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JOSEPH W .

BASTIEN
University of Texas, Arlington

Qollahuaya-Andean Body Concepts: A


Topographical-Hydraulic Model of Physiology

Ritual, pathological, and ethnopharmacological data indicate that Qollahuaya Andeans have a
topographical-hydraulic modelfor understanding the physiology of their bodies. Qollakuayas look
to their ayllu, a mountain with three ecological levels, and its waterways for understanding their
physiology. Analogously, Qollahuayas understand the body as a vertically layered axis with a
system of ducts through which air, blood, fat, and water flow to and from the sonco (heart).
Blood andfat, principles of life and energy, come together at the heart and flow to the members
of the body in a hydraulic cycle of centripetal and centrijugal motion. The sonco is also a distil-
lation center that combines respiratory, digestive, and reproductive functions. Within this distil-
lation process, secondary fluids (bile, feces, gas, milk, phlegm, semen, sweat, and urine) are
produced that need to be eliminated.If these fluids accumulate, they become noxious and must be
purged from the body with carminatives, emetics, enemas, fastings, dietary restrictions, and baths.
Basically, the body is a hydraulic system with distillation, circulation, and elimination processes,
which operate by the centripetal and centrifugal forces of liquids.

A N UNDERSTANDING OF HOW QOLLAHUAYA ANDEANS THINK a b o u t their bodies is


a necessary precondition to the incorporation of m o d e r n medicine in the Andes: cul-
tural barriers between practitioners of m o d e r n a n d traditional medicine present obstacles
to improving health in the Andes. According to a recent study (Evaluation 1978:227), clin-
ics and health workers in rural Bolivia increased 8 0 % between 1974 a n d 1978, yet there
was a minimal increase in clients,-and health workers complained of their ineffectiveness
with A n d e a n peasants. I presented seminars to health workers d u r i n g the s u m m e r s of
1982, 1983, a n d 1984 to help t h e m u n d e r s t a n d how A n d e a n s perceive causes, s y m p t o m s ,
a n d treatments of sicknesses. M a n y Bolivian doctors a n d nurses were, a n d still are, un-
a w a r e of how A n d e a n s think a b o u t their bodies.
In response, I analyzed Q o l l a h u a y a ritualistic, pathological, a n d e t h n o p h a r m a c o l o g -
ical d a t a to posit a model of Q o l l a h u a y a ethnophysiology. I have done fieldwork a m o n g
the Q o l l a h u a y a since 1971 a n d collected d a t a on ritual, pathology, a n d e t h n o p h a r m a -
cology (Bastion 1973, 1978, 1982a, 1982b, 1983). Approximately 15,000 Q o l l a h u a y a s live
in the Province Bautista S a a v e d r a of midwestern Bolivia at altitudes of 2,500 to 5,000 m ,
where they farm a n d herd. Q o l l a h u a y a s cure with medicinal plants, perform rituals, and
are famous in A n d e a n countries, where they are called " L o r d s of the Medicine B a g "
("Qolla Kapachayuh") (see Girault 1966, 1969, 1984; O b l i t a s 1963, 1968, 1969; O t e r o
1951; Stark 1972). Historically, they practiced brain surgery, cured with plants, a n d em-
ployed a wide variety of medical p a r a p h e r n a l i a , such as e n e m a syringes a n d snufT trays,
as early as 700 A.D. (Wassen 1972). D u r i n g the I n c a empire, they carried the e m p e r o r ' s
chair (Poma de Ayala 1936:331) a n d healed m e m b e r s of his family (Oblitas 1968). Qol-

JoSEPH W. BAST/EN is Professor of Anthropology, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, University of
Texas, Box 19599, Arlington, TX 76019.

595
5% A MERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [87, t985

l a h u a y a h e r b a l i s t s traveled until 1950, w h e n they settled in u r b a n centers of A r g e n t i n a ,


Bolivia, a n d Peru, w h e r e they c o n t i n u e to c u r e in h e r b a l ' c l i n i c s (Bastien 1982a). C o n s e -
q u e n t l y , Q o l l a h u a y a s a r e t r a d i t i o n a l a n d w i d e s p r e a d curers, a n d their ethnophysiology
is useful in u n d e r s t a n d i n g A n d e a n b o d y c o n c e p t s in g e n e r a l . T h i s is not to imply that
Q o l l a h u a y a e t h n o p h y s i o l o g y is universal to the A n d e s b u t t h a t this model p r o b a b l y
s h a r e s s t r u c t u r a l similarities to m o d e l s of e t h n o p h y s i o l o g y in o t h e r regions of the A n d e s ,
a c o m p a r i s o n t h a t n e e d s to be s t u d i e d by e t h n o g r a p h e r s .
O n e a s s u m p t i o n a b o u t A n d e a n e t h n o p h y s i o l o g y is t h a t it derives f r o m G r e e k h u m o r a l
theory. T h i s is implicitly a s s u m e d in the w r i t i n g s of G e o r g e Foster (1978) a n d H o r a c i o
F a b r e g a (1973), w h o h a v e generalized f r o m the w i d e s p r e a d use of hot a n d cold categories
t h a t G r e e k h u m o r a l p a t h o l o g y is the basis of L a t i n A m e r i c a n folk medicine. A l t h o u g h
G r e e k h u m o r a l p a t h o l o g y a p p a r e n t l y i n f l u e n c e d A n d e a n e t h n o p h y s i o l o g y , it is mislead-
ing to a s s u m e t h a t they a r e the s a m e . I i n t e n d to explicate a m o d e l of Q o l l a h u a y a eth-
nophysiology f r o m fieldwork d a t a r a t h e r t h a n a s s u m e a p r o t o t y p e in G r e e k h u m o r a l
t h o u g h t . W h e t h e r Q o l l a h u a y a e t h n o p h y s i o l o g y is p r e - C o I u m b i a r f i n origin, derivative of
G r e e k h u m o r a l theory, o r a c o m b i n a t i o n of b o t h is a q u e s t i o n for f u t u r e e t h n o h i s t o r i c a l
research.

Topographical Metaphor: Ayllu and Body


T h e first p r e m i s e of this m o d e l is t h a t Q o l l a h u a y a s u n d e r s t a n d the b o d y as a vertical
axis with three levels t h r o u g h w h i c h blood a n d fat flow f r o m t h e c e n t e r to the p e r i p h e r a l
in c e n t r i p e t a l a n d c e n t r i f u g a l m o t i o n . T h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a s s u m p t i o n is t h a t Q o l l a -
h u a y a s look to their mountain-oy/Zu a n d h y d r a u l i c s y s t e m s for u n d e r s t a n d i n g their p h y s -
iology. T h e r e is a wholeness c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to their ayllu t h a t is p r o j e c t e d on their b o d y
c o n c e p t s . Q o l l a h u a y a s u n d e r s t a n d ayllu as a vertical t r i a n g u l a r l a n d m a s s divided into
high, c e n t e r , a n d low ecological zones, in w h i c h c o m m u n i t i e s live; its solidarity is f o r m e d
by k i n s h i p ties, c o m m o n e a r t h shrines, a n d e x c h a n g e of resources. 1 T h e r e a r e nine Q o l -
l a h u a y a ayllus; m y e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a is selected f r o m Ayllu K a a t a {see Bastien 1978), a
m o u n t a i n with the t h r e e m a j o r c o m m u n i t i e s N i n o k o r i n , K a a t a , a n d A p a c h e t a . T h e peo-
ple of N i n o k o r i n a r e Q u e c h u a s p e a k e r s w h o f a r m c o r n , w h e a t , b a r l e y , p e a s , a n d b e a n s
on the lower slopes ( 3 , 2 0 0 - 3 , 5 0 0 m ) . T h e p e o p l e of K a a t a also c u l t i v a t e oca (Oxalis cras-
sicaulis Z u c c . ) a n d p o t a t o e s o n r o t a t e d fields of t h e c e n t r a l slopes ( 3 , 5 0 0 - 4 , 2 5 0 m ) . T h e
people of A p a c h e t a s p e a k A y m a r a a n d h e r d a l p a c a s , l l a m a s , a n d s h e e p o n the h i g h l a n d s
( 4 , 3 0 0 - 5 , 0 0 0 m ) of the ayllu. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the p e o p l e f r o m t h e t h r e e levels e x c h a n g e pro-
d u c e a n d p r o v i d e e a c h o t h e r w i t h the n e c e s s a r y c a r b o h y d r a t e s , m i n e r a l s , a n d p r o t e i n s
for their b a l a n c e d subsistence. T h e m e m b e r s of these c o m m u n i t i e s m a i n t a i n social ties
with e a c h o t h e r by m a r r i a g e e x c h a n g e a n d ritual k i n s h i p . T h e s e social ties reinforce, as
well as o r i g i n a t e f r o m , e c o n o m i c ties b e t w e e n t h e p e o p l e of t h e specialized c o m m u n i t i e s .
T h e p e o p l e of N i n o k o r i n , K a a t a , a n d A p a c h e t a historically referred to the integrity of
Ayllu K a a t a as similar to t h a t of a h u m a n b o d y . T h i s e v i d e n c e is c o n t a i n e d in legal doc-
u m e n t s f r o m 1592 to 1928 held in K a a t a . W h e n the g o v e r n o r of C h a r a z a n i u s u r p e d Ni-
nokorin for his h a c i e n d a , K a a t a n s resisted a n d b e g a n a t w o - h u n d r e d - y e a r battle to re-
store N i n o k o r i n to Ayllu K a a t a . T h e K a a t a n m a n u s c r i p t s also i n c l u d e s w o r n t e s t a m e n t s
by aged I n d i a n s , w h o a t t e s t e d to the solidarity of N i n o k o r i n w i t h c o m m u n i t i e s K a a t a a n d
A p a c h e t a . N e a r t h e e n d of t h e 18th c e n t u r y , P o c o m a l l c u , 80 y e a r s old, testified before a
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the C r o w n . " N i n o k o r i n b e l o n g s to K a a t a , " h e swore, " b e c a u s e it is the
leg of its b o d y " ( K a a t a n m a n u s c r i p t s 1797:109).
W i t n e s s e s f r o m o t h e r ayllus said t h a t t h e I n d i a n s of Ayllu K a a t a were a u t h o r i z e d to
cultivate all of the body, w h i c h they h a d c u l t i v a t e d f r o m t i m e i m m e m o r i a l ( K a a t a n m a n -
u s c r i p t s 1796:66). In 1799, t h c G r o w n d e c r e e d t h a t N i n o k o r i n b e l o n g e d to Ayllu K a a t a :
since the m o u n t a i n c o n s t i t u t e d o n e g e o g r a p h i c a l a n d a n a t o m i c a l u n i t , its l a n d a n d c o m -
m u n i t i e s belonged t o g e t h e r (see Bastien 1979).
Presently, the p e o p l e of the t h r e e c o m m u n i t i e s use t o p o g r a p h i c a l p l a c e n a m e s t h a t cor-
^jsticn] QOLLAHVA RA-ANDEAN BODY CONCEITS
597

