Copyright 2009 by KeenSkills, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 24703 US Highway 19-North, Suite 200, Clearwater, FL 33763. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. 02 1 KeenSkills, Inc. Publisher:

Author: KeenSkills, Inc. Contributing Writers: Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Maverick A. Bolen Editor: Susan Schmidt

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS...............................................................................................................I INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+...........................................................................2 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ....................................................................................................18 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST......................................................................................................19 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................19 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................19 Step 1 – Prepare for the Training............................................................................19 Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs).............................................20 Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam................................................................21 Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam.....................................................................21 ABOUT THIS COURSE...........................................................................................................23 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS...................................................24 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING............................................................................................24 Benefits of Networking Computers.............................................................................24 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN).................................25 The Client/Server Relationship...................................................................................26 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................26 Peer-to-Peer Networking............................................................................................27 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).............................................................................28 Bus Topology...............................................................................................................28 Star Topology..............................................................................................................29 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................29 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES...........................................................................................................30 Hybrid Topologies.......................................................................................................30 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................30 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................31 NETWORK ACCESS...............................................................................................................33 Token Passing.............................................................................................................33 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................33 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................34 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS..................................................................................................35 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................35 Active Hubs.................................................................................................................36 Hub-Based Networks...................................................................................................36 SUMMARY...........................................................................................................................37 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...................................................................................................38 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1..........................................................................................39 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS).....................................40 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM?.........................................................................................40 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking.............................................................41 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)?................................................................42 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................42 Windows for Workgroups ......................................................................................42 i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 95/98........................................................................................................42 Windows ME...........................................................................................................43 Windows 2000 Professional....................................................................................43 Windows XP Home.................................................................................................43 Windows XP Professional ......................................................................................43 Windows 2003 Server.............................................................................................43 Windows Vista........................................................................................................43 Windows Server 2008.............................................................................................44 Warp Connect..........................................................................................................44 Other Peer-to-Peer LANs........................................................................................44 Server/Client Software................................................................................................44 Client Software........................................................................................................45 Server Software.......................................................................................................45 The Redirector (Requester).....................................................................................46 NOS PACKAGES.................................................................................................................47 Novell NetWare...........................................................................................................47 NetWare Directory Services (NDS)........................................................................47 NetWare File Services.............................................................................................48 NetWare Security....................................................................................................48 NetWare Print Services...........................................................................................48 NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS)..........................................................48 NetWare Interoperability.........................................................................................48 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System...................................................48 Windows NT File Services......................................................................................49 Windows NT Security.............................................................................................49 Windows NT Print Servers......................................................................................50 Windows NT Services.............................................................................................50 Interoperability........................................................................................................50 Windows 2000 Server.............................................................................................51 UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................51 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service).................................................51 SUMMARY...........................................................................................................................53 KEYWORDS EXERCISE....................................................................................................54 KEYWORDDEFINITIONCLIENT SOFTWARECSNWDSMNFATFILE SERVERGSNWINTEROPERABILITYMHSLINUXMACINTOSHMULTITASKINGNDSNON-PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKINGNOSNTFSNWLINKPREEMPTIVE MULTITASKINGPRINT SERVERREDIRECTOR/REQUESTERSECURITYSERVER SOFTWAREUNIX.........................................54 REVIEW QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................54 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS...........57 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION................................................................57 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL......................................................................................58 Application Layer........................................................................................................58 Presentation Layer......................................................................................................59 Session Layer..............................................................................................................59 Transport Layer..........................................................................................................59 Network Layer.............................................................................................................60 Data Link Layer..........................................................................................................60 Logical Link Control (LLC)........................................................................................61 ii

Table of Contents Media Access Control (MAC).....................................................................................61 Physical Layer.............................................................................................................62 PROTOCOL STACKS..............................................................................................................64 Communication Between Peer Layers........................................................................64 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD.................................................................................................66 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL.............................................................................................68 Repeaters.....................................................................................................................68 Bridges........................................................................................................................68 Routers........................................................................................................................68 Brouters.......................................................................................................................69 Gateways.....................................................................................................................69 IEEE 802 STANDARDS........................................................................................................70 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL..............................................................................72 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)..........................................................72 ODI (Open Data Link Interface).................................................................................72 PROTOCOLS AND OSI...........................................................................................................72 Protocol Binding.........................................................................................................73 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless....................................................................73 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols.........................................................................73 Networking Protocols and Stacks...............................................................................74 AppleTalk....................................................................................................................75 DECnet........................................................................................................................75 IPX/ SPX.....................................................................................................................75 SMB (Server Message Block)......................................................................................76 SNA (Systems Network Architecture)..........................................................................76 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)........................................................................76 IP (Internet Protocol)..................................................................................................76 UDP (User Datagram Protocol).................................................................................76 FTP (File Transfer Protocol)......................................................................................76 Telnet...........................................................................................................................77 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................77 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................77 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................77 NTP (Network Time Protocol)....................................................................................77 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)...............................................................................77 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................77 X.25.............................................................................................................................77 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................78 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................78 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................78 LAT (Local Area Transport).......................................................................................78 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................78 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................79 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................79 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)....................................................................................79 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)................................................................79 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)........................................................79 ISO/OSI Standard.......................................................................................................79 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)...............................................................79 iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide DNS (Domain Name System)......................................................................................79 XDR (External Data Representation).........................................................................79 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................79 SUMMARY...........................................................................................................................81 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...................................................................................................82 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3.........................................................................................84 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................86 NETWORK CABLING.............................................................................................................86 Coaxial Cable.............................................................................................................86 Thinnet.....................................................................................................................86 Thicknet...................................................................................................................86 Summary of Coaxial Cables....................................................................................87 Coaxial Connectors.....................................................................................................87 BNC Cable Connectors...........................................................................................87 N Connectors...........................................................................................................88 Transceivers.............................................................................................................88 Vampire Taps..........................................................................................................89 Twisted-Pair Cable.....................................................................................................89 UTP.........................................................................................................................90 STP..........................................................................................................................90 Twisted-Pair Connectors.........................................................................................90 AppleTalk................................................................................................................90 Distribution Panels..................................................................................................91 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................92 Summary of Cabling....................................................................................................94 Media...........................................................................................................94 CABLING TERMS..................................................................................................................95 AWG (American Wire Gauge)....................................................................................95 Bandwidth...................................................................................................................95 Plenum Grade Cabling...............................................................................................95 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................96 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)....................................................................................98 Preparing the Data.....................................................................................................98 Signals and Clocking..................................................................................................98 Signals.....................................................................................................................98 Clocking..................................................................................................................98 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel).................................................................................99 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................99 Configurable Options..................................................................................................99 IRQ (Interrupt Request).........................................................................................100 Base I/O Port Address...........................................................................................100 Base Memory Address..........................................................................................100 DMA Channel ......................................................................................................100 Boot PROM...........................................................................................................100 Ring Speed............................................................................................................101 Connector Type.....................................................................................................101 iv

.........107 Cellular Networking.......118 Packet Components..........................................................................................................................107 SUMMARY.................................................................105 Infrared Networks......................................................................................................122 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards..........................................................................................................................................................................................5)..........................................................101 Fiber-Optic NICs........................................................................................................116 Token Passing........................104 Why Wireless?.........................................................................................119 NETWORK STANDARDS................................................................................................................................................................................102 NETWORK PERFORMANCE.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................121 10BaseT (Twisted Pair).......................124 Token Ring (802.....119 Trailer............................................................................................................................................................................................................................111 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................101 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE......................................................................125 How it Works....122 10Base2 (Thinnet).........................................................................................................3).......107 Terrestrial Microwave................................................................121 Logical Link Control (802............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................122 100VG-AnyLAN...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................123 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”)..................................121 Ethernet (802............106 Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions...........105 Radio Transmission.................................................118 Headers...........102 Standard Bus Types..............................................................................................................................................Table of Contents Wireless NICs..............................................109 KEYWORDS EXERCISE.................................................................................................................................................................106 Microwave............110 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4...118 Data...............115 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection)...............................................................................................................................................................118 Packet Structure..122 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic).....................................114 ACCESS METHODS.........................................................................................................106 Narrow-Band Radio Transmission........................................................................................................................................102 Laptops...........125 v ...............................................................................103 WIRELESS NETWORKS.......................................................................107 Satellite Station Networking......................................123 Gigabit Ethernet.............................................................................................115 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance)...........................................................116 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS)................................................107 Packet-Radio Networking..........................................................................................................................107 Satellite Microwave...................................2)............................104 Wireless Transmission Methods.....................................122 10Base5 (Thicknet)............................................116 Demand Priority.......123 Other Ethernet Considerations.........................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................158 vi ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................138 The Customer....................129 Zones.......................................................................133 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................126 Beaconing...................................................................125 Source Address ..................................................................................................................................................149 Environmental Concerns...................................................................153 Network Adapter Cards......................................................................................153 Cable to Hub...............................................................................................141 When to Choose Client/Server........................127 Token Ring Fiber-Optic.....................................................................................................................................................157 Media Compatibility.....................................................................................125 Frame Control .................125 Access Control .................................................................................139 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE...........................................................................................................................151 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER.....................................130 SUMMARY.........................................................................................................................................154 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................141 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer.......128 AppleTalk...................149 Media Selection..............................................................156 Card to Network........................................................................................128 Token Ring Adapter Cards.....................................................................................................................................................153 Cable to Computer............................143 DESIGN THE NETWORK.........128 LocalTalk....................129 EtherTalk.................129 TokenTalk.............................................126 Multistation Access Unit (The Hub)....................................................................................................................................................................135 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.....................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Start Delimiter .......................................................................................................................127 Token Ring Connectors............................................129 AppleShare..........................................127 Token Ring Patch Cables................127 Token Ring Cabling...........................................................................................138 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT...........156 Adapter Card Compatibility.................................................128 Token Ring Repeaters..132 KEYWORDS EXERCISE................................................................................................................................................................................................................................156 Card and Computer....................................................................142 Making the Choice.143 Public and Private networks............................................................................................................................................................................126 Message ....................................157 Computer Compatibility..........................125 Destination Address ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................138 The Network Goals.................................................151 Protocol Selection..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................151 NOS Selection...................................

.....................................................................25.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................164 Repeaters ..............................164 Routers ...179 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..............................................................172 MODEMS..................................................................166 Carriers...............................................................................164 Bridges .....170 Advanced WAN Environments...............................178 TLS..................................................165 CONNECTION SERVICES.....177 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)............................................169 VLAN..................................................................................................................................................178 ICA (Independent Computing Architecture)...............................................................................................................................................172 SMDS....................................................................................................................................................................................178 Installing and Configuring RAS.............................................................................................................................................................169 Packet Switching Networks.............................172 SDH..................Table of Contents PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ..............................................................................................................................EXPANDING A NETWORK..........................................................................................................................................175 RAS Protocols.......171 Frame Relay................................................................................................................176 SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol)..........................179 Troubleshooting a RAS setup................................................................................................................................................................................................................159 Hard Work................................................179 Limitations of RAS........................................159 Standards...172 SONET .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................172 ISDN ..................................................................................................................................178 Kerberos..............................................................173 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS)...................177 L2TP................................................................................................160 HCL and Windows 2000...................................................................................................160 Minimum Requirements............................................................................................................................................177 IPsec...........................................................................................................................................................................168 Circuit-switched Networks...........................................................................178 SSL..............................167 Analog Connectivity.................................................................................171 X...........................................................163 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL....................................................................162 CHAPTER 7 .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................176 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol).......................................................................................................................................................................181 KEYWORDDEFINITIONANALOG SIGNALBRIDGECARRIERCONCENTRATORCSU/DSUDIGITAL SIGNALDUNFRAME vii ........................................................................159 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS..............................161 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6........................175 Connecting Two Computers..............................................................................................................165 Gateway ...................................................................................................166 WAN Overview....163 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS...................167 Digital Connectivity..........................................................................................................................................................

................................199 Class B Addresses......................................................................184 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS....................................................................195 BOOTP.......................................207 Binary Network IDDotted-decimal ID11000000 00100100192..................210 Default Gateway......................0................................................182 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7..........................152 254How to Subdivide a Network...............................................216B255....36..195 DHCP.................................0...................................................................36............................................25...............................................................................................................................................................203 ClassDefault Subnet MaskNumber of NetworksNumber of HostsA255.......................................................................................................................................6411000000 00100100 011192.................36..........................................................................186 RFC (Request For Comments)...............................................................................208 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS...............................................097.............255..................534C255..............................................................................................................................................................................................196 IP Proxy Servers.................................................................................................................210 DNS.....................................................................36................02...........16011000000 00100100 110192.......................................................................016.....................................................................................................................189 Other TCP/IP Protocols........................................................................................................205 Define the Subnet Mask.......36 (overall network address)11000000 00100100 001192...................199 IPv6 (IP Next Generation)...............................................191 NAMING SYSTEMS ..............................................................................255................................................199 Class A Addresses........................................................................36..................192Determine the Host IDs.............................................................................186 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS..............196 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES..........................................205 Determine the number of Network IDs required...........................0...............................................................195 IP Gateway...........................777......................................................................................................................................................................186 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP ...................................195 HOSTS file....194 WINS.................................9611000000 00100100 100192.......198 IPv4..................................199 Class D and Class E Addresses.....................................................................................................................................................................36...................198 IP Addresses.........197 TCP/IP ADDRESSING.....................210 WINS.................012616.........................................................................................................................195 NETBIOS........................................................38465.................................12811000000 00100100 101192.........................................................194 DNS..................................................................210 viii ......205 Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet..........................................................................196 ICS......189 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols...........255.............................................................................................................................................................195 LMHOSTS file...........................................199 Class C Addresses...........................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide RELAYGATEWAYHUBSICAIPSECISDNKERBEROSL2TPMAUPPPPPTPRASREPEATERROUTERS DHSLIPSMAUSONETSSLT1VLANX...............................................................................................................196 NAT..............................................3211000000 00100100 010192....200 SUBNETTING..................210 IP Address...................................................................................................205 Determine the Network IDs ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................225 User-level Security..................................................................................................................................................................................................225 Share-level Security................................................................220 IFCONFIG......................................................................................................................................................................218 ROUTE............................217 EVENT VIEWER..........................................................228 Backup Options.....................220 RARP............................................................................................................................................220 PING....................................................232 UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply).....226 SECURITY TECHNIQUES...............................................................................218 NETSTAT...................................................................................................................................................................................................................231 Storage Area Network (SAN)..............................................224 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY................................SNMP..........................................................................................................................................229 Removable Disks...............................................................................216 NETWORK MANAGERS ............................................................................................228 Backing up Data......................................................................232 Fault Tolerance and Power .....................................................................................................................................................225 USER AND SHARE LEVEL.......................................................................228 Firewalls......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................232 Surge Protectors..............................................................................................................................................................................218 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS..................................................................................................................................................230 Full.....................................................................230 Volumes...................................................217 Communities............231 RAID 6 and Beyond.....214 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES.218 TRACERT...................................................................................................................................................229 Tape Backup.......................................................................................... Differential................................................................................................................232 Network-Attached Storage...............................................................229 Backup Software...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................216 Agent Software..........................................................................................................................................................................231 Disk Mirroring (RAID 1)...........................................................218 NBTSTAT....................................................................................220 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .........................................................................................228 Blocking Port Numbers..................................220 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG.......... and Incremental Backups.................231 Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5)................................................................................................................................................222 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9.....................................................................................................................................................220 NSLOOKUP.................................................212 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8.230 Disk Striping (RAID 0).....211 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..............216 Management Software..................................................................................................................................................................217 VALIDATION TOOLS...................232 ix ....................................................................................................220 ARP.............................................230 Fault Tolerance and RAID.....................................................................................Table of Contents DHCP..............................................

........257 Server/Workstation Limits........................................................................................................................................................241 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING................................................................................................................................................255 NIC Indicator Lights.....................250 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS.......................259 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................241 Identify the affected area ......................................238 KEYWORDDEFINITIONDATA ENCRYPTIONDIFFERENTIAL BACKUPDISASTER RECOVERYDISK MIRRORINGDISK STRIPINGFIREWALLFULL BACKUPINCREMENTAL BACKUPNASPASSWORD SECURITYRAIDSANSHARE LEVEL SECURITYUSER LEVEL SECURITYVOLUMES....................................................................................................249 Protocol Analyzer..............................256 Performance...................................................................................................................................................................................248 Test Cables...........................................................................................245 Recognize the potential effects of the solution.........................256 Name Resolution ...................................239 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK..................249 Optical Tester...................233 Encryption..........................................................................245 Document the solution ...246 Wire Crimper...........................................................247 The Multimeter...245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS .............................................................................................................................................................................................................253 Cable Problems......246 Punch Down Tool.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................242 Establish what has changed.........................................................................261 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY........................................................................................246 Hardware Networking Tools.....................................................................................................................................257 Latency.........................................................................................................................253 Misbehaving Protocols.............247 Tone Generator and Tone Locator.............................................................................................................................234 Disaster Recovery......Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES......................................................................................242 Select the most probable cause............................................................251 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................257 KEYWORDS EXERCISE..................................................263 x ................................................................249 Time Domain Reflectometer...................................................................................257 Application Efficiency.......243 Implement a solution .................................................................................238 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10......................................................................................241 Establish the symptoms: .....................................................................................256 Bandwidth and Throughput........................................................246 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools........................................................................................................................................235 Viruses...........................247 Media Tester..............................................260 CONCLUSION...............................244 Test the Result ..................................................................235 KEYWORDS EXERCISE...................................................................

