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CHAPTER – 11 Constant volume gas thermometer

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF Principle: -


MATTER
We have PV  nRT , for a low density
Heat and Temperature gas.

Heat is the form of energy, which is i.e., PV α T


transferred from one body to
another because of their If volume is kept constant P α T
temperature difference.
I.e., when temperature increases,
Temperature is the degree of hotness pressure also increases.
of a body. In constant volume gas thermometers
SI unit of heat is joule (J) temperature is read in terms of
pressure.
SI unit of temperature is Kelvin (K)
Common units of temperature
Measurement of temperature
The commonly used units are Degree
The device used to measure Celsius, Kelvin and Fahrenheit.
temperature is called thermometer.
Formulae for unit conversion
There are two types of thermometers
tK = tC+ 273
i. Liquid – in –glass type
thermometers. 9
t F  t C  32
ii. Constant volume gas thermometers. 5

Liquid – in –glass type Problem1: -Convert the ice point


thermometers (00C) and the steam point (1000C) into
Kelvin and Fahrenheit scales.
Principle: - Thermal expansion of
liquids. I.e., when temperature Soln: -
increases, volume of liquids increases.
Ice point (00 C) Steam point (1000C)
Commonly used liquids: - Mercury, tC  0 tC  1000 C
Alcohol. t K  0  273  273K tK  100  273  373K
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Question1: - Why mercury is used in t F   0  32  320 F t F  100  32
5 5
thermometer?
=180  32
Ans: - Mercury is used because of  2120 F
the following properties of it. Problem2: Temperature of a normal
human body is 98.60F. What is the
i. It has high thermal expansivity. corresponding temperature shown in the
ii. It has a shining surface. Celsius scale?
iii. It does not wet glass.
Ans:

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, Doctoral Research Fellow at NIT Calicut 1
A low density gas obeys the
following two equations :
1
V  and V  T
P
So if we combine these
equations,
T
V   PV  T
P
Boyle’s law  PV  nRT,
Boyle’s law states that ‘at constant PV
or  Cons tan t
temperature, the volume of a given T
mass of gas is inversely P1V1 P2 V2

proportional to pressure’. T1 T2
Where n is the no. of moles (n ) and
1 R is the universa l g as cons tan t.
V  PV  cons tan t
P
R  8.31 Jmol 1K 1 .
P1 V1  P2 V2
The equation PV  nRT is known as

Charles’ Law idea l g as equation and is obeyed by


low density gases.
Charles’s law states that ‘at constant
pressure, the volume of a given Problem3: The volume temperature
mass of gas is directly proportional graph of certain amount of perfect gas
to absolute temperature’. at two pressures P1 and P2 are shown.
Which pressure is larger P1 or P2?
V
V T   cons tan t
T
V1 V2

T1 T2

Ideal gas equation

Ans:

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, Doctoral Research Fellow at NIT Calicut 2
A
 T
A
Absolute zero (O0K) A
 =  A T
A

αA is called coefficient of area


expansion.

3. Volume expansion

When temperature increases, the


volume of a substance (solid, liquid or
When temperature decreases, the gas) increases. This called volume
pressure of a low density gas expansion.
decreases. At -273.150C (or O0K) the
pressure become zero. This V
 T
temperature is known as absolute V
zero. V
= v T
V
Thermal expansion But we can prove that
When temperature increases, volume A  2 and V  3
of substances (solids, liquids and
gases) increases. This is called Anomalous expansion of water
thermal expansion.
Water contracts on heating from
1. Linear expansion 00C to 40C. This is called abnormal
expansion of water.
When temperature increases, length
of a solid (rod like structure) On cooling below room temperature
increases. This is called linear up to 40C the density of water
expansion. increases. Below 40C the density of
water decreases.

 T
 Water has highest density at 40C.

