Copyright 2009 by KeenSkills, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 24703 US Highway 19-North, Suite 200, Clearwater, FL 33763. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. 02 1 KeenSkills, Inc. Publisher:

Author: KeenSkills, Inc. Contributing Writers: Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Maverick A. Bolen Editor: Susan Schmidt

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS...............................................................................................................I INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+...........................................................................2 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ....................................................................................................18 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST......................................................................................................19 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................19 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................19 Step 1 – Prepare for the Training............................................................................19 Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs).............................................20 Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam................................................................21 Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam.....................................................................21 ABOUT THIS COURSE...........................................................................................................23 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS...................................................24 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING............................................................................................24 Benefits of Networking Computers.............................................................................24 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN).................................25 The Client/Server Relationship...................................................................................26 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................26 Peer-to-Peer Networking............................................................................................27 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).............................................................................28 Bus Topology...............................................................................................................28 Star Topology..............................................................................................................29 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................29 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES...........................................................................................................30 Hybrid Topologies.......................................................................................................30 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................30 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................31 NETWORK ACCESS...............................................................................................................33 Token Passing.............................................................................................................33 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................33 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................34 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS..................................................................................................35 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................35 Active Hubs.................................................................................................................36 Hub-Based Networks...................................................................................................36 SUMMARY...........................................................................................................................37 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...................................................................................................38 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1..........................................................................................39 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS).....................................40 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM?.........................................................................................40 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking.............................................................41 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)?................................................................42 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................42 Windows for Workgroups ......................................................................................42 i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 95/98........................................................................................................42 Windows ME...........................................................................................................43 Windows 2000 Professional....................................................................................43 Windows XP Home.................................................................................................43 Windows XP Professional ......................................................................................43 Windows 2003 Server.............................................................................................43 Windows Vista........................................................................................................43 Windows Server 2008.............................................................................................44 Warp Connect..........................................................................................................44 Other Peer-to-Peer LANs........................................................................................44 Server/Client Software................................................................................................44 Client Software........................................................................................................45 Server Software.......................................................................................................45 The Redirector (Requester).....................................................................................46 NOS PACKAGES.................................................................................................................47 Novell NetWare...........................................................................................................47 NetWare Directory Services (NDS)........................................................................47 NetWare File Services.............................................................................................48 NetWare Security....................................................................................................48 NetWare Print Services...........................................................................................48 NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS)..........................................................48 NetWare Interoperability.........................................................................................48 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System...................................................48 Windows NT File Services......................................................................................49 Windows NT Security.............................................................................................49 Windows NT Print Servers......................................................................................50 Windows NT Services.............................................................................................50 Interoperability........................................................................................................50 Windows 2000 Server.............................................................................................51 UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................51 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service).................................................51 SUMMARY...........................................................................................................................53 KEYWORDS EXERCISE....................................................................................................54 KEYWORDDEFINITIONCLIENT SOFTWARECSNWDSMNFATFILE SERVERGSNWINTEROPERABILITYMHSLINUXMACINTOSHMULTITASKINGNDSNON-PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKINGNOSNTFSNWLINKPREEMPTIVE MULTITASKINGPRINT SERVERREDIRECTOR/REQUESTERSECURITYSERVER SOFTWAREUNIX.........................................54 REVIEW QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................54 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS...........57 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION................................................................57 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL......................................................................................58 Application Layer........................................................................................................58 Presentation Layer......................................................................................................59 Session Layer..............................................................................................................59 Transport Layer..........................................................................................................59 Network Layer.............................................................................................................60 Data Link Layer..........................................................................................................60 Logical Link Control (LLC)........................................................................................61 ii

Table of Contents Media Access Control (MAC).....................................................................................61 Physical Layer.............................................................................................................62 PROTOCOL STACKS..............................................................................................................64 Communication Between Peer Layers........................................................................64 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD.................................................................................................66 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL.............................................................................................68 Repeaters.....................................................................................................................68 Bridges........................................................................................................................68 Routers........................................................................................................................68 Brouters.......................................................................................................................69 Gateways.....................................................................................................................69 IEEE 802 STANDARDS........................................................................................................70 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL..............................................................................72 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)..........................................................72 ODI (Open Data Link Interface).................................................................................72 PROTOCOLS AND OSI...........................................................................................................72 Protocol Binding.........................................................................................................73 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless....................................................................73 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols.........................................................................73 Networking Protocols and Stacks...............................................................................74 AppleTalk....................................................................................................................75 DECnet........................................................................................................................75 IPX/ SPX.....................................................................................................................75 SMB (Server Message Block)......................................................................................76 SNA (Systems Network Architecture)..........................................................................76 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)........................................................................76 IP (Internet Protocol)..................................................................................................76 UDP (User Datagram Protocol).................................................................................76 FTP (File Transfer Protocol)......................................................................................76 Telnet...........................................................................................................................77 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................77 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................77 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................77 NTP (Network Time Protocol)....................................................................................77 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)...............................................................................77 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................77 X.25.............................................................................................................................77 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................78 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................78 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................78 LAT (Local Area Transport).......................................................................................78 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................78 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................79 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................79 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)....................................................................................79 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)................................................................79 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)........................................................79 ISO/OSI Standard.......................................................................................................79 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)...............................................................79 iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide DNS (Domain Name System)......................................................................................79 XDR (External Data Representation).........................................................................79 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................79 SUMMARY...........................................................................................................................81 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...................................................................................................82 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3.........................................................................................84 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................86 NETWORK CABLING.............................................................................................................86 Coaxial Cable.............................................................................................................86 Thinnet.....................................................................................................................86 Thicknet...................................................................................................................86 Summary of Coaxial Cables....................................................................................87 Coaxial Connectors.....................................................................................................87 BNC Cable Connectors...........................................................................................87 N Connectors...........................................................................................................88 Transceivers.............................................................................................................88 Vampire Taps..........................................................................................................89 Twisted-Pair Cable.....................................................................................................89 UTP.........................................................................................................................90 STP..........................................................................................................................90 Twisted-Pair Connectors.........................................................................................90 AppleTalk................................................................................................................90 Distribution Panels..................................................................................................91 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................92 Summary of Cabling....................................................................................................94 Media...........................................................................................................94 CABLING TERMS..................................................................................................................95 AWG (American Wire Gauge)....................................................................................95 Bandwidth...................................................................................................................95 Plenum Grade Cabling...............................................................................................95 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................96 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)....................................................................................98 Preparing the Data.....................................................................................................98 Signals and Clocking..................................................................................................98 Signals.....................................................................................................................98 Clocking..................................................................................................................98 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel).................................................................................99 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................99 Configurable Options..................................................................................................99 IRQ (Interrupt Request).........................................................................................100 Base I/O Port Address...........................................................................................100 Base Memory Address..........................................................................................100 DMA Channel ......................................................................................................100 Boot PROM...........................................................................................................100 Ring Speed............................................................................................................101 Connector Type.....................................................................................................101 iv

.................................................115 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection)................................................................122 10Base2 (Thinnet)..................................121 Ethernet (802..................................................106 Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions.....................................................................................105 Radio Transmission............................................................104 Wireless Transmission Methods...........................................................116 Demand Priority............................106 Microwave.........................................................................122 10Base5 (Thicknet)..................................116 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS).........3)...........124 Token Ring (802............................................................................................................119 Trailer....................................................................122 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic)...........................................121 10BaseT (Twisted Pair).......................................................................................................106 Narrow-Band Radio Transmission..123 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”)..................................115 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance)...................................................................107 Terrestrial Microwave....122 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................101 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE................................................................................................................................................................109 KEYWORDS EXERCISE...................................................................................................118 Packet Structure........................................................................................125 How it Works......................................................................................................................................................................................125 v .................123 Gigabit Ethernet...............................................................................................................................................................................103 WIRELESS NETWORKS........................................................107 Satellite Microwave............................................................................122 100VG-AnyLAN...................................................................116 Token Passing.................................121 Logical Link Control (802...........................................................................................................................................................118 Data......................................................................................................................107 SUMMARY..................................................123 Other Ethernet Considerations..........................................................102 Standard Bus Types....................................................................................2)......105 Infrared Networks...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................102 NETWORK PERFORMANCE...............................................................................................................................................................................101 Fiber-Optic NICs............................................................................................................................................................................................114 ACCESS METHODS..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................110 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4...........................107 Cellular Networking........5).........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................102 Laptops..........................................................................................................Table of Contents Wireless NICs.......................................118 Headers.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................118 Packet Components.........107 Satellite Station Networking..................................................................................................................................119 NETWORK STANDARDS...............................................................104 Why Wireless?.........111 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS.107 Packet-Radio Networking.................

.....................................................126 Multistation Access Unit (The Hub)..............................127 Token Ring Connectors...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................149 Environmental Concerns......................................................................................................139 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE...................................................................................................................................126 Message ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................128 AppleTalk...............................128 Token Ring Adapter Cards.........................................................................................................................................................................................156 Card to Network...................................142 Making the Choice................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................129 AppleShare.....................................................125 Frame Control ...........129 Zones..............................................141 When to Choose Client/Server...........................126 Beaconing..............................................................138 The Network Goals........153 Cable to Hub...141 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer...................................................128 LocalTalk.............................................................................................................................138 The Customer.................................................................................................................................................................................................128 Token Ring Repeaters....................................................158 vi .......153 Cable to Computer...............................................................................................................153 Network Adapter Cards........................................129 TokenTalk.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Start Delimiter .................................................................................................................................................156 Adapter Card Compatibility..................................................................................................................125 Destination Address .........................................................................................151 NOS Selection....................................................................................................................................................................135 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.........................................................................................................133 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.........................................................................................................143 Public and Private networks.......................................................................125 Access Control ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................157 Media Compatibility..................................................................................................................................................................................................129 EtherTalk....138 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT........143 DESIGN THE NETWORK................................................................129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network)...............................127 Token Ring Cabling......................156 Card and Computer...............................................................................................................................................................................154 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY..................132 KEYWORDS EXERCISE.151 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER....................................................................................................127 Token Ring Fiber-Optic...................................................................................................................................125 Source Address .................................................................................................130 SUMMARY.....................................149 Media Selection...127 Token Ring Patch Cables......................................................................151 Protocol Selection.............................................................................................................157 Computer Compatibility......

...................................................................177 IPsec................164 Routers ......................................................................................................................................................159 Standards....................................................................................................................................................................166 WAN Overview...............................163 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL......................................167 Digital Connectivity......................................................................................................................................................................................................................25.........................................................................................................................................................................................164 Repeaters ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................172 SMDS..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................175 RAS Protocols...............................................178 Installing and Configuring RAS................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................181 KEYWORDDEFINITIONANALOG SIGNALBRIDGECARRIERCONCENTRATORCSU/DSUDIGITAL SIGNALDUNFRAME vii ........................................178 SSL.............................................178 ICA (Independent Computing Architecture).......168 Circuit-switched Networks.............................................................................................................................................160 Minimum Requirements...............................................................................................EXPANDING A NETWORK..166 Carriers........................176 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)..............172 MODEMS............159 Hard Work.....169 VLAN.........179 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .......176 SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol)...............................................................................................................................................................................................................163 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................179 Limitations of RAS..............................................................................................................................................................178 Kerberos....................178 TLS...160 HCL and Windows 2000.......................................................................................................................................................................171 X..................................159 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS...........................................................................................167 Analog Connectivity....................................................................................161 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6...............................................177 L2TP................................................................................172 SONET ..........................................................175 Connecting Two Computers..................................................................................................................................................................................165 CONNECTION SERVICES............................................................................................................................................................................................179 Troubleshooting a RAS setup..................................................................................................164 Bridges ..............................................172 ISDN .......................................................171 Frame Relay......170 Advanced WAN Environments.................................172 SDH...........177 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)...........................162 CHAPTER 7 ......165 Gateway ...................................................................................................................................................................................................169 Packet Switching Networks.........................................................................................Table of Contents PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS .......................173 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS)......................................................................................