......................................................... CANNOT BE USED FOR 16 MBPS TOKEN RING....................................................279 EIA................................................................................................................................................................280 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM.....264 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES.....302 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2.............5/125-MICRON MULTI-MODE FIBERS..............270 TCP/IP PORTS.............................................311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 .................................................274 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES.........................................................................................................................................................................................277 NOVELL............................3FOUR UTP WITH TWO TWISTS PER INCH – 22 OR 24 AWG WIRE –MAXIMUM CABLE LENGTH IS 45 METERS (148 FEET)....................................................................................314 xi .....................................................................................................................................................................................................279 IEEE...............280 ISO...............................302 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1...........267 OSI MODEL................263 ETHERNET CABLING................................................................................FIBER OPTIC6TWO STP – 26 AWG WIRE...................................IEEE 802..................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents 5-4-3 RULE..................................2SIX TWISTED PAIRS...............................................................................................................281 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS.......................................7NOT DEFINED8TWO STP – 26 AWG.............................................................................279 ANSI............................277 MICROSOFT:....................................4NOT DEFINED5TWO 62......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... TWO STP AND FOUR UTP – MAXIMUM LENGTH 100 METERS (328 FEET)...................................308 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.......277 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS..............................................................303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3.........................CONNECT BETWEEN TERMINALS AND DISTRIBUTION BOXES OR BETWEEN DIFFERENT WIRING CLOSETS..............274 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS.................PLENUM GRADE.............................................................................................................271 TOPOLOGY REVIEW..............................271 TCP/IP UTILITIES....................................X STANDARDS..........................................................279 CCITT...............................281 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY......................................................................................................................................283 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS....DATA PATCH CABLES............................................CONTAINS A SHIELD FOR USE UNDER CARPETS.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................271 TRANSMISSION MEDIA...........................306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.......277 COMPUSERVE.......................................................................... BUT ADDS VOICE CAPABILITY ALONG WITH DATA...................................................................................263 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES....................................................................................................................................................266 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS....265 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING)..........................................SAME AS TYPE 1..........................................LOWER COST ALTERNATIVE TO TYPE 1 OR 2.....................................................................9TWO STP –26 AWG WIRE........................................................................................................265 TYPEWIRE SPECSUSES1TWO STP SOLID CORE 22 AWG WIRES – MAXIMUM LENGTH 101 METERS (331 FEET)....................................................................................................................................277 OTHER HELPFUL SITES................................................................................ VOICE-GRADE CABLE..................................269 SUBNET MASKING........280 SAG........................

............................319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11......................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 .320 INDEX..............................................315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8................................................................................................................................317 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9..........................................................318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10...............................322 xii ..................................................................................................................................................................

It can be used in conjunction with the QuickCert Network+ video training series. Technical Editors. Computer Graphics Experts. easy to follow format. Technical Writers. or as a textbook in a classroom environment.Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. as a stand-alone textbook. our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. at QuickCert. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. Remember. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! 1 . and Digital Video Studio Professionals.

org/resources/objectives. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination.” The exam consists of 100 questions with a maximum allowable time of 90 minutes and you must achieve a score of 720 within the possible range of 100 to 900 to pass. The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1.0 Network Media and Topologies 3.0 Network Technologies 2.0 Network Management 5.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting.0 Network Devices 4.aspx dated 12/12/08: “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey.comptia.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association The following excerpt is from http://certification. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content.0 Network Tools 6. test objectives and example content.0 Network Security Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 17% 20% 12% 11% 100% 2 .

1 Explain the function of common networking protocols TCP FTP UDP TCP/IP suite DHCP TFTP DNS HTTP(S) ARP SIP (VoIP) RTP (VoIP) SSH POP3 NTP IMAP4 Telnet SMTP SNMP2/3 ICMP IGMP TLS 1.2 Identify commonly used TCP and UDP default ports TCP ports 3 .Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: 1.0 Network Technologies 1.

private 4 .g. classless (e.4 Given a scenario. CIDR. 21 SSH – 22 TELNET – 23 SMTP – 25 DNS – 53 HTTP – 80 POP3 – 110 NTP – 123 IMAP4 – 143 HTTPS – 443 UDP ports TFTP – 69 DNS – 53 BOOTPS/DHCP – 67 SNMP – 161 1. Supernetting) NAT PAT SNAT Public vs.3 Identify the following address formats IPv6 IPv4 MAC addressing 1. evaluate the proper use of the following addressing technologies and addressing schemes Addressing Technologies Subnetting Classful vs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide FTP – 20.

Introduction DHCP (static.5 Identify common IPv4 and IPv6 routing protocols Link state OSPF IS-IS Distance vector RIP RIPv2 BGP Hybrid EIGRP 1.7 Compare the characteristics of wireless communication standards 802.11 a/b/g/n o Speeds o Distance o Channels o Frequency Authentication and encryption 5 . dynamic APIPA) Addressing schemes Unicast Multicast Broadcast 1. EGP Static vs. dynamic Next hop Understanding routing tables and how they pertain to path selection Explain convergence (steady state) 1.6 Explain the purpose and properties of routing IGP vs.

1 Categorize standard cable types and their properties Type: CAT3. single-mode fiber Coaxial o RG-59 o RG-6 Serial Plenum vs. CAT6 STP.0 Network Media and Topologies 2. CAT5e. EMI) Frequency 2. CAT5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide o WPA o WEP o RADIUS o TKIP 2. UTP Multimode fiber.2 Identify common connector types RJ-11 RJ-45 BNC SC ST LC 6 . Non-plenum Properties: Transmission speeds Distance Duplex Noise immunity (security.

3 Identify common physical network topologies Star Mesh Bus Ring Point to point Point to multipoint Hybrid 2.4 Given a scenario.5 Categorize WAN technology types and properties Type: Frame relay E1/T1 ADSL SDSL VDSL Cable modem Satellite E3/T3 OC-x Wireless ATM 7 .Introduction RS-232 2. cross-over Rollover Loopback 2. differentiate and implement appropriate wiring standards 568A 568B Straight vs.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide SONET MPLS ISDN BRI ISDN PRI POTS PSTN Properties Circuit switch Packet switch Speed Transmission media Distance 2.6 Categorize LAN technology types and properties Types: Ethernet 10BaseT 100BaseTX 100BaseFX 1000BaseT 1000BaseX 10GBaseSR 10GBaseLR 10GBaseER 10GBaseSW 10GBaseLW 10GBaseEW 10GBaseT Properties 8 .

7 Explain common logical network topologies and their characteristics Peer to peer Client/server VPN VLAN 2.8 Install components of wiring distribution Vertical and horizontal cross connects Patch panels 66 block MDFs IDFs 25 pair 100 pair 110 block Demarc Demarc extension Smart jack Verify wiring installation Verify wiring termination 3.1 Install.0 Network Devices 3. configure and differentiate between common network devices Hub 9 .Introduction CSMA/CD Broadcast Collision Bonding Speed Distance 2.

3 Explain the advanced features of a switch PoE Spanning tree VLAN Trunking Port mirroring Port authentication 3.4 Implement a basic wireless network 10 .2 Identify the functions of specialized network devices Multilayer switch Content switch IDS/IPS Load balancer Multifunction network devices DNS server Bandwidth shaper Proxy server CSU/DSU 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Repeater Modem NIC Media converters Basic switch Bridge Wireless access point Basic router Basic firewall Basic DHCP server 3.

2 Identify types of configuration management documentation Wiring schematics Physical and logical network diagrams Baselines Policies.0 Network Management 4. 11 . procedures and configurations Regulations 4.1 Explain the function of each layer of the OSI model Layer 1 – physical Layer 2 – data link Layer 3 – network Layer 4 – transport Layer 5 – session Layer 6 – presentation Layer 7 – application 4. physical and logical network diagrams. evaluate the network based on configuration management documentation Compare wiring schematics. baselines. policies and procedures and configurations to network devices and infrastructure Update wiring schematics.Introduction Install client Access point placement Install access point o Configure appropriate encryption o Configure channels and frequencies o Set ESSID and beacon Verify installation 4. physical and logical network diagrams.3 Given a scenario.

g. history logs. throughput testers) System logs.6 Given a scenario.5 Explain different methods and rationales for network performance optimization Methods: QoS Traffic shaping Load balancing High availability Caching engines Fault tolerance Reasons: Latency sensitivity High bandwidth applications o VoIP o Video applications Uptime 4. load testing.4 Conduct network monitoring to identify performance and connectivity issues using the following: Network monitoring utilities (e.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide configurations and job logs as needed 4. implement the following network troubleshooting methodology Information gathering – identify symptoms and problems Identify the affected areas of the network Determine if anything has changed Establish the most probable cause Determine if escalation is necessary 12 . packet sniffers. connectivity software. event logs 4.

Introduction Create an action plan and solution identifying potential effects Implement and test the solution Identify the results and effects of the solution Document the solution and the entire process 4.7 Given a scenario. troubleshoot common connectivity issues and select an appropriate solution Physical issues: Cross talk Nearing crosstalk Near End crosstalk Attenuation Collisions Shorts Open impedance mismatch (echo) Interference Logical issues: Port speed Port duplex mismatch Incorrect VLAN Incorrect IP address Wrong gateway Wrong DNS Wrong subnet mask Issues that should be identified but escalated: o Switching loop o Routing loop o Route problems o Proxy arp 13 .

0 Network Tools 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide o Broadcast storms Wireless Issues: o Interference (bleed.1 Given a scenario. select the appropriate command line interface tool and interpret the output to verify functionality Traceroute Ipconfig Ifconfig Ping Arp ping Arp Nslookup Hostname Dig Mtr Route Nbtstat Netstat 5.11 a/b/g/n) o Distance o Bounce o Incorrect antenna placement 5.2 Explain the purpose of network scanners 14 . environmental factors) o Incorrect encryption o Incorrect channel o Incorrect frequency o ESSID mismatch o Standard mismatch (802.

1 Explain the function of hardware and software security devices Network based firewall Host based firewall IDS IPS VPN concentrator 6.2 Explain common features of a firewall Application layer vs.3 Given a scenario. utilize the appropriate hardware tools Cable testers Protocol analyzer Certifiers TDR OTDR Multimeter Toner probe Butt set Punch down tool Cable stripper Snips Voltage event recorder Temperature monitor 6.0 Network Security 6.Introduction Packet sniffers Intrusion detection software Intrusion prevention software Port scanners 5. stateless 15 . network layer Stateful vs.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Scanning services Content filtering Signature identification Zones 6.3 Explain the methods of network access security Filtering: ACL o MAC filtering o IP filtering Tunneling and encryption o SSL VPN o VPN o L2TP o PPTP o IPSEC Remote access o RAS o RDP o PPPoE o PPP o VNC o ICA 6.4 Explain methods of user authentication PKI Kerberos AAA o RADIUS o TACACS+ 16 .

1x CHAP MS-CHAP EAP 6.Introduction Network access control o 802.5 Explain issues that affect device security Physical security Restricting local and remote access Secure methods vs. RSH. RCP. FTP. SFTP. HTTP. SCP o TELNET. SNMPv3. HTTPS. unsecure methods o SSH.6 Identify common security threats and mitigation techniques Security threats DoS Viruses Worms Attackers Man in the middle Smurf Rogue access points Social engineering (phishing) Mitigation techniques Policies and procedures User training Patches and updates 17 . SNMPv1/2 6.

Practice the function on your computer. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. it may seem so. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. if this is your first exposure to networking. Hands-on experience is best. However. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. 18 . Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. use a study plan.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not complicated. Use the “Help” button where available. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. To get the best results from your training. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation.

YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING QUICKCERT TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. 1999. There are no specific requirements. Since most of us learn in different ways.Introduction How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test. French and Japanese. but A+ certification is not required. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive. watching. there is no one method that will work for everyone. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. • • • How do you learn best (reading. except payment of the test fee. The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 19 . CONGRATULATIONS. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. German.

Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). This workbook will make this task much easier. You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. If you need to. Re-read the test and review the video presentation. Use the rewind button as often as necessary. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point. • Complete the course a second time. Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). go though the entire course again. 20 . Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. just get a feel for it. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). At this time. set aside the time to learn. Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises. Make an appointment with yourself. Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. you want to begin to understand. If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Make a plan to learn.

call 888-895-6116 or go online to www. call 877-551-7587 or go online to www. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. As you prepare for your certification exam it may be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. You will be asked to sign the form. including one photo ID. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. • • • 21 . Part of the registration process is payment of the exam fee. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam To schedule your exam with Prometric.vue. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form.com. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. Evaluate the questions you missed. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted. You will be required to show two forms of identification.2test.com. so one should be located near you.Introduction Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. Prometric and VUE have testing centers around the world. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. To schedule your exam with VUE.

Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides. If the administrator does not do this.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • It is a closed book exam.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. skip it. If you’re not quite sure. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. answer the question. Do not read too much into the question. marked or skipped. but it really is plenty!) Usually. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. you are given the ability to skip a question. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! 22 . If you positively don’t know the answer. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. Before retaking the exam. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. (You don’t need to send them the score report. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. mark a question or answer a question. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered. mark it and come back to it.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. HINT . It lists your score by objective. If you know the answer. You have 90 minutes. but be sure to read it in its entirety. Keep track of the time and pace yourself. or if you are unclear about what you should do. (That may not sound like much. If you don’t know the answer. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam. you can see which questions are not answered. guess.

23 . It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course.Introduction About This Course This study guide is divided into 11 chapters.

It is very important that. you understand exactly what a network is. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources. files. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment. and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. users can access programs. as a networking professional. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?). a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. peripherals. a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. and applications (resources). Through networking.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. But for our purposes. 24 . Additionally.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than purchasing a printer for every user.

When LANs are connected they create a WAN. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. A WAN can connect networks in the same building or across the world. or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. There is really a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. it is still considered a LAN. A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or 25 . The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information.

Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. However. since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). but they are not common. in Windows NT. 26 . For example. Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. including applications. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. A mainframe will handle all the functions. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). one is designated as the primary server.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide county. or a mail server (E-mail). Also. The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. It is important to know what a MAN is. the primary server is called the PDC or Primary Domain Controller. Users. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. These terms are not interchangeable. including hard disk space and RAM. The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. when the user is getting information from the server. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. the servers are all peers. log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. A large network may have more than one server. and expandability. one for printing (print server). network security. that access would cause the workstation to become a server. configuration and management may be more challenging. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. Usually in a network with multiple servers. efficiency in backing up the data.`` The advantages of this type of network are central administration. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. and is a client. For example. In Windows 2000 server and beyond. also known as clients. one for applications (application server).

A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. Also.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install. The computers are simply cabled together. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network. Peer-to-Peer Network 27 . network security is unreliable.g.

and even how the cabling is run through a building. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. To stop signal bounce. are all determined by the topology used. In a Bus network. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. or segment. This cable is called a trunk. if the cable breaks or becomes disconnected. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). or diagram. refers to its physical layout. also called Network Adapter Cards). Different topologies have different cabling requirements. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. NICs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. it prevents other devices from sending data. As a network professional. only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. future growth needs. scheme. The Bus topology is a passive topology. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). map. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. (Network Interface Cards. However. If not prevented. connectors. they do not move the transmissions along. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. 28 . or topology. An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. design. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. backbone.

the entire network will go down. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology. it can affect the entire network. the rest of the network will still continue to function. If the hub fails.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Star Topology In a Star topology. There are no ends to terminate. A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. however. Resources and files can be managed from one location. Ring Topology In a Ring topology. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. making it much easier to perform administrative tasks such as data backups. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network. 29 . The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. Star Topology The hub used in this type of topology provides an excellent point for centralized administration.

on the other hand. For example. they operate like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. most Ethernet networks today are wired using a hub. However.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. Also. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. This gives us a physical star topology. So far. You will be able to see a physical topology. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. is how the network actually works. This is where a network consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. 30 . A logical topology. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. most Token Rings are physical stars and logical rings. we have been discussing physical topologies. These are known as Hybrid topologies. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology.