 =   T Important environmental effect of

anomalous expansion of water.
αl is a constant called coefficient of
Water bodies, such as lakes and
linear expansion.
ponds, freeze at the top first. As a lake
2. Area Expansion (or superficial cools towards 4 0C, water near the
expansion) surface become denser and sinks; the
warmer, less dense water near the
When temperature increases area of a
bottom rises. However, once the
solid substance increases. This is
colder water on top reaches a
called area expansion.
temperature below 40C, it becomes

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, Doctoral Research Fellow at NIT Calicut 3
less dense and remains at the surface Specific heat capacity,
itself. So a water body will not freeze
from top to bottom. If water did not Q
s
have this property, lakes and ponds mT
would freeze from top to bottom.  T  C hange i n t emperature
m  M ass of the subs tan ce
Problem4: Railway lines are laid with
or  Q  ms  T
gaps to allow for expansion. If the gap
between steel rails 66m long is SI unit of specific heat capacity
3.63cm at 100C, then at what is JKg -1 K  1 .
temperature will the lines just touch?
Coefficient of linear expansion for Heat capacity (S)
steel is 11x10 -6/0C It is the amount of heat required to
raise the temperature of a
Ans:
substance by 10C or 1K.

Q
S SI unit is J/K
T
Molar specific heat capacity

It is the amount of heat required to


raise the temperature of 1mole of a
substance by 10C or 1K.

SI unit J/mol. K

Q
C
nT
n  no. of moles

Molar specific heat capacity is of two


types for gases:

i. Specific heat capacity at constant


volume (CV)

It is the amount of heat required to


raise the temperature of one mole
of a gas at constant volume by 10C or
1K.

ii. Specific heat capacity at constant


Specific heat capacity (s) pressure (CP)
It is the amount of heat required It is the amount of heat required to
to raise the temperature of 1kg raise the temperature of one mole
substance by 10C or 1K.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, Doctoral Research Fellow at NIT Calicut 4
of a gas at constant pressure by 10C body can be calculated by finding the
or 1K. heat gained by the materials of the
calorimeter.
Mayer’s Relation

Cp - Cv = R
Note: -

Water has highest specific heat


capacity compared to other
substances.

Specific heat capacity of water = Change of state


4186JKg-1K-1
Change of State of Ice on Heating
Advantages of high specific heat
capacity of water

i. Water is used to as a coolant in


automobile radiators.
ii. Sea breeze & land breeze.

Calorimetry
Melting: - The change of state from
Calorimetry is the measurement of
solid to liquid.
heat.
Fusion: - The change of state from
Calorimeter: -
liquid to solid.
Calorimeter is a device used to
Melting point: - The temperature at
measure heat.
which a solid is converted into liquid.
Principle of calorimeter
Regelation: -
When a hot body and cold body
come in contact, the heat lost by the
hot body is equal to the heat gained by
the cold body.
Calorimeter consists of a metallic
vessel and stirrer both of same
material like copper or aluminium.
The vessel is kept inside a wooden
jacket which contains heat insulating
materials like glass wool etc. There is When pressure is applied, ice melts
an opening in the outer jacket through at low temperature. If pressure is
which a mercury thermometer can be removed, water refreezes. This
inserted into the calorimeter. When a refreezing is called regelation.
solid hot body is inserted in the
calorimeter, the heat lost by the hot

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, Doctoral Research Fellow at NIT Calicut 5
Application of regelation: - Skating Questions2: Water kept in earthern
is possible on snow due to the pots gets cooled. Why?
formation of water below the skates.
Ans: Water molecules moves out
Water is formed due to the increase of
through the minute pores in the
pressure and it acts as a lubricant.
earthern pot. When these water
molecules come in contact with air,
Vaporisation: -
they evaporate by absorbing heat from
The change of state from liquid to gas
the water in the pot. So water in
is called vaporisation.
earthern pots get cooled.
Boiling point: - It is the temperature
at which a liquid is converted into gas. Problem5: Find out the work done to
Sublimation: - convert 10g of ice at -5 0C to steam at
The change from solid state to vapour 100 0. Specific heat capacity of ice is
state without passing through the 2100J/kg K, specific latent heat of
liquid state is called sublimation. fusion of ice is 336x103J/kg, Latent
Eg: - dry ice (solid CO2), iodine, heat of vaporisation of steam is
Camphor, naphthalene tablets etc. 2250x103J/kg and specific heat
capacity of water is 4200J/kg K.