respond to different levels and parts of the mountain/body metaphor. T h e upper level
(4,300-5,000 m) has an uma (head), riawi (eyes), and wayra (mouth); the central level
(3,500-4,300 m) has a sixa (stomach) and sonco (heart); and the lower level (3,200-3,500)
has chaqis (legs) and sillus (toenails), which are indentations on the river. A principal
informant, Marcelino Y a n a h u a y a , explained the mountain/body metaphor this way, " I
am the same as the m o u n t a i n , Pachamama. Pachamama has fluids which flow through her,
and I have fluids which flow through me. Pachamama takes care of my body, and I must
give food and drink to Pachamama."
T h e following is a s u m m a r y of how the people of the three communities use the met-
a p h o r of the h u m a n body to understand their ayllu: Apacheta corresponds to the head,
K a a t a to the trunk, and Ninokorin to the legs (see Figure 1). J u s t as the parts of the
h u m a n body are organically united, so are the three levels of Ayllu K a a t a . Rivers, un-
derground streams, and tunnels link the three levels together; K a a t a n s perceive this sys-
tem as being similar to the h u m a n body with its conduits linking the head, trunk, and
appendages. K a a t a n s understand their mountain as a cyclical system in which the ele-
ments of disintegration (water, plants, and land) are in continual processes of transfor-
mation from d e a t h to life and from life to death. At death, D a m a s o Y a n a h u a y a explained,
the dead person is^ buried a n d his or her ajayu (fluid) flows inside the mountain to the
highland lakes where it enters into the highland lakes and flows down the mountain. T h e
body also processes food and water into vital properties, and at the same time emits toxic
substances. T h e top of the mountain is symbolized in ritual as the uma pacha (head place),
which Andeans u n d e r s t a n d as the point of origin and return for animals and h u m a n s .
Analogously, the h u m a n head is where air, food, water, and images enter the body: the
eyes are like the highland lakes where the reflected images of creation emerge. Images
reflected in m e t a p h o r and ritual are important creative principles.

Figure 1
Ayllu shrines and anatomy of the mountain's body.
598 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [87,1985'

T h e m e t a p h o r is essentially a c o m p a r i s o n of a n a l o g o u s qualities b e t w e e n A n d e a n s a n d
their e n v i r o n m e n t . 2 T h e y u n d e r s t a n d their o w n bodies in t e r m s of the m o u n t a i n , a n d they"
c o n s i d e r the m o u n t a i n in t e r m s of their a n a t o m y . Sickness, for e x a m p l e , is a d i s i n t e g r a -
tion of the h u m a n b o d y s i m i l a r to the l a n d s l i d e on the m o u n t a i n , a n d h e a l t h is restored
by f e e d i n g the c o m p l e t e m o u n t a i n . D u r i n g healing rituals, diviners c r e a t e a m e t a p h o r i c a l -
i m a g e of the b o d y w h e n they feed the e a r t h s h r i n e s of the m o u n t a i n (see Bastien 1978:64—
77, 1 2 9 - 1 3 9 ) . D i v i n e r s serve coca, blood, a n d fat in 13 scallop shells to different e a r t h
shrines, w h i c h a r e a s s o c i a t e d with t o p o g r a p h i c a l features of the three ecological levels
a n d w i t h a n a t o m i c a l p a r t s of t h e h u m a n b o d y . T h e s h r i n e s of Q o w i l a a n d K a l l a K a l l a
c o r r e s p o n d to t h e a r m s a n d legs of the b o d y ; P a c h a q o t a a n d Z a q t a l a y a , to the eyes; K a l a ,
to a teat; W a y r a W i s q h a n i , to the m o u t h ; a n d M o j a t a , Y a n a c h ' o j , a n d P h e s q a P a t a , to
c i r c u l a t o r y a n d distillation processes associated with the sonco ( h e a r t ) . T h e chief ritualist
of Ayllu K a a t a , S a r i t o Q u i s p e , said t h a t the e a r t h s h r i n e s of K a a t a refer to the i n n e r
o r g a n s of the b o d y w h e r e blood a n d fat a r e processed: " T h e blood a n d fat m u s t be cir-_
c u l a t e d to the o t h e r p a r t s of t h e m o u n t a i n . T h i s gives life to P a c h a m a m a . " T h e u n d e r -
lying a s s u m p t i o n is t h a t if h e s y m b o l i c a l l y feeds the e a r t h s h r i n e s of t h e t h r e e levels of the
m o u n t a i n , t h e n the ayllu will be c o m p l e t e , a n d this will b r i n g a b o u t the c o m p l e t e n e s s of
the b o d y .
T h e o r g a n i c w h o l e n e s s p r o j e c t e d o n M o u n t K a a t a originates f r o m K a a t a n ' s u n d e r - .
s t a n d i n g of their p h y s i c a l bodies. T h e b o d y (uqhuntin) consists of all the p a r t s a n d only
.those p a r t s t h a t f o r m o n e i n n e r self. K a a t a n s d o not c o n c e p t u a l i z e interior Taculties f o r
e m o t i o n s a n d t h o u g h t s as b e i n g d i s t i n c t f r o m c o r p o r a l o r g a n s . R a t h e r , they refer to their
bodies as w i t h i n o r inside (uqhu). T h e b o d y includes the i n n e r self, a n d experiences a r e
not d u a l i s t i c a l l y p e r c e i v e d as those of the p s y c h e a n d those of the b o d y . A basic a s s u m p -
tion of Q o l l a h u a y a b o d y c o n c e p t s is t h a t t h e b o d y is holistic a n d not dualistic; the suffix,
nti, of uqhuntin e x p r e s s e s t h a t t h e w h o l e is g r e a t e r t h a n the s u m of the p a r t s , o r a g e s t a l t .
W h o l e n e s s ( h e a l t h ) of t h e b o d y is a process in w h i c h c e n t r i p e t a l a n d c e n t r i f u g a l forces
pull t o g e t h e r a n d d i s p e r s e fluids t h a t p r o v i d e e m o t i o n s , t h o u g h t , n u t r i e n t s , a n d l u b r i -
c a n t s for the m e m b e r s of t h e b o d y . M o r e o v e r , this process e x t e n d s b e y o n d d u a l i s t i c c o n -
fines of i n n e r a n d o u t e r , in t h a t fluids of t h e b o d y a r e g o v e r n e d by similar d y n a m i c s w i t h i n
the e n v i r o n m e n t . F l u i d s flow b a c k a n d f o r t h b e t w e e n the b o d y a n d the m o u n t a i n , , w h i c h
h a s a c e n t r a l axis a n d levels t h r o u g h w h i c h air a n d w a t e r flow i n w a r d a n d o u t w a r d .

Centripetal and Centrifugal Fluids


T h e d y n a m i c s of c e n t r i p e t a l a n d c e n t r i f u g a l m o t i o n s a r e symbolically e x p r e s s e d in rit-
ual by the g a t h e r i n g a n d d i s p o s a l of r i t u a l items, the m o v e m e n t o f t h e flute players, a n d
the d i f f e r e n t uses of blood a n d fat. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c to Q o l l a h u a y a rituals is the b r i n g i n g
t o g e t h e r of r i t u a l i t e m s f r o m t h e t h r e e levels a n d p e r i p h e r i e s to the center, the m i x i n g of
these p r o d u c t s , a n d t h e d i s p e r s a l to t h e e a r t h s h r i n e s of the m o u n t a i n . T h e c o m i n g to-
g e t h e r s y m b o l i c a l l y of r i t u a l foods a n d d i s t a n t e a r t h s h r i n e s to the c e n t e r in a ritual m e a l
is a m e t a p h o r for t h e p a r t s o f t h e b o d y , s e p a r a t e , yet u n i t e d by the flow of n u t r i e n t s a n d
fluids to a n d f r o m t h e sonco. T h e sonco is w h e r e air, blood, food, a n d w a t e r c o m e t o g e t h e r
in r a p i d m o v e m e n t a n d s e p a r a t e i n t o o t h e r fluids ( p r i m a r i l y fat, bile, milk, a n d s e m e n )
a n d b y - p r o d u c t s (feces, u r i n e , a n d s w e a t ) . A l t h o u g h the sonco is t r a n s l a t e d as " h e a r t , "
Q o l l a h u a y a s refer to it as a c o m p r e s s i o n - d i s t i l l a t i o n center, w h i c h p e r f o r m s c i r c u l a t o r y ,
r e s p i r a t o r y , a n d digestive processes. ( T h e sonco is also associated w i t h t h o u g h t a n d e m o -
tions, w h i c h a r e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e fluids.) C e r t a i n Q o l l a h u a y a s , such as J u a n W i l k a a n d
D a m a s o Y a n a h u a y a , u n d e r s t a n d t h e process of sonco in t e r m s of tinku, which refers to the
c o m i n g t o g e t h e r of t w o s t r e a m s , c r e a t i n g a t u r b u l e n c e t h a t s e p a r a t e s n u t r i e n t s in the
w a t e r a n d fills it w i t h a i r a n d f o a m . F r o m this a n a l o g y , it is u n d e r s t o o d t h a t the c o m i n g
t o g e t h e r of l i q u i d s p r o d u c e s - c e n t r i p e t a l forces t h a t not only s e p a r a t e c o m p o n e n t s of fluids
b u t also d i s p e r s e t h e m t h r o u g h the s y s t e m .
A n a l o g o u s l y , c e n t r i p e t a l a n d c e n t r i f u g a l forces of circulation are expressed by the
/jstien] QOLLAHUAYA-ANDEAN BODY CONCEPTS 599

d a n c c of the flute p l a y e r s at the m a j o r a g r i c u l t u r a l ritual, Khallay Chajmay (sec Bastien