31 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points (such as routers). The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter four of this book.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 32 .

It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. we create a party line.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. and the message is delivered. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods. It also uses the Bus topology discussed earlier in this lesson. The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices. Multiple Access means that more than one computer can be connected to the same cable. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. With several devices connected to one media. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in 33 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected.

34 . Ethernet can also use CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance). thus avoiding possible transmission collisions. Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted). Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps. Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks. This differs from CSMA/CD by having each computer signal its intent to transmit before it actually transmits data.

Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. Essentially. they are called MAUs (Multiple Access Units). not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. They do not require any electrical power to function. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. Today. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network. Just remember. With a Token Ring. they are all the same. hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function. Passive Hub – Patch Panel 35 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks.

3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated. 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. They require electrical power to function. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity. which run more efficiently. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. Hub-based networks are being replaced by switch-based networks. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. 36 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs.

and ring. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. go back and review the chapter again. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. Topology is a term we use to describe the connection of computers in a network. The three main types of topology are bus. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. A WAN is not geographically limited and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. star. We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network. 37 .

Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition 38 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 39 .

What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12. 9. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network.Chapter 1 1. 8. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. What is the key difference between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2. 40 . 11.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions . 7. What is a “sneaker net”? 4. 5. Name the three basic topologies. Name two media access methods. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. 10. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network.

and others are designed to run the computer as well as the network interfaces. processor time. In this chapter.Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment.g. 41 . You can get it all set up and turn on the power. it is just a pile of metal and plastic. it will just sit there. In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems that are available. when we refer to operating systems. what we are really talking about are network operating systems. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. and database programs). Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. Hardware resources such as RAM. but without an operating system. as well as the operating system. The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. When we are talking about operating systems. word-processing. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. if you don’t have the software to run it. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. Today. This chapter is all about the various operating systems that a networking professional needs to be familiar with. hard disk space. spreadsheet. Some network operating systems are intended to work with an existing operating system that runs the computer only. we will be referring to network operating systems. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities.

Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. 42 . Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. put simply. A true multitasking operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors. In non-preemptive multitasking. the processor is never taken away from a task. means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time.

Resources have to be publicly listed as available for sharing in order for other users to see (and therefore use) them. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. thereby allowing sharing of files and peripherals. all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. Windows 95 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. turning on the computer and answering questions. Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. Its new graphical interface and networking capabilities made it a vast improvement over its predecessor. All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. Windows 95 uses an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. Novell NetWare. or a similar program.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. such as BSD UNIX. to communicate with other computers over a network. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). Drive letters are assigned to shared directories and peripherals and a redirector routes the requests to the proper location of the resource. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. This version included an E-mail program (Microsoft Mail) and a scheduling program (Schedule+) in its suite. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to 43 . Windows for Workgroups is compatible (if in a limited way) with NetWare. Windows 95/98 Windows 95 was the first Windows program to actually be an operating system. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. Then. MS LAN Manager.1 that included the capability to run a peer-to-peer network. Basically. a group of computers was connected in a Workgroup. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. and you have a working network. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. Windows for Workgroups Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. Instead. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network.

It allows for faster user switching. Vista Business. This server also came in four edition. multilingual support. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is a newer edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. Standard. It is well-suited for editing home movies. Enterprise. It also uses System Restore. Similar to Windows XP Home. an enhanced media center. Vista Home basic. Vista Home Premium. designed for the business environment. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. and much more depending on the version purchased. driver certification. the home versions are unable to join a domain. and Vista Ultimate. based on Windows 2000 Server technologies. Windows XP Professional Windows XP Professional edition is a very common client in the Microsoft’s OS family. Enhanced networking is built in. This version of the Microsoft server family built in an additional security center. IPsec and Kerberos support. remote OS installation. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. a simplified visual design. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. This was also a benchmark in Microsoft's history because this was the first time a workstation was not released as the same time as the server. and Web. like ME. which allows for safety with possible data loss.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. EFS (Encrypting File System). Windows Mail. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. Internet Explorer 7. Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. that will automatically adjust the Windows Firewall. User Account Control. Windows Vista Windows Vista comes in four different editions. this OS adds features that would include being able to join a domain. is a very common Microsoft NOS that can be used as a domain controller or a member server. Windows Vista adds in many options to the OS. It features file protection. It. like Windows Defender. Windows XP Home can not join a domain though. Datacenter. Like Windows XP. and archiving music. moving photos to the Web. Windows 2003 Server Windows 2003 Server. 44 . is set up to be networked easily.

As with Windows 2003 Server. and focuses on performance. Datacenter. Standard. supports remote clients. Warp Connect is used to combine OS/2 Warp and WIN-OS/2 peer-to-peer networking. Microsoft went on to develop Windows NT and IBM released OS/2 Warp.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Windows Server 2008 Windows Server 2008 is a build upon Windows 2003 Server. Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across: 45 . security. It enhances reliability. It takes advantage of 64-bit processing as well giving greater capabilities. This provides a more reliable network with better security than Windows for Workgroups. Warp Connect OS/2 was a joint project with IBM and Microsoft. Enterprise. Windows Server 2008 had four versions. After this project failed to meet their expectations they dissolved the relationship. and Web.

However. 46 . the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (provides resources locally). the computers act as both a client and a server. Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. It also provides accessibility and security for all devices on a network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. Inc. In a Serverbased network.

The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. and to the server. Servers exist to serve. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. Server Software As their name implies. In a network with multiple servers. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. Data Protection As we already discussed. most of the data is stored on the server. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. data protection is performed by a process called replication. Unlike most client software. Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access). out onto the network. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector. However. the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. Replication is simply 47 . They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. At the very least.

It does this by assigning drive letters. Basically. etc. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus. This way. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs. the other server can take over immediately. called drive designators. to resources. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. or if they need to be redirected to the server. 48 . It does not need to know anything about networks. The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide making a copy of the data stored on one server on another server. if one server goes down.

The NT technology actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). Windows NT’s first version was 3. Full Control.1) and it used the same graphical interface as Windows 3.51 followed. but it does have several advantages. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. 49 . This type is performed by each Workstation or Server publicly sharing a directory on the network. Windows NT combines the computer and the network operating system into one. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of NT’s server/workstation technology. It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use. the differences between Server and Workstation began to manifest themselves and NT began to utilize network groups called domains. Unlike NetWare. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows NT.1 (as in Windows 3. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). Change. With this method. Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. The advanced security features of NT are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages.1. The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. the Windows NT Server may be configured to store each Workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows NT (NT stands for New Technologies). Windows NT 3. In this section. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. The attributes such as Read.File Allocation Table) during installation.5 and 3. With these versions. Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. Files in Windows NT may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network.0 uses the same interface as Windows 95. or No Access may be set on the directory. Today. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. NT 4. Windows NT File Services Like NetWare. You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows NT network. another method of sharing must be utilized.

Remember. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. A domain controller is assigned to each network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows NT Security Security was a major concern in the development of NT. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible. This is necessary because all NT workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions).) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. 50 . Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene. Workstation Service is the redirector service in NT. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer. permissions. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service. This is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. you are given the option to share it to the network. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. NT employs domains to deal with this problem. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. Server Service provides access to network resources. Windows NT Services There are many services available in NT to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user. Windows NT Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in NT. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in NT. and user rights. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network. Even if you are installing a local printer. The following is a list of services included with NT to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between NT and NetWare.

general-purpose operating system. and full support of a 64-bit system. improved security. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. Software is 51 . and is. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators. UNIX is a bulky operating system. It is part of the GSNW service. Windows 2003 Server also reorganized system and network accounts to make deployment even easier. it is a continuation of the NT platform. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. Like in previous versions.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the NT service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. With more management tools. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. storage management. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to NT. Windows 2008 Server is extremely capable of handling the tasks. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. UNIX is a multi-tasking. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. Windows 2008 and 2003 Servers work well together supporting a myriad of application and support. and many other features founded in Windows 2000 Server. Windows 2008 Server Windows 2008 Server is the newest NOS Microsoft has released. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. By enhancing security. multi-user. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to NT’s domain controller. it paved the way for other programs to be integrated like Share Point. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. Windows 2003 Server is widely used today. Windows 2003 Server Windows 2003 Server is more widely used now than Windows 200 Server. which govern how an object and its child behave. used as such. clustering services. Active Directory. This software does not come with NT and is purchased separately. In doing this. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory.

but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. At one time. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. to convert the UNIX host into a file server. but users also use them personally. but SUSE Linux became the new backbone for NetWare. VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows NT. Linux Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction to the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide available. however. Linux has hundreds of distributions available. and many other features associated with an OS. it was an extremely popular network operating system. Macintosh The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. security. as well as others. 52 . OS/2. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. In conjunction with Xerox. Like Novell NetWare. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. they developed what later came known to be the mouse and the first GUI display. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. At its inception. TCP/IP. UNIX. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. and messaging services. as well as file and printer sharing. StreetTalk provides directory. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). both at home and on the go. Red Hat is probably the most widely used distribution. and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC.

Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic.). 53 . the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network). Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. Today. Study through the chapter again if you need to. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems. such as Novell NetWare and Windows NT. Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. centralization of administration. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely). With the redirector. the most popular network operating systems also function as the operating system. and at least be familiar with others. It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today. and data backups. Banyan VINES. an application is unaware that it is working from a network. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. the client computers rely on the server for their resources.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. In a server-based network. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). (UNIX. There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security. It is also important that you to know the minimum hardware requirements for Novell NetWare and Windows NT. etc. In a peer-to-peer network.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise 54 .

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) EYWORDS Exercise Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition 55 .

What is a domain? 56 . What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? 2. What is the purpose of the redirector? 4. What is NDS? 7. Unlike NetWare. Purchasing NetWare requires a type of licensing. 9. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? 8. What happens when the number of users exceeds the number of licenses? 6. What is NTFS? 11. 10. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. 5. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? 3. Define interoperability.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions 1.

Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? 17.12. 16. 15. Describe a UNIX system. What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? 57 . What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? 18. Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What are the minimum hardware requirements for a Windows NT Workstation? 13. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 14.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 58 .

The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam. when not to transmit. what it is and what its primary function is. and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other. and which devices function at which layer. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Chapter 3. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected.The OSI Model and Communication Standards In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model. As a result. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. how the data will flow (at what speed). 59 . You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles which function. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The Seven Layers of Network Communication The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. and how they will communicate if they are using different languages.

60 . depending upon their functions. print.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you probably notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. These services include file. and messaging services. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers. This layer and the lowest layer (Physical layer) are the only layers that do not add a header to a packet before passing the data along. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. Seven Layers of the OSI Model The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network.

The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. As its name implies. and ending connections. protocol conversion. it presents data to the application layer. Sessions may be established using simplex. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. The network redirector operates at this layer. is The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. This layer is also responsible for data compression. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. etc. This layer is responsible for establishing. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. and prepare it for its journey. transfer files across the network. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. In short. and data encryption. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging. half-duplex. bit ordering. This is not the actual application or program. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. and un-packaging the data for transport. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail. interpreting graphics commands.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. 61 . or access a network database. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. it will break the data into packets. add any addressing information and error correction information. managing.) character set conversion. This connection called a session. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. and when. or full-duplex communication. or receive. It provides a logical connection between the two devices.

If using a connection-oriented protocol. error free manner. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. they will be combined together. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link. it will be un-packed. without duplication. if the packets are too small. If using a connectionless protocol. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. Once the data is reassembled. Routers and NICs function on this layer. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. If they are too large.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. checked for errors. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. For example. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. When the data is received. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. and error free. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets. stripped of its addressing information. Should an error occur. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. they will be broken into smaller packets. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. This layer is responsible for communication from NIC to NIC. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. UDP is a connectionless protocol. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. Connectionless protocols are faster. For example. however. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. This controls network congestion. In an ideal world. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. It receives a packet from the Network layer and 62 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence.

It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. In addition. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. and Demand Priority. The IEEE 802. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. it discards it. If it is. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards packages it into what is called a frame. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. the destination computer will ask for a retransmission.) It also includes control information such as frame type. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. 63 . MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized. If it is not. Although quite rare. It identifies a line protocol. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. Token Passing. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. segmentation information and routing information. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer.2 standard defines how this takes place. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. such as SDLC. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. The way that a network shares the channel is called its access method. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions. If the calculation does not check out. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards.

it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. 64 . Multipoint communication is where one computer talks to two or more computers. The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets.ch/. Point-topoint communication is where one computer communicates with one other. and what each one will do. Note: For more information on the OSI Model. visit www. Devices such as repeaters. and determines when and how data may be transmitted. Switches. synchronizes the data. passive hubs (or simple active hubs). The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. For example. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. and receivers all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Here is an example of a MAC address: 00-00-13-35-FD-AB Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. work at the Data Link and Physical layer of the OSI model. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. transceivers. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets.iso. It identifies the NIC. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 65 .

The Physical layer does not add a header. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. (Remember. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. each layer is responsible for performing certain functions. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. As the packet travels up through the layers. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. the Application layer is not the actual application. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted and the request processed. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. each layer strips its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. For example: You send a request for services to the server. 66 . When the destination computer receives the data. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. In addition to adding or removing headers. This is called a protocol stack. over the network medium. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. or suite. and provides services to the layer directly above it. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. The header information actually contains instructions for its peer on the receiving computer. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer.) The request is in the form of a packet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer.

Because of this.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers. The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical LayerSignals or Bits or Data Stream into FramesData Link LayerFrames into PacketsNetwork LayerFrames or Datagrams into SegmentsTransport LayerSegments into dataSession LayerDataPresentation LayerDataApplication LayerData into Data Files or Messages 67 .

it would not match. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. the OSI Model is not real. In fact. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 68 . Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. Also.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers.

etc. The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. 69 . The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. Without them we would not have nearly as many software or hardware packages available to us. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system. you do need to remember the different layers and what task each layer is responsible for. This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments.

The first is a static router. the routing information is permanent and requires an administrator to change.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. Routers are similar to bridges except that they make intelligent decisions about routing a signal to its destination. A dynamic router. Each static router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. are going to be used when they write a program. As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. will search its connections and 70 . This weakening is known as attenuation. routers. A repeater reconditions and re-times these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. on the other hand. Data Link layer and the Network layer. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. bridges. as well as where in the OSI model they operate. etc. Repeaters. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change. With these routers. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT There are two different types of routers: static routers and dynamic routers.

Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. However. Since the routing information is in a constant state of change it is dynamic. The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate. if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. but usually in the Application layer). 71 . the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards automatically update the routing information. Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks.

8 802.10 802. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards.5 802.7 802.1 802. but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN. and if you would like more information on them.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards.9 802. Inc.2 802. The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802. a little surfing might be in order.6 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers.standards. 72 .11 802. These standards were prepared before the OSI standards. (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started.3 802.4 802. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www. February 1980).ieee.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 73 .

and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. and hence. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. the NIC also needs a device driver to function. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. Network protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. 74 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers. which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). However. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks. This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments. the network. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC.

the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. Connection-Oriented vs. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected together using a device called a router. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. Connectionless communication is faster. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. In today’s LANs however. You have no confirmation (unless they call you back) that they got the message. If that fails. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. Routable vs. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. For example. Protocol Binding In order to function. In a connectionless communication. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 75 . if TCP/IP is bound first. and in full. but connection-oriented is more reliable. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. In connection-oriented communication. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on their answering machine. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. In a connectionless scenario. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function.

Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks. The networking professional should be familiar with the more common ones and should also know which are routable and which OSI layer they function in.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X. 76 . It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet).

1 has incorporated TCP/IP into its design.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. This stack has many protocols within it: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – This provides transmission of packets across a network. It is a routable protocol. AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – This provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – This provides Application layer services for Macintosh. regardless of speed. IPX/ SPX Even though Novell NetWare 5. It resides in the Network layer. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. At the Session layer it establishes and 77 • • • • • • . NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite. It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. the majority of NetWare networks function with this proprietary protocol suite.) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. In addition to hop count. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. At the Presentation layer it handles data translation. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – This manages file sharing. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer. It resides in the Network layer. and handles file and print services.

Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. flow control. If you do not need to use passwords. At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. and connection-oriented error control services. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. • SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking). TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. making it connectionless. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. It is also layered on IP like TCP. TCP and IP. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). 78 . then TFTP would be advisable over FTP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide controls sessions. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol.