Soln:

Latent heat of fusion (Lf)


It is the amount of heat required
to convert one kilogram solid
substance completely into liquid at
its melting point, without any
change in temperature.
Q
Lf   Q = mLf.
m
Latent heat of Vaporisation (Lv)
It is the amount of heat required
to convert one kilogram liquid
substance completely into gas at its
boiling point, without any change
in the temperature.
Q
LV   Q = mL V .
m

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, Doctoral Research Fellow at NIT Calicut 6
cross section A and is inversely
proportional to the length L:

 T  TC 
H  KA  H 
 L 
K  Thermal conductivity of material.
SI unit of thermal conductivity is JS1M 1K 1
Modes of Heat transfer
Question3: Which is the best thermal
There are three distinct modes of heat conductor?
transfer. Ans: - Silver
i. Conduction
ii. Convection Question4: Why cooking pots have
iii. Radiation copper coating on the bottom?

Ans: - Copper is a good conductor of


heat. So heat is uniformly distributed
over the bottom of the pot.

Question5: Why people usually


prefer to give a layer of earth
insulation on the ceiling during hot
summer days?

Ans: - Concrete roofs get very hot


during summer days. Layer of earth
Conduction has very low thermal conductivity
than concrete. Therefore layer of earth
Conduction is the transfer of heat reduce heat transfer and keeps the
between two adjacent parts of a
room cooler.
body because of their temperature
difference.
Question6: A brass tumbler feels
much colder than a wooden tray on a
chilly day. Why?
Ans: Brass has greater conductivity
than wood. So when we touch a brass
tumbler, it absorbs more heat from our
body. So it feels much colder than
wood.
Questions7: All thermal conductors
T H  T e m p e ra tu re o f h o t re s e rv io r
T C  T e m p e ra tu re o f c o ld re s e rv io r are electrical conductors also.” Do
you agree with this statement? If your
The rate of flow of heat (H) is directly answer is No, clarify it.
proportional to the temperature Ans:
difference (TH-TC) and the area of

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, Doctoral Research Fellow at NIT Calicut 7
No. Mica is a good conductor of heat Heat radiation can propagate through
but it is a bad conductor of electricity. vacuum with a speed of 3×108m/s.

Convection Note: -

Convection is the mode of heat Black bodies absorb and emit


transfer by actual motion of matter. radiation better than bodies of lighter
Convection is possible only in fluids. colours.
Eg: - When water in a vessel is heated Applications: -
from the bottom, the hot water moves
up. 1. We wear white or light coloured
clothes in summer so that they
Wind is another example for absorb least heat from the sun.
convection. 2. During winter we use dark
coloured clothes which absorb
Convection takes place in stars.
more heat from the sun and keep
our body warm.
3. The bottoms of the utensils for
cooking food are blackened so that
they absorb maximum heat from
the fire and give it to the food
materials.

Newton’s Law of cooling

According to Newton’s law of


cooling, the rate of loss of heat,
dQ
of a body is directly
dt
proportional to the temperature
difference ΔT = T2 - T1 between the
body and the surroundings.

 dQ
 K(T2  T1 )
dt
K  is a positive cons tan t
depending on the area and
nature of the surface of the body.

Radiation

Radiation is the mode of heat


transfer without the need of any
material medium.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, Doctoral Research Fellow at NIT Calicut 8
From the graph we can see that
cooling is faster initially,
then the speed of heat loss decreases.

Question8: (a) You are in a


restaurant waiting for your friend and
ordered coffee. It has arrived. Do you
add sugar in your friend’s coffee and
then wait for him or do you add sugar
after he arrives? Explain with respect
to the concept of cooling.

Ans: For the coffee to be hotter when


the friend arrives, the better option is:
first mix sugar and then wait for the
friend. When we mix sugar with
coffee the temperature of the coffee
decreases. So according to Newton’s
law of cooling the rate of loss of heat
decreases.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, Doctoral Research Fellow at NIT Calicut 9