.....199 Class D and Class E Addresses............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................199 IPv6 (IP Next Generation)..............................................................................200 SUBNETTING..............3211000000 00100100 010192..........................................................................199 Class A Addresses............................................................................................................................................................255................................................097..............................................................................36...................................36................................36.........................................0...................02...............................210 IP Address.....................210 WINS........................................198 IP Addresses......................................................................................................................................................................................................................777.................................255.........................................................................................................255...............216B255..........................................................................................................195 HOSTS file..............................................................................................................................................................................................205 Determine the number of Network IDs required.........Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide RELAYGATEWAYHUBSICAIPSECISDNKERBEROSL2TPMAUPPPPPTPRASREPEATERROUTERS DHSLIPSMAUSONETSSLT1VLANX.....................................189 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9611000000 00100100 100192..................................................................................197 TCP/IP ADDRESSING......186 RFC (Request For Comments)...............................................25.........196 NAT......................................195 BOOTP.....210 DNS....................................................194 WINS........................205 Define the Subnet Mask..............38465.........................194 DNS............................................................................................................................................................................................195 IP Gateway.................................6411000000 00100100 011192................................................................................................................36.205 Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet............................195 NETBIOS....................012616.....................................................36 (overall network address)11000000 00100100 001192...............................196 IP Proxy Servers...............210 viii ...................................................................................................182 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7............................................................................................................................................................................................195 LMHOSTS file...................................................................................................189 Other TCP/IP Protocols..184 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS.......203 ClassDefault Subnet MaskNumber of NetworksNumber of HostsA255.............................186 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP ...............................186 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS.................................................................................................................................................................16011000000 00100100 110192.210 Default Gateway.......................................................................................................207 Binary Network IDDotted-decimal ID11000000 00100100192.....................................192Determine the Host IDs...........................152 254How to Subdivide a Network..36.196 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES...............016..........................208 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS..........12811000000 00100100 101192............................191 NAMING SYSTEMS ........................36...................195 DHCP........................................205 Determine the Network IDs ..................................................0.......................................198 IPv4..................534C255................................................................................................................199 Class B Addresses...........................0.......................................196 ICS.......................................................................................................199 Class C Addresses...........................

.......................229 Tape Backup..........................................................211 KEYWORDS EXERCISE .............................................................................................................................................................................................................220 IFCONFIG...............218 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS..........................................................229 Backup Software..................................................................................................................................................231 Disk Mirroring (RAID 1)...............................................................................................................................................................226 SECURITY TECHNIQUES..................................................232 Surge Protectors......................................................................................232 Fault Tolerance and Power ...................................................216 NETWORK MANAGERS ....Table of Contents DHCP...........................................................................................................................................................229 Removable Disks......230 Disk Striping (RAID 0)..................................................228 Backup Options.................................................................................................228 Blocking Port Numbers................................................220 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG.....................232 ix .............................................................................................................................................................................232 Network-Attached Storage..................................................................................................................................................................................................218 ROUTE....................217 EVENT VIEWER.........................................................................218 TRACERT.......................................................................................212 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8............................................................................... Differential.........................................................................................................................................224 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY...................................................................................................214 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES.........................................................................218 NBTSTAT....................................................................................................228 Firewalls..........................................................................................................................................................................................................216 Agent Software.........................................220 NSLOOKUP................... and Incremental Backups.........................................................................................................220 PING....................................................217 Communities..............................................................................................................................................................................SNMP...........................230 Fault Tolerance and RAID............................225 Share-level Security...........................................................................................................................................................218 NETSTAT..............................................................225 User-level Security..................................................................................................................................................................................................................231 RAID 6 and Beyond............................................231 Storage Area Network (SAN).........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................220 ARP........................................................................................................................................................................................216 Management Software.............................................................................................228 Backing up Data.217 VALIDATION TOOLS........................................................................................................................................................................231 Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5).220 RARP...................................225 USER AND SHARE LEVEL...........................................................230 Full..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................220 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...............................................................................................232 UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)...................................230 Volumes.......222 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9...........................................................................

......................................................................................................................................235 Viruses...........................................260 CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................................................................................................................246 Hardware Networking Tools..........................................................................249 Time Domain Reflectometer...........................257 Application Efficiency........................................256 Bandwidth and Throughput.........................................................................................................250 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS.....................................................................................257 Latency............................................................................................................................255 NIC Indicator Lights................................................................................................................................................................................256 Name Resolution ....................................242 Select the most probable cause.................234 Disaster Recovery......247 Media Tester................................................................................................................................................................................................................................257 KEYWORDS EXERCISE..................................................................241 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING.....................247 The Multimeter.....................................................241 Establish the symptoms: ..................................................................256 Performance..............................................................................................................................246 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools................................................................243 Implement a solution .................261 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY....................................................................................................................244 Test the Result .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................233 Encryption........................................................................................263 x ..........................248 Test Cables..............................................................................247 Tone Generator and Tone Locator.....................................................................................................................................................................................245 Document the solution ......242 Establish what has changed........................................................................246 Punch Down Tool.....................259 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11................................253 Misbehaving Protocols..................................................................................................................................................................................................245 Recognize the potential effects of the solution........................................................................................................................................................................................................................249 Optical Tester...............257 Server/Workstation Limits..................................235 KEYWORDS EXERCISE.........253 Cable Problems.................249 Protocol Analyzer...................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................251 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS ......................................................................246 Wire Crimper............................................................................................................................................................239 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK.....................................241 Identify the affected area .................................................................................................................................238 KEYWORDDEFINITIONDATA ENCRYPTIONDIFFERENTIAL BACKUPDISASTER RECOVERYDISK MIRRORINGDISK STRIPINGFIREWALLFULL BACKUPINCREMENTAL BACKUPNASPASSWORD SECURITYRAIDSANSHARE LEVEL SECURITYUSER LEVEL SECURITYVOLUMES....................238 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10...........................................................................................................245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ................................................................................

.......................................................................CONNECT BETWEEN TERMINALS AND DISTRIBUTION BOXES OR BETWEEN DIFFERENT WIRING CLOSETS.........................................267 OSI MODEL........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................283 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS...............302 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1..........................DATA PATCH CABLES................IEEE 802........................263 ETHERNET CABLING.................280 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM................................................................................7NOT DEFINED8TWO STP – 26 AWG.............................................................................................................277 NOVELL........................................PLENUM GRADE...............................................................2SIX TWISTED PAIRS.....303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3............................................................263 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES....................277 OTHER HELPFUL SITES.......................................................................................................279 ANSI................................ VOICE-GRADE CABLE..................................................280 SAG....................................................................................311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 .............271 TRANSMISSION MEDIA................................................... TWO STP AND FOUR UTP – MAXIMUM LENGTH 100 METERS (328 FEET).....................................................................................CONTAINS A SHIELD FOR USE UNDER CARPETS.....................................................................................................................................9TWO STP –26 AWG WIRE.................................................................................................................................................................................................3FOUR UTP WITH TWO TWISTS PER INCH – 22 OR 24 AWG WIRE –MAXIMUM CABLE LENGTH IS 45 METERS (148 FEET)...277 COMPUSERVE............................................................................................................................281 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY..............271 TCP/IP UTILITIES...................................................................265 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING).......................................306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4....................................................................................................................................................................266 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS.................279 EIA.........................................................................................LOWER COST ALTERNATIVE TO TYPE 1 OR 2...........................5/125-MICRON MULTI-MODE FIBERS.........................................................265 TYPEWIRE SPECSUSES1TWO STP SOLID CORE 22 AWG WIRES – MAXIMUM LENGTH 101 METERS (331 FEET)..........274 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS..280 ISO..............FIBER OPTIC6TWO STP – 26 AWG WIRE.314 xi ..................................................270 TCP/IP PORTS...................279 CCITT.................................................................................. BUT ADDS VOICE CAPABILITY ALONG WITH DATA........................................................................................................................................................................................279 IEEE...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................271 TOPOLOGY REVIEW...................................................................................................269 SUBNET MASKING................................................................274 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES.SAME AS TYPE 1..................... CANNOT BE USED FOR 16 MBPS TOKEN RING...........................................................Table of Contents 5-4-3 RULE...................4NOT DEFINED5TWO 62...........................................................277 MICROSOFT:.........................................................308 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.........X STANDARDS..264 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES.................................302 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2...............................................................................................................................................................................281 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS.........................................277 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS.......

..........................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 .......................................................................................318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10............................................................317 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11.......................................315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8................320 INDEX....................................................322 xii .......

We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! 1 . and Digital Video Studio Professionals. It can be used in conjunction with the QuickCert Network+ video training series. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. Technical Editors. Technical Writers. Computer Graphics Experts. at QuickCert. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. or as a textbook in a classroom environment. our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. easy to follow format. as a stand-alone textbook. Remember.Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives.

0 Network Devices 4. Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content.0 Network Management 5.” “This examination includes blueprint weighting. test objectives and example content.comptia.0 Network Technologies 2.0 Network Tools 6.aspx dated 12/12/08: “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey.0 Network Security Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 17% 20% 12% 11% 100% 2 .0 Network Media and Topologies 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association The following excerpt is from http://certification.org/resources/objectives. The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1.” The exam consists of 100 questions with a maximum allowable time of 90 minutes and you must achieve a score of 720 within the possible range of 100 to 900 to pass.

0 Network Technologies 1.Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: 1.1 Explain the function of common networking protocols TCP FTP UDP TCP/IP suite DHCP TFTP DNS HTTP(S) ARP SIP (VoIP) RTP (VoIP) SSH POP3 NTP IMAP4 Telnet SMTP SNMP2/3 ICMP IGMP TLS 1.2 Identify commonly used TCP and UDP default ports TCP ports 3 .

g. private 4 . classless (e. Supernetting) NAT PAT SNAT Public vs.4 Given a scenario.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide FTP – 20. 21 SSH – 22 TELNET – 23 SMTP – 25 DNS – 53 HTTP – 80 POP3 – 110 NTP – 123 IMAP4 – 143 HTTPS – 443 UDP ports TFTP – 69 DNS – 53 BOOTPS/DHCP – 67 SNMP – 161 1. CIDR. evaluate the proper use of the following addressing technologies and addressing schemes Addressing Technologies Subnetting Classful vs.3 Identify the following address formats IPv6 IPv4 MAC addressing 1.

dynamic Next hop Understanding routing tables and how they pertain to path selection Explain convergence (steady state) 1. dynamic APIPA) Addressing schemes Unicast Multicast Broadcast 1.11 a/b/g/n o Speeds o Distance o Channels o Frequency Authentication and encryption 5 .7 Compare the characteristics of wireless communication standards 802.5 Identify common IPv4 and IPv6 routing protocols Link state OSPF IS-IS Distance vector RIP RIPv2 BGP Hybrid EIGRP 1.6 Explain the purpose and properties of routing IGP vs.Introduction DHCP (static. EGP Static vs.

UTP Multimode fiber.0 Network Media and Topologies 2.2 Identify common connector types RJ-11 RJ-45 BNC SC ST LC 6 . Non-plenum Properties: Transmission speeds Distance Duplex Noise immunity (security. single-mode fiber Coaxial o RG-59 o RG-6 Serial Plenum vs. CAT5e. EMI) Frequency 2.1 Categorize standard cable types and their properties Type: CAT3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide o WPA o WEP o RADIUS o TKIP 2. CAT5. CAT6 STP.

5 Categorize WAN technology types and properties Type: Frame relay E1/T1 ADSL SDSL VDSL Cable modem Satellite E3/T3 OC-x Wireless ATM 7 .3 Identify common physical network topologies Star Mesh Bus Ring Point to point Point to multipoint Hybrid 2. differentiate and implement appropriate wiring standards 568A 568B Straight vs.4 Given a scenario.Introduction RS-232 2. cross-over Rollover Loopback 2.