1978:75-77). T h e flute p l a y e r s begin with a spiral, i n w a r d - d i r e c t e d counterclockwise
m o v e m e n t f r o m east to west a n d e n d in a n o u t w a r d - d i r e c t e d clockwise m o v e m e n t f r o m
west to east. S a r i t o Q u i s p e says t h a t the d a n c e r s a r c like a s p r i n g t h a t winds tightly in-
w a r d a n d then releases itself o u t w a r d . S y m b o l i c a l l y , this is a m e t a p h o r of c e n t r i p e t a l
m o v e m e n t with a c e n t r a l i z e d focus in o n e d i r e c t i o n , a n d o f c e n t r i f u g a l m o v e m e n t with
d i s p e r s a l to the p e r i p h e r i e s in the o t h e r d i r e c t i o n . It is r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of body fluids t h a t
distill in the c e n t e r a n d d i s p e r s e to the p a r t s .
Air, blood, a n d fat a r e p r i m a r y b o d y fluids for Q o l l a h u a y a s . Air is a n invisible fluid
s u b s t a n c e t h a t provides b r e a t h to living things. People, p l a n t s , a n d a n i m a l s s h a r e in this
fluid, w h i c h is u n d e r s t o o d as a unitive p r i n c i p l e b e t w e e n t h e m . Ritualists b r e a t h e o n a
ritual offering to b o n d t h e m s e l v e s with the recipient. B r e a t h is associated with w i n d
(wayra), the c a u s e of ma/ de aire, w h i c h i n c l u d e s m u s c l e a n d nerve d i s o r d e r s f r o m paralysis,
s u c h as Bell's palsy, to m u s c l e c r a m p s . T h i s is t r e a t e d ritually by blowing s m o k e on the
p a r a l y z e d muscle. Air c o n c e n t r a t e s in the sonco, disperses to the muscles, a n d provides
m o v e m e n t . C o n v e r s e l y , w i n d b l o w i n g on the muscles c a u s e s c o n t r a c t i o n s a n d b r i n g s p a -
ralysis.
Blood a n d fat e m p o w e r t h e body: blood (yawar) is the life p r i n c i p l e a n d fat (wira) is the
energy principle. R i t u a l i s t s use blood a n d fat differently, reflecting their c o n c e p t i o n s of
these fluids. D u r i n g Khallay Chajmay, they c u t o p e n a l l a m a , r e m o v e its p u l s a t i n g h e a r t ,
a n d s p r i n k l e blood in a r o t a t i n g m o v e m e n t t o w a r d the p e r i p h e r i e s of the ayllu. T h i s s y m -
bolizes t h e blood flowing f r o m the sonco in a s p i r a l i n g o u t w a r d m o v e m e n t of c e n t r i f u g a l
force. I n c o n t r a s t , ritualists b r e a k l l a m a fat i n t o pieces a n d d i s t r i b u t e t h e m to the e a r t h
s h r i n e s . T h e y believe t h a t fat is a semifluid, b r o k e n d o w n a n d d i s t r i b u t e d to the p e r i p h -
erals of the b o d y , w h e r e it is e i t h e r stored o r b r o k e n d o w n for energy. F a t is c a r r i e d by
the blood to the p a r t s of the b o d y ; for e x a m p l e , they d i a g n o s e a p e r s o n with d a r k - c o l o r e d
blood as h a v i n g fatty blood. W i t h i n the sonco, fat is s e p a r a t e d f r o m food by the force of
the blood c o m i n g t o g e t h e r in a n i n w a r d spiral of c e n t r i p e t a l m o v e m e n t . T h i s force, t h e n ,
reverses itself in o u t w a r d m o v e m e n t a n d d i s p e r s e s t h e fat a n d blood to the p a r t s of the
b o d y . A l t h o u g h blood circulates f r o m the sonco to the p e r i p h e r i e s by h y d r a u l i c d y n a m i c s ,
it is limited in s u p p l y a n d is not r e g e n e r a t i v e . 3 Q o l l a h u a y a s believe t h a t by the a g e of
seven a p e r s o n h a s a c q u i r e d his or h e r a m o u n t of blood for life: if d u r i n g his lifetime he
loses s o m e blood, t h e r e is n o w a y of r e c o v e r i n g it, except by a t r a n s f u s i o n , w h i c h is c o m -
p a r a b l e to receiving gold ( p e r s o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n with D r . A b r a h a m M a r i a c a ) . 4 A n d e a n s
also a t t r i b u t e illnesses, s u c h as debility a n d d e p r e s s i o n , to t h e loss of blood in the p a s t .
T h i s is o n e r e a s o n w h y it is difficult to t a k e blood s a m p l e s f r o m Q o l l a h u a y a s , as well as
from other Andeans.
Q o l l a h u a y a h e r b a l i s t s v a r y in the w a y they classify blood. O n e elderly h e r b a l i s t , J u a n
W i l k a , classifies b l o o d s as s t r o n g , w e a k , f r i g h t e n e d , a n d e x h a u s t e d . For e x a m p l e , he di-
a g n o s e d the pulse of o n e p a t i e n t , Elsa Y a n a h u a y a , as weak b e c a u s e a l a n d s l i d e h a d
t h i n n e d h e r blood with w a t e r . H e s u g g e s t e d t h a t s h e receive new blood by t r a n s f u s i o n .
M a n y h e r b a l i s t s refer to the q u a l i t i e s of blood a c c o r d i n g to f o u r symbols: hot a n d cold,
wet a n d d r y . T h e s e q u a l i t i e s refer to w h e n the blood is too fast ( h o t ) , too slow (cold), too
thick (wet), a n d too thin ( d r y ) . H e r b a l i s t s d i a g n o s e these q u a l i t i e s by a s o p h i s t i c a t e d
system of r e a d i n g the pulse. S o m e t i m e s they c o m b i n e qualities: hot a n d wet blood is as-
sociated with energetic p e o p l e a n d refers to f a s t - m o v i n g blood with m u c h fat. B e c a u s e
the rates of c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d d i s p e r s a l a r e h i g h , the c e n t r a l o r g a n s a n d the m e m b e r s a r e
e x c h a n g i n g fluids a t a r a t e t h a t is not c a l i b r a t e d to s i m i l a r d y n a m i c s in the s u r r o u n d i n g
e n v i r o n m e n t . S o m e t i m e s these p e o p l e u p s e t those a r o u n d t h e m with expressions of a n g e r
a n d p o w e r . H o t a n d d r y blood is s y m p t o m a t i c of t a c h y c a r d i a or thinly o x y g e n a t e d blood
a n d refers to r a p i d l y d i s p e r s i n g blood with little air a n d fat. Cold a n d wet blood is s y m p -
t o m a t i c of a r t h r i t i s a n d refers to sluggish blood t h a t does not disperse to t h e muscles. C o l d
a n d d r y blood is s y m p t o m a t i c of r e s p i r a t o r y a i l m e n t s a n d refers to blood with a low con-
600 A MERICAS ANTHROPOLOGIST
|87, 1985

ccntration of air a n d a slow rate of dispersal to the parts o f t h e body. Corresponding to