The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). It uses standard telephone lines and switches. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. but in addition. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. it will send out a “discovery packet” over the network. X.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines. ARP will first check its list and if a matching address is not found.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. this is also a Network layer protocol. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond by sending its MAC address.25 network. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. The second part 79 . instead of only the number of hops. A sending computer must know the MAC address of the destination computer in order to send data. OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer. X. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP keeps a table of matching MAC and IP addresses. It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. In addition. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. It is an Application layer protocol. It resides in the Network layer. The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. but in reverse. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP.25 is also an equipment specification.25 X. This is the host on an X. without regard to speed.

25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. X. NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. This protocol is not used for data communication. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced). It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). LAT (Local Area Transport) This protocol does not have a Network layer and that is the reason it is non-routable. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. It is fast. but in between. easy to configure and small. it is out of the administrator’s control. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN. This means that routes change as conditions change. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable. Because of this. which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end. It may be used with bridges. 80 . Data goes in and comes out. Instead. This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. Data is routed via the best connection at a given time. the X. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits. only printing functions. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs.

ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. NetBEUI. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. administration. It handles session establishment. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. it detects congested areas and links that are down. and others as well as TCP/IP. It also supports data encryption. This protocol supports IPX. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. 81 . Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely from over the Internet. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. RPC is used by the redirector to determine if a resource is local or on the network. Like a traffic report on your radio. and notifies upper layers to route around them. NetBEUI.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Other Protocols The following are some protocols that the networking professional needs to be familiar with: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. DHCP. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. file transfers. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. and connection release. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. NWLink and NetBEUI. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. or DHCP. It does not support IPX. It maintains a database and provides name-to-address mappings for applications.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. 82 .

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Summary In this chapter. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three. 83 . we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. For example. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional. if you can get to the server through a router.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition 84 . Keyword 802.

What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. Which OSI layer is responsible for NIC to NIC communication? 8.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. 6. managing. 10. What is a MAC address? 13. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 85 . What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. 5. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. 3. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. 7. 4. Who developed the OSI model? 2. and ending connections? 12.

Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 18. 20. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. Will this work? Why or Why not? 86 . without duplication and error free? 15. What are NDIS and ODI? 19. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Which is faster. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. What is the function of a Gateway? 17. 22.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. What are they? 16. Describe protocol binding. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 21.

and the hardware aspect of network operations. and other hardware and peripherals. network adapter cards. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. There are several cabling options. and easy to install. It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. along with connectors. It can transmit voice. 87 . light. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. which we will address here. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. How to properly configure and use network adapter cards. flexible. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable is fairly inexpensive. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. Because it is shielded. it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. Intel. video. 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). and learning how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. or DIX (Digital. Xerox). but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. It consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. There are numerous kinds of cable. Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps.

Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. It is attached directly to the NIC. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. They are specified based on their impedance. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. 88 . BNC Cable Connectors The BNC cable connector that is used to connect cable segments is the T connector. it is not as easy to install. It is either soldered or crimped to the end of the cable. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. as well as how they are attached to the cables. Thicknet is often used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. It is expressed in ohms. UsesTypeImpedan ce – Ohms 10Base5 ThicknetRG-850 10Base5 ThicknetRG-1150 10Base2 ThinnetRG-5850 Cable TVRG-5975 ARCnetRG-6293 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. It is more expensive than Thinnet but does offer longer segment lengths. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network.

Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. 89 . It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors). and is used to connect the device to the network. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. and an AUI cable. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium. One of the terminators must be grounded. BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on.

These clamp-on transceivers are often referred to as vampire taps because they utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. 90 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. most networking professionals use a clamp-on transceiver. this is so time-consuming that it is not the common approach. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. These twists help prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. Instead. It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. This cable type consists of two insulated strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. This results in less sensitivity to EMI. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per inch in each pair of wires. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. and a higher bandwidth. Since it is unshielded. it is more sensitive to EMI. there are six categories. UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. Currently. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. The following is a summary of UTP cables. less crosstalk. up to 100 Mbps. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 7 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 100 Mbps 155 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM Extremely fast broadband Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. Twisted Pair Cabling Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. An RJ-11 jack has four 91 .

The plug-ins are not the same. it is not as common as UTP or Coaxial. 92 . It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI or RMI. This is an excellent way to organize network cables. The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 100 Mbps (and beyond). However. as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations. The front of the patch panel is where the patch cable with the RJ-45 connector is plugged into a port (a port is a female plug for the RJ-45). Wall Plates for RJ-45 Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. Jack couplers and wall plates are also commonly used in UTP installations. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a punch tool to make the proper connection. An RJ45 is too large to fit into an RJ-11 (telephone) jack.

which reduces signal loss. IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic).) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. The following is a summary of IBM Types: 93 . This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber. Because of this feature. which is easier to install. fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses. IBM cabling is based on its Type. One strand transmits and one receives. (The core can also be made up of plastic. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 94 .

Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Contains a shield for use under carpets. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). IBM Connector 95 . Plenum grade. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2.5/125-micron multimode fibers. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Six twisted pairs. IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. Not Defined Two 62.

96 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter.

This space is used to circulate air through a building. Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. As the AWG wire number decreases. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. Baseband vs. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps). • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). For example. Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. The signal flow is bidirectional. these fumes would end up circulated throughout a building in the event of a fire. 97 . If this type of cable were used in the plenum. • Simplex vs. PVC gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. (send and receive) but only one at a time. Because this space does circulate air through a building. Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. but cannot send a message. For example. the wire thickness increases. The signal flow is uni-directional. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Cabling Terms The following are some terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. Both you and the party you are talking to can send and receive at the same time. a pager can receive a message. For example. An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time.

Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network.) 98 . shielded cable might be more appropriate. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective. On the other hand.) How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor. For example. local fire codes will need to be addressed.) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum. the flexibility of the medium should be considered. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners.) Will the cable be installed in noisy areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting.

are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network.) Transmission speeds and last.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Is crosstalk going to be a factor for security issues? (If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure. but not least. cost. fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 99 .) Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance.

We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). This is known as parallel communication. (And of course to translate it back again. are also known as Network Adapter Cards. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique address. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. or 0’s (off). Because these paths are side-by-side.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. It makes the physical connection to the network. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. 100 . NICs are used to connect the computer to the network. This is known as serial communication. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. which constantly vary in one or more values. and controls the flow of data on the network. data is moved along in groups. Today. handles network addressing. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time.

The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. The time intervals between data chunks. such as: 101 . This makes transferring data much faster. the NIC may need to be configured. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. The amount of time between confirmations. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs. Other cards will need to be configured manually. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer. The speed of the transmission. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC. and some are set using software. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. the two cards start sending and receiving data. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. When this occurs.

This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. Boot PROM Boot Prom’s (Programmable Read Only Memory) function is to allow the NIC to boot up and connect over a network. See Appendix A for common address assignments. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. In practice. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC. this 102 . data cannot be downloaded and stolen. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. Without a hard or floppy disk. It contains the necessary connection software to use and is often used for diskless workstations. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that no two devices can use the same interrupt. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. Since computers usually boot from information contained on a hard or floppy disk. DMA Channel Configuration of DMA channels is similar to IRQs. certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. In some network environments computers do not have any floppy or hard disks for security reasons. Only devices like NIC cards that need to efficiently move data are assigned DMA channels. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. not all devices need one. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor.

they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals chip. They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable. or both). Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. or you may have to configure it manually. Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. 103 . RJ-45. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. (called a remote boot PROM) is located on the NIC. and performs the boot function remotely over the network. If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail. Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer.

104 . Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus. Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus. The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs. They are generally 32-bit buses. They are also called PC-Card Buses. including network connectivity. but can be a 64-bit bus.

Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally. The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. thereby improving network performance.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Performance The speed of the NIC will affect network performance. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data. This is especially true on a bus network because computers must take turns using the cable. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. Without this feature. Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance. This type of card is expensive. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. the NIC would be a bottleneck. 105 . Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. thereby bypassing the CPU.

They function just like other access points (i.Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. but through the use of an infrared or radio medium. Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. Mobile Computing .e. the office.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. a user can access from anywhere in the building. Extended Local Area Networks . With wireless systems.Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs. This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components. For example. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. – routers). This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations or including ocean dwelling oil platforms. 106 . or on the road. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. Wireless networks use wireless access points to “connect” the network devices to each other. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. In some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down. a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings.

such as windows. This involves using infrared light to carry signals to a receiver. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping. and because the transmissions are tightly focused. Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. Infrared networks typically broadcast at 10 Mbps. The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources. Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint 107 .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared Believe it or not. you have used infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control.

the signal is beamed towards a central unit. the message is broken into parts (called chips). In the hopping method. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. until it reaches the receiver. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. however. 108 . etc. In the direct sequence modulation method. It does. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. uses broadband technology. as the name implies. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls. which then routes the signal appropriately. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. ceilings. or direct sequence modulation.

Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. 109 . mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet. It is used for line-of-sight communication.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 110 .

Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). and Fiber-Optic. we took a look at the future. As a networking professional. Laser. Twisted Pair. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. Radio. AUI. There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. As a network professional. transmits. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. RJ-45. The networking professional must know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. and controls data flow over the network. The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. The networking professional also must know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. Finally. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. 111 . it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. etc. After looking at network cabling we took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. receives. and Microwave. It prepares.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Boot Prom Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions 112 Definition .

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair Definition 113 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 114 . How is a vampire tap connected? 6. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4. What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. What is the most expensive cable type? 13. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12.

Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? 115 . Describe broadband. In what type of network would you expect to find boot PROM capabilities? 21. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. What is the difference between simplex. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? 23.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. 15. 17. half-duplex. 18. What does AWG stand for and what is it? 16. Describe baseband. and full-duplex communication? 19. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? 25. What is the function of a network adapter card? 20. what are the two ring speeds available? 22. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? 24. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? 26. In Token Ring networks.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 116 .

AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed. are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. In Chapter 3. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. we will discover how Ethernet works. along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers. as well as how Token-ring networks function. After completing this chapter. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite. or frames. while not as popular as Ethernet. 117 . IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. they do not map directly to the OSI Model. you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. over a network. in this case. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. In this chapter.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards In previous chapters. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. thus.

Occasionally. and check for errors. segments are not able to sense collisions beyond that distance. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC. the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX. In some instances. multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. Due to attenuation. Access Methods In a network. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. While there is data traveling on the cable. There is a distance limitation of about 2500 meters with the Collision Detection capability. two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing • Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. two protocols may be bound to one card. A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card. no computer will transmit data. 118 . however. This sounds time-consuming.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information. it will send data. also known as the network interface card (NIC). handle addressing. but in actuality this all happens fast enough that users are usually unaware that they are using a contention access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. in order for it to be used with a network computer.

Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method. the frame would be resent. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. (Some recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring. The trailer includes error control information. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. hub. it must wait until it possesses the token.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. addresses. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. When the computer is ready. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802. switch. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. or bridge. router. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Naturally. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted. the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. A token is circulated (a token is a special type of packet) around the ring from computer to computer. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. and destination computer. instead of broadcasts over the 119 . The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. Because only one computer at a time may transmit. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. Data is transmitted in frames. the more users who are connected to a network. the denser network traffic becomes.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. and links are functioning. this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions.

(four pairs of wires are used.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide entire network. Because of the cabling method used with this access method. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously. If the two transmissions have the same priority level. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time. they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests. 120 . the one with the highest priority is serviced first. but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Network Communications (Frames and Packets)
As we’ve discussed previously, data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. Data files tend to be quite large, and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably, but we will use the term packets.) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. Also, if there is a transmission error, only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files, information, or messages. Computer control data such as service requests and commands. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission.

All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data. The data to be transmitted. The destination address of the receiving computer. Error checking information such as Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) information.

Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet. The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses, and clocking information. 121

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. Depending upon the network, packets can be various sizes, usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. Usually, the trailer contains the error checking information. CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer, the calculation is run again. If the results are the same, the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. If there is a discrepancy, the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit.

A Packet

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network Standards
Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication. The standards define the means of communications. For example, in a railroad, data (in this case passengers and freight) are moved in various cars. There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. However, it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). These provide the standards for the railroads. Not all railroads are the same (some are electric, some are diesel, some are wide gauge, and some are narrow gauge), but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). In this section, we are going to look at different standards for networks. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. Logical Link Control (802.2) the Logical Link Control layer, as addressed previously, is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements, but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol, like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). Ethernet (802.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. The original version was a 2.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology), and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2), Thicknet coaxial (10Base5), or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling, it is most commonly created with UTP cable. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. If the segment must exceed this limitation, repeaters can be used for longer distances. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2.5 meters. 10BaseT uses the star topology. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. As its name implies, it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters, indicating its maximum segment length. The actual maximum segment length, however, is 185 meters. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated.) This makes the maximum number of nodes per network 90. The minimum distance between nodes is .5 meters. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable, BNC connectors and a transceiver. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters, meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system, and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated. This makes the maximum number of nodes per network 100. The minimum distance between nodes is 2.5 meters. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications. These applications include video, document and image storage, and computer aided design, to name a few. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet)

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN, 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. When you see any of these terms, they are referring to the same thing. The IEEE specification 802.12 is the standard that defines this technology. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards, and the longest cable length is 250 meters. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology, using the CSMA/CD access method. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know, the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable, the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable, and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs), and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. Because of its intense speed, Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable, although copper can be used with much shorter distances. ATM competes, to some degree, with Gigabit Ethernet, but that will be referred to later in this book. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon.

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It also works in the UNIX environment.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. by joining with either a router or a bridge. 127 . It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance.

it is known as a data frame. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. The Token Ring access method. How it Works Basically. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. It is not as popular as Ethernet. more than the cable design. IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984.5 standard. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. 128 . Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). it uses the baseband technology. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token. but is still used today. Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. and 3). Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. is what sets Token Ring apart.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. 2. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. Actually. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data. Like Ethernet.

The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. 129 . while IBM says counter-clockwise.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. After encoding the data frame. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. The IEEE 802. if there were errors. called the active monitor. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. Or. As each new computer comes online. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. as well as its own address. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected. Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. To accomplish this task. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor.5 standards say it travels clockwise. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. This computer. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing.

Type 6 130 . Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. Using STP. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. as there are no male and female ends.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another. This hub is known by a few names. just as in other networks that use a hub. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. In a pure token passing environment.5 meters. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. Using STP. Using UTP. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. it is only about 45 meters. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. The Type 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. Using UTP. When a computer is connected.

AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. Therefore. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. 131 . Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. Using a pair of repeaters. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub. Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters.

Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. UTP. Apple has always been open to third-party development. it is very inexpensive to initiate. mainframe computers. it will store it to use each time it goes online. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. 132 .5 Standard) environment. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. AppleShare also provides a print server. by using zones. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network. As such. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. the device assigns itself an address. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. If it is not being used by another computer. and even some UNIX computers.

These packets contain the destination address. ARCNet transmits data in packets. or smart. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. A later version.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. 133 . If using an active hub in a Star topology. These hubs may be passive. has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps.5 Mbps. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. called ARCNet Plus. the token still passes in numerical order. ARCNet utilizes hubs. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors.4 standards (Token Bus LAN). ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2. the token is passed in numerical order. active. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. the maximum cable distance is 244 meters. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. Obviously. Instead of the token traveling around a ring. If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology.

The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well. Speeds up to 144 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific).11) IEEE 802. 134 .11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802. Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four. Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range. generally).

the Data. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. CSMA/CA. Managing network data is all about traffic control. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. etc. go back and review the chapter again. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. which is where the error checking calculation is located. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. and 10BaseT. 135 . destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year.3 standards. and clocking information. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. Therefore. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. Packets will include information to identify the source address. Packets consist of three components: the Header. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. 10Base5.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. the source and destination addresses. and the Trailer. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk 136 Definition . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Trailer Zones Definition 137 .

What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 138 . 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. What are the three primary access methods? 2. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10. 3. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. 14. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25. What is a SMAU? 21. 22. 19. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24. Describe a MIC connector. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? 139 . What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 140 .

Finally. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. are there any printers or scanners. pay attention to details. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. address. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. for example. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. As a network professional. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. etc. 141 . etc? If. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. your design will not work for them. However. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. you are not designing for yourself. Most importantly. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office.) The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. Even if this network is your own. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. rather than a client’s. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. we will consider hardware compatibility. (If not. this is a Macintosh-based company. who has them. The customer’s likes. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever in debt to you. There are two things that you will need to know.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. (demographics). For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. and goals. in many cases. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. dislikes.

or as large as 8 GB. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. For example. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. Remember. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. Once you collect this information. So. you are not documenting your network. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. files services. etc. A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available. at this time. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. if the file is compressed. prepare a design document. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. 142 . print services. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. With this information in hand.