6 Categorize LAN technology types and properties Types: Ethernet 10BaseT 100BaseTX 100BaseFX 1000BaseT 1000BaseX 10GBaseSR 10GBaseLR 10GBaseER 10GBaseSW 10GBaseLW 10GBaseEW 10GBaseT Properties 8 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide SONET MPLS ISDN BRI ISDN PRI POTS PSTN Properties Circuit switch Packet switch Speed Transmission media Distance 2.

7 Explain common logical network topologies and their characteristics Peer to peer Client/server VPN VLAN 2.Introduction CSMA/CD Broadcast Collision Bonding Speed Distance 2.1 Install.0 Network Devices 3.8 Install components of wiring distribution Vertical and horizontal cross connects Patch panels 66 block MDFs IDFs 25 pair 100 pair 110 block Demarc Demarc extension Smart jack Verify wiring installation Verify wiring termination 3. configure and differentiate between common network devices Hub 9 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Repeater Modem NIC Media converters Basic switch Bridge Wireless access point Basic router Basic firewall Basic DHCP server 3.4 Implement a basic wireless network 10 .2 Identify the functions of specialized network devices Multilayer switch Content switch IDS/IPS Load balancer Multifunction network devices DNS server Bandwidth shaper Proxy server CSU/DSU 3.3 Explain the advanced features of a switch PoE Spanning tree VLAN Trunking Port mirroring Port authentication 3.

procedures and configurations Regulations 4.0 Network Management 4. physical and logical network diagrams. evaluate the network based on configuration management documentation Compare wiring schematics. 11 . baselines. physical and logical network diagrams.3 Given a scenario.Introduction Install client Access point placement Install access point o Configure appropriate encryption o Configure channels and frequencies o Set ESSID and beacon Verify installation 4.2 Identify types of configuration management documentation Wiring schematics Physical and logical network diagrams Baselines Policies.1 Explain the function of each layer of the OSI model Layer 1 – physical Layer 2 – data link Layer 3 – network Layer 4 – transport Layer 5 – session Layer 6 – presentation Layer 7 – application 4. policies and procedures and configurations to network devices and infrastructure Update wiring schematics.

6 Given a scenario. connectivity software. history logs. implement the following network troubleshooting methodology Information gathering – identify symptoms and problems Identify the affected areas of the network Determine if anything has changed Establish the most probable cause Determine if escalation is necessary 12 . throughput testers) System logs. load testing.4 Conduct network monitoring to identify performance and connectivity issues using the following: Network monitoring utilities (e. event logs 4.5 Explain different methods and rationales for network performance optimization Methods: QoS Traffic shaping Load balancing High availability Caching engines Fault tolerance Reasons: Latency sensitivity High bandwidth applications o VoIP o Video applications Uptime 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide configurations and job logs as needed 4. packet sniffers.g.

7 Given a scenario. troubleshoot common connectivity issues and select an appropriate solution Physical issues: Cross talk Nearing crosstalk Near End crosstalk Attenuation Collisions Shorts Open impedance mismatch (echo) Interference Logical issues: Port speed Port duplex mismatch Incorrect VLAN Incorrect IP address Wrong gateway Wrong DNS Wrong subnet mask Issues that should be identified but escalated: o Switching loop o Routing loop o Route problems o Proxy arp 13 .Introduction Create an action plan and solution identifying potential effects Implement and test the solution Identify the results and effects of the solution Document the solution and the entire process 4.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide o Broadcast storms Wireless Issues: o Interference (bleed.11 a/b/g/n) o Distance o Bounce o Incorrect antenna placement 5. environmental factors) o Incorrect encryption o Incorrect channel o Incorrect frequency o ESSID mismatch o Standard mismatch (802.0 Network Tools 5.1 Given a scenario.2 Explain the purpose of network scanners 14 . select the appropriate command line interface tool and interpret the output to verify functionality Traceroute Ipconfig Ifconfig Ping Arp ping Arp Nslookup Hostname Dig Mtr Route Nbtstat Netstat 5.

0 Network Security 6.3 Given a scenario. utilize the appropriate hardware tools Cable testers Protocol analyzer Certifiers TDR OTDR Multimeter Toner probe Butt set Punch down tool Cable stripper Snips Voltage event recorder Temperature monitor 6.Introduction Packet sniffers Intrusion detection software Intrusion prevention software Port scanners 5. stateless 15 . network layer Stateful vs.1 Explain the function of hardware and software security devices Network based firewall Host based firewall IDS IPS VPN concentrator 6.2 Explain common features of a firewall Application layer vs.

3 Explain the methods of network access security Filtering: ACL o MAC filtering o IP filtering Tunneling and encryption o SSL VPN o VPN o L2TP o PPTP o IPSEC Remote access o RAS o RDP o PPPoE o PPP o VNC o ICA 6.4 Explain methods of user authentication PKI Kerberos AAA o RADIUS o TACACS+ 16 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Scanning services Content filtering Signature identification Zones 6.

HTTP.Introduction Network access control o 802. FTP. SNMPv3. HTTPS. SNMPv1/2 6. RCP. SCP o TELNET.6 Identify common security threats and mitigation techniques Security threats DoS Viruses Worms Attackers Man in the middle Smurf Rogue access points Social engineering (phishing) Mitigation techniques Policies and procedures User training Patches and updates 17 .1x CHAP MS-CHAP EAP 6. SFTP.5 Explain issues that affect device security Physical security Restricting local and remote access Secure methods vs. RSH. unsecure methods o SSH.

Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not complicated. Practice the function on your computer. it may seem so. Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. use a study plan. To get the best results from your training. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. Use the “Help” button where available. 18 . not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. if this is your first exposure to networking. Hands-on experience is best. However.

How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam. 1999. There are no specific requirements. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam. except payment of the test fee. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. Since most of us learn in different ways. French and Japanese. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive. • • • How do you learn best (reading. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. there is no one method that will work for everyone.Introduction How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 19 . Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test. German. YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING QUICKCERT TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. CONGRATULATIONS. watching. but A+ certification is not required.

Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises. If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. go though the entire course again. • Complete the course a second time. Use the rewind button as often as necessary. If you need to. you want to begin to understand. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point. Re-read the test and review the video presentation. just get a feel for it. Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through. 20 . Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). This workbook will make this task much easier. You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. Make an appointment with yourself. set aside the time to learn. At this time. Based on your time to learn (and your schedule).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Make a plan to learn. Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time.

2test. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. so one should be located near you. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. call 888-895-6116 or go online to www. Evaluate the questions you missed. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer.Introduction Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test.com. Prometric and VUE have testing centers around the world. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams.com. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam. You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. Part of the registration process is payment of the exam fee. As you prepare for your certification exam it may be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. To schedule your exam with VUE. You will be required to show two forms of identification. call 877-551-7587 or go online to www. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam To schedule your exam with Prometric. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. • • • 21 . including one photo ID. You will be asked to sign the form.vue. The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam.

skip it. ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! 22 . answer the question.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • It is a closed book exam. Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. (You don’t need to send them the score report. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. If you don’t know the answer. Keep track of the time and pace yourself. It lists your score by objective. If the administrator does not do this.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. mark a question or answer a question. guess. (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. If you positively don’t know the answer. If you know the answer. HINT . You have 90 minutes. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. or if you are unclear about what you should do. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. marked or skipped. you can see which questions are not answered. (That may not sound like much. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers. but be sure to read it in its entirety. but it really is plenty!) Usually. Before retaking the exam. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. you are given the ability to skip a question. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. If you’re not quite sure. mark it and come back to it. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. Do not read too much into the question. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered.

It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course.Introduction About This Course This study guide is divided into 11 chapters. 23 .

Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. files. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. users can access programs. peripherals. Additionally. But for our purposes.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than purchasing a printer for every user.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN. It is very important that. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?).” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. you understand exactly what a network is. a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data. 24 . Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. Through networking. as a networking professional. and applications (resources).

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information. When LANs are connected they create a WAN. The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. A WAN can connect networks in the same building or across the world. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. it is still considered a LAN. There is really a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or 25 .

and is a client. The Internet has replaced most MANs today. Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. when the user is getting information from the server. or a mail server (E-mail). For example. one is designated as the primary server. Usually in a network with multiple servers. A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. and expandability. Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. also known as clients. These terms are not interchangeable. 26 . Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. including hard disk space and RAM. For example. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). efficiency in backing up the data. Also. in Windows NT. It is important to know what a MAN is. configuration and management may be more challenging. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. including applications. that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. network security. the primary server is called the PDC or Primary Domain Controller. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. one for printing (print server). the servers are all peers.`` The advantages of this type of network are central administration. However. The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide county. log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. A large network may have more than one server. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. that access would cause the workstation to become a server. In Windows 2000 server and beyond. since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. A mainframe will handle all the functions. but they are not common. Users. one for applications (application server).

A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install. Also. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network. Peer-to-Peer Network 27 . a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. network security is unreliable.g. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e. The computers are simply cabled together. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security.

However. There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). or topology. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. (Network Interface Cards. are all determined by the topology used. This cable is called a trunk. As a network professional. and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. if the cable breaks or becomes disconnected. In a Bus network. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. refers to its physical layout. connectors. design.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). future growth needs. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used. and even how the cabling is run through a building. The Bus topology is a passive topology. it prevents other devices from sending data. or diagram. backbone. scheme. only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. To stop signal bounce. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. also called Network Adapter Cards). The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). or segment. the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. If not prevented. 28 . Devices only listen for data being transmitted. they do not move the transmissions along. An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. map. NICs. Different topologies have different cabling requirements. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable.

The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. Resources and files can be managed from one location. the entire network will go down.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Star Topology In a Star topology. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. it can affect the entire network. Ring Topology In a Ring topology. making it much easier to perform administrative tasks such as data backups. A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. however. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. If the hub fails. but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. the rest of the network will still continue to function. Star Topology The hub used in this type of topology provides an excellent point for centralized administration. 29 . There are no ends to terminate.

This is where a network consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. 30 . However.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies. This gives us a physical star topology. but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. These are known as Hybrid topologies. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. we have been discussing physical topologies. A logical topology. on the other hand. This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. they operate like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. You will be able to see a physical topology. For example. most Token Rings are physical stars and logical rings. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. is how the network actually works. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. So far. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. Also. most Ethernet networks today are wired using a hub.

31 .Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points (such as routers). The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter four of this book.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 32 .

We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards. Multiple Access means that more than one computer can be connected to the same cable. The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices. The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in 33 . With several devices connected to one media. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. It also uses the Bus topology discussed earlier in this lesson. we create a party line.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. and the message is delivered.

Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks. thus avoiding possible transmission collisions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted). This differs from CSMA/CD by having each computer signal its intent to transmit before it actually transmits data. Ethernet can also use CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance). Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original. 34 . Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps.

The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator. hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function. Essentially. Hubs can be classified as either passive or active.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks. Just remember. they are all the same. since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network. With a Token Ring. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only. They do not require any electrical power to function. they are called MAUs (Multiple Access Units). Passive Hub – Patch Panel 35 . not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. Today.

36 . Hub-based networks are being replaced by switch-based networks. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity. which run more efficiently.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs. They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. 3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated. 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. They require electrical power to function.

If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. The three main types of topology are bus. 37 . Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. A WAN is not geographically limited and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. star. and ring. go back and review the chapter again. A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network. Topology is a term we use to describe the connection of computers in a network.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition 38 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 39 .

40 . 8. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 5. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. 9.Chapter 1 1.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions . 10. What is a “sneaker net”? 4. What is the key difference between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12. Name the three basic topologies. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. 7. Name two media access methods. 11.