the diagnosis, herbalists prescribe an h e r b to regulate hydraulic forces o f t h e blood.
Q o l l a h u a y a s also a t t r i b u t e sickness to loss of fat. Physiologically, fat is esteemed in the
Andes, where it is cold at night with few sources of heat besides the h u m a n body. T h e
i m p o r t a n c e of fat is symbolically expressed in language a n d ritual. Viraqocha m e a n s " L a k e
of F a t " a n d is the term for gentleman. It also refers to a creator/deity who-arose from
Lake Titicaca a n d created earth, sun, a n d people (Paredes 1963:37-38). M o d e r n Qolla-
h u a y a s spread llama fat over a person to annoint him or her with political a n d ritual
authority. A healthy Q o l l a h u a y a has fat; someone sick lacks fat. A common ailment is
mal de higado (liver ailment), which A n d e a n s recognize as a problem of fat metabolism.
As they see it, fat r e m a i n s in the sonco because there is insufficient bile to b r e a k it d a w n
so t h a t undistilled fat clogs the ducts a n d c a n n o t be dispersed to the muscles. Qolla-
huayas, as well as o t h e r A n d e a n s , a t t r i b u t e a serious sickness, liquichado, to the sudden
a n d mysterious removal of fat by a kharisiri. A kharisiri (cutter) is usually a doctor, lawyer,
or priest w h o travels at night to remove fat from peasants (see O b l i t a s 1963:30).
I observed one instance of liquichado in C a c a c h a q a , an A y m a r a c o m m u n i t y between-
O r u r o a n d Potosi, on J u l y 17, 1982. Although this clinical case was outside Q o l l a h u a y a
territory, Q o l l a h u a y a herbalists reported similar treatments. Marcelino, 25 years o l d ,
h a d been sick for a year. H e h a d a high fever, was weak, a n d walked with crutches. T h e
nurse's assistant h a d diagnosed the disease as tuberculosis of the kidneys, a n d he had
treated M a r c e l i n o with antibiotics. O n the other h a n d , the village diviner claimed that
M a r c e l i n o was a victim o f t h e kharisiri. M a r c e l i n o agreed a n d said that someone removed
his fat with a n aparato ( a p p a r a t u s ) while he was traveling, partially intoxicated from chicha
{corn beer), in the bed of a truck through a mestizo c o m m u n i t y . Because he was in a n
intoxicated slumber, he could not recall how this was done. T h e diviner treated Marce-
lino with foods high in fat: s o u p from the m a r r o w of burro bones a n d fat from the pancreas
of sheep. At first, M a r c e l i n o recovered but suffered a relapse several m o n t h s later when
he b e c a m e intoxicated with chicha. T h e diviner prescribed more fat for his diet a n d per-
formed a turqa ritual, in which he went into a trance to talk with M o t h e r E a r t h , the Dead
(Supaya), a n d C o n d o r . T h e diviner scolded a n d punished these deities for taking Marce-
lino's fat, a n d for trying to take his life. In exchange, the diviner agreed to send them
llama fat (llampu) a n d other ritual items. At d a w n , the diviner distributed the llama fat
to the principal earth shrines a r o u n d the c o m m u n i t y .
In analysis, the etiology a n d t r e a t m e n t of liquichado is homologous to the hydraulic
cycle. A kharisiri enters the back of the body (opposite to the navel), where it extracts fat
in a noncyclical or exploitive m a n n e r . T h e afflicted person continually loses fluids, es-
pecially fat, unless diviners (1) restore the person's fat a n d (2) stop the noncyclical dis-
persal of fat. Diviners d o this by feeding the person fatty foods a n d by correcting the cycle
with below-earth (Supaya), earth (Pachamama), a n d sky (Condor). Diviners treat the phys-
iological system with concentrates of fat, thereby utilizing centripetal motion, but they
also restore the person's position with regard to the cosmological system, by c o m m u n i -
cating with the three levels o f t h e universe (utilizing centripetal motion), a n d the envi-
r o n m e n t a l system, by distributing llama fat to the peripheral earth shrines (utilizing cen-
trifugal motion).
I n h e r e n t in Q o l l a h u a y a pathology is the belief that vital fluids can be dispersed from
the body to the e n v i r o n m e n t . Liquichado is loss of fat. Chullpa (osteomyelitis) is caused by
digging near the site of an ancestor grave. In certain instances, d i a r r h e a in children is
often believed to be caused by the m o t h e r urinating in a cave at night. Venereal disease
is a t t r i b u t e d either to u r i n a t i n g in the wind or in a fire. T a p e w o r m s , hookworms, a n d
r o u n d w o r m s are a t t r i b u t e d to eating e a r t h a n d walking barefoot. Susto (fright) is the dis-
persal of ajayu (fluid-emotions) from the body to the land or water: its s y m p t o m s are diar-
rhea, low fever, depression, melancholy, lack of appetite, a n d nervous ticks. Rubel (1964)
explains it as loss of soul or spirit, either alma or animo, but for A n d e a n s these terms sug-
gest W e s t e r n ideas of immortality. Q o l l a h u a y a s believe that fright causes fluids, associ-
/.siien) QOUAHUAYA-ANDEAN BODY CONCEPTS 601

atcd w i t h e m o t i o n s , to s u r g e f r o m the b o d y a n d to e n t e r cither a s t r e a m o r the e a r t h . Animo


is a fluid t h a t gives consistency to the body ( O b l i t a s 1963:32) a n d psychologically links
it t o g e t h e r . In Q u e c h u a , animo is called juch'uy ajayu, (small ajayu), a n d alma,jatun ajayu
(large ajayu). W h e n p e o p l e lose their juch'uy ajayu, they begin to d r y u p (blood gets thin,
skin b e c o m e s pale, a n d the b o d y b e c o m e s e m a c i a t e d ) . W h e n people lose their jatun ajayu,
they d i e b e c a u s e their bodies h a v e dried u p ( O b l i t a s 1963:32—33). In o t h e r w o r d s , Q o l -
l a h u a y a s c o n s i d e r animo a n d alma- fluids that flow t h r o u g h the body, similar to electrical
e n e r g y ; they a r e invisible but c o n n e c t all p a r t s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y with a c h a r g e d s u b s t a n c e .
Q o i l a h u a y a s d i s t i n g u i s h animo f r o m alma, in that animo is used to d e s c r i b e t h e b e g i n n i n g
or t e m p o r a r y d e p a r t u r e of this fluid, a n d alma, the p e r m a n e n t d i s p e r s a l of the fluid. Animo
a n d alma a r e not conceived as entities but as fluids circulating by c e n t r i p e t a l a n d centrif-
ugal m o t i o n s w i t h i n the b o d y ; susto is the t e m p o r a r y dispersal of these fluids, w h i c h m a y
result in d e a t h unless a d i v i n e r recovers the animo in a s t r e a m a n d r e t u r n s it to the sick
p e r s o n (see B a s t i e n 1978:152-154). H e a l t h is restored by the infusion of fluids w i t h i n the
d r y body." L i v i n g bodies a r e c e n t e r s w h e r e fluids c i r c u l a t e by d y n a m i c s of c o n c e n t r a t i o n
a n d d i s p e r s a l . T h e y a r e in cyclical e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n the wet a n d d r y . D e a d bodies h a v e
h a d all their fluids d i s p e r s e d f r o m t h e m . T h i s partially e x p l a i n s A n d e a n s ' fixation with
m u m m i f i c a t i o n of their d e a d (see Allen 1982 for the r e l a t i o n s h i p of w e t a n d d r y cycles to
the living a n d d e a d ) .

Medicinal Plants and Ethnophysiology


Qollahuaya ethnopharmacology further substantiates a topographical-hydraulic
m o d e l of p h y s i o l o g y . O n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of this m o d e l is a n e x c h a n g e of i n g r e d i e n t s be-
t w e e n t h e e a r t h a n d b o d y . A l t h o u g h Q o l l a h u a y a h e r b a l i s t s e m p l o y p l a n t s , m a n y of w h i c h
h a v e active i n g r e d i e n t s with t h e r a p e u t i c effects, they believe t h a t the e a r t h p r o v i d e s the
c u r e in c e r t a i n p l a n t s t h a t a r e the gifts of Pachamama ( M o t h e r E a r t h ) to h u m a n s . I n g r e -
d i e n t s a r e t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m the e a r t h t h r o u g h the p l a n t s to themselves. T h e m o s t c o m m o n
m e t h o d of a d m i n i s t e r i n g h e r b s is by s t e e p i n g p a r t s of the p l a n t in a c u p of boiled w a t e r ,
called mate. T h e a s s u m p t i o n is t h a t the p l a n t c o n c e n t r a t e s a n d distills s u b s t a n c e s f r o m
the e a r t h a n d t h e n d i s t r i b u t e s these energies t h r o u g h the leaves ( a n o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n of
the c e n t r i p e t a l a n d c e n t r i f u g a l forces c o n c e n t r a t i n g a n d c i r c u l a t i n g fluids f r o m t h e c e n t e r
to the p e r i p h e r a l ) . T h e s e s u b s t a n c e s a r e released f r o m the leaves by s t e e p i n g in a mate,
w h i c h is d r u n k , distilled, a n d d i s p e r s e d in the sick p e r s o n ' s b o d y . Q o i l a h u a y a s also be-
lieve t h a t the Q o l l a h u a y a region (Qolla m e a n s h e r b s , a n d huaya m e a n s place) h a s the m o s t
efficacious p l a n t s n o t only b e c a u s e of its rich m i n e r a l s , climate, a n d t o p o g r a p h y b u t also
b e c a u s e their ayllus a n d m o u n t a i n s a r e a t the c e n t e r .
Clinically, h e r b a l i s t s a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d with the circulation, distillation, a n d
e l i m i n a t i o n of fluids. I s t u d i e d the use of m e d i c i n a l p l a n t s by t h r e e n o t e d Q o l l a h u a y a
h e r b a l i s t s , F l o r e n t i n o A l v a r e z , N e s t o r Llaves, a n d M a r i o Salcedo, f r o m 1979 until 1984
(see B a s t i e n 1982a, 1982b, 1983a, 1983b). First, h e r b a l i s t s d i a g n o s e the p e r s o n ' s sickness
by feeling t h e p u l s e a n d a n a l y z i n g the urine. T h e y take the u r i n e s a m p l e early in the
m o r n i n g , o b s e r v e it in the s u n l i g h t , a n d identify c e r t a i n diseases by its clarity, color, a n d
d e n s i t y . Q u a l i t i e s w i t h i n blood a n d u r i n e a r e i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r s of c i r c u l a t i o n a n d
e l i m i n a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . F r o m t h e p u l s e a n d t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e b o d y t h e y d i a g n o s e
w h e t h e r the blood is hot, cold, wet, o r d r y . C o r r e s p o n d i n g to the diagnosis, they p r e s c r i b e
a n h e r b to r e g u l a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n , d i s p e r s a l , a n d e l i m i n a t i o n processes. H e r b a l i s t s cate-
gorize h e r b s as hot, w a r m , cordial, a n d fresh. H o t a n d w a r m refer to the d e g r e e to w h i c h
a p l a n t c a u s e s fluids to c o m e t o g e t h e r a n d to flow faster to the p e r i p h e r i e s , d e s c r i b e d
t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y as e m m e n a g o g u e s , emetics, cardiotonics, c a r d i o p u l m o n a r i e s , e x p e c t o -
r a n t s , g a l a c t o p o i e s i s , l i n a m e n t s , p u r g a t i v e s , a n d sudorifics. C o r d i a l a n d fresh h e r b s slow
d o w n distillation a n d d i s p e r s a l processes of fluids, p r i m a r i l y biliary r e g u l a n t s or refriger-
a n t s , c a r m i n a t i v e s , d i s i n f l a m a n t s , h e m o s t a t i c s , s t o m a c h i c s , a n d t r a n q u i l i z e r s . Classifi-
cation of p l a n t s i n t o hot a n d cold, t h e n , follows a h y d r a u l i c e t h n o p h y s i o l o g y . T a b l e 1
c o n t a i n s a n a n a l y s i s of t h e r a p e u t i c uses of-89 p l a n t s (see Bastien 1983 for the n a m e s ,
t a x o n o m i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , classification, a n d t h e r a p e u t i c uses of each p l a n t ) . M a n y thcr*
a p e u t i c uses p r o v i d e d in T a b l e 1 fit i n t o h y d r a u l i c categories.
H e r b a l i s t s ' t h e r a p e u t i c a p p l i c a t i o n s of v e g e t a b l e d r u g s follow e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n
a n d t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s based on h y d r a u l i c c o n c e p t i o n s of the b o d y . By o b s e r v a t i o n ,
p r a c t i c e , a n d l e a r n i n g , Q o l l a h u a y a s a t t r i b u t e t h e r a p e u t i c uses to h e r b s a c c o r d i n g to the

Table 1
Therapeutic properties and physiology.

