOH2C P CH2OH SO4

CH2OH
2

Tetrakishydroxymethylphosphonium Sulfate
THPS
38 ppm active
Frac Fluid Biocides
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Br O
N≡C — C — C
NH2
Br

2,2-Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide
DBNPA
18 ppm active
Frac Fluid Biocides
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Br

CH2OH C CH2OH

NO2

Bronopol
Frac Fluid Biocides
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N-CH3
(Cl) S

5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one
Isothiazalone
Flowback of Biocide
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Buckley C-3 Flow back Data Cl


Cum Water
16000 XC575 50

14000 SCW260 45
40
Cl (mg/L) and FB (bbls)

12000
35

Residuals, ppm
10000 30
8000 25

6000 20
15
4000
10
2000 5
0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Days Since Frac
Squeeze Treatment
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¾ Kill bacteria in near well bore
¾ e.g. 1% acrolein

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Battery Treatment
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ƒ Batch treatment
ƒ Heater treaters
ƒ FWKOs
ƒ Separators

ƒ Slug treatment
ƒ battery inlet
¾ 500 ppm
¾ 4 hrs
¾ weekly
Battery Treatment
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STOCK TANKS

SOURCE
WELL
WEMCO
HEATER SKIMMINGS
TREATER TANK

FILTERS

INJECTION
FWKO RAW WATER AIR
FILTERED PUMP
TANK FLOTATION
WATER TANK
UNIT

FILTER
BACKWASH

INJECTION
TANK

SYSTEM
Pipelines
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¾Routine pigging
¾Remove water from low spots
¾Removes built-up solids
¾Removes and disturbs biofilm
Pipelines
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¾Batch biocide treatments


ƒ Pig line to remove liquid if possible
ƒ 5% biocide in water or methanol
ƒ Total treatment volume based on
• length of pipeline
• estimated water content of pipeline
Microbial Control Group
Baker Petrolite

¾ Comprehensive Microbiological Field Surveys


¾ Epifluorescence Microscopy
¾ Product Selection- Kill Studies
¾ Product Development- Solid Biocides
¾ Research and Development
¾ Training
ƒ Customer Seminars
ƒ Scientific Meetings