41 . What is an Operating System? Not that long ago. The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. it will just sit there. it is just a pile of metal and plastic. Hardware resources such as RAM. if you don’t have the software to run it. as well as the operating system. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. when we refer to operating systems. In this chapter. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). Today. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. You can get it all set up and turn on the power. we will be referring to network operating systems.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . word-processing.Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. hard disk space. Some network operating systems are intended to work with an existing operating system that runs the computer only. and others are designed to run the computer as well as the network interfaces. spreadsheet. what we are really talking about are network operating systems. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe.g. and database programs). The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. When we are talking about operating systems. processor time. but without an operating system. In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems that are available. network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system. This chapter is all about the various operating systems that a networking professional needs to be familiar with.

Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. put simply. A true multitasking operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors. Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. the processor is never taken away from a task. In non-preemptive multitasking. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. 42 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs.

Resources have to be publicly listed as available for sharing in order for other users to see (and therefore use) them. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. or a similar program. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. Then. and you have a working network. thereby allowing sharing of files and peripherals. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. Basically. to communicate with other computers over a network. Windows 95 uses an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. Windows for Workgroups is compatible (if in a limited way) with NetWare. a group of computers was connected in a Workgroup. Windows for Workgroups Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. Instead. Windows 95 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. This version included an E-mail program (Microsoft Mail) and a scheduling program (Schedule+) in its suite. MS LAN Manager. Windows 95/98 Windows 95 was the first Windows program to actually be an operating system. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. such as BSD UNIX. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. Drive letters are assigned to shared directories and peripherals and a redirector routes the requests to the proper location of the resource. Its new graphical interface and networking capabilities made it a vast improvement over its predecessor. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to 43 . Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. turning on the computer and answering questions. All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood.1 that included the capability to run a peer-to-peer network.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. Novell NetWare. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs. all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network.

It also uses System Restore. driver certification. Windows 2003 Server Windows 2003 Server. It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. Datacenter. It features file protection. and Web. this OS adds features that would include being able to join a domain. Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems. the home versions are unable to join a domain. based on Windows 2000 Server technologies. Vista Home Premium. that will automatically adjust the Windows Firewall. and much more depending on the version purchased. remote OS installation. and Vista Ultimate. Internet Explorer 7. IPsec and Kerberos support. an enhanced media center. which allows for safety with possible data loss. Enhanced networking is built in. a simplified visual design. is a very common Microsoft NOS that can be used as a domain controller or a member server. Enterprise. Windows Mail. This server also came in four edition. Like Windows XP. Standard. Similar to Windows XP Home. like Windows Defender. Windows Vista adds in many options to the OS. Windows Vista Windows Vista comes in four different editions. This version of the Microsoft server family built in an additional security center. This was also a benchmark in Microsoft's history because this was the first time a workstation was not released as the same time as the server. moving photos to the Web. designed for the business environment. like ME. and archiving music. Windows XP Professional Windows XP Professional edition is a very common client in the Microsoft’s OS family. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is a newer edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. It is well-suited for editing home movies. It. Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. Vista Business. It allows for faster user switching. is set up to be networked easily. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. EFS (Encrypting File System). User Account Control. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. Windows XP Home can not join a domain though. Vista Home basic. 44 . like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. multilingual support.

This provides a more reliable network with better security than Windows for Workgroups. It enhances reliability.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Windows Server 2008 Windows Server 2008 is a build upon Windows 2003 Server. Microsoft went on to develop Windows NT and IBM released OS/2 Warp. After this project failed to meet their expectations they dissolved the relationship. security. As with Windows 2003 Server. Warp Connect is used to combine OS/2 Warp and WIN-OS/2 peer-to-peer networking. Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across: 45 . It takes advantage of 64-bit processing as well giving greater capabilities. supports remote clients. Datacenter. Standard. and focuses on performance. and Web. Warp Connect OS/2 was a joint project with IBM and Microsoft. Enterprise. Windows Server 2008 had four versions.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. In a Serverbased network. 46 . the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability. Inc. the computers act as both a client and a server. It also provides accessibility and security for all devices on a network. However. Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (provides resources locally). Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment.

At the very least. Replication is simply 47 . data protection is performed by a process called replication. They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. and to the server. the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location. out onto the network. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. Data Protection As we already discussed. Unlike most client software. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector. In a network with multiple servers. However. Servers exist to serve. Server Software As their name implies. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. most of the data is stored on the server.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access).

This way. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer. The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. or if they need to be redirected to the server. the other server can take over immediately. called drive designators. Basically. if one server goes down. 48 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide making a copy of the data stored on one server on another server. to resources. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. etc. It does not need to know anything about networks. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. It does this by assigning drive letters. If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus.

Today.51 followed.1) and it used the same graphical interface as Windows 3. Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. Unlike NetWare. Windows NT 3.0 uses the same interface as Windows 95. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. With this method. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. but it does have several advantages. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments. Files in Windows NT may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. Change. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows NT (NT stands for New Technologies). Windows NT File Services Like NetWare. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software). another method of sharing must be utilized. With these versions. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories.1 (as in Windows 3. Full Control. This type is performed by each Workstation or Server publicly sharing a directory on the network. Windows NT’s first version was 3. the Windows NT Server may be configured to store each Workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. 49 . Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. In this section.1. The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. or No Access may be set on the directory. Windows NT combines the computer and the network operating system into one.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use. the differences between Server and Workstation began to manifest themselves and NT began to utilize network groups called domains. NT 4. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. The NT technology actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows NT. The attributes such as Read. The advanced security features of NT are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT .File Allocation Table) during installation.5 and 3. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of NT’s server/workstation technology. You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows NT network.

Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in NT. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases. The following is a list of services included with NT to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between NT and NetWare. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. NT employs domains to deal with this problem. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer. A domain controller is assigned to each network. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions). Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service. This is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. 50 . permissions. Workstation Service is the redirector service in NT.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows NT Security Security was a major concern in the development of NT. Even if you are installing a local printer. Server Service provides access to network resources.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. This is necessary because all NT workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. Remember. you are given the option to share it to the network. Windows NT Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in NT. Windows NT Services There are many services available in NT to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. and user rights. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene.

Windows 2008 Server is extremely capable of handling the tasks. general-purpose operating system. and full support of a 64-bit system. UNIX is a multi-tasking. and is. improved security. In doing this. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators. Windows 2003 Server Windows 2003 Server is more widely used now than Windows 200 Server. it paved the way for other programs to be integrated like Share Point.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the NT service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to NT. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. used as such. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. This software does not come with NT and is purchased separately. and many other features founded in Windows 2000 Server. it is a continuation of the NT platform. which govern how an object and its child behave. clustering services. multi-user. Windows 2008 Server Windows 2008 Server is the newest NOS Microsoft has released. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory. With more management tools. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives. Active Directory. UNIX is a bulky operating system. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to NT’s domain controller. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network. By enhancing security. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. Windows 2008 and 2003 Servers work well together supporting a myriad of application and support. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. Windows 2003 Server also reorganized system and network accounts to make deployment even easier. Windows 2003 Server is widely used today. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional. It is part of the GSNW service. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. Software is 51 . Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. Like in previous versions. storage management.

Linux has hundreds of distributions available. it was an extremely popular network operating system. and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC. both at home and on the go. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. to convert the UNIX host into a file server. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction to the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book). It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms. Linux Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. as well as file and printer sharing. as well as others. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows NT. and many other features associated with an OS. security. VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. 52 . however. StreetTalk provides directory. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide available. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. but SUSE Linux became the new backbone for NetWare. and messaging services. Like Novell NetWare. Macintosh The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. OS/2. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. they developed what later came known to be the mouse and the first GUI display. At its inception. but users also use them personally. At one time. Red Hat is probably the most widely used distribution. In conjunction with Xerox. TCP/IP. UNIX. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system.

Study through the chapter again if you need to. A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare).). In a server-based network. and data backups. Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. an application is unaware that it is working from a network. Today. There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. Banyan VINES. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely).Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems. etc. the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network). With the redirector. It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. centralization of administration. (UNIX. such as Novell NetWare and Windows NT. It is also important that you to know the minimum hardware requirements for Novell NetWare and Windows NT. the client computers rely on the server for their resources. Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. In a peer-to-peer network. and at least be familiar with others. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security. 53 . the most popular network operating systems also function as the operating system.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise 54 .

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) EYWORDS Exercise Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition 55 .

10. 9. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? 2. 5. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? 8. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? 3. What is a domain? 56 . Define interoperability. Purchasing NetWare requires a type of licensing.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions 1. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. What is the purpose of the redirector? 4. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. Unlike NetWare. What is NTFS? 11. What happens when the number of users exceeds the number of licenses? 6. What is NDS? 7.

16. 15. What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? 57 . Describe a UNIX system.12. Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What are the minimum hardware requirements for a Windows NT Workstation? 13. What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? 18. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? 17. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 14.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 58 .

and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications. 59 . and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. The Seven Layers of Network Communication The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles which function. what it is and what its primary function is. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other.The OSI Model and Communication Standards In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model. when not to transmit. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. and which devices function at which layer. how the data will flow (at what speed).Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Chapter 3. As a result.

60 . Seven Layers of the OSI Model The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network. This layer and the lowest layer (Physical layer) are the only layers that do not add a header to a packet before passing the data along. These services include file. and messaging services. print. depending upon their functions. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you probably notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer.

The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. or receive. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. 61 . The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. is The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. and un-packaging the data for transport. etc. This connection called a session.) character set conversion. transfer files across the network. half-duplex. The network redirector operates at this layer. and prepare it for its journey. managing.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. and ending connections. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. Sessions may be established using simplex. In short. interpreting graphics commands. protocol conversion. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. it will break the data into packets. This layer is responsible for establishing. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. or access a network database. This is not the actual application or program. This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. As its name implies. and data encryption. add any addressing information and error correction information. and when. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. it presents data to the application layer. bit ordering. or full-duplex communication. This layer is also responsible for data compression.

If using a connectionless protocol. When the data is received. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses. Once the data is reassembled. Should an error occur. In an ideal world. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. and error free. For example. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. If they are too large. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. checked for errors. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. This layer is responsible for communication from NIC to NIC. This controls network congestion. Routers and NICs function on this layer. however.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. without duplication. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them. If using a connection-oriented protocol. stripped of its addressing information. it will be un-packed. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. error free manner. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. For example. Connectionless protocols are faster. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. they will be broken into smaller packets. It receives a packet from the Network layer and 62 . if the packets are too small. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets. UDP is a connectionless protocol. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. they will be combined together.

Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. segmentation information and routing information. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. Although quite rare. The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. 63 . It identifies a line protocol. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. If it is not. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized. The way that a network shares the channel is called its access method. The IEEE 802. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. If the calculation does not check out. such as SDLC. it discards it. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). In addition.2 standard defines how this takes place. If it is. the destination computer will ask for a retransmission. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. and Demand Priority. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers.) It also includes control information such as frame type. Token Passing.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards packages it into what is called a frame. the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions.

Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model.ch/.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Here is an example of a MAC address: 00-00-13-35-FD-AB Bridges operate at the Data Link layer. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets. For example. work at the Data Link and Physical layer of the OSI model. Note: For more information on the OSI Model. 64 . and what each one will do. visit www. It identifies the NIC. Devices such as repeaters. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. Multipoint communication is where one computer talks to two or more computers. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. transceivers. and receivers all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. synchronizes the data. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals.iso. and determines when and how data may be transmitted. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. Point-topoint communication is where one computer communicates with one other. passive hubs (or simple active hubs). Switches. The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 65 .

In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. and provides services to the layer directly above it. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. (Remember. As the packet travels up through the layers. For example: You send a request for services to the server. The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. The header information actually contains instructions for its peer on the receiving computer. over the network medium. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. each layer is responsible for performing certain functions. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted and the request processed. 66 . in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. each layer strips its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. In addition to adding or removing headers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. The Physical layer does not add a header. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task.) The request is in the form of a packet. or suite. the Application layer is not the actual application. This is called a protocol stack. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer. When the destination computer receives the data.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical LayerSignals or Bits or Data Stream into FramesData Link LayerFrames into PacketsNetwork LayerFrames or Datagrams into SegmentsTransport LayerSegments into dataSession LayerDataPresentation LayerDataApplication LayerData into Data Files or Messages 67 . they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers. Because of this.