No. of No. of
herbs % herbs %
HUMORS
Blood Digestive
1. emmenagogue 6 3.8 1. stomachic 5 3.2
2. hemostatic 4 2.5 2. vermifuge 4 2.5
3. purify 3 1.9 3. carminative 2 1.3
4. coagulant 2 1.3 4. emetic 2 1.3
5. control sugar 1 .6 5. purgative 2 1.3
6. draw blood 1 .6
7. strengthen 1 .6 Total 15 9.6
8. cardiotonic 1 .6 Reproductive
9. cardiopulmonary 2 1.3 1. emmenagogue fr 3!8
2. hemostatic 2 1.3
. Total 21 13.4 3. stimulant 2 1.3
Biliary 4. tranquilizer 1 .6
1. emetic 5 3.2 5. contraceptive 1 .6
2. regulant 4 2.5 6. abortifacient 1 .6
3. refrigerant 2 1.3 7. aphrodisiac 1 .6
4. febrifuge 1 .6
5. purgative 1 .6 Total 14 -8,9
6. antiseptic 1 .6
FRAME
Total 14 8.9 Muscles & Bones
Urinary 1. liniment 12 7.6
1. antiseptic 5 3.2 2. glutinous 6 3.8
2. diuretic 5 3.2 3. thermic 1 .6
3. disinflammatory 2 1.3 4. vermifuge 1 .6
5. stimulant 2 1.3
Total 12 7.6
Milk Total 22 14.0
1. galactopoiesis 3 1.9 Senses & Neural
Phlegm 1. analgesic 9 5.7
1. expectorant 10 6.4 2. tranquilizer 5 3.2
Sweat 3. antiseptic 5 3.2
1. sudorific 6 3.8 4. disinflammatory 3 1.9
5. stimulant 3 1.9
P R O C E S S I N G ORGANS 6. antidote 1 .6
Respiratory
1. expectorant 10 6.4 Total 26 16.6
2. sudorific 2 1.3
3. pectoral 1 .6 Grand Total' 156 100%

Total 13 8.3

'Total (156) is greater than number of plants (89) because some plants have more than one ther-
apeutic use.
QOLLAHUA YA-ANDEAN BODY CONCEPTS 603

effects that the herbs have on the body, d e p e n d i n g on whether they make a person sweat
(sudorific), reduce fever (febrifuge), remove mucous (expectorant), calm pain (analge-
sic), regulate bile (biliary regulant), cause m e n s t r u a t i o n (emmenagogue), increase lac-
tation (galactopoiesis), repel worms (vermifuge), relax muscles (liniment, tranquilizer),
dispel poisons (emetics a n d purgatives), a n d more. T h i s is an empirical knowledge based
on active ingredients in certain p l a n t s having therapeutic effects: for example, quinine
(Cinchona calisaya W e d d . ) is an effective febrifuge for malaria, cocaine (Erylhroxylum coca
Lam) a n d bocanine (Bocconia integrifolia H. & B.) are analgesics, and digitalis (Digitalis
purpurea L.) is an i m p o r t a n t medicine for treating congestive heart failure ( e d e m a ) . Qol-
lahuaya herbalists claim that p h a r m a c e u t i c a l companies, such as Inti a n d Vita in La Paz,
have taken more t h a n 50 vegetable d r u g s d i s c o v e r e d b y the Q o l l a h u a y a s for use in p h a r -
maceutical products.
T h i s empirical science corresponds to their conceptions of the body. Q o l l a h u a y a s em-
ploy plants for certain t h e r a p e u t i c effects according to how they u n d e r s t a n d h u m a n phys-
iology. Figure 1 indicates the following: (1) 4 2 % of the therapeutic uses are concerned
with liquids (blood, bile, milk, p h l e g m , urine, a n d water) or fluids (air, food, a n d fecal
m a t t e r ) ; (2) 2 8 % are concerned with regulating a n d purifying the conduits a n d process-
ing organs; a n d (3) 3 0 % deal with pain a n d injuries of the skin, muscles, a n d bones. T h i s
explains the herbalists' style of a d m i n i s t e r i n g medicinal plants in mate, compresses, cook-
ing, plasters, enemas, suppositories, massages, a n d baths (see medicinal uses in Bastien
1983b a n d S E M T A 1984:85-150). T h i s f u r t h e r supports the hypothesis that these An-
d e a n s u n d e r s t a n d the h u m a n body as a h y d r a u l i c system characterized by a muscular-
skeletal framework a n d conduits t h r o u g h which air, blood, feces, milk, phlegm, semen,
sweat, a n d urine flow. •_ _
Q o l l a h u a y a herbalists classify p l a n t s by how they affect the flow of p r i m a r y a n d sec-
o n d a r y fluids, eliminate noxious by-products, a n d cleanse passageways. T h i s e t h n o p h y s -
iology consists in the circulation of p r i m a r y fluids (air, blood, a n d water) a n d semifluids
(fat a n d food) with distillation processes (breathing, digestion, a n d reproductiveness),
which p r o d u c e secondary fluids (phlegm, bile, gas, milk, semen, sweat, a n d urine) a n d
secondary semifluids (feces), that need to be regularly eliminated. If these processed
fluids a c c u m u l a t e , they become noxious a n d m u s t be purged from the body with carmi-
natives, emetics, e n e m a s , fastings, dietary restrictions, a n d baths. Basically, herbalists
perceive the body as a h y d r a u l i c system with centripetal a n d centrifugal forces that con-
trol the distillation, circulation, a n d elimination of fluids.

Topographical-Hydraulic Models in Andean History


T h e Q o l l a h u a y a t o p o g r a p h i c a l - h y d r a u l i c model has certain prototypes in A n d e a n his-
tory. T h e application of a n a t o m i c a l p a r a d i g m s to land a n d society is found a m o n g early
Peruvians, w h o p l a n n e d the space in their ancient cities according to the m e t a p h o r s of
birds a n d animals ( R i c h a r d Schaedel, personal c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1978). T h e y m a d e out-
lines of large a n i m a l s on the surface of the N a z c a valley between 200 a n d 600 A.D., (W.
Isbell 1978:140-153; M a s o n 1968:88). D u r i n g the 14th a n d 15th centuries, the Incas de-
signed C u z c o according to the m e t a p h o r of a p u m a (Rowe 1967:60). T h e H u a r o c h i r i leg-
ends, preconquest oral traditions of the C e n t r a l Andes, depicted the crest of the m o u n t a i n
as the head, the central slopes as the chest a n d shoulders, a n d the places where two rivers
diverge below the central slopes as the crotch a n d legs. T h r o u g h o u t the conquest, met-
a p h o r s persisted, a n d today the people of J e s u s de M a c h a c a , a c o m m u n i t y near T i a -
h u a n a c o , Bolivia, still refer to their land as divided a n d integrated according to the p a r t s
of a cougar (Albo 1972:788-790).

Inca Cosmology

H y d r a u l i c d y n a m i c s of centripetal a n d centrifugal forces share certain features with


Earls a n d Silverblatt's (1978) m o d e l of I n c a cosmology. First there was a flood, Uno Pa-
604 A MEKICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [87, 1985

chaculi, which symbolized the centrifugal dispersal of water. After the waters receded,
earth was uncovered, lagoons, rivers, a n d lakes were formed. Mamacocha ( M o t h e r Water)
emerged to rule the a q u a t i c elements, a n d Viracocha (Lake of Fat) performed his creator
acts a n d d i s a p p e a r e d in the ocean. Early conquest legends symbolize Lake Titicaca as a
vertical axis of water that connects the highest waters of Lake Poopo in the east with the
lowest waters o f t h e Atlantic O c e a n in the west by the rivers of Desaguadero a n d Pilco-
mayo. F r o m this, Earls a n d Silverblatt conceptualize the geometrical structure of Inca
cosmology. Lake Titicaca is a vertical axis, like a funnel, through which water flows in a
concentrated u p w a r d m o v e m e n t to the surface, where it disperses in evaporation. This
forms clouds a n d rain, which descend to the earth. T h e water then soaks into the ground
a n d enters the u n d e r g r o u n d rivers that flow to Lake Titicaca. T h e dynamics of this hy--
d r o g r a p h i c circulation are that the centrifugal movement of the -water (evaporation,
flooding, rain) begins outside-above a n d the centripetal movement begins within-below.
In comparison, Q o l l a h u a y a s apply a similar cosmology to their body. O n e distinction
in the Q o l l a h u a y a model is that the m o v e m e n t of fluids is reversed: fluids are received
through the nose a n d m o u t h , then travel d o w n w a r d to the sonco, a center where beneficial
fluids are dispersed to the peripherals,"and noxious fluids to the bottom. T h e Lake Titi-
caca model posits that water soaks in the g r o u n d a n d enters u n d e r g r o u n d rivers that flow
to the center, Lake Titicaca. T h e s e waters arc compressed (mixed with fat [viraqocka])
a n d compelled u p w a r d for dispersal to the land. T h i s difference provides a n o t h e r d i m e n -
sion toward u n d e r s t a n d i n g A n d e a n cosmology; lakes a n d m o u n t a i n s share similar inter-
related hydraulic dynamics. T o g e t h e r , they create centripetal a n d centrifugal forces: riv-
ers a n d lakes concentrate fluids from the peripheral toward the center (rivers, d o w n w a r d ,
a n d lakes, u p w a r d ) , a n d the s u r r o u n d i n g land disperses fluids f r o m the center to the pe-
ripheral, a n d conversely. Lakes flow u p w a r d a n d a r e regulated by centripetal forces,
which bring together moisture from s u r r o u n d i n g areas. Lakes would be parallel to dis-
tillation processes w i t h i n ' t h e body. Rivers flow d o w n w a r d a n d are regulated by centrif-
ugal forces, which circulate fluids to a n d f r o m the lakes. Rivers symbolize vessels of the
body. T h e m o u n t a i n brings lakes a n d rivers together into a geophysical s t r u c t u r e that
combines this u p w a r d a n d d o w n w a r d flow of fluids by absorption, compression, inter-
nalized m o v e m e n t of w a t e r u p w a r d (springs), a n d distillation (different types of water).
T h e m o u n t a i n is consequently a m e t a p h o r for Q o l l a h u a y a physiology because its geo-
physical mass makes it a unit, which is a unified h y d r a u l i c structure based on the inter-
d y n a m i c flow of fluids between land, lakes, a n d rivers. Consequently, the m o u n t a i n
serves as a holistic m e t a p h o r for Q o l l a h u a y a ethnophysiology, not only because it has a
vertical axis but also because it is a s t r u c t u r a l unit transformed into a whole by the pro-
cess of centripetal a n d centrifugal hydraulics.