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This sharing is on a directory level. you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. The commitment of management and users. The level of security required. First. For example. The most prominent are simplicity and cost. In a peer-to-peer network. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. if you have a printer connected to your computer. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing. If you do not have this information or need more details.” That is. You may have to add network cards and cabling. Skill level of the network users. may cause problems in the future. you will have no problem. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. not all nodes may need the same level of security. all computers are equal. As long as you have the original software disk (CD). The first is the type of network you will be designing. This means that every 144 . This can range from none to very high. The wrong choice now. Also. Likewise. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. go back and get it. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. you will need to start making some decisions. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. You may need to install the software.

Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. While there are many advantages. must less the workings of a network. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. In a server-based network. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. In a peer-to-peer situation. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. server-based networks are scaleable. For these people. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. You can connect more workstations. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. is another advantage of a server-based network. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. administration can be a full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified 145 . any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. The more sophisticated the network. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). and lots of memory. In large networks. such as your printer. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). instead of backing up individual workstations. Last but not least. 24-hours per day. In a strict peer-topeer network. all network resources are usually centralized. This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. Remember. Before you can use any resource. the network must operate transparent to them. and expand as your needs expand. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. if employees need remote access. Since these computers are larger. have high-power processor. As for size. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. etc. a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). In small networks. Also. This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. Also.

present each case to the client and let them make the final decision.0.0. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information. If you are not sure you have enough information. These “private” addresses cannot be used on the Internet: 10. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN. A public network would be the Internet.0 172.0 146 . get more.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide network professional. as long as the global community does not see them. stick with it and move forward.0. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer).168. in others it could go either way. If all else fails. In some cases. You can use certain IP addresses privately within your own intranet. with open access to the global community. which would limit its access to those outside of the company. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each. When you are sitting on the fence.0 192.16. Once you have made this decision. Public and Private networks In addition.0. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet. the answer will be very obvious.

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Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: o Computer o Printer o Telecommunication o Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem 148 . if all or part of a network already exists. you can skip this section. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. whether hardware or software. The following is an example of an inventory sheet. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. Use it as a starting place to build your own. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. Remember.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. Also. On the other hand. ask him or her to show you. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. you must add new hardware. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. When taking this inventory.

Software: If this device uses software. PCI. etc.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA.) # of Free Slots Network Card ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. describe each program. Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 149 .

150 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary.

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or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. A Network Layout Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. make a drawing of the facility and each network node. This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network. it will make future documentation easier. It is time to get out that pencil and paper. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the 152 . By assigning them a number now. It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. and collect all of the documentation you have been working on.

you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 3 UTP cables. For example. However. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files.Chapter 6 – Network Design performance criteria of the network. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. Therefore. Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. 5-4-3 – If your installation is Ethernet. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. but if this is a large facility. you will need to install CAT 5 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 100 Mbps speed. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. such as in an imaging environment. hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. In addition. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. The 10 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. In most environments this will be no problem. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small LAN. or just good common sense. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. CAT 5 is the UTP of choice. repeaters and nodes. you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. 153 . or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). Cable lengths must be considered. Realistically. On the high end. However. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. you might consider CAT 3. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end).

but are not limited. low-humidity. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network. it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows NT/2000. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. Note: Never place any electronic equipment directly in front of a space heater or other heat source. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. and RFI. they are sensitive to temperature changes. EMI. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. On the other hand. Like us. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. which can cause corrosion. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. high-humidity. Therefore. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. However. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. it will work. 154 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment that the computers will be operating in. as this can cause premature failure of the equipment. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. which requires the use of routers. Fortunately. The non-routable protocols. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. which can generate damaging ESD. and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. Variable temperatures. it doesn’t really matter. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. on the surface.

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The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. the cables are connected to a patch panel. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. To keep these organized. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. There are a few more components that need to be installed. 156 . if using CAT 3 or CAT 5. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. All the cables will be brought to one location. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. This way. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. This way you can identify each location. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. In most cases. One advantage of using CAT 3 or CAT 5 cable in a star topology from a hub. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables.

there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC 157 . Actually. This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. That part is the network adapter card. Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. we must select a card that is compatible with both. Therefore you must know the requirements of each. Once that is done. there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed.

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but only at 10 Mbps. Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. a green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light 159 . In general. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. These are little LEDs (one. Therefore. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). When installing an Ethernet network. and expansion projects. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. administration. Not all cards are the same. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. In addition to being compatible with the network. Before purchasing a network card. Depending on the vintage of the computer. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. EISA. two. you must have Token Ring cards. If you are installing a Token Ring network. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. the card must be compatible with the computer. Also. and PCI). Micro Channel. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. which can be a useful tool. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. This section will look at compatibility issues. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. or three) that indicate the status of the card. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. but only at 10 Mbps. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. the speed of the card is important. the number of connectors and the speed at which data can be moved will change.

you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. if you upgrade your operating system. If your system is not Plug-n-Play. Each card must be configured for a different network. Configure the IRQ and I/O address. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. In the case of UTP. Finally. Connect the network cabling. In addition. In most cases with a new card. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. Physically install the card. For Thinnet or Thicknet. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. the computer may not boot. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. For 160 . but you are not finished yet. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. If you must do this manually.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide indicates that data is being transferred. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. Now the network adapter card is installed. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. If there are any conflicts. Note: If you must remove the case. Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. Some STP cards require special connectors. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card.

it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. However. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. and possibly three. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. To increase marketability of their cards. 161 . The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. the engineering department may be PC-based. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day. If you encounter this type of situation. These types of problems can be more personal in nature.Chapter 6 – Network Design example. as well as possible solutions. AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. some manufacturers will provide two. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. For example. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on.

You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. we learned about network protocols and standards. With this information in hand. you will need to establish the standards for your network. you are going to have your work cut out for you. 162 . boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. if installed. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. and detail both its hardware and software. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. They are hard work and standards. each component will work with the others. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier. With this done. Standards Earlier in this training course. and knowledge of the network operating system. that were identically configured. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. As the network designer or administrator.

the Internet is the answer. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. the system will not run. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. and 2008 will make a check during installation. or 2008. For example. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. all you need to do is install the Windows NT drivers for the offending hardware. 2003. you will need to upgrade. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. you find that your modem. In this case. 2003. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. and 2008 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. but your proficiency will be very low. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. network card and/or printer no longer work. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. If you want the latest list. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. HCL and Windows 2000. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. however. This list will ship with the NOS package (on the CDROM) and 2000. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000. More than likely. or hardware compatibility lists. 2003. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. 2003. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. This is a true statement. Also. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with the Windows version you have. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. you will need to check the HCL for that product. when upgrading from Windows 95 to Windows NT. 163 . A good example is Windows 95. and 2008 is hardware dependent. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. If drivers exist. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system.

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Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. but they are not all the same. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows NT? 165 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Review Questions Chapter 6 1. 7. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. However. he intends to expand the network in the future. Was this a good purchase? 9. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 5 cabling instead of CAT 3. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows NT.

Expanding a LAN with Hubs and Switchs A less common method. A switch is effectively a powered hub with logic built in. Switch can be either managed or unmanaged. An unmanaged switch can just be plugged in and connected. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers. for expanding networks is to use a hub. 166 . This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. it maps out where nodes are located and instead of broadcasting the packet to all nodes. A switch the most common method for expanding a network today. A managed switch can be configured to separate out ports so that traffic can not go from one port to another.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 7 . sooner or later. There are several different types of hubs. it can target the packet directly to its destination. For example. This greatly reduces the collision domain. It will operate without any configuration. An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. A managed switch typically will have a console port on the back or front where configuration can be made with a tool like hyperterminal or a command prompt and telnet to the switch. Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. With this logic. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network. called VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network). Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location. it will be too small. from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices. today.” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. In addition to being called “hubs.

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Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. Traffic-generating applications. Depending on the objectives of the LAN. have increased response times. thus reducing the traffic for each segment.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. They do not translate or filter any information. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths. Long waits to access a printer or file. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. amplify the signal. Fortunately. such as databases. but has one additional feature. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. the simple hub just won’t do the job. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. 168 . Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. They do however.

Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. the NetBEUI protocol is not routable.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. 169 . For example. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment. Not all network protocols will work with a router.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

Gateway

Connection Services
When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries, it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. An example of such a system is the telephone company. When considering which connection service to use, be sure to take into account your throughput, the distance the data must travel, and the cost of the service. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. They are providing the cabling, microwave, and satellite connections. When thinking of a carrier, we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. Be careful when choosing a carrier. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. Just because the cost looks good, does not mean that it is the best value. When thinking of telephone lines, there are two levels of service to consider. The first is public dial-up network lines. These are our standard telephone connections. With dial-up networking, each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. Typically, these connections are slow and not very reliable. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps, but connecting at this rate is rare. The second choice is leased, or dedicated, lines. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps.

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Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded, items such as bridges, routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. Most WANs are a collection of LANs. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links

Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN, as well as those transmitted to it. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. It can regenerate the signal, if necessary, and deals with timing issues. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching

Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines.

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Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Digital Connectivity When you need a faster, more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection, you need DDS (Digital Data Service). The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. Basic voice. Voice with some quality control. Voice/radio with tone conditioning. Data applications below 1200 bps. Basic data. Voice and data over trunk circuits. Voice and data over private lines. Voice and data over trunks between computers. Voice and video. Application relays.

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Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line. It is capable of 1.544 Mbps transmissions. It can be used to transmit digital voice, data, and video signals. The following table lists the most common connection types:

Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL

T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A

Voice Channels 24 672 32 512 N/A

DATA RATE (MBPS) 1.544 Mbps 44.736 Mbps 2.048 Mbps 34.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP; faster download than upload 51.8 Mbps 155.52 Mbps Either 155.520 or 622.080 (can reach 10 Gbps)

OC-1 OC-3 ATM

1 3 N/A

N/A N/A N/A

The T1 and the T3 standard are American, whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. Obviously, since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet, this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. Plus, analog phone lines do not lend themselves to error checking, compression, and encryption; all things that are a necessity for information transferred from location to location, especially information between businesses. It may be simpler to use the phone line to transfer data, but the end-to-end connection that has to take place is time-intensive.

Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast, convenient, and reliable network messaging. A packet switched network takes each piece of data to be transmitted and breaks it down into small packets. A packet contains information such as the destination and source addresses, error control information, and the actual data to be transmitted. Each packet is then individually sent from the source to the destination where they are reassembled into the complete data. Both local and long distance carriers offer a LAN-to-LAN digital dial-up service called switched 56. This is a 56 Kbps connection that can be used on demand, thus eliminating the cost of a leased line. If you don’t need continuous high-speed connections, this may be a cost-effective alternative. However, you will need to install CSU/DSU so that you can dial-up another switched 56 site.

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Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN, which lays out hosts (computers, printers, etc.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within their company, or by the specific use of the computers, or any other logical means. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN, whether it be adding computers or adjusting resources, without having to change the physical picture of the network. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment.”

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176 . FDDI . ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. It uses a 53 byte cell. media limited. As well as the common voice and data. in actuality. These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. audio. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. It is. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial.Asynchronous transfer mode is an advanced packet switching system.25. it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference. X.25 X.2 Gbps. so you get the bandwidth whether you need it or not.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication. It only provides speeds up to 64K and bandwidth is fixed. is an older packet switching protocol that utilized telephone lines and it is good for use with voice. video. and imaging. It uses transmission links only when needed. however. ATM can be used with FAX. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). However. Because it is fiber optic-based. or fiber optic. ATM . they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. While not a good choice for WANs. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. twisted pair.

SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media.25 packet switching technology that it is based on. much like E1 is to T1. within one transmission frame. The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps). It is capable of transmitting voice.544 Mbps). ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface). This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802. as well as the retransmission of the information in any “dropped” frames. Error checking is something that is left up to the services on the end points of the connection. which is intended for use by large businesses. It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM). and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. a call. has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. and focuses on the home and business market. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface). which is intended for use in the home or small business. data and video at rates ranging from 51. It carries all the bits from say. which was designed for voice. Internationally. has two 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps). SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices. it is the European equivalent of SONET. while using copper telephone wires. it is “dropped” meaning it is discarded.25. like OCx with SONET.6). To be more precise. Unlike X. This technology is designed for use in LANs connecting to WANs. frame relay is fast because it does not attempt to correct errors. 177 .84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768).Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. SMDS SMDS . ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Frame Relay Frame Relay is an improved version of the X. If a frame is found to have an error. It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx). and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control.

FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14. To increase our network beyond a few computers. or over long distances. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56. With early modems. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable.600 bps. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of 178 . and media. These speeds are measured as bits per second. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication. the Baud rate was equal to the bps. network cards. As we have already learned. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud. connecting a few computers together to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. Modems transmit data at various speeds. However. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate.400 bps. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines.

56. 179 .32terbo V. modems. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2.400 High-speed version of the V. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V. We are already seeing this technology with the new cable modems and ISDN services. the term Baud is disappearing and being replaced with bps.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network transmitting signals over long distances. The next leap that will overcome this barrier in modem communication will take place with fiber optic cables and digital services.FastClass. Backwards compatible with earlier V.600 bps.22bis V. 14. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. Will only communicate with another V.34 V.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards.42 V. it will be classified by its “V” rating.32 standard. 19.90 bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard. etc. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V. When purchasing a modem. 8. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. 57.32 V. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle.800 Improved V. 4. 28. With this change.32terbo. times as fast as the Baud rate. Therefore.200 Not officially a standard yet. Today. modems – error correction standard. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems.32bis V. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56.

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you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. either via modems and telephone lines. both of these terms mean the same thing. Actually. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. In addition. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. Windows 95/98 has an accessory called a direct cable connection. or directly via COM ports and a cable. Any two computers can be connected. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. A system running Windows NT Workstation or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. You must use a Null-Modem cable. On the other hand. Since the two computers are directly connected. 181 . A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. while a true server like Windows NT Server will allow 256 inbound connections. The difference between a simple computer (Windows NT Workstation or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows NT Server) is the number of inbound connections. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). By running this accessory and following the simple instructions provided. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. With RAS. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. Also. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. For example. or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication.

RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. From this accessory. your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Note: This accessory is not part of the default setup. so you may be required to install it first. While this was the protocol of choice for a 182 . you will use a modem to establish the connection. both computers must be using the same protocol. Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. in this case. but is still in use with some systems. This is a relatively old standard (1984). the RAS software must be installed and running. Normally. With this in place. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. On the server side. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. On the client side. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network.

It provides security. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. It provides data compression and error control. . in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. It supports encrypted passwords. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol is the new player and provides enhancements over PPP. It transmits in text only. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. It is based on an end-to-end security model. Even with all the improvements of PPP. NetBEUI. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. and DECnet. It’s only supported by RAS clients. It cannot encrypt logon information. IPX. RAS and Security. AppleTalk.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network long time. It is used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. both 183 Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. PPTP includes all the specifications of PPP plus: • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the network layer of the OSI model. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. meaning that the computers. it was not enough. It supports only TCP/IP. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. Encrypted Connections.

and Macintosh computers. certificates (like X. RAS provides several layers of security. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission. Unlike PPTP. usually a user’s credit card number. It is transparent to the user. ESP. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the next version of the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. It uses a key to encrypt the data. ICA can be used with Windows. it does not require IP connectivity. UNIX. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. it only establishes the user’s identity at logon. AH only authenticates the user. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). As with all security measures. Kerberos V5. It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. Linux. It does not provide authorization. limited RAM. It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. In addition to providing remote sharing of information. discussed here in the next chapter. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing 184 . TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL.509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. which is the highest security method.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide sending and receiving. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket. Windows 2000 uses this type of security. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS.

you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. the modem configuration. Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. Security Host A security host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps. installing RAS can be frustrating. If it does not work the first time. and thus more security. If another software package has “control” of the modem. Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. 185 . you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. In addition. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. PPTP Filtering PPTP filtering will filter out any packets that are not PPTP. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. you want to keep the costs down. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. and you don’t need a fulltime connection. This provides for additional authentication. Before installation. At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system. As a networking professional.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. it is not always the solution for every network. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. and any other software that might use the modem. The type of communication port you intend to configure. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on.

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Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH Definition 187 .

25 Definition 188 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X.

and a gateway. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. a router. a bridge. 4. What is analog communication? 5. What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. Name three RAS protocols.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Questions Chapter 7 1. 9. 7. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. Name three advanced WAN environments. Define a repeater. A form of digital line that is capable of 1.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. 189 . Name four forms of RAS security. 10.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 190 .

the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. and FTP. some are considered to be Internet standards. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. It is also used with Ethernet networks. TCP/IP. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). 191 . and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. which will be discussed later in the chapter. known as BSD UNIX. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. From this beginning. and the Internet. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. These standards. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. Also. The four layers are: Application. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. intranets. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress).Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is the Internet protocol. and is in fact. Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. It is important for the networking professional to know that this is the protocol that is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. Transport. Internet and Network Interface. This is the most common protocol suite that the networking professional will be working with. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. such as SMTP. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. SNMP. and is usually seen in the combination. as well as Internet standards. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard.