Also. it would not match. Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 68 . This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. In fact. the OSI Model is not real. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol.

it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. Without them we would not have nearly as many software or hardware packages available to us. etc. 69 . you do need to remember the different layers and what task each layer is responsible for. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments.

will search its connections and 70 . Each static router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it. the routing information is permanent and requires an administrator to change. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. A repeater reconditions and re-times these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change. A dynamic router. as well as where in the OSI model they operate.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. The first is a static router. Repeaters. Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. bridges. on the other hand. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network. etc.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT There are two different types of routers: static routers and dynamic routers. routers. Routers are similar to bridges except that they make intelligent decisions about routing a signal to its destination. are going to be used when they write a program. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. This weakening is known as attenuation. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. Data Link layer and the Network layer. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. With these routers.

if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols. the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing. Since the routing information is in a constant state of change it is dynamic.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards automatically update the routing information. Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers. The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate. If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). 71 . It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router. but usually in the Application layer). A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. However.

3 802.2 802. February 1980).12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN. a little surfing might be in order.11 802.4 802.standards.6 802. These standards were prepared before the OSI standards. visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www. 72 . (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs.8 802.ieee. Inc.7 802.5 802. and if you would like more information on them.10 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers.1 802.9 802.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards. The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802. but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 73 .

However. Network protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. 74 . NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments. the NIC also needs a device driver to function. This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. the network. The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. and hence.

There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected together using a device called a router. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. Connection-Oriented vs. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. Connectionless communication is faster. For example. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. You have no confirmation (unless they call you back) that they got the message. if TCP/IP is bound first. In a connectionless scenario. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. but connection-oriented is more reliable. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. 75 . In connection-oriented communication. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party. In today’s LANs however. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on their answering machine.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. In a connectionless communication. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function. and in full. Routable vs. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. If that fails. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. Protocol Binding In order to function.

The networking professional should be familiar with the more common ones and should also know which are routable and which OSI layer they function in. Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks. It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet). 76 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X.

AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – This manages file sharing.1 has incorporated TCP/IP into its design. It is a routable protocol. IPX/ SPX Even though Novell NetWare 5. AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – This provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – This provides Application layer services for Macintosh. In addition to hop count. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer.) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. It resides in the Network layer. At the Session layer it establishes and 77 • • • • • • . This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite. and handles file and print services. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. the majority of NetWare networks function with this proprietary protocol suite. It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces. This stack has many protocols within it: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. regardless of speed. DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. At the Presentation layer it handles data translation. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol. It resides in the Network layer. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – This provides transmission of packets across a network. It chooses the route with the fewest hops.

It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking). No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. It is also layered on IP like TCP. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). • SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. TCP and IP. 78 . FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. making it connectionless. We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. and connection-oriented error control services. It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. then TFTP would be advisable over FTP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide controls sessions. At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. If you do not need to use passwords. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. flow control.

The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. X. it will send out a “discovery packet” over the network. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. ARP will first check its list and if a matching address is not found. It is an Application layer protocol. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. A sending computer must know the MAC address of the destination computer in order to send data. but in reverse. but in addition.25 network.25 X. It uses standard telephone lines and switches. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP keeps a table of matching MAC and IP addresses. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. instead of only the number of hops. It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. without regard to speed. OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use. It resides in the Network layer. The second part 79 . The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). This is the host on an X. this is also a Network layer protocol.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization.25 is also an equipment specification. It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond by sending its MAC address.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. X. In addition.

easy to configure and small. Data is routed via the best connection at a given time. It is fast. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN. This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced). It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers. NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable. Because of this. only printing functions. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs. This means that routes change as conditions change. the X. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions. it is out of the administrator’s control. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. Instead. This protocol is not used for data communication. LAT (Local Area Transport) This protocol does not have a Network layer and that is the reason it is non-routable. XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. Data goes in and comes out. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. but in between. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end. It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP.25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. X. it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. It may be used with bridges. but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. 80 .

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Other Protocols The following are some protocols that the networking professional needs to be familiar with: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. and connection release. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. It does not support IPX. NetBEUI. NWLink and NetBEUI. administration. It also supports data encryption. It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. It handles session establishment. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. and notifies upper layers to route around them. 81 . SLIP is not used as much as PPP. DHCP. NetBEUI. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. It maintains a database and provides name-to-address mappings for applications. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. This protocol supports IPX. or DHCP. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. and others as well as TCP/IP. Like a traffic report on your radio. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. it detects congested areas and links that are down. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. file transfers. RPC is used by the redirector to determine if a resource is local or on the network. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely from over the Internet.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. 82 .

83 . The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Summary In this chapter. For example. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other. if you can get to the server through a router. we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three.

x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition 84 . Keyword 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 85 . Who developed the OSI model? 2. 3. 10. 6. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. 5. 7. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. Which OSI layer is responsible for NIC to NIC communication? 8. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. What is a MAC address? 13. managing. 4. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. and ending connections? 12.

Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. Which is faster. What are NDIS and ODI? 19. without duplication and error free? 15. 20. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 18. What are they? 16. 22. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. What is the function of a Gateway? 17. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 21. Describe protocol binding.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. Will this work? Why or Why not? 86 .

and easy to install. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. Because it is shielded. Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable is fairly inexpensive. video. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). or DIX (Digital.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential. which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. There are several cabling options. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. and other hardware and peripherals. Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. light. 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. flexible. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover. There are numerous kinds of cable. network adapter cards. 87 . How to properly configure and use network adapter cards.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. It can transmit voice. and the hardware aspect of network operations. Xerox). along with connectors. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. and learning how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. Intel. It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. It consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation. which we will address here.

It is expressed in ohms. 88 . Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. it is not as easy to install. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. BNC Cable Connectors The BNC cable connector that is used to connect cable segments is the T connector. They are specified based on their impedance. Thicknet is often used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. It is attached directly to the NIC. as well as how they are attached to the cables. It is either soldered or crimped to the end of the cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. UsesTypeImpedan ce – Ohms 10Base5 ThicknetRG-850 10Base5 ThicknetRG-1150 10Base2 ThinnetRG-5850 Cable TVRG-5975 ARCnetRG-6293 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. It is more expensive than Thinnet but does offer longer segment lengths. BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable.

This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. and is used to connect the device to the network. It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet. The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. and an AUI cable. 89 . The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors). Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. One of the terminators must be grounded. BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on.

These clamp-on transceivers are often referred to as vampire taps because they utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. Instead. this is so time-consuming that it is not the common approach.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today. These twists help prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. This cable type consists of two insulated strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another. 90 . most networking professionals use a clamp-on transceiver. The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling.

it is more sensitive to EMI. there are six categories. Currently. up to 100 Mbps. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. The following is a summary of UTP cables. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. and a higher bandwidth. An RJ-11 jack has four 91 . UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. Twisted Pair Cabling Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. less crosstalk. Since it is unshielded.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per inch in each pair of wires. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 7 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 100 Mbps 155 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM Extremely fast broadband Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. This results in less sensitivity to EMI.

92 . The plug-ins are not the same. These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. Jack couplers and wall plates are also commonly used in UTP installations. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 100 Mbps (and beyond). It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a punch tool to make the proper connection. The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight. The front of the patch panel is where the patch cable with the RJ-45 connector is plugged into a port (a port is a female plug for the RJ-45). An RJ45 is too large to fit into an RJ-11 (telephone) jack. as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI or RMI. Wall Plates for RJ-45 Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. it is not as common as UTP or Coaxial. However. This is an excellent way to organize network cables.

They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength. Because of this feature. The following is a summary of IBM Types: 93 . Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. which is easier to install.) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable. IBM cabling is based on its Type. This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic). One strand transmits and one receives. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses. which reduces signal loss. fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. (The core can also be made up of plastic. IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 94 .

Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Not Defined Two 62. Plenum grade.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet).5/125-micron multimode fibers. Six twisted pairs. An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data. Contains a shield for use under carpets. IBM Connector 95 . Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables.

96 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter.

For example. This space is used to circulate air through a building. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). these fumes would end up circulated throughout a building in the event of a fire. Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. 97 . Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. For example. a pager can receive a message. Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum. Baseband vs. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. Both you and the party you are talking to can send and receive at the same time. PVC gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. For example. Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. the wire thickness increases. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. If this type of cable were used in the plenum. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. The signal flow is uni-directional. As the AWG wire number decreases. The signal flow is bidirectional. Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. • Simplex vs. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. (send and receive) but only one at a time. Because this space does circulate air through a building. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps). Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. but cannot send a message.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Cabling Terms The following are some terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness.

) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives. shielded cable might be more appropriate. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor. A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network. For example.) How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small. how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners.) 98 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. the flexibility of the medium should be considered. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well. local fire codes will need to be addressed.) Will the cable be installed in noisy areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting. On the other hand.

but not least. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 99 . are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network.) Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance.) Transmission speeds and last. cost.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Is crosstalk going to be a factor for security issues? (If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure. fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping.

Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. Today. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. It makes the physical connection to the network.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. (And of course to translate it back again. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. Because these paths are side-by-side. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). This is known as serial communication. 100 . NICs are used to connect the computer to the network. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. data is moved along in groups. Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique address.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. handles network addressing. We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. or 0’s (off). are also known as Network Adapter Cards. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. which constantly vary in one or more values. and controls the flow of data on the network. This is known as parallel communication.

DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. the two cards start sending and receiving data. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. Other cards will need to be configured manually. and some are set using software. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. When this occurs. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer. Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. This makes transferring data much faster. The amount of time between confirmations. Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. such as: 101 . Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. The speed of the transmission. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed. the NIC may need to be configured. they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. The time intervals between data chunks.

Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that no two devices can use the same interrupt. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. Since computers usually boot from information contained on a hard or floppy disk. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. not all devices need one. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. Boot PROM Boot Prom’s (Programmable Read Only Memory) function is to allow the NIC to boot up and connect over a network. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. In practice.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. In some network environments computers do not have any floppy or hard disks for security reasons. Without a hard or floppy disk. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. data cannot be downloaded and stolen. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems. this 102 . The good news is that unlike an IRQ. It contains the necessary connection software to use and is often used for diskless workstations. Only devices like NIC cards that need to efficiently move data are assigned DMA channels. See Appendix A for common address assignments. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line. DMA Channel Configuration of DMA channels is similar to IRQs. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor.

Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter. If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. (called a remote boot PROM) is located on the NIC. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required. Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. and performs the boot function remotely over the network. RJ-45.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals chip. Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. or both). Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer. Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. 103 . They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable. or you may have to configure it manually.

They are generally 32-bit buses.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. 104 . The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs. including network connectivity. They are also called PC-Card Buses. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI. Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus. Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much. but can be a 64-bit bus. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus.

Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data. it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally. Without this feature. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. thereby bypassing the CPU. the NIC would be a bottleneck. Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. This is especially true on a bus network because computers must take turns using the cable. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Performance The speed of the NIC will affect network performance. 105 . thereby improving network performance. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. This type of card is expensive. The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks.

A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. Extended Local Area Networks . a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. With wireless systems. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. but through the use of an infrared or radio medium. Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations or including ocean dwelling oil platforms. or on the road. They function just like other access points (i. In some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components. Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. the office.e. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems. Wireless networks use wireless access points to “connect” the network devices to each other. For example. making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. Mobile Computing .Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs.Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. a user can access from anywhere in the building. – routers). 106 .