Aymaras of Poopo

I d o not contend that all A n d e a n s s h a r e similar body concepts to the Q o l l a h u a y a s , but


one conclusion from this research is a methodological process for uncovering how An-
deans perceive their physiology. T h i s methodology is to examine their perceptions of land
a n d water. For example, the A y m a r a s of Poopo, Bolivia (64 km south of O r u r o ) , divide
the body into four parts, similar to their division of fields a n d communities into q u a r t e r s .
A vertical axis divides the body into a right a n d left side (kupisajanchi a n d ch'eqasa janchi),
a n d a horizontal axis at the waistline divides the body into u p p e r a n d lower halves
(alajjasa janchi a n d aynachasa janchi). T h e y distinguish four parts: alajja kupisa janchi ( u p p e r
right side), alajja ch'eqasa janchi ( u p p e r left side), aynacha kupisa janchi (lower right side),
a n d aynacha ch'eqasa janchi (lower left side). Pain a n d disease a r e often contained in one
of these parts. T h e y say, for example, "Kupisa peqe usutu; kupisa janchi usularaquiniwa" (the
left side of my head is sick, a n d the left side of my body will also become sick).
O n e difference between Q o l l a h u a y a ethnophysiology -and that of the A y m a r a s in
Poopo is the division o f t h e body into four parts. T h e i m p o r t a n c e of four-part division in
A n d e a n culture has been d o c u m e n t e d by scholars. Earls a n d Silverblatt (1978:300)
QOLLAHUA YA-ANDEAN BODY CONCEPTS 605

vvrite t h a t the basis of A n d e a n spatial o r d e r is the division i n t o q u a r t e r s b a s e d on the


m o v e m e n t of t h e s u n in relation to the e a r t h or, as U r t o n (1981) writes, the m o v e m e n t of
the Milky W a y . R . T . Z u i d e m a (1964) writes t h a t the I n c a s d i v i d e d C u z c o i n t o f o u r p a r t s .
T h e I n c a e m p i r e w a s p o p u l a r l y called " T a w a n t i n s u y o , " or " F o u r places i n a s m u c h as
they c o n s t i t u t e d a w h o l e . " G e o g r a p h i c a l differences, however, e x p l a i n w h y the A y m a r a s
d i v i d e d the b o d y i n t o f o u r p a r t s , w h e r e a s the Q o i l a h u a y a s d i v i d e d it into three. T h e s e
A y m a r a s f a r m on o n e level of the Altiplano, w h e r e a s the Q o i l a h u a y a s h a v e t h r e e ecolog-
ical levels o n their m o u n t a i n . M o r e o v e r , the A y m a r a s of P o o p o a r c m i n e r s w h o a r e a w a r e
of the noxious fluids t h a t flow f r o m the e a r t h , so they posit the beneficial a n d n o x i o u s
fluids of the b o d y . Q o i l a h u a y a s h a v e saline springs, which they c o m p a r e to emission of
s w e a t a n d u r i n e f r o m the b o d y . T h e point is t h a t a h y d r o g r a p h i c m o d e l for e t h n o p h y s -
iology derives not o n l y f r o m historical p a t t e r n s b u t also f r o m a processual-reflective re-
l a t i o n s h i p of A n d e a n s with their land a n d w a t e r , which differs regionally a n d f r o m c o m -
m u n i t y to c o m m u n i t y .

Qucch.ua Lexemes

Q u e c h u a s p e a k e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n of the b o d y is also influenced by their c o n c e p t i o n of


g e o g r a p h i c a l topology.- L o u i s a S t a r k (1969:59) h a s s h o w n t h a t the b o d y is not only d e -
s c r i b e d in t e r m s of l a n d ; r o u n d n e s s a n d hollowness a r e also d i s t i n g u i s h e d . Q u e c h u a lex-
e m e s for the h e a d follow this p a t t e r n : e a c h lexeme h a s a s e m a n t i c c o m p o n e n t t h a t d e n o t e s
c o n c a v i t y (t'uqu [hole], with iiawi [eye], ninri {ear], sinqa [ n o s e ] ; a n d uxu [cavity], with
simi [ m o u t h ] ) a n d o n e t h a t d e n o t e s convexity (kapacu_, with nawiand ninri; rapra [ e x t e r i o r ] ,
w i t h sinqa; a n d wirp'a [ r o u n d e d ] , with simi). S e m a n t i c p a t t e r n i n g of convex chest h a s
the c o n s t i t u e n t s nunii ( b r e a s t ) a n d q'asqu wayq'u (chest r a v i n e ) ; siki ( b u t t o c k s ) h a v e as
c o n s t i t u e n t s sikipata ( b u t t o c k s ledge) a n d siki wak'a ( b u t t o c k s f u r r o w ) ; a n d wasa ( b a c k )
h a s as c o n s t i t u e n t s wasa muqu ( s h o u l d e r b l a d e s or back hill) a n d wasa wayq'u ( s h o u l d e r
b r e a k ) (see T a b l e 2).
T h i s p a t t e r n i n g of r o u n d n e s s a n d hollowness is related to the o v e r l a p b e t w e e n b o d y
p a r t s a n d g e o g r a p h i c a l d o m a i n s in Q u e c h u a . T h e s i m p l e lexemes h a v e m e a n i n g s cover-
ing m o r e t h a n b o d y a s p e c t s . T h e first eight of the s i m p l e lexemes a r e e g r e s s i v e t r a n s f e r s ;
t h a t is, the s e m a n t i c d i m e n s i o n of the b o d y p a r t is e x t e n d e d a w a y f r o m its original d o m a i n
to i n c l u d e a g e o g r a p h i c a l d o m a i n . T h e b o d y - p a r t m e a n i n g is p r i m a r y , a n d t h e e x t e n d e d ,
g e o g r a p h i c a l m e a n i n g is s e c o n d a r y . T h e e x c e p t i o n is muqu, in w h i c h t h e p r i m a r y m e a n i n g
is hill a n d t h e s e c o n d a r y m e a n i n g is knee. T h e o v e r l a p of g e o g r a p h i c a l a n d b o d y - p a r t
d o m a i n s also e x t e n d s to c o m p o u n d lexemes, w h i c h often consist of a b o d y p a r t p l u s a
t o p o g r a p h i c a l t e r m . T h e c o m p o u n d lexemes r e p r e s e n t ingressive t r a n s f e r s ; t h a t is, t h e
g e o g r a p h i c a l m e a n i n g of a lexeme is e x t e n d e d to the d o m a i n of b o d y p a r t s . O n e of S t a r k ' s
c o n c l u s i o n s (1969:9) is t h a t Q u e c h u a s p e a k e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n of the b o d y as c o m p o s e d of
c o n v e x a n d c o n c a v e c o n t r a s t s is influenced by their c o n c e p t i o n of topology in w h i c h con-
t r a s t s b e t w e e n c o n v e x a n d c o n c a v e entities exist o n a far g r a n d e r scale t h a n on the b o d y .
C o m b i n i n g S t a r k ' s conclusion w i t h m i n e a n d those of Earls a n d S i l v e r b l a t t , it a p p e a r s
t h a t A n d e a n s d i s t i n g u i s h convexity a n d c o n c a v i t y as i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s for their b o d y
a n d l a n d b e c a u s e r o u n d n e s s a n d hollowness a r e i m p o r t a n t to h y d r a u l i c physiology a n d
i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m s . T h e g e o g r a p h y a n d ecology of the ayllu a r e i m p o r t a n t to A n d e a n s for
their s u b s i s t e n c e a n d physiology. T h i s s h o w s h o w homologies b e t w e e n g e o g r a p h y a n d
physiology a r e b a s e d o n c o m m o n h y d r a u l i c d y n a m i c s .

Comparison with Greek Humoral Theory


G r e e k h u m o r a l p a t h o l o g y derives f r o m the cosmology of I o n i a n p h i l o s o p h e r s of t h e 6 th
c e n t u r y B . C . , w h o t a u g h t t h a t t h e world was m a d e - u p of f o u r p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s : fire,
e a r t h , w a t e r , a n d aer (air, v a p o r , mist) (see Edelstein 1967 a n d S a r t o n 1954). C o r r e s p o n d -
ing to these e l e m e n t s , t h e b o d y is m a d e u p of f o u r fluids, w h i c h c i r c u l a t e freely t h r o u g h o u t
the relatively s t a b l e a n d solid tissues of the b o d y . T h r e e fluids c o r r e s p o n d to bodily p r o -
AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [87, 198$

Table 2

Simple lexemes Body part meaning Geographical meaning

kunka neck small chasm in mountain


nawi eye spring
rixra shoulder shoulder of mountain
sinqa nose mountain ridge
uma head mountain peak
wasa back other side of mountain
sixa stomach small hill
siki buttocks foot of a hill
muqu knee hill

Compound lexemes Body part meaning Literal meaning

caki muqu ankle foot hill


caki puxyu arch of foot foot well
caki pampa sole of foot foot field
q 'asqu puxyu furrow between the chest chest well
and diaphragm
q 'asqu wayq 'u area between breasts chest ravine
q 'asqu riunu breast chest hill
siki pata buttocks buttock ledge
siki wak 'a buttocks buttocks furrow
wasa wayq'u area between shoulder blades back ravine
wasa muqu shoulder blade back hill
nawih t'uqu eye socket eye hole
simi pata area between nose and mouth mouth ledge
simi wirp 'a lips rounded mouth
simi uxu mouth opening mouth cavity
ninri t'uqu ear openings - ear hole
ninri kapachu outer ear ear cape
sinqa t'uqu interior of nostril nose hole
sinqa rapra outer nose nose

cesses: blood flows f r o m w o u n d s , p h l e g m d r i p s f r o m the nose, a n d yellow bile is v o m i t e d .