There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections.Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 192 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model. These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP.

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Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. and reassembles the data. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 194 . The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. called packets. they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. On a TCP/IP network. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. Let’s take a look at how this works. It then routes the information to its destination. and for the Network+ exam. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. Let’s take a look at them. However. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams.

The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023.535. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted. HTTP. Telnet. a port is different from a socket. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. the protocol number. TCP will retransmit the data. meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information. etc. The addresses. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. IP is connectionless. FTP. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. i. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. Although the terms.e. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. and specify a certain protocol. or port numbers. For each packet sent. If the transmission has not been successful.. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. 195 . The port number identifies the application associated with the data. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. UDP transports data. and a checksum. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. but does not acknowledge delivery. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type. IP merely routes the data. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. nor does it check for errors. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model.

This cache contains a list of all the devices that it is communicating with. the receiving computer performs the calculation. which what you use when you send out mail. POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. SMTP is server to server.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five. TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP. the data is assumed to have arrived intact. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. Time to Live – provides TTL data. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. or access multiple mail servers. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network. When the data arrives at the destination computer. it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. run searches. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server. The checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). 196 . Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. If the checksum is the same.

by typing in a user name.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. It uses port 443. the secure SSL port instead of port 80. a security-enhanced version of HTTP.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system. SHTTP SHTTP. as well as SSL. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. allowing access to a secure Web server. HTTPS. the HTTP port.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user. provide for secure transactions on the Internet. usually over the Internet. is not the same as HTTPS. such as web pages. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. It does. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People. allow for the use of X. or the word “anonymous. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers. 197 . FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts. however.

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For example. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. the domain Bigcompany.238. we are working in two worlds. education.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Naming Systems Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. 199 . DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates host names to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you. the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names.edu for educational institutions. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC.com for businesses or . A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order.33. These domains require suffixes such as .com may have an IP address of 192. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. commerce. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. Remember.49. such as government. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. DNS functions like a telephone directory. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers.

. Tuvalu is a small country.gov .mobi is for mobile compatibility) Tuvalu is a small country.au.edu . Also.com.Bigcompany. the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains: .org . in Italy might be http://www. For instance. Big Company Inc.pro .it or in Australia www.com. WINS In a Windows-based network.Bigcompany.info .Bigcompany. Also.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance.Bigcompany.mil . 200 . which receives financial benefit from the registration fees. in Italy might be http://www.au.it or in Australia www.com. leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.net . NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode.tv is gaining in popularity.com.com . .biz .tv and . Big Company Inc.mobi are gaining in popularity. (.xx Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network.

This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. it must be assigned a static IP address. assigned on an “as needed” basis. For example. When not needed. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast). IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. a second request will be sent at 87. the address can be leased to another host. It must be manually created and changed. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. To accomplish this. 201 . BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. When the term of the lease is at 50%. and a default gateway if needed. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. In smaller isolated networks. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. the client will send a request for renewal. it could connect a LAN to the Internet.5% of the lease. the lease will be renewed without interruption. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available). LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. P-node (peer-peer). Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address. sooner or later we will run out of numbers. This means that it is permanently assigned. A lease can be renewed. HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It predates DNS. That is. IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. It must be manually created and changed. M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. Notice that the IP addresses are leased.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. subnet mask. If all addresses are being used. the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. as the number of addresses required increases. If not renewed. To resolve this. you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). However. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet. In this case.

who think they are communicating directly with one another. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. to share a single connection to the Internet. it serves many clients through only one connection. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses. 202 . IP Proxy Servers Earlier. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. and DNS. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. In the case of a proxy server. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. NAT. NAT also acts as a firewall. i. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network.e. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. It contains DHCP. the proxy server.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (Public IP address). ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. like a LAN.

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Internet IP addresses. The result is called a dotted decimal number. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8.296 (4.00100111. 204 . let’s now take a look at IP address numbers.39.00001000. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256. To simplify these addresses. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets.8.11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet.967. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them. however. Although that is easy for a computer. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194. This IP address is a 32-bit binary number. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. it is not easy for us.294. they are broken down into four octets. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet.194. the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique).2 billion) different numbers. A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4.

Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks.194 would be an example of a Class A address.8. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks.8. Class B uses two 205 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) . Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID.8.194. In this case 129. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000).Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components.39.194 where the Network ID would be 193. For the Network+ exam.39 would be the Network ID and 8.777. An example of a Class C IP address would be 193. The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID.8 and the Host ID would be 194. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191.39. the network is divided into classes.8.39. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000). The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000). The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223.39.194. The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large. An example of a Class B IP address would be 129. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID). there are 16. Depending on the assignment.194 would be the Host ID. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID). Likewise. B and C. you should pay special attention the Classes A. There are five common classes: A through E.214 possible Host ID numbers. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID. Within classes. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID).) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126. The class can be determined by the value of the first octet. (A host may be any device on the network.

Class C . (For example.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID.223 In addition.0. there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and are not available. you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address. Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available. Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time.used by very large networks. Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. B or C address. the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic. This 206 . As we mentioned earlier. You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts.534 possible Host ID numbers.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID.used for medium-sized networks. specifically 127. if a network is going to be connected to the Internet. there are only 65. Class C IP addresses are still available.1) Class A . with the least number of Network IDs. This is the loopback address.126 128 . Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A. Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts. Also.191 192 . Class B . All in use and no longer available.0.

use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses. to define the address type. The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). Rather than having “classes” like IPv4. however. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. The 207 . It would make it unclear as to what was represented. This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. IPv6 uses hex numbers (0 to 9. It uses 128-bit addressing. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. It does. demand high bandwidth.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology. as compared to IPv4. which only uses 32-bit addressing. For example.net. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. however. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field.

An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one. Anycast.0. It is also available through many networking devices. Ipv6 is integrated into Windows Vista and Windows 2008 server. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. and Multicast. just like 127. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link. Multicast. 208 . which replaces broadcast. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address. All in all. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses.0. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1. Site-local address.1 with IPv4. Finally. Unicast is an address for a single host. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide address types are Unicast.

a large university may have a network spread over several building and perhaps remote campuses. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet. You must however. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network.0 In regards to classes. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) where all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address. By using a concept called subnet masking.0.0.11111111.777. Even though this may be understood working within the boundaries of classes. lets look at subnet masks.255.00000000 or 255.0.0 (Class A).0.534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s. Default Subnet Masks 255.255. The router acts as a filter. A subnet works by taking the IP address and dividing it into the network portion and host portion.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address down into meaningful and manageable groups (network and host).255. Before looking at binary addition.0 255. or 225. you can reduce the overall network traffic. Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask.255. For example.255. The number of octets that contain 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network. only the traffic that is not local will pass through. The router uses binary addition to make this determination. Since a router connects each subnet. Bit borrowing will be addresses fully in the next section.0 (Class C). a subnet mask can be 255.0 (Class B).255. In this example.0 Class A (16.216 hosts) Class B (65. 209 .0.00000000.255.0. bits can be borrowed from the host portion of the IP address. For example: 11111111. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right.0 255. 255.0. By using a subnet.

Remember. let’s add it to the subnet mask of 255. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment.0. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now.32 and the Host ID is 7.00000000. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones.194) 11111111.8.224.32.00000000. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID.39. If you add the IP address to the subnet mask. add through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33.0. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet.11000010 (33.0.0. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address.194.39.194. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33. separating it from the host portion of the address.32. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 210 .00000000 (255.0.224.8. 00100001. By using this method. This is done with binary addition.32.0. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network.194.11100000. while the Host ID 0.7.8.00100000.8.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask.0) equals 00100001.00001000. Any local addresses will not pass through.00000000 (33. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class). which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address.00100111. using our previous example of 33.8.

0. We will use an InterNIC ID of 211 .0. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.b. If a router is connected to two subnets.152 Number of Hosts 16.777.0 Number of Networks 126 16. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner.0 255.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking.0.a. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network.b.097.0 255.0.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255.a.255.b. it will require an address for each subnet.c 192. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC.a.c to 126.b. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring). Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment.a.0 255.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001.384 2. To begin this process.0. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.a.255.b.b.c 128.255.c to 191.0.255.216 65. Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet.c to 223. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate.0 255.255. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.255.a.c Default Subnet Mask 255.

we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host.255.382 Hosts 16.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 2 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16.0 255.255. As we begin to subnet.36.255.255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 191.255.000 hosts.255.0.248 255. First.255.192 255.254.128 255.255. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255.255.255.255.240 255.255.255.0.224.0 255.0 255.255.248.0 255.255.255. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255. With this number.255.255.240.0 255.0 255. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.0 255. we have one network with approximately 65.255.382 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 212 .192.252.224 255.255.255.

240 255. the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255.255. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator). 2. lets keep our network ID of 191. you can use the calculator supplied with Windows.255. giving us a total requirement of 18.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 2 6 14 30 62 Hosts 62 30 14 6 2 To make this easy.255.255.255. 1.248 255. Now we get out our Windows calculator. let’s add 4 more for future expansions. Enter the value of 18.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC.255. 213 .255.255. For this example. Just to be on the safe side. 3. Change the mode to binary (Bin). The number 18 will now be in binary (10010).255. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs. Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected.192 255.224 255.255. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID.

000 hosts each. let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2. Had we needed to add a new subnet. instead of selecting the next subnet on our list.255.36. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 214 . you can determine the available Network IDs. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets. For this example. To keep things simple. the subnet mask would be 255.0. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth).248. Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask. This will be the number of bits required for the third octet. we would have had to reconfigure the entire network. Count the number of binary digits (5).224.255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4.0 and the network address of 192.

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0 CLASS ID 1 .0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255.36.255.192 The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001).36.0.32 192.36.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192.0. or one that is located on a remote network.0.255.36. The only restrictions are that you cannot use .96 192.191 192 .0 255.0. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network. For example.0. they are on the same network. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address. this means that the number starts with .0. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively.64 192.160 192.255.0. In dotted-decimal format. the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery.255.36.000 or .0. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet.255. If it is different.36.255. A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network.001 in the last octet.223 216 . on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255.128 192. up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID. these are reserved for broadcast addresses.36 (overall network address) 192.0 255.255.) NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.126 128 . The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID.

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and click Properties. you may specify a particular IP address. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information. DNS You can enable or disable DNS.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. IP Address Here. Click the radio button to enable DNS. click the Protocols tab. However. 218 . Next. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically.

Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. It also includes the DNS configuration. WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. default gateway. On some screens. 219 . WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses. This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. and subnet mask configuration. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network.

Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet POP3 Definition 220 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Keyword Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 221 .

12. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. What is a domain? 7. 10. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. 4. What are five reasons to use subnetting? 222 . Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2.

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the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base). It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data. you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. Using one of these products. you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network.SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. 224 . Network Managers . From the database and the software interface. In addition. The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager Cisco Work SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator.

225 . The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. Set: sends a configuration value to a device. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt. A community can also restrict access. This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. An additional SNMP command is the trap. therefore providing a level of security.

but did not cause a stop. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. TRACERT. Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table. NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. serious (!). Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. and normal (i). 226 . This includes critical system errors. and TCP/IP events and errors. Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination. Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics.

clicking Run. 227 .Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. and typing in either cmd or command.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. and will display the current configuration of a computer. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address. 228 . PING The lowest level test to find out if a remote host is “alive. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. For example. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain.1.168. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. the IP of a host might be 192. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once.12. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot.” Ping works at the IP level.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition 230 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. 3. List as many as you can.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Review Questions Chapter 9 1. 231 . TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. each device will need to be _________ compliant.

or at least have your plan intact. is right up front. Therefore. A disgruntled employee. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. or an irresponsible prank. Very few users will have access to administrative features. before you set up the network. creating chaos and costing thousands. Users should be held responsible and accountable for the security of their individual workstations. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. the results can be devastating. unless safeguards are built in. motivated by curiosity. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. The best time to set up your network security. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. the user will be inclined to 232 . he or she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of their particular network. can deliberately damage your network. of dollars. or even millions. Password practices and procedures. depending on the roles they play in your company. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. Whether the sabotage is malicious. Most users will also be able to access shared files. data encryption. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. As you might have already deduced.

Password protection is. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. However. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. the user can edit the file as necessary. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. This way. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. This way. In a manner similar to the signature on a document. users can access a shared resource.Chapter 10 – Network Security be less attentive to personal security. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. 233 . such as a template or another type of file. a gesture of respect for the user and the system. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process. and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. among other things. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. while the original file remains intact. should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Password Security 234 .

you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. This needs to be handled in such a way 235 . Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. or auditing. Network protection should be a hardware based firewall. you would block port 80. and even more often on larger networks. Files need to be backed up daily. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. they can be host-based. This is great for internal protection. and work at the application level. Windows XP. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. at the very least. It is an important part of a network security plan. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information. you will most likely be using E-mail. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. 2003 and 2008 Server all have Windows Firewall built into the OS. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. Vista. Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. As the system administrator.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. For example. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter.

plan to fail. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. and the procedure to follow for recovery. called the backup medium. Floppy disk capacities today. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. In addition. those who fail to plan. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. 236 . so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. While planning your backup strategy. Ideally.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide that production will not be interrupted. range from 1. Remember. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. and are more commonly known as RAID. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. the other can take over without compromising network operations. rather than one larger server. If anything happens to one. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. how the backup information will be tested. it is still a viable option. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. you must answer important questions about what to backup. There are several options available. As you might guess. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. and how often backups will be performed. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. As a computer professional. Although slower than RAID.

will backup all data on the network. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. Differential and Incremental. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. When recovering from a failure. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. as its name implies. Full. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. This usually involves some 237 . both the differential backup tape copies and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. To restore. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. is called fault tolerance. Differential. This type of backup is usually performed weekly. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. the last full backup and the most recent incremental backup tapes will be needed. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. despite the presence of hardware or software failures.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today. but will be the easiest to restore from. The Full backup.

Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 . If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up. 238 . support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing. the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent.” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 . only that some part of it is. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. Using an additional bit for every 8bits of data. The data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure.Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 .) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide degree of redundancy. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware. and is a standard feature of RAID systems. in that if one disk fails. (Provides no fault tolerance. including Novell NetWare.Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 . parity protocols check transmitted data for errors in transmission. Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies. This method does provide fault tolerance. This method does not identify which part (bit or bits) of the transferred data is inaccurate.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 . The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . such as a single file. However. data is not lost. this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful. if anything happens to one of the drives. Several operating systems.

but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. There are different types of UPS devices. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. is an issue. In this case. This. and sags in the power supply. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. surges. it offers better performance. since it is not dependent on another computer. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. also called surge suppressors. It functions faster. is like RAID-10. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. which provides for even more fault tolerance. such as battery time remaining. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. Cost. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. RAID-53. Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. as you might guess. are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. which allows for better performance. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. and each type provides power for a different length of time. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. is not being used commercially at the moment to an large degree. SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). however. 239 . Like RAID-10. but at a greater cost. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power.

240 . no matter who they are. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. No one.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. In order for this policy to be effective. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. Passwords should be changed at certain designated times.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. Passwords should be changed frequently in high-security networks. away. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters long and use a combination of letters. such as when an employee leaves. symbols. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being adhered to. So. he or she will know how to accomplish the task. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. but are easy enough that users can remember them. personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. This is known as a security audit. numbers and symbols. etc. include characters. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. and numbers. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation.

RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. the Internet is not the securest of environments. The name comes from their initials. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. Even with encryption. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem. 241 . Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. other than the person for whom the message was intended. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. This method uses a 56-bit private key. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). Adi Shamir. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. and Leonard Adleman. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. can understand the message. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. and most recently has been used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking.

but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. Symmetrical Keys are known as Private Keys. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. 242 . the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. much less a day. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. software from unknown origins.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Extra data appended to a message. files downloaded from the Internet. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. will ensure a much quicker recovery. It is similar to DES. both on location and at backup sites. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. As the name implies. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. and bulletin boards. the Public Key method must be used. If the receiver wishes to respond. Initially. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. Viruses can be caught from various sources including: shareware. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. it is not a completely secure encryption method. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). is called a digital signature. and in this method of encryption both parties have the same key. Many viruses are simple annoyances. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. in order to send the same key to both parties. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run.

Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. they will go to work on the system. These days. Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. just from running a program. Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. but when loaded. With this in mind. 243 . Make sure it is compatible with Windows. Keep your anti-virus program updated. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing Windows. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). Use extreme caution when you download files. Macro Virus: The biggest nuisance now is macro viruses (such as those that infect Word documents). Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks. These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. Hundreds of viruses are written each month. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 .

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 245 .

In a share level model. What does the acronym RAID stand for? 5. What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? 246 . What are the six common levels of RAID? 6. passwords are assigned to __________. What is the function of a firewall? 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1. 3.

Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities 247 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. while for others it is a struggle. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. and good listening skills. you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of 248 . establish what has changed. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. In most cases. For those who must endure the struggle. Remember. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. it is well defined by the person who calls and complains. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. you must be organized. identify the affected area. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. Remember. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. implement a solution. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. select the most probable cause. computers never fail at a convenient time. but they often hold the keys to the problem. if you are the expert. you are looking for the cause. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. They are as follows: establish the symptoms. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. To make matters worse. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. not when all is well. If fact. But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. “as reported. test the result. In order to do this. not the symptom. As a troubleshooter. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. After all. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. They always fail in the middle of a job. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. and progress on with some specific tools you can employ to simplify the process. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. a pen (or pencil).

Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network the failure. but to call you. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. recent software upgrade. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. it is important to observe how it is created. The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work towards the more complex. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. For example. This will take time and patience. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed. With a little experience. One thing that might help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. If possible. These never seem to occur when you are present. Sometimes. lights. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. the failure occurs. however. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. the process of elimination is all that you can do. network or computer moved.) Show me how to create the error. do not intimidate the user. as well as the results. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. If it is an operatorinduced problem. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. and so forth). Be sure to observe the failure yourself. and most importantly. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. 249 . Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. and when. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that causes the failure. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem. screen changes. You may. Do not make the questions too technical.

Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. It requires two simple steps.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. Do not make any assumptions. Starting from the top. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. If you must make any assumptions. but you cannot receive any E-mail. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. For example. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. and move forward. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. make a plan and follow it. Document every action and its results. write them down. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. If for example. You may have to refer back to them later. Once a plan is created. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. it is important to follow it through. In the case of a network problem. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user 250 .

This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. either repair or replace the defect. However. as well as the one that is causing problems. you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. it may require some additional effort.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Once the search has been narrowed. It is important to use another operator. Note: If the problem is software-oriented. Implement the solution. In these cases. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). if an operator is afraid of computers in general. be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. With hardware. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. In these situations. 251 . you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. and not the hardware or the system. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. if the problem is software or configuration related. repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. the problem may be caused by the operator. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. To resolve these types of problems. For example.

and share experience. This is one way to build. In troubleshooting. Document the solution Finally. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. the problem. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. 252 . The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. and the repair. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. maintain. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. there is no substitute for experience. document the problem and the repair.

Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. Punch Down Tool 253 . a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier. Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools. The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network. They secure the connection between the wires and the block. let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling.

the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. we will have to know how to test for continuity. you can have only one of two problems. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). When working with network cabling. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured. The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. 254 . In a wire for example. and continuity. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. resistance. the circuit is broken. it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. very easy to troubleshoot. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. as well as the electrical power in the computer. If the wire is broken. We will start by looking at a multimeter. in principle. whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). If the test is negative (no light or noise). A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. Since it is made up of wires. If your meter does not have a continuity setting. For example. it is still possible to test for continuity. You can test for AC and DC voltage. Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. With it you can test various electronic components. Network cabling is. Some meters will let you test for current as well. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up.

there are more often than not. This applies a signal on the wires. However. called tone generators and tone locators. 255 . The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. However. to find pairs of wires in a bundle. The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. testing for continuity will require an additional wire. and test at the other end. this is not a problem. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. thus locating the wires.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician will have one. it will emit a tone. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. When used together. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). these tools are often called a fox and a hound. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. If both ends are in the same location.

It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. If you are able to send a signal and have it return. A crossover cable is similar to a loopback.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire. Software analyzers. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. They will monitor network traffic. the location of any break or short can be determined. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. It has the transmit and receive wires connected. also called packet sniffers. capture packets and generate reports. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. and therefore back to the network card. but is double-ended. are usually a PC with a special network card. Be careful when using a crossover cable. 256 . Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic.

Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR. OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back. 257 . but used for fiber optic cabling.

A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. For some reason. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. Therefore. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. or a disk resource. You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. It could be the processor.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. Some passwords are case-sensitive. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. the network. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth 258 . Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail. the traffic is not moving.

As networks grow. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours. For example.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. You must defragment the drive. check for memory bottlenecks. tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. so does the traffic. the network slows down. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting. deletes. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 259 . and moves information. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives.

PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation. The first step is to PING the loopback address. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu. because as a network professional. It also lets you know the time that it takes. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. This will test the protocol stack in the computer. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on the Internet your packet is going. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card. These commands work from a command prompt. PING. and TRACERT commands to test the network. Remember this address. On a Macintosh system. 260 . The loopback address is 127. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination.0. On a Windows 95/98 computer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network. If you are using TCP/IP.1.0. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG. you will use it often.

261 . This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT/2000 system. WINIPCFG.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly. If you are using Windows.55.6.48. your dialog box will look like the following.

55.48. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday. the server. you will be testing a larger portion of the network. you receive a message like the following. then there is a problem with the protocol. For the IPX/SPX networks. use the ipxping command. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide PING 195. If at any stage. PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. you have encountered a problem. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. and so on. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: 262 . they must be okay. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address. With each step.

The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). To resolve this problem. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer. If there is a sudden change in performance. Earlier. One is the IP address number. These are ASCII text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. If these files are being used. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup. If no lights are on.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. If present. suspect a loose or disconnected cable.” With nslookup. they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. have two names. In general. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. the first thing to do is find out what has changed. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. respectively. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. we learned that workstations. while green lights indicate that all is well. Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. or hosts. Beyond that. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. 263 .

you will know the high. but are interrelated. adding to the network load. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. after you identify the problem. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. or maximum speed that traffic can move. For example. For example. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. The speed limit. Therefore. Latency delays. if any one component is performing poorly. it will affect the entire network. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. are negligible. Resolving performance problems can be easy. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. To create a baseline. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. This can slow down data transfer. 264 . if you are experiencing slow printing. Then. for the most part. slow. This means that for a small amount of time. and average time to print the document. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. the more packets that can be moved). The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. Latency Small delays in packet movement that is caused by devices is called latency. Just like our highway. at a later date. Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. everything slows down. if the traffic gets too congested. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. From this information. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). it can send data at a faster than rated speed. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing.

Windows Performance Monitor 265 . To collect these statistics. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events. Windows NT has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. available memory. percent of network utilization. etc. With this tool. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. With this activated. etc. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. you will be able to monitor such events as processor time.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition 266 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

You are troubleshooting a cable problem. You have located the cable in question #3. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. What tool would you need to find the short? 5. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? 267 . You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. You have a Windows NT network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2. and think it might be shorted. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Review Questions Chapter 11 1. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. After repairing a problem. What is the loopback IP address? 7. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. You have just connected a workstation to the network. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8.

and don’t forget to use the Glossary. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. as you like. When you are ready to schedule your exam. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. To measure your retention of these materials. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. you are ready to sit for your certification exam. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. We love to hear from our students. Remember. and as often. so if you have any questions. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material. at Specialized Solutions. After taking a practice exam. 268 .

Conclusion 269 .

Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 270 . Only 3 segments can contain nodes. Maximum of 4 repeaters. They are specified based on their impedance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing Ethernet cabling. It is expressed in ohms. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance.

ArcNet networks.Appendix A – Tech Summary Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. Description Stranded wire core. Broadband transmission. Length (meters) 500 185 100 Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment 100 30 1024 Max Segments Max. but also used for broadband transmissions. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59. Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 3 3 10Base5 10Base2 10BaseT Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet UTP Bus Bus Star 10 10 10 5 5 5 4 4 4 hubs 271 . RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max. such as cable television.

Same as type 1. Six twisted pairs. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 272 . Plenum grade. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Two STP – 26 AWG wire.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. Data grade up to 100 Mbps. Voice-grade cable. Two STP –26 AWG wire. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Contains a shield for use under carpets. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Fiber Optic Data patch cables.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps. but adds voice capability along with data. Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch. Not Defined Two 62. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks.

11 802.8 802.3 802.Appendix A – Tech Summary IEEE 802. 802.6 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model.x Standard 802.5 802.7 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls.9 802.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 273 .4 802.2 802.10 802.1 802.

there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. COM4 COM1. The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually 274 . COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer. however.

LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 3A0 to 3AF 275 .LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F . The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F .Appendix A – Tech Summary In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model 276 .

Appendix A – Tech Summary OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Bridges NICs.152 Number of Host 16.255. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001.x to 223.0 255.777.214 65.384 2.x 192.x.x to 191.0 255.0. x.x.0.x. Repeaters Switches Brouter Computers Gateways Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address.x. Hubs.x. x.x to 126.x.x.x Default Subnet Mask 255.255.x.097.0 Number of Networks 126 16.x 128.x.0.534 254 277 .255.x.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. and default gateway. Sends a test packet to a specified address. If all is well. Use the loopback address (127. the subnet mask. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses). Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address.0. Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. it will return. the subnet address.1) to test the IP architecture and configuration.0. PING ARP RARP 278 . Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the user’s network interface configuration.

(Pronounced Trace Route. Used to verify the route to a remote host. all computers are connected to a hub. Used to check the status of current IP connections.) Used to verify entries on a DNS server.Appendix A – Tech Summary ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. Used to check the resolutions of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology. In a star topology. 279 . all computers are connected in a series.

280 . all computers are connected to each other. all computers are connected in a circle. In a mesh topology.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In a ring topology.

Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. Protocol Analyzer 281 .Appendix A – Tech Summary Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry. resistance. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks. Also called a network analyzer.

hubs. and bridges). servers. interface cards. Event Viewer SNMP 282 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. Used to provide information for network baselines. Displays or prints a list of events. routers. and networks. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers.

Appendix A – Tech Summary 283 .

novell.warriorsofthe.microsoft.com Novell http://www.com CompuServe http://www.compuserve.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www.net 284 .com Other Helpful Sites http://www.cnet.com http://www.

Appendix B – Useful Web Sites 285 .

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. This is a common code for basic characters and numbers. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry. 286 . Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. search for these organizations on the Internet. EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. For additional information. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set. In the computing industry.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. let alone the networking industry. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). As its name implies.

Since they cover a wide variety of equipment. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. the data can be smoothly transferred. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards.x sub-committees. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802.x committee. ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product. As you may guess from its name. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment. its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language. 287 . These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. As long as both are SQL compliant. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802. Inc. the IEEE is subdivided into committees. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another.

go to www. either by credit card. Date you wish to take the test. credit card or voucher. Payment must be made each time you take the test. please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number. Payment is made at the time of registration.vue. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like. Prices subject to change without notice. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers.com for Prometric or www. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE. 288 .2test. When you call. Method of payment. or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE. To register via the Internet. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test.com for VUE.

Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam 289 .

A dedicated server for applications. Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. or computers on the network (nodes).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies. American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. these three terms are often used interchangeably. or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. The highest layer of the OSI Model. The file server on an AppleTalk network. A continuously variable signal. Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth 290 . it supplies functions to applications. Software. so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). The Apple networking protocol. opposite of digital. program. or bits per second (bps).

GM. or DEC. Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. such as IBM. User computer “being served” by another computer. IP Address used by very large networks. A bus driver. An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). these are all in use at the present time. 291 Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Client . such as Microsoft. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. A form of mobile computing. The signal flow is uni-directional.Appendix E – Glossary Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. Hardware that connects one network with another.

at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. to allow other tasks to run. is a number derived from. which is. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor. from computer or network to another. Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable Software used by the client. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide called a server. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. Same as a hub. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. or language. Cyclic Redundancy Check. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation. A form of multitasking. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption 292 . itself. or Cyclic redundancy Code. using a specific protocol. Data that is encoded for security reasons. stored.

the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 293 . This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol .) Being able to recover data from a disaster. It also receives acknowledgement frames. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. Also called data striping. A limited form of bus mastering. such as an individual file. in a round-robin fashion. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. (Simple “on” or “off” signal. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. for sending on the Physical layer. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. The Data Link layer splits data into frames. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. so that one can take over for the other if it fails.Appendix E – Glossary Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients.

A computer that acts as a translator. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. sent over a communications channel. A group of bits containing address information. that enables two DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex Gateway 294 . and other control information. An improved version of X. A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. A network’s central computer.25 packet switching technology. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard. A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. error detection.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. DOS command that tells you the IP address for your 295 HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address IPCONFIG . but only one at a time. using different protocols. HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. test packets. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. A network topology that combines bus. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. and informational messages related to IP. It precedes the actual data. star. defined in STD 5. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. or ring topologies. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. and other information.Appendix E – Glossary networks. GSNW Half-Duplex Header Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). RFC 792. RFC 791. to communicate with each other.

A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data. IPsec IRQ A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. it’s “hardware address.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide computer. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. across a network connection. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. a 32-bit bus. data. Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. Micro Channel Architecture. and video data sources. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer. introduced by ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU MCA Bus 296 .” Server used for E-mail. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network.

MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems.Appendix E – Glossary IBM for its PS/2 computer line. and is used by CompuServe. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. Single Frequency Radio. among others. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. 297 Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card Network Administrator . totally incompatible with the original PC bus. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS A method of data transmission. One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. Also known as a network interface card. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. Provides the physical connection to the network cable. A type of hub. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission. The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously. Much like your local radio station.

including network connectivity. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network. Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Peer-to-Peer 298 . A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). A generic term used to describe a unit of data. Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. depending upon the needs of the user. depending on the protocol. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. Acts as a connection point only.

used to circulate air through a building. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. A hardware device. and running on TCP/IP. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack.Appendix E – Glossary Performance Monitor A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model. such as a printer or scanner. other processes will still run. Dedicated server for printing. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. Defines a channel between a device and the processor.5 of Windows 3. The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time. The Presentation layer formats data exchange. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. Although included as part of Windows NT. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 299 . and even if a process takes full control. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3.1. many third-party applications are available. converting character sets and encrypting data. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer.

the proxy server. to be accessed via a modem. which then routes the signal appropriately. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN 300 . The signal is beamed towards a central unit. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. including support for dialup and logon. Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. Connector used with standard telephone wire. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. Redirects a call from one port to another. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors. A device that forwards packets between networks. the devices are connected in a continuous loop. In a Ring topology. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. In Token-Ring networks. For example. For example. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. i.e.

until it reaches the receiver. Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. as opposed to duplex. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. Synchronous Optical Network 301 SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP SONET . Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. Transmission rates are slower with this type. A uni-directional data channel. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). RFC 1157. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. data transfer. acknowledgments (ACK). as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. etc. ceilings. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. normally used on Ethernet. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. usually over Ethernet. to be used over a serial link.Appendix E – Glossary Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. defined in RFC 1055. connection establishment and release. Software that resides on a server. Simple Network Management Protocol.

A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. The process of subdividing a network into logical units. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. Using binary addition. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. the official protocol of the Internet.5 Standard) environment. An access method used in a Token Ring topology. or across large flat open areas. Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. that uses a large diameter. The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. such as bodies of water or deserts. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. the entire network goes down.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Spread-Spectrum Radio Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. this applies a signal on the wires. The SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk Tone Generator 302 . If the hub fails. A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing.

Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer. Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol. defined in STD 6. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. The “hound. is layered on top of IP. which.Appendix E – Glossary “fox.” Tone Locator A receiver set to the frequency of the generator. Used on transceivers. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. User Datagram Protocol. thus locating the wires. A device that transmits and receives data. it will emit a tone. Tool for stripping and cutting wire TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 303 . like TCP.

using zones Zones 304 . A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. such as Token Ring. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks. resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves.

Appendix E – Glossary 305 .

What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). Review Questions Chapter 1 1. data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). 5. Files are easily accessed by all users. 3. such as data. 4. Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. A WAN is not geographically limited. 8. 7. applications. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. No security. and peripheral devices. 2. 306 . What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. configure. 6. It is confined to a limited area.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. like one office). Simple to install. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations.

Some NOS function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. 10. Can be expanded as network grows. Centralized administration. They represent what the topology looks like. 2. Star. and Ring. Ease of data backups. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. More difficult to install and configure.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Centralized location of resources (server). Review Questions Chapter 2 1. Name the three basic topologies. In non-preemptive multitasking the CPU is never taken from a task. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. 307 . 9. Token Passing. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). The three basic topologies are: Bus. File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. Increased performance on large networks. 12. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. 11. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). and Demand Priority.

NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. What happens when the number of users exceeds the number of licenses? The number of users on a NetWare network may exceed the number of licenses. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. name service. management. 9. 308 . 4. groups. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. Organization of network resources such as users.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 3. 6. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. 64 MB RAM. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. redirecting them to the server. 550 MB of free hard drive space. 5. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. Purchasing NetWare requires a type of licensing. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. and volumes is also handled with NDS. Define interoperability. messaging. 8. Unlike NetWare. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. and file and print services. 7. servers. but only the licensed number of users will be allowed to log on at any one time. web-publishing. 10. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. routing.

Because all of its functions are file based. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. 110 MB free hard drive space. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT. 125 MB free hard drive space. 15. 16 MB RAM. These terminals rely solely on the Host for services and are not stand-alone systems. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. 16. The UNIX host will run this software as just another application. 309 . 12 MB RAM. 13. 12.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. general-purpose operating system. What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 18. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems. Describe a UNIX system. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. it is a very bulky operating system. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. 14. What are the minimum hardware requirements for a Windows NT Workstation? 486DX-33 CPU. multi-user.1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 17. It is possible to convert a UNIX host into a file server using software. UNIX is a multi-tasking. A UNIX system consists of a Host (or central computer) with terminals for the users. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database.

This is not the actual application or program. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. Session. 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 3 1. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 4. 11. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. and ending connections? The Session layer 310 . Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. Presentation layer 7. Network Layer 6. managing. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. Data Link layer 5. Application. 9. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. Presentation. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Transport. Network. and Physical 3. Which OSI layer is responsible for NIC to NIC communication? The Data Link layer 8. Data Link. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. Physical 10.

20. 19. 311 . In order to function. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. but connection-oriented communication is more reliable.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 12. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 13. Describe protocol binding. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer 14. 17. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. Which is faster. without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 15. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. It is a computer’s physical address. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 16. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. They are incompatible with each other. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com.2 18. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols.

Review Questions Chapter 4 1. PPTP. SNA. TCP/IP. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above. which would end up being circulated throughout the building.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 21. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2.25. AppleTalk. 5. X. SLIP. 7. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. XNS 22. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. which is used to circulate air in a building). Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned. IPX/SPX. Will this work? Why or Why not? No. PPP. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps 312 . DECnet. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. 6. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. UDP. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol. SMB.

but not at the same time. half-duplex. What is the function of a network adapter card? 313 . making the signal flow unidirectional. However. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. It is also flexible and easy to install. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. 14. the telephone. 17. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. a CB radio. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths. For example. making it the most popular cable type. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable. it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. segment lengths of up to several miles. can receive but not send. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way. 16. For example. For example. 13. which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. a pager. 15. 19. What is the difference between simplex. 10. Describe broadband. 18. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. Half-duplex communication can send or receive. and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. It is also flexible and easy to install. Describe baseband. making it the most popular cable type. 11. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 9.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. to backup a cable-based network. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances. to provide a mobile network environment. Laser. 21. and Microwave 25. for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly. outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. 24. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. (They make the physical connection to the network. High-security networks sometimes use diskless workstations to make it impossible for data to be downloaded and stolen. Radio. 314 . What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 23. what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. Computers usually use information located on a floppy or hard drive to boot up. 20. 22. including network connectivity. 26. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. remote boot PROM allows the computer to boot using information located on a remote computer. In what type of network would you expect to find boot PROM capabilities? Remote Boot PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. In Token Ring networks.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). 14. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 316

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The IEEE 802.3 standard 15. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802.5 standard 16. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token, data collisions are avoided. 18. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. 19. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. IEEE 802.5 says it travels clockwise, while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise, however. 20. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. 21. Describe a MIC connector. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 22. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. If no other computer is using the address, it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. 23. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. It also provides a print server. 24. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. 25. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2, etc. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2.

Review Questions Chapter 6

1. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. 2. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. 3. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. 4. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. 5. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 6. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. However, he intends to expand the network in the future. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 5 cabling instead of CAT 3. It will be less costly to install CAT 5 now than to replace the CAT 3 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 10 MHz to 100 MHz to handle the higher traffic. 7. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards, but they are not all the same. Why should you refuse this offer? First, you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. Also, having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network. 8. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows NT. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS, but not enough to run it efficiently. 9. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows NT? Check the hardware compatibility list (HCL).

Review Questions Chapter 7

1. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. 2. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. An active hub requires some input power. Passive hubs are used only to make connections.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 3. Define a repeater, a bridge, a router, and a gateway. Repeater - A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. They do not translate or filter any information. They do however, amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model. Bridge - A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN, thus reducing the traffic for each segment. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Router - A router has all the features of a bridge, but it can switch packets across multiple networks. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. Not all network protocols will work with a router. For example, NetBEUI is not routable. Gateway - Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. 4. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. 5. A form of digital line that is capable of 1.544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. Name three advanced WAN environments. Frame Relay, ISDN, and SONET 7. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). 8. Name three RAS protocols. SLIP, PPP, PPTP and L2TP 9. Name four forms of RAS security. Auditing, Callback Security, Security host, and PPTP filtering. 10. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. In older modems, BAUD and bps were the same thing.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers

Review Questions Chapter 8

1. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application, Transport, Internet and Network Interface. 2. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP, UDP, IP, ICMP, and ARP. 3. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3, SMTP, FTP, SNMP, and HTTP. 4. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. 5. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. An example is http://www.microsoft.com. 6. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. 7. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. 8. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. 32 10. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11)

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 11. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. 12. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment

Review Questions Chapter 9

1. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status. 2. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network, each device will need to be _________ compliant. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. List as many as you can. Event Viewer, ROUTE, NBTSTAT, NETSTAT and TRACERT.

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What are the six levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 2 Parallel array with ECC RAID 3 Parallel array with parity RAID 4 Striped array with parity RAID 5 Striped array with rotating parity 6. What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. 5. 4. 2. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 10 1. Resources 3. In a share level model. passwords are assigned to __________. What does the acronym RAID stand for? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. 323 .

1 7. 3. and Repair the Problem. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. WINIPCFG from the RUN command. 2. You need to know the IP address of a workstation.0. 324 . You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. Isolate the Problem. and think it might be shorted. 4. After repairing a problem. You have located the cable in question #3. The fox and hound. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. 5. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. What is the loopback IP address? 127. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. You have just connected a workstation to the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1.0. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP. 6. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. 8.

10. Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 325 . You have a Windows NT network and received complaints that the server is running slow.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 9.

......51 active hubs..........................................................................................................68 attributes................................... 121 10BaseFL.........................................77...........................................................123 100VG-AnyLAN..................................... 220 ATM......49 AUI connector.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................257 Banyan VINES...............130 ARP......................................................................................................................... 128 Application Layer....................................................98 AppleShare..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28...............................................................................................................................68 Broadband..235 BOOTP.........................................................115 Active Directory...................................................................................... 121 10Base5................................................................................................95 B backbone.......................................................................................................................51 base memory address......................................................................................................................................................................................87...........123 10Base2.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................121 10BaseT..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................69 C 326 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................88 AWG..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................129 AppleTalk.....................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Index 1 100BaseX.......87 Boot Prom’s.................................................................................................95 Beaconing.................................................................................121 A access method.............................36 Address Resolution Protocol.........................100 Boot Sector........................................................................................................................95 Broadband Optical Telepoint..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................126 binding....................230 Bandwidth.................................................................................................................................................................................171 attenuation......................................................... 88 backup utility.............100 Baseband....................................................................................87...............105 brouter.................73 BNC...................................................................................................................................26 ARCNet.................191 Analog....................................................................................................75.....................................................................................................................................196 BRI..................58 application server...........................................172 bridge.......................................................................................................

.......................116 DES (Data Encryption Standard).................................................169 Class A......................................................33 Carriers..234 Differential backup....................158 connection-oriented...............................................................................................................................................75 demand priority.......................................................................................................194 Domain Reflectometer (TDR)...78 DMA...........45 clients........Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD.........................................................................230 Digital...........................................................................................................90 Cellular Networking.............................................................................................. 194 domain controller....................................................................................................................................................49 Circuit-switched......................................................................................................................................................................115......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................78 coaxial cable.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................50 CSU/DSU.........................................................26 Clocking................................................................................................................235 EISA.....................................................200 Client Software.............................................................................................................86 Computer compatibility......................................................................................60 Data Protection..............................................................99 DLC....98 cloud..........................49.................................90 Category 5....................................................................................................................151 Ethernet...................................................................................................................................................................90 environment...............................................................................................................45 DECnet...................................................................................102 EMI...............................200 Class C...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 116 CSNW...........................................................................................249 DSMN............................................................................................................................................................................................................167 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC)...........................................................................................50 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP)...............118 D Data Link Layer................................................................................................................................................98 Direct Memory Access (DMA)................................................................................................................................................................................... 121 EtherTalk.................................................................................................100 domain........................................................................................................................200 Class B.......................................247 CSMA/CD........................................................49 Domain Name Service (DNS).....................................................................................................................................................................196 dynamic routers.............................................................107 Change..................68 E EES........................166 Category 3..................................................................................73 continuity...........33..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................129 327 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

........................................79 ICS...........................................................................................................................................195 gateways.........................................................192 hubs.......91 File Infectors..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................127 ICA..........................................................................................51 GSNW...................................165 Gigabit Ethernet............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................172 FTP.......................69 Gateways...........95 firewall.....................49 Full-Duplex..................................................................................................................92 IBM Type 3 UTP.................................................................195 HTTP........................................................................................................................................................................................230 Full Control..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................70 Internet Control Message Protocol...................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Event Viewer............................................................................................197 IFCONFIG.................................................................................................................247 Group policies.........................................................................................................................100 IBM cabling.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................105 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers.......................64 Headers.....................228 FPNW.............................................................171 fiber-optic.....................................123 ground probe....................................................................................30 I I/O port number......................................................................................................................................................................................230 FDDI .......95 headers..................................Fiber Distributed Data...............................................................................................................................................................192 HTTPS.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Inc............34 FAT.........................................49 fault tolerance............191 328 .................................................................................230 Infrared..................................................................................................................................................50 H Half-Duplex...................................................................................................... 192 Full backup.............................................................................................178 ICMP......................................................................................................................................................................................................235 fire codes..........................................76.............................................................218 F Fast Ethernet..191 Incremental backup...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................95 G gateway....................................................50 Frame Relay................................................................................................................................118 HOSTS file......................................................220 IMAP4........................................................................................ (IEEE)..............................................................................................................................................................................163 hybrid topologies............................

........................................................................................................................................... 253 IPsec.................................................129 logical topology..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................127 Microwave................................................................................121 LMHOSTS.........190 interoperability............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................52 Macro Virus....................................195 LocalTalk.............................220............................................................................................................................................................................................51 LLC...........................................................236 Managing User Accounts....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................167 K Kerberos.............................................................................................................105 LAT............................................................................................................................................................................................................216 MIC (Media Interface Connectors)............................................48 IP 76...............................................105 Linux...................................................................127 Multimeter................................178 LAN...... 190 IP address............127.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................173 MSAU....... 163 MAUs ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................45 MAU.......................................................................................................100 ISA..............................................35 media access methods.....................................................................75 modem........................198 IPCONFIG.......................................................................................................102 ISDN...75 M Macintosh...............................30 MHS.........................................................................................................48 MIB (Management Information Base)....................78 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol...................................................................................................................................33 Media Compatibility...............................105 MLID.............................................................................41 329 ................................................................................................................................................200 IPX..........................................................................................172 ISDN adapters........................................................................................................................................157 Media Tester.................................................................Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Internet Protocol (IP)....................................................177 IPv6........................................................................................................25 Laser..............................................................................................................................................................................178 L L2TP.................30 LSL.....75 IRQ.......................................................................247 mesh topology......................247 multitasking...............................................................................................178 Line-of-Sight Infrared.........Multiple Access Units...........................................................................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................163 PCI............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide N NAT.......................................................................................................................................................................................................75 NDIS.....75 No Access...........................26 330 ................................................................57 operating system...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................47 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95.........................................................................................................................................................................................169 Packet-Radio Networking..........................................42 Network standards...232 NFS..................................72 Open Systems Interface (OSI)..................................................48 NetWare Print Services..........................40 OS/2..............................................................................................................................196 NBTSTAT...................35 Passwords.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................195 NETSTAT........................................................................................72 NDS (NetWare Directory Services)..............................44 P Packet switching....................................................................................................Primary Domain Controller..................................................................................................48 Network Adapter Cards...................98 passive hub.....................102 PCMCIA......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................49 NOS – Network Operating System.......................................................................98 Network Layer..............50...........................................................................................................................................................121 Network Time Protocol (NTP).....................................................................................................................................................................................................................47 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh.........................48 NetWare security.................................................................................................................................. 76 O ODI...........................................................................................................................77 Network-attached storage (NAS)...................................................................47 NetBEUI..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................233 Patch Panel.........118 parallel communication.............102 PDC ................220 NTFS.........................................................................................................................................218 NCP..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................47 NetWare Client32 for OS/2.................................78 NETBIOS..............................................................................................47 NetWare file server..............................60 Network Neighborhood.......................................77 NLSP....218 NetWare.............................................................................................................................................................................107 packets.............................................................................175 NWLink......................49 Null-Modem............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................47 NetWare Client32 for DOS.........................................................40 NSLOOKUP..

.....................46 ring topology...............151 Server Software........................................................................................................................................................229 removable optical disk...........................................................30 Ping...............................................................................................................................105 relative humidity..................................................................................................................105 SDH...... 164 requester............................................................................................................................................68................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................57.....253 plenum.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................231 RARP......................175 removable disks..................................................................................46 Reflective Infrared.....................................220 PING....................................................................................................79..............................196 Punch Down Tool...................................................45 server-based network...................................246 R Radio.......................................................................................................................................................... 176 PPTP................................................................ 77 ROUTE..............................................................26 331 ............................42 PGP..........................................................................................................................................151 Remote Access Server or RAS...................................234 S SAP.............................................................................................................45.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 225 segment..................68........................41 PRI.......................................................................................................................................79.....................................................Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers peer-to-peer...................................................................................................................................................................... 73 RPC............................................................................................................................105 RAID........................................................................75........................220 Read...........................................................................................................................................................229 repeater........172 security.......................................................................................................218 router......172 protocol.........................................................................................................................................................................................................107 Scatter Infrared...................................................................................................................................................................................................27 Peer-to-peer LANs.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................79 RSA......178 Security................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 176 Preemptive multitasking............................................................................................................................................98 Server room............................................................165 routers.....................76 Satellite Station Networking...................................................................28 serial communication..................................................................... 72 proxy server................................................................................................................................................................................49 redirector........................................................29 RIP..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................235 physical topologies.......................................................................................................................................................114 protocols......95 PPP.................................

........................232 STP..................................................................................88 Transport Layer.........................................................................59 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)...................... 189 Telnet..........................................................................................................216 Simplex............................................................................................229 TCP..................................86 Thinnet..............................................................68 Storage Area Network (SAN)..127 SMB................75 SSL.................................................................... 176 SMAU.....................................................................................................................................................................178 Standards.........................................................................................................................................................................79......................................................159 star topology...................................................................................28 TRACERT.........................77....................................................................................... 116 token ring............................................................90 Subnetting..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................77 terminator...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................172 SPX.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................241 trunk..................................236 troubleshooting........................................................218............................................................................................................................... 192 SNA............249 SONET...................29 static routers.....76 Trojan Horses...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................79..........................................................................................33...............257 TLS.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................76 SMDS............................................................................. 88 thicknet....................................................................................................................................................................................................119 transceiver.................. 192 Software analyzers.................................................................................................28................................................................................................95 SLIP...........................................................................24 SNMP..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 253 Trailer......................................................................................................76........................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Server-based network.............................................................................................................................44 servers.......76 sneaker net..............................................................................................................86 throughput.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 88 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).........................178 token passing...................................26 sharing applications................. 187 332 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................125 topology............24 signal bounce......................89 U UDP.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................203 T tape backup...172 SMTP........................................................................................................................................................................................................76..............28....................28 twisted-pair.............................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................. 171 XDR.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 131 wireless network..............................25..................................................................................................................89 V vampire taps.............................................................................................................................................................................................190 UTP........101 workstation......................................................................................................................................................................................................246 Wireless..............42 Windows for Workgroups...............................................195 Wire Crimper............42 Windows NT Print Servers....................................................................78 333 .....................................................89 virtual connections.......................50 WINS................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................44 Windows 2000................51 User Datagram Protocol (UDP).......................79 XNS.........................................77.......Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers UNIX.....................................31...............................................................234 W WAN...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26 X X.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................104 Wireless NICs......................................170 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks).............................................................................................................................................................................................................25 Warp Connect...........235 VLAN.......161 Windows 95/98...................66 Viruses..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................