Infrared networks typically broadcast at 10 Mbps. This involves using infrared light to carry signals to a receiver. The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared Believe it or not. and because the transmissions are tightly focused. Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint 107 . you have used infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. such as windows. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources.

the message is broken into parts (called chips). The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls. uses broadband technology. which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems. ceilings. the signal is beamed towards a central unit. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. In the hopping method. as the name implies. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping. until it reaches the receiver. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. or direct sequence modulation. 108 . Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. which then routes the signal appropriately. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. etc. In the direct sequence modulation method. It does. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. however.

mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally. Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. It is used for line-of-sight communication. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts. 109 . and only the destination device can receive and read the packet. Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 110 .

Finally. receives. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). 111 . transmits. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. and Microwave. The networking professional also must know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type. As a networking professional. The networking professional must know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. RJ-45. etc. we took a look at the future. it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. After looking at network cabling we took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. It prepares. and controls data flow over the network. and Fiber-Optic. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet. Laser. There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial. As a network professional. Twisted Pair. AUI. Radio. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Boot Prom Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions 112 Definition .

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair Definition 113 .

How is a vampire tap connected? 6. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. What is the most expensive cable type? 13. What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 114 . What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7.

In Token Ring networks. Describe baseband. 17.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? 24. What is the difference between simplex. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? 115 . Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? 26. and full-duplex communication? 19. What does AWG stand for and what is it? 16. In what type of network would you expect to find boot PROM capabilities? 21. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. half-duplex. 18. 15. what are the two ring speeds available? 22. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? 23. What is the function of a network adapter card? 20. Describe broadband. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? 25.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 116 .

In Chapter 3. we will discover how Ethernet works. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards In previous chapters. are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. thus. In this chapter. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. in this case. you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed. they do not map directly to the OSI Model. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. 117 . over a network. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture. IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture. as well as how Token-ring networks function. After completing this chapter. or frames. we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. while not as popular as Ethernet. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter.

If two or more computers were to send data at the same time. handle addressing. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC. This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. 118 . also known as the network interface card (NIC). Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments. This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information. This sounds time-consuming. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. no computer will transmit data. Access Methods In a network. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card. Occasionally. In some instances. but in actuality this all happens fast enough that users are usually unaware that they are using a contention access method. segments are not able to sense collisions beyond that distance. the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing • Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. two protocols may be bound to one card. While there is data traveling on the cable. however. multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. There is a distance limitation of about 2500 meters with the Collision Detection capability. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. Due to attenuation. and check for errors. in order for it to be used with a network computer. it will send data. The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide.

The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted. A token is circulated (a token is a special type of packet) around the ring from computer to computer. and destination computer. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. Because only one computer at a time may transmit. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. instead of broadcasts over the 119 . it must wait until it possesses the token. Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer. switch. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. and links are functioning. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. the more users who are connected to a network. CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer. the frame would be resent. When the computer is ready. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring. hub. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network. router.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Naturally. Data is transmitted in frames. The trailer includes error control information. or bridge. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. the denser network traffic becomes. (Some recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring. addresses.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide entire network. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time. Because of the cabling method used with this access method. the one with the highest priority is serviced first. 120 . If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously. which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. (four pairs of wires are used. but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. If the two transmissions have the same priority level. they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests.

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Network Communications (Frames and Packets)
As we’ve discussed previously, data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. Data files tend to be quite large, and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably, but we will use the term packets.) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. Also, if there is a transmission error, only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files, information, or messages. Computer control data such as service requests and commands. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission.

All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data. The data to be transmitted. The destination address of the receiving computer. Error checking information such as Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) information.

Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet. The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses, and clocking information. 121

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. Depending upon the network, packets can be various sizes, usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. Usually, the trailer contains the error checking information. CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer, the calculation is run again. If the results are the same, the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. If there is a discrepancy, the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit.

A Packet

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network Standards
Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication. The standards define the means of communications. For example, in a railroad, data (in this case passengers and freight) are moved in various cars. There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. However, it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). These provide the standards for the railroads. Not all railroads are the same (some are electric, some are diesel, some are wide gauge, and some are narrow gauge), but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). In this section, we are going to look at different standards for networks. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. Logical Link Control (802.2) the Logical Link Control layer, as addressed previously, is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements, but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol, like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). Ethernet (802.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. The original version was a 2.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology), and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2), Thicknet coaxial (10Base5), or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling, it is most commonly created with UTP cable. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. If the segment must exceed this limitation, repeaters can be used for longer distances. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2.5 meters. 10BaseT uses the star topology. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. As its name implies, it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters, indicating its maximum segment length. The actual maximum segment length, however, is 185 meters. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated.) This makes the maximum number of nodes per network 90. The minimum distance between nodes is .5 meters. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable, BNC connectors and a transceiver. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters, meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system, and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated. This makes the maximum number of nodes per network 100. The minimum distance between nodes is 2.5 meters. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications. These applications include video, document and image storage, and computer aided design, to name a few. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet)

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN, 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. When you see any of these terms, they are referring to the same thing. The IEEE specification 802.12 is the standard that defines this technology. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards, and the longest cable length is 250 meters. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology, using the CSMA/CD access method. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know, the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable, the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable, and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs), and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. Because of its intense speed, Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable, although copper can be used with much shorter distances. ATM competes, to some degree, with Gigabit Ethernet, but that will be referred to later in this book. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon.

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP. by joining with either a router or a bridge. It also works in the UNIX environment. It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance. 127 .

and 3). A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data. The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame. it is known as a data frame. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. 2. It is not as popular as Ethernet. The Token Ring access method. Actually. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). While the token is in use by a computer to send data. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. 128 . Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer.5 standard. but is still used today. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. Like Ethernet. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. is what sets Token Ring apart.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. How it Works Basically. it uses the baseband technology. more than the cable design. The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub. This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data.

the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. As each new computer comes online. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. called the active monitor. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. This computer. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. if there were errors. To accomplish this task. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. while IBM says counter-clockwise. The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. After encoding the data frame. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted.5 standards say it travels clockwise. Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. Or. as well as its own address. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. The IEEE 802. 129 . Message This is the data or file to be transmitted. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal.

Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. This hub is known by a few names. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. Using STP. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. In a pure token passing environment. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable. The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. as there are no male and female ends. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another.5 meters. The Type 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. Using UTP. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. Using UTP. When a computer is connected. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. IBM states that it is only 46 meters. just as in other networks that use a hub. Type 6 130 . Using STP. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. it is only about 45 meters.

Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. Therefore. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. 131 . All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. Using a pair of repeaters. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub. care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper.

This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices. mainframe computers. it will store it to use each time it goes online. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. 132 . EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable. If it is not being used by another computer. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it. it is very inexpensive to initiate. As such. and even some UNIX computers. Apple has always been open to third-party development. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. AppleShare also provides a print server. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP.5 Standard) environment. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. the device assigns itself an address. UTP. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. by using zones. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network.

the maximum cable distance is 244 meters. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. ARCNet utilizes hubs. If using an active hub in a Star topology.4 standards (Token Bus LAN). but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. the token is passed in numerical order.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology.5 Mbps. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. Instead of the token traveling around a ring. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data. Obviously. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2. or smart. ARCNet transmits data in packets. active. called ARCNet Plus. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. These packets contain the destination address. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data. A later version. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors. ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. 133 . the token still passes in numerical order. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. These hubs may be passive.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802. Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four. generally). Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range.11) IEEE 802. 134 . The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well.11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology. Speeds up to 144 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific).

and clocking information. go back and review the chapter again. it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances. Therefore.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. Packets consist of three components: the Header. etc. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. 10Base5. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. and 10BaseT. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. which is where the error checking calculation is located. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). Be sure that you understand how this architecture works.3 standards. Managing network data is all about traffic control. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. and the Trailer. which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. the source and destination addresses. the Data. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data. Packets will include information to identify the source address. CSMA/CA. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. but as a networking professional you will encounter them. The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. 135 .

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk 136 Definition .

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Trailer Zones Definition 137 .

5. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. 3. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10. What are the three primary access methods? 2. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 138 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1.

Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. 14. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? 139 . What is a SMAU? 21. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. Describe a MIC connector. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. 19. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 22. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 140 .

(If not. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. are there any printers or scanners. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. As a network professional. 141 . The size of the company and the portion of the network affected. for example.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. Finally. dislikes.) The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. in many cases. we will consider hardware compatibility. Even if this network is your own. you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. pay attention to details. rather than a client’s. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. etc? If. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever in debt to you. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. The customer’s likes. (demographics). this is a Macintosh-based company. Most importantly. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. address. you are not designing for yourself. etc. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. However. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation. who has them. your design will not work for them. There are two things that you will need to know. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. and goals.

or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). or as large as 8 GB. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. prepare a design document. or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. at this time. print services. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. Remember. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. you are not documenting your network. if the file is compressed. For example. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. So. etc. A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. With this information in hand. files services. 142 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. Once you collect this information. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps.

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In a peer-to-peer network. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. This means that every 144 . The commitment of management and users. The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. First. you will need to start making some decisions. The wrong choice now. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. You may have to add network cards and cabling. not all nodes may need the same level of security. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. The most prominent are simplicity and cost. You may need to install the software. This sharing is on a directory level. Also. you will have no problem. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. This can range from none to very high. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. Skill level of the network users. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. Likewise. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network). The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. if you have a printer connected to your computer. The level of security required. they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. may cause problems in the future. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. The first is the type of network you will be designing. For example. go back and get it.” That is. all computers are equal. If you do not have this information or need more details. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. As long as you have the original software disk (CD). The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server.

have high-power processor. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. and lots of memory. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. and expand as your needs expand. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. Before you can use any resource. The more sophisticated the network. In small networks. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. if employees need remote access. This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. 24-hours per day. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). In a server-based network. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. Last but not least. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. server-based networks are scaleable. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. You can connect more workstations. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. Also.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. In large networks. Remember. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. As for size. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. must less the workings of a network. instead of backing up individual workstations. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. While there are many advantages. the network must operate transparent to them. administration can be a full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified 145 . This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). In a strict peer-topeer network. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. Since these computers are larger. all network resources are usually centralized. For these people. a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. etc. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. is another advantage of a server-based network. information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. In a peer-to-peer situation. Also. such as your printer.

0 172. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet. as long as the global community does not see them. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN. the answer will be very obvious.16. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network. These “private” addresses cannot be used on the Internet: 10.0. in others it could go either way. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult. stick with it and move forward. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer).0 192. In some cases.168.0 146 . If all else fails. A public network would be the Internet. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision.0. When you are sitting on the fence. which would limit its access to those outside of the company. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design. If you are not sure you have enough information. You can use certain IP addresses privately within your own intranet. get more.0.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide network professional. Once you have made this decision. with open access to the global community. Public and Private networks In addition.0.

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The following is an example of an inventory sheet. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. When taking this inventory. ask him or her to show you. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation. you must add new hardware. On the other hand. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. Remember. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. Also. whether hardware or software. Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: o Computer o Printer o Telecommunication o Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem 148 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. if all or part of a network already exists. Use it as a starting place to build your own. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. you can skip this section.

etc.) # of Free Slots Network Card ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 149 . describe each program. Software: If this device uses software. PCI.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary. 150 .

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make a drawing of the facility and each network node. It is time to get out that pencil and paper. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the 152 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. By assigning them a number now. This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network. and collect all of the documentation you have been working on. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. A Network Layout Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. it will make future documentation easier.

you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. 153 . if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. For example. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). you might consider CAT 3. The 10 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. such as in an imaging environment. In most environments this will be no problem. 5-4-3 – If your installation is Ethernet. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. repeaters and nodes. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 3 UTP cables. Therefore. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. However. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. In addition. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. you will need to install CAT 5 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 100 Mbps speed. or just good common sense. Cable lengths must be considered. but if this is a large facility. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. On the high end. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. Cable Grade – Local fire codes. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). consider Thinnet coaxial cable. the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. CAT 5 is the UTP of choice. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small LAN. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. Realistically.Chapter 6 – Network Design performance criteria of the network. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network. However.

which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. On the other hand. and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. which requires the use of routers. 154 . Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. they are sensitive to temperature changes. Fortunately. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. and RFI. it doesn’t really matter. high-humidity. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. EMI. it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows NT/2000. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. Therefore. as this can cause premature failure of the equipment. The non-routable protocols. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. which can generate damaging ESD. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. but are not limited. on the surface. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. it will work. Note: Never place any electronic equipment directly in front of a space heater or other heat source. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. However. and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. Like us. low-humidity. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment that the computers will be operating in. such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. Variable temperatures. which can cause corrosion.