T h e f o u r t h fluid, black bile, w a s a d d e d for s y m m e t r y . A c c o r d i n g to F o s t e r (1978:5):
Each fluid, or humor, was believed marked by a complexion stemming from one each of two
opposing pairs ofqualities of the four elements, viz.: blood•—hot and moist; phlegm—cold and moist;
yellow bile (or "choler")—hot and dry; black bile (or "melancholy")—cold and dry. Health, said
Alcmaeon, was a condition of eucrasis, of equilibrium or balance, of the proper mixing of the
humors, while illness resulted from dyscrasis, and upset in this equilibrium sometimes, but not
necessarily, caused by an excess of heat or cold.
T h i s d o c t r i n e of h u m o r s w a s a d o p t e d by H i p p o c r a t e s , born a b o u t 460 B.C., a n d in-
c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a collection of m e d i c a l treatises, Hippocratic Corpus. T h e four h u m o r s were
d i s s i m i l a r in their qualities of h e a t , cold, d r y n e s s , a n d m o i s t u r e , a n d the p h y s i c i a n t r e a t e d
disease by t h e p r i n c i p l e of o p p o s i t i o n ( C h a d w i c k a n d M a n n 1950:5, 2 0 5 - 2 0 7 ) . F o o d s a n d
h e r b s w e r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p a i r e d qualities of hot or cold, a n d m o i s t n e s s or d r y n e s s
( F o s t e r 1978:7). T h e p h y s i c i a n s of G r e e k h u m o r a l p a t h o l o g y e m p h a s i z e d b a l a n c e (Fa-
brega 1973:236-237): health w a s signified by a w a r m , moist b o d y m a i n t a i n i n g equilib-
r i u m a m o n g t h e blood, p h l e g m , yellow bile, a n d black bile. Sickness resulted f r o m h u -
m o r a l i m b a l a n c e c a u s e d by a n excess of o n e of the f o u r h u m o r s . T h e r e was a s t r o n g cul-
turally s a n c t i o n e d e m p h a s i s o n the r e s t o r a t i o n of b a l a n c e . F o o d , d r i n k s , h e r b s , a n d
QOLLAHUA YA-ANDEAN BODY CONCEPTS 607

„icdicinal s u b s t a n c e s w e r e classified i n t o hot o r cold categories a n d were used to m a i n t a i n


health or r e t u r n the b o d y to a p r e v i o u s h e a l t h f u l state. E m o t i o n s reflected the d e g r e e of
balance in social relation.
In c o m p a r i s o n , A n d e a n a n d G r e e k h u m o r a l systems are based on analogies f r o m n a -
ture. G r e e k h u m o r a l p a t h o l o g y b e g a n , not in m e d i c i n e per se, b u t in philosophical spec-
ulation a n d scientific e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e of the universe. T h e uni-
verse w a s c o m p o s e d of f o u r e l e m e n t s — f i r e , w a t e r , e a r t h , a n d aer—corresponding to f o u r
body fluids; to e m o t i o n s , p e r s o n a l i t y types, seasons, a n d sickness. T h e body w a s a n a l o -
gous to the u n i v e r s e , s e a s o n s , a n d p e r s o n a l i t y types within society. M o r e o v e r , t h e r e was
i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n the systems; diseases related to seasons a n d were c u r e d by c h a n g e of
seasons. H i p p o c r a t e s w r o t e in On the Number Seven t h a t a disease will encLwell if the season
is not on its side b u t fights a l o n g w i t h m e d i c i n e j - f o r generally speaking, m a n ' s n a t u r e
c a n n o t o v e r c o m e the n a t u r e of the u n i v e r s e (Edelstein 1967:72). I h a v e s h o w n in this
p a p e r t h a t Q o l l a h u a y a h y d r a u l i c physiology is rooted in analogies b e t w e e n these A n d e -
a n s a n d their l a n d . As d i d the G r e e k s , t h e A n d e a n s perceive similarities a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s
b e t w e e n physiology, geology, a n d c l i m a t e . Basic to both s y s t e m s a r e ideas of n a t u r e , a n a l -
ogously e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h the c o m p o n e n t s of the s y s t e m , such as parallels b e t w e e n ele-
m e n t s of the u n i v e r s e a n d bodily h u m o r s for t h e G r e e k s a n d m e t a p h o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s
b e t w e e n a m o u n t a i n a n d b o d y p a r t s for t h e Q o l l a h u a y a s . M o r e o v e r , t e r m s of the universe
are not only reflective of e a c h o t h e r b u t also i n t e r d y n a m i c a l l y related so t h a t G r e e k s need
the s e a s o n o n their side to get well a n d Q o l l a h u a y a s h a v e to feed the e a r t h shrines of the
m o u n t a i n to m a k e their b o d i e s c o m p l e t e - a n d h e a l t h y .
In c o n t r a s t , A n d e a n s differ f r o m Greeks in t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of n a t u r e . Basically, the
G r e e k s u n d e r s t o o d n a t u r e as a s y s t e m in b a l a n c e , or t o be kept in b a l a n c e , a n d A n d e a n s
view n a t u r e as a s y s t e m in cycle. O n e c o n c e n t r a t e s m o r e on s y m m e t r y , a s t e a d y s t a t e ,
a n d the o t h e r e m p h a s i z e s the cycle of fluids, i m p l y i n g a c e r t a i n a n d necessary a s s y m e t r y
of h o t / c o l d , a n d w e t / d r y , w h i c h c a u s e s a p e n d u l u m l i k e m o v e m e n t . I m p l i c i t to Q o l l a -
h u a y a t h e o r y a r e h y d r a u l i c d y n a m i c s in w h i c h liquids a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d o r distilled by
c e n t r i p e t a l forces a n d d i s p e r s e d to t h e p e r i p h e r y by c e n t r i f u g a l forces. For early G r e e k s ,
h e a l t h w a s t h e b a l a n c e ( e q u i l i b r i u m ) of f o u r h u m o r s — h o t a n d cold, wet a n d d r y — t o
m a i n t a i n a s t e a d y s t a t e . E x t r e m e s w e r e to be a v o i d e d . Sickness resulted f r o m dyscrasis or
i m b a l a n c e of h u m o r s , o t h e r b o d y fluids, food, or h u m a n activity. Disease was s y n o n y -
m o u s w i t h a d i s t u r b a n c e of b a l a n c e ( d i s p r o p o r t i o n of the p a r t s ) . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be-
t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s w a s c o n t i n u a l l y s u b j e c t to c h a n g e b e c a u s e of t h e c o n s t a n t i n t a k e
of fresh n o u r i s h m e n t , b e c a u s e of c o n s t a n t l y n e w activities, a n d b e c a u s e of a u t o m a t i c sea-
sonal increases a n d d e c r e a s e s in t h e b o d y fluids o r in their circulation u n d e r the influence
of hot a n d cold. F o r this r e a s o n , e v e r y o n e tried a t all times to correct t h e i m b a l a n c e as it
a r o s e ( E d e l s t e i n 1967:69-70). H o t / c o l d , w e t / d r y were i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e they influenced
t h e b a l a n c e of h u m o r s .
For Q o l l a h u a y a A n d e a n s , o n the o t h e r h a n d , h e a l t h is the cycle of fluids a n d s e m i f l u i d s
( w a t e r , air, blood, a n d food) all of w h i c h , e x c e p t blood, a r e distilled into s e c o n d a r y fluids
( m u c u s , bile, s w e a t , u r i n e , gas, milk, a n d s e m e n ) a n d semifluids (feces a n d f a t ) , w h i c h ,
e x c e p t for fat, n e e d to be e l i m i n a t e d r e g u l a r l y , a n d b e c o m e toxic if they a c c u m u l a t e . Dis-
ease is s y n o n y m o u s w i t h s t o p p i n g t h e cycle of c i r c u l a t i n g blood, distilling fluids, a n d
e l i m i n a t i n g w a s t e p r o d u c t s ( w h i c h a r e also recycled). H o t / c o l d , w e t / d r y a r e i m p o r t a n t
factors b e c a u s e they i n f l u e n c e the fluidity of this cyclical h y d r a u l i c system.
Similarities a n d basic s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n Q o l l a h u a y a a n d G r e e k h u m o r a l
t h e o r y suggest several h y p o t h e s e s for f u t u r e r e s e a r c h : (1) Q o l l a h u a y a h u m o r a l t h e o r y is
i n d i g e n o u s in origin, (2) it is a n a s s i m i l a t i v e p r o d u c t of c o n t a c t b e t w e e n two t r a d i t i o n s ,
or (3) it is a p o s t c o n t a c t - i n v e n t i o n . - T h e r e is need for m o r e r e s e a r c h into e t h n o h i s t o r i c a l
d a t a t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h h y p o t h e s i s is valid. R e s e a r c h is needed in o t h e r p a r t s of the A n -
des to a s c e r t a i n to w h a t e x t e n t Q o l l a h u a y a h y d r a u l i c physiology is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of A n -
d e a n h u m o r a l t h e o r y in g e n e r a l . Finally, to w h a t d e g r e e d o the formal p a t t e r n s of h u -
608 A MERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST 187,198

m o r a l i s m r e s e m b l e or differ f r o m each o t h e r in different civilizations ( A n d e a n , Chinese