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The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. the cables are connected to a patch panel. To keep these organized. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. if using CAT 3 or CAT 5. All the cables will be brought to one location. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. This way you can identify each location. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable. This way.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. There are a few more components that need to be installed. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables. In most cases. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable. 156 . One advantage of using CAT 3 or CAT 5 cable in a star topology from a hub.

Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. we must select a card that is compatible with both. Actually.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. Therefore you must know the requirements of each. Once that is done. there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC 157 . This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media. That part is the network adapter card.

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Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. the number of connectors and the speed at which data can be moved will change. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. Therefore. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. and PCI). Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. Micro Channel. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. the card must be compatible with the computer. Depending on the vintage of the computer.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. a green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light 159 . Before purchasing a network card. the speed of the card is important. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. In addition to being compatible with the network. This section will look at compatibility issues. Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. These are little LEDs (one. Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots. In general. you must have Token Ring cards. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. and expansion projects. EISA. but only at 10 Mbps. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). but only at 10 Mbps. If you are installing a Token Ring network. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. which can be a useful tool. Also. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. When installing an Ethernet network. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. two. Not all cards are the same. or three) that indicate the status of the card. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. administration.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide indicates that data is being transferred. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). In addition. Install the appropriate drivers for the card. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. but you are not finished yet. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. Note: If you must remove the case. In the case of UTP. Finally. If you must do this manually. the computer may not boot. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. If there are any conflicts. Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. Configure the IRQ and I/O address. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. Each card must be configured for a different network. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. If your system is not Plug-n-Play. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. For 160 . be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. Physically install the card. Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. For Thinnet or Thicknet. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card. In most cases with a new card. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. if you upgrade your operating system. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. Some STP cards require special connectors. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. Now the network adapter card is installed. Connect the network cabling.

different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. For example. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on. some manufacturers will provide two. If you encounter this type of situation.Chapter 6 – Network Design example. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. However. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. To increase marketability of their cards. the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. as well as possible solutions. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. 161 . AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. and possibly three. the engineering department may be PC-based. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day.

Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. we learned about network protocols and standards. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. 162 . that were identically configured. With this information in hand. As the network designer or administrator. They are hard work and standards. and detail both its hardware and software. Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. With this done. you are going to have your work cut out for you.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. By defining the standards to which the network must comply. Standards Earlier in this training course. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. each component will work with the others. and knowledge of the network operating system. Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. if installed. you will need to establish the standards for your network. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier.

there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. but your proficiency will be very low. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. In this case. 2003. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. when upgrading from Windows 95 to Windows NT. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000. all you need to do is install the Windows NT drivers for the offending hardware. This is a true statement. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. 2003. If drivers exist. or 2008. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. or hardware compatibility lists. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. and 2008 will make a check during installation. the system will not run. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. you find that your modem. you will need to check the HCL for that product. Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. 2003. network card and/or printer no longer work. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. and 2008 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. and 2008 is hardware dependent. however. the Internet is the answer. A good example is Windows 95. For example. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. 2003. This list will ship with the NOS package (on the CDROM) and 2000.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. HCL and Windows 2000. Also. you will need to upgrade. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with the Windows version you have. More than likely. If you want the latest list. 163 . you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision.

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he intends to expand the network in the future. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2.Chapter 6 – Network Design Review Questions Chapter 6 1. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5. but they are not all the same. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 5 cabling instead of CAT 3. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3. However. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows NT? 165 . Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. Was this a good purchase? 9. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows NT. 7.

An unmanaged switch can just be plugged in and connected. This greatly reduces the collision domain. This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. A managed switch typically will have a console port on the back or front where configuration can be made with a tool like hyperterminal or a command prompt and telnet to the switch. With this logic. In addition to being called “hubs. for expanding networks is to use a hub. A switch the most common method for expanding a network today. For example.” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. Expanding a LAN with Hubs and Switchs A less common method.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 7 . A managed switch can be configured to separate out ports so that traffic can not go from one port to another. Switch can be either managed or unmanaged. it can target the packet directly to its destination. it will be too small. today. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers. 166 . called VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network). An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. it maps out where nodes are located and instead of broadcasting the packet to all nodes. from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices. There are several different types of hubs. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network. A switch is effectively a powered hub with logic built in. sooner or later. It will operate without any configuration.

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Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. Fortunately. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. the simple hub just won’t do the job. Depending on the objectives of the LAN. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. They do not translate or filter any information. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. such as databases. Long waits to access a printer or file. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. amplify the signal. have increased response times. thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths. 168 . Traffic-generating applications. but has one additional feature. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. They do however.

Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. 169 . the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. Not all network protocols will work with a router. For example. but it can switch packets across multiple networks.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

Gateway

Connection Services
When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries, it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. An example of such a system is the telephone company. When considering which connection service to use, be sure to take into account your throughput, the distance the data must travel, and the cost of the service. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. They are providing the cabling, microwave, and satellite connections. When thinking of a carrier, we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. Be careful when choosing a carrier. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. Just because the cost looks good, does not mean that it is the best value. When thinking of telephone lines, there are two levels of service to consider. The first is public dial-up network lines. These are our standard telephone connections. With dial-up networking, each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. Typically, these connections are slow and not very reliable. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps, but connecting at this rate is rare. The second choice is leased, or dedicated, lines. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps.

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Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded, items such as bridges, routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. Most WANs are a collection of LANs. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links

Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN, as well as those transmitted to it. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. It can regenerate the signal, if necessary, and deals with timing issues. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching

Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines.

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Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Digital Connectivity When you need a faster, more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection, you need DDS (Digital Data Service). The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. Basic voice. Voice with some quality control. Voice/radio with tone conditioning. Data applications below 1200 bps. Basic data. Voice and data over trunk circuits. Voice and data over private lines. Voice and data over trunks between computers. Voice and video. Application relays.

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Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line. It is capable of 1.544 Mbps transmissions. It can be used to transmit digital voice, data, and video signals. The following table lists the most common connection types:

Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL

T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A

Voice Channels 24 672 32 512 N/A

DATA RATE (MBPS) 1.544 Mbps 44.736 Mbps 2.048 Mbps 34.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP; faster download than upload 51.8 Mbps 155.52 Mbps Either 155.520 or 622.080 (can reach 10 Gbps)

OC-1 OC-3 ATM

1 3 N/A

N/A N/A N/A

The T1 and the T3 standard are American, whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. Obviously, since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet, this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. Plus, analog phone lines do not lend themselves to error checking, compression, and encryption; all things that are a necessity for information transferred from location to location, especially information between businesses. It may be simpler to use the phone line to transfer data, but the end-to-end connection that has to take place is time-intensive.

Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast, convenient, and reliable network messaging. A packet switched network takes each piece of data to be transmitted and breaks it down into small packets. A packet contains information such as the destination and source addresses, error control information, and the actual data to be transmitted. Each packet is then individually sent from the source to the destination where they are reassembled into the complete data. Both local and long distance carriers offer a LAN-to-LAN digital dial-up service called switched 56. This is a 56 Kbps connection that can be used on demand, thus eliminating the cost of a leased line. If you don’t need continuous high-speed connections, this may be a cost-effective alternative. However, you will need to install CSU/DSU so that you can dial-up another switched 56 site.

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Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN, which lays out hosts (computers, printers, etc.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within their company, or by the specific use of the computers, or any other logical means. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN, whether it be adding computers or adjusting resources, without having to change the physical picture of the network. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment.”

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and imaging. so you get the bandwidth whether you need it or not. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies.25. is an older packet switching protocol that utilized telephone lines and it is good for use with voice. It is. As well as the common voice and data. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need. audio. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. media limited. it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds.Asynchronous transfer mode is an advanced packet switching system. It uses a 53 byte cell. in actuality. ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. While not a good choice for WANs. however. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles). It uses transmission links only when needed.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication. ATM can be used with FAX. This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. FDDI . it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference. ATM . It only provides speeds up to 64K and bandwidth is fixed. 176 . These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. or fiber optic. Because it is fiber optic-based. twisted pair. X. video. However.2 Gbps.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN.25 X. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial.

The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps). and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control. Error checking is something that is left up to the services on the end points of the connection. data and video at rates ranging from 51. Unlike X. and focuses on the home and business market. It carries all the bits from say. SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx).Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Frame Relay Frame Relay is an improved version of the X. which is intended for use by large businesses. To be more precise. which is intended for use in the home or small business. which was designed for voice.544 Mbps). This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802.25. like OCx with SONET. This technology is designed for use in LANs connecting to WANs.25 packet switching technology that it is based on. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface). Internationally. SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices. 177 . has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. It is capable of transmitting voice. as well as the retransmission of the information in any “dropped” frames. It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM). has two 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps). while using copper telephone wires. within one transmission frame. frame relay is fast because it does not attempt to correct errors. it is the European equivalent of SONET. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. it is “dropped” meaning it is discarded. a call. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services. much like E1 is to T1. If a frame is found to have an error. and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control.Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. SMDS SMDS . ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface).84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768).6).

With early modems.600 bps. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data. To increase our network beyond a few computers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections.400 bps. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines. or over long distances. A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions. the Baud rate was equal to the bps. However. As we have already learned. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication. due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of 178 . Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate. network cards. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines. and media. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56. These speeds are measured as bits per second. connecting a few computers together to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. Modems transmit data at various speeds.

etc.90 bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard. The next leap that will overcome this barrier in modem communication will take place with fiber optic cables and digital services. 4. Will only communicate with another V. Therefore. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer. the term Baud is disappearing and being replaced with bps. 19. With this change.32terbo V. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56. 14.42 V. 28. times as fast as the Baud rate. Backwards compatible with earlier V. 179 .600 bps. 57.32 V.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards.22bis V.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network transmitting signals over long distances. When purchasing a modem.200 Not officially a standard yet. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2.32terbo. We are already seeing this technology with the new cable modems and ISDN services. 56. Today. modems – error correction standard. modems.800 Improved V. The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V. it will be classified by its “V” rating. 8.34 V. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion.400 High-speed version of the V. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle.FastClass.32 standard.32bis V.

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when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. By running this accessory and following the simple instructions provided.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. The difference between a simple computer (Windows NT Workstation or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows NT Server) is the number of inbound connections. In addition. Also. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. On the other hand. Actually. while a true server like Windows NT Server will allow 256 inbound connections. or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem. both of these terms mean the same thing. you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. Since the two computers are directly connected. Windows 95/98 has an accessory called a direct cable connection. either via modems and telephone lines. A system running Windows NT Workstation or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. Let’s first look at connecting two computers. 181 . there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. You must use a Null-Modem cable. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. With RAS. Any two computers can be connected. or directly via COM ports and a cable. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). For example.

Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. the RAS software must be installed and running. both computers must be using the same protocol. With this in place. From this accessory. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. On the client side. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network. This is a relatively old standard (1984). so you may be required to install it first. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. Normally.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Note: This accessory is not part of the default setup. in this case. While this was the protocol of choice for a 182 . RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). you will use a modem to establish the connection. your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. On the server side. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number. but is still in use with some systems.