Hindu, and Mediterranean).5

Summary and Conclusion


A t o p o g r a p h i c a l - h y d r a u l i c m o d e l is p r o p o s e d for e x p l a i n i n g Q o l l a h u a y a ethnophys-
iology. T h e b o d y is a vertical axis with three levels: h e a d , t r u n k , a n d m e m b e r s through
which fluids flow f r o m the c e n t e r to the p a r t s a n d back by c e n t r i p e t a l a n d centrifugal
m o t i o n . F l u i d s c o m e t o g e t h e r at the sonco, a distillation c e n t e r t h a t includes digestive,
r e s p i r a t o r y , r e p r o d u c t i v e , a n d c i r c u l a t o r y processes, in a n i n w a r d spiral. T h e fluids are
broken d o w n , distilled i n t o o t h e r fluids, a n d d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t the b o d y in a n o u t w a r d
spiral. Distillation is the c o m p r e s s e d m o v e m e n t of fluids to the center: this separates
fluids, s u c h ' a s fat, f r o m the food. Dispersal is the c i r c u l a t i n g o f t h e fluids to the p a r t s of
the b o d y for s t o r a g e , release of e n e r g y , a n d e l i m i n a t i o n .
T h i s m o d e l e x p l a i n s Q o l l a h u a y a etiology t h a t a t t r i b u t e s d i s e a s e s to the following
causes: (1) fluids d i s p e r s i n g f r o m the b o d y to the land (susto, d i a r r h e a , V . D . ) , (2) loss of
blood a n d fat (liquichado), (3) too m u c h wind (mal de aire), {4) i m p r o p e r circulation of
fluids a n d b l o c k a g e of d u c t s , (5) a c c u m u l a t i o n of noxious fluids, (6) u p s e t t i n g distillation
processes by i m p r o p e r m i x i n g of fluids, a n d (7) skewed r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the l a n d . C o n -
s e q u e n t l y , h e r b a l i s t s a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d with the circulation, distillation, dispersal,
a n d e l i m i n a t i o n of fluids.
T h i s m o d e l also c o o r d i n a t e s the ritual activities of Q o l l a h u a y a diviners with the eth-
n o p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e s o f t h e h e r b a l i s t s . It explains h o w b o t h a r e related to the ayllu
a n d its t o p o g r a p h i c a l - h y d r a u l i c f e a t u r e s . T h e m o d e l is d e d u c e d f r o m a m e t h o d o l o g y that
a s s u m e s t h a t t h e r e a r e h o m o l o g o u s s t r u c t u r e s o r s t r u c t u r a l similarities b e t w e e n systems
in n a t u r e a n d c u l t u r e . W i t h i n A n d e a n society, the use of m e t a p h o r s a n d a n a t o m i c a l p a r -
a d i g m s for u n d e r s t a n d i n g l a n d a n d society is well d o c u m e n t e d . T h i s r e s e a r c h goes a step
f u r t h e r to s h o w h o w t h e l a n d a n d its h y d r a u l i c f e a t u r e s serve as a m o d e l for u n d e r s t a n d -
ing h o w t h e b o d y works. It also posits a s t r u c t u r a l basis for w h y Q o l l a h u a y a s p r e p a r e
mesas (ritual tables) to feed the e a r t h s h r i n e s o f t h e ayllu w h e n they a r e sick. T h e y believe
t h a t telluric s y s t e m s reflect c o r p o r e a l s y s t e m s a n d t h a t systems in n a t u r e a r e related to
s y s t e m s in c u l t u r e .
A l t h o u g h t h e Q o l l a h u a y a m o d e l s h a r e s s o m e similarities with G r e e k h u m o r a l theory,
there a r e s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . G r e e k s h a d a n e q u i l i b r i u m u n d e r s t a n d i n g of their phys-
iology, w h i c h w a s m a i n t a i n e d b y a v o i d i n g c o n t r a s t s a n d b a l a n c i n g m u t u a l l y opposed
fluids a n d qualities. G r e e k s w e r e c o n c e r n e d with b a l a n c i n g the p e n d u l u m ; Q o l l a h u a y a s
a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h k e e p i n g it s w i n g i n g . Q o l l a h u a y a s h a v e a processual u n d e r s t a n d i n g of
their physiology t h a t c o m b i n e s c o m p l e m e n t a r y a n d o p p o s i t e forces of c e n t r i p e t a l a n d
c e n t r i f u g a l m o t i o n . M o r e o v e r , this process e x t e n d s b e y o n d d u a l i s t i c confines of i n n e r a n d
o u t e r in t h a t fluids o f t h e b o d y a r e g o v e r n e d by similar d y n a m i c s w i t h i n the e n v i r o n m e n t .
Finally, c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s of this m o d e l c a n be used to i m p r o v e health i n t h e
A n d e s . D u r i n g t h e s u m m e r of 1983, I used c o n c e p t s o f t h e h y d r o g r a p h i c m o d e l to teach
A n d e a n s a b o u t t h e u s e of o r a l r e h y d r a t i o n t h e r a p y for d i a r r h e a control. I n essence, I
modified a n old A n d e a n l e g e n d in w h i c h two m o u n t a i n s , S a j a m a a n d S a b a y a , fell in love
with K a r i q u i n a , a lovely m a i d e n m o u n t a i n , w h o because of their rivalry rejected b o t h of
t h e m . In a n g e r , S a j a m a k n o c k e d t h e crest o f f S a b a y a with a b o u l d e r s l u n g f r o m his sling.
In r e t a l i a t i o n , S a b a y a s e n t g o p h e r s to t u n n e l o u t S a j a m a . T h e g o p h e r s d u g m a n y holes
in S a j a m a a n d daily t h e w a t e r b e g a n to d r a i n f r o m this m o u n t a i n . S a j a m a got t h i n n e r ,
b e g a n d r y i n g u p , a n d w h e n he was a l m o s t d e a d , the c o n d o r ( s y m b o l o f t h e healer) saved
h i m by flying to M o u n t I l l i m a n i for a liter of pure w a t e r , to M u r u r a t a for two tablespoons
of s u g a r , to W a y n a Potosi for a q u a r t e r t e a s p o o n of salt, to C o n d i r i r i for a q u a r t e r tea-
s p o o n of b i c a r b o n a t e of s o d a , a n d to I l l i l l a m p u for a l e m o n . T h e c o n d o r mixed these
i n g r e d i e n t s t o g e t h e r , r e t u r n e d to S a j a m a , a n d gave h i m t a b l e s p o o n s of this m i x t u r e to
d r i n k every 15 m i n u t e s . A f t e r r e p e a t i n g this t r e a t m e n t for o n e week, S a j a m a w a s c u r e d .
.istirnl (LOLLAHUAYA-ANDEAN TFODY CONCEPTS

This s t o r y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e use of t h e m o u n t a i n a n d its h y d r o g r a p h i c n a t u r e as a m e t a -


p h o r to t e a c h A n d c a n s t h a t d i a r r h e a is a d a n g e r o u s d i s e a s e b e c a u s e it c a n c a u s e d e h y -
d r a t i o n a n d t h a t t h e use of o r a l r e h y d r a t i o n is a n a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e to t h e disease. O n
a s y m b o l i c level, t h e s t o r y d e a l s w i t h r e s i s t a n c e to o r a l r e h y d r a t i o n t h e r a p y b e c a u s e A n -
d e a n I n d i a n s c o n s i d e r d i a r r h c a „ a wet d i s e a s e t h a t s h o u l d be c u r e d by a b s t a i n i n g f r o m
liquids. T h e c o n d o r a n d e a r t h - s h r i n e m o u n t a i n s m a k e o r a l r e h y d r a t i o n t h e r a p y a n u n -
d e r s t a n d a b l e a n d p r o p e r t r e a t m e n t for d i a r r h e a . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s h o w t h e t o p o g r a p h i c a l -
h v d r a u l i c m o d e l c a n be u s e d in t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l s e t t i n g of a m y t h to i m p r o v e r u r a l h e a l t h
c o n d i t i o n s . It also s h o w s t h e r e l e v a n c e of c u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g y for a p p l i e d h e a l t h w o r k
in t h e A n d e s .

Notes
Acknowledgments. I am indebted to Horacio Fabrega, Charles Leslie,John V. Murra, and Richard
Schaedel. Funding for this research was provided by the National Endowment for the Humanities
and the Organized Research Funds of the University of Texas at Arlington. I am also grateful to
Judy Bastien, Lester Robbins, Ken Roemer, Kathy Rowe, and Faye Self for assisting in editing and
typing this manuscript.
'Among the Qotlahuayas, ayllu can also refer to territorial ties (llahta ayllu), permanent claim to
land and lineage (jatun ayllu), affinal ties (masi ayllu), work ties (mitmaj ayllu), and community in
general.
•'Although the terms of analogy come together, like mirrors reflecting one another, they do not
bccome one another. T h e analogies are never one to one: the body metaphor never corresponds
completely to the "communities, earth shrines, ecology, and physiography. T h e analogies involve
imagination, ability to understand meanings of Andean languages, embellishment by oral tradi-
tions, and most of all, the external application of the metaphor in ritual. T h e mountain and its
people change with the seasons', sickness, natural catastrophes, migrations, and conquest. When
the terms change, diviners gather the people together to match the body metaphor with the land
and communities (see Piatt 1976 for other examples of the metaphorical process).
'This provides a question in regard to menstruation. I am not aware of how they deal with this
question, which involves further research. Another belief among Qollahuayas is that women bc-
come pregnant when they have intercourse during menstruation. This reflects their observation of
animals and the belief that semen mixing with blood is important for conception.
'Certain Aymara communities in the O r u r o region believe that blood can be increased by drink-
ing the blood of vicunas. However, these animals are near extinction, so the possibility of increasing
one's blood is rare. In other words, the rare cure implies that it is very difficult to increase one's
blood, except by transfusion, which is also expensive.
5
Charles Leslie (personal communication, letter, 1982) hypothesizes that the formal patterns of
humoralism resemble each other in different civilizations (Chinese, Hindu, and Mediterranean) in
that there is a common belief in a circulation of essences (air and liquids), with distillation processes
(fire, cooking, digestion) that give off residues of poisons (feces, urine, sweat), which need to be
regularly eliminated but may accumulate so that periodic purification (hot baths, fasting, purges)
are needed.

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