PPTP includes all the specifications of PPP plus: • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the network layer of the OSI model. PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today. Encrypted Connections. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. IPX. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol is the new player and provides enhancements over PPP.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network long time. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet. and DECnet. It supports only TCP/IP. It is used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. it was not enough. NetBEUI. It supports encrypted passwords. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). It’s only supported by RAS clients. It provides security. Even with all the improvements of PPP. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. It cannot encrypt logon information. It is based on an end-to-end security model. AppleTalk. It transmits in text only. both 183 Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. . It provides data compression and error control. meaning that the computers. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. RAS and Security.

L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the next version of the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). As with all security measures. it does not require IP connectivity. ESP. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. ICA can be used with Windows. In addition to providing remote sharing of information. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). usually a user’s credit card number. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing 184 . Unlike PPTP. discussed here in the next chapter. Windows 2000 uses this type of security. it only establishes the user’s identity at logon. which is the highest security method. TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. and Macintosh computers. Linux. It is transparent to the user. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). AH only authenticates the user. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs. SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server. Kerberos V5. Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. RAS provides several layers of security. It does not provide authorization.509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. UNIX. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). It uses a key to encrypt the data.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide sending and receiving. certificates (like X. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket. limited RAM. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission.

All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. If another software package has “control” of the modem. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. you want to keep the costs down. and you don’t need a fulltime connection. This provides for additional authentication. Security Host A security host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. If it does not work the first time.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. Before installation. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. it is not always the solution for every network. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. installing RAS can be frustrating. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses. In addition. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. and any other software that might use the modem. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps. PPTP Filtering PPTP filtering will filter out any packets that are not PPTP. Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. As a networking professional. and thus more security. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. 185 . the modem configuration. The type of communication port you intend to configure. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 186 .

Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH Definition 187 .

25 Definition 188 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X.

What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. Name three advanced WAN environments. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. 10. What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. and a gateway. Name four forms of RAS security. 7.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Questions Chapter 7 1. 4. 189 . a router. a bridge. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. 9. Name three RAS protocols. What is analog communication? 5. Define a repeater.

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as well as Internet standards. Internet and Network Interface. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. From this beginning. These standards. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. which will be discussed later in the chapter. some are considered to be Internet standards. SNMP. Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. 191 . it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. known as BSD UNIX. It is important for the networking professional to know that this is the protocol that is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. Also. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. TCP/IP. and FTP. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. The four layers are: Application. It is also used with Ethernet networks. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is the Internet protocol. This is the most common protocol suite that the networking professional will be working with. such as SMTP. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. and the Internet. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. intranets. Transport. and is usually seen in the combination. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. and is in fact.

Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 192 . There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections. These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model.

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A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 194 . called packets. they can be retransmitted in a timely manner. and reassembles the data. and for the Network+ exam. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. However. Let’s take a look at them. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. On a TCP/IP network. It then routes the information to its destination. Let’s take a look at how this works. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine.

When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. TCP will retransmit the data. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. IP merely routes the data. If the transmission has not been successful. FTP. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. but does not acknowledge delivery.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. nor does it check for errors. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. Although the terms.535. The port number identifies the application associated with the data. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. the protocol number. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. UDP transports data. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. Telnet. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number. 195 . etc. For each packet sent. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. or port numbers.e. a port is different from a socket. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. and specify a certain protocol. IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP. and a checksum. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535. IP is connectionless. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point. HTTP. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. The addresses. i. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably..

Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP. or access multiple mail servers. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. which what you use when you send out mail. TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Time to Live – provides TTL data. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. the data is assumed to have arrived intact. If the checksum is the same. The checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. When the data arrives at the destination computer. SMTP is server to server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five. run searches. the receiving computer performs the calculation. ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines. a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet. 196 . This cache contains a list of all the devices that it is communicating with.

provide for secure transactions on the Internet. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user. 197 . HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. a security-enhanced version of HTTP.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. as well as SSL. the HTTP port.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system.” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. usually over the Internet. is not the same as HTTPS. allow for the use of X. It does. or the word “anonymous. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts. It uses port 443. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers. SHTTP SHTTP. using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP. the secure SSL port instead of port 80. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network. allowing access to a secure Web server. by typing in a user name. such as web pages. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files. HTTPS. however.

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commerce.238.edu for educational institutions. education. such as government. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking.49. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you. or interest. Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order.33. the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. 199 . also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC. DNS functions like a telephone directory.com for businesses or . Remember. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. we are working in two worlds. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Naming Systems Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. For example. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates host names to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. These domains require suffixes such as . A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name.com may have an IP address of 192. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. the domain Bigcompany.

tv and .com.com. which receives financial benefit from the registration fees. in Italy might be http://www.info . leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application. For instance.mil .au.net . (.Bigcompany. which receives financial benefit from the registration fees. . Also. .com.tv is gaining in popularity.Bigcompany.mobi are gaining in popularity.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance.Bigcompany. WINS In a Windows-based network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains: .com. Also. the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. 200 . NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode.gov .xx Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet.edu .pro .mobi is for mobile compatibility) Tuvalu is a small country. Tuvalu is a small country.au. Big Company Inc. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network. in Italy might be http://www.Bigcompany.org .com .biz . Big Company Inc.it or in Australia www.it or in Australia www.

IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. It must be manually created and changed. This means that it is permanently assigned. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. To accomplish this. If not renewed. the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. the client will send a request for renewal. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. To resolve this. the address can be leased to another host. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. In this case. M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). as the number of addresses required increases. It predates DNS. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast). and a default gateway if needed.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet. IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. A lease can be renewed. In smaller isolated networks. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. assigned on an “as needed” basis. a second request will be sent at 87. the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user.5% of the lease. it must be assigned a static IP address. HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. subnet mask. That is. If all addresses are being used. DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers. the lease will be renewed without interruption. you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). For example. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). However. it could connect a LAN to the Internet. you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. sooner or later we will run out of numbers. 201 . It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available). P-node (peer-peer). When the term of the lease is at 50%. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. When not needed. IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. It must be manually created and changed.

the proxy server. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (Public IP address). NAT also acts as a firewall. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. 202 . It contains DHCP. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties.e. The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. i. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network. IP Proxy Servers Earlier. like a LAN. and DNS. who think they are communicating directly with one another. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. In the case of a proxy server. to share a single connection to the Internet. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. it serves many clients through only one connection. NAT. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses.

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So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33. The result is called a dotted decimal number. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8.39. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet. however. it is not easy for us. let’s now take a look at IP address numbers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets. they are broken down into four octets. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them. Internet IP addresses. This IP address is a 32-bit binary number.194.294. A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194. Although that is easy for a computer. the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique). are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address. A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4.8.2 billion) different numbers. To simplify these addresses. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes.11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet.00001000. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39. 204 .00100111.296 (4.967.

194. Likewise. The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID). the network is divided into classes.194 where the Network ID would be 193. B and C.214 possible Host ID numbers. For the Network+ exam. An example of a Class C IP address would be 193. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID.39.777.39.39. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID.) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126. Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks.194 would be the Host ID. Within classes.39. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000). The class can be determined by the value of the first octet. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000). An example of a Class B IP address would be 129. Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID).194. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191.8.8.39 would be the Network ID and 8.8.8. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID. (A host may be any device on the network. In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID. Depending on the assignment. you should pay special attention the Classes A. The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID). Class B uses two 205 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) . Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID. There are five common classes: A through E. In this case 129. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000). The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39.194 would be an example of a Class A address.8 and the Host ID would be 194.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components. there are 16.

if a network is going to be connected to the Internet. Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time. You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts. This 206 .534 possible Host ID numbers. This is the loopback address. specifically 127.used by very large networks. (For example. Class C .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID. there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and are not available. Class B . Also. As we mentioned earlier. B or C address.0. Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . with the least number of Network IDs. you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address. All in use and no longer available. the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic. Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A.126 128 . Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available. so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts. Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID.used for medium-sized networks. Class C IP addresses are still available. there are only 65.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts.1) Class A .223 In addition.191 192 .0.

It does. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center).net. IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology. For example. The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. IPv6 uses hex numbers (0 to 9. however. This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. which only uses 32-bit addressing. It uses 128-bit addressing. however. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme. The 207 . demand high bandwidth. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. to define the address type. as compared to IPv4.

It is also available through many networking devices. and Multicast. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1.0. Site-local address.1 with IPv4. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address. just like 127.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide address types are Unicast. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. Ipv6 is integrated into Windows Vista and Windows 2008 server. Multicast.0. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking. is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. Finally. Anycast. which replaces broadcast. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one. An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. All in all. 208 . Unicast is an address for a single host. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain.

The router uses binary addition to make this determination. The number of octets that contain 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network.00000000 or 255.255. In this example.777.0 (Class A). you can reduce the overall network traffic. only the traffic that is not local will pass through.0.0 (Class C).0.11111111.00000000.0 In regards to classes. 255. Since a router connects each subnet. Even though this may be understood working within the boundaries of classes. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right.0 255. a large university may have a network spread over several building and perhaps remote campuses. For example: 11111111.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address down into meaningful and manageable groups (network and host).534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s. 209 . lets look at subnet masks.216 hosts) Class B (65. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) where all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address.0.255. Bit borrowing will be addresses fully in the next section. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet. bits can be borrowed from the host portion of the IP address.255. or 225. Before looking at binary addition.0. a subnet mask can be 255. You must however.255. By using a concept called subnet masking. Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask. Default Subnet Masks 255. The router acts as a filter.0 (Class B).255. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet.0.255. A subnet works by taking the IP address and dividing it into the network portion and host portion.0.0 Class A (16. For example. By using a subnet.0.0 255.255.

32.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address.0.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 210 .8. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33.0) equals 00100001. This is done with binary addition.8. separating it from the host portion of the address.00000000 (33.224.0.39.00000000 (255. 00100001.0. Any local addresses will not pass through. which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address. add through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33. If you add the IP address to the subnet mask. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address. By using this method.8.194. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now.0. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet.32 and the Host ID is 7.0.11100000. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones.00000000.11000010 (33.194) 11111111. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment.00100000.00000000.00001000.194.0. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7.00100111. Remember. using our previous example of 33. Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33.7.8.32. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet.8. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class). let’s add it to the subnet mask of 255. while the Host ID 0.32.194.224.39.

0 255. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC.c to 191.b.a. We will use an InterNIC ID of 211 . • • • • Connect physically remote local networks. To begin this process.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking.b.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001.255.c Default Subnet Mask 255.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.0.c to 223.c to 126.0.c 192.0.255. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner.b.0 Number of Networks 126 16.a.384 2. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate.a.255.097.c 128.0 255. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.216 65. If a router is connected to two subnets.b.a.0. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment.b.255.255.0 255. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.152 Number of Hosts 16. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required.b.0.0 255.a.a.255.777. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring). it will require an address for each subnet. Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet.0. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network.

255.255.248 255.240 255.0 255.000 hosts. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network.255. we have one network with approximately 65.224 255.224.255. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255. As we begin to subnet.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.128 255.0.255.255.255.248.252.255.0.0 255.255.0 255.255.382 Hosts 16.255.255. With this number. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 2 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16.255.255.254.0 255.240. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 191.36.192 255. First.192.382 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 212 .255.255. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.255.0 255.

255. the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements.255. 213 .255.224 255. Change the mode to binary (Bin). lets keep our network ID of 191. Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255.255. giving us a total requirement of 18.255.255. 2. The number 18 will now be in binary (10010). Enter the value of 18.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 2 6 14 30 62 Hosts 62 30 14 6 2 To make this easy.248 255. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs. Now we get out our Windows calculator. Just to be on the safe side. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator).240 255. you can use the calculator supplied with Windows. 3.255.255. For this example. let’s add 4 more for future expansions.192 255.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC. 1.255.255. We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID.

instead of selecting the next subnet on our list. Count the number of binary digits (5).255.224.0.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4. This will be the number of bits required for the third octet. we would have had to reconfigure the entire network. Had we needed to add a new subnet. Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets. To keep things simple.255. let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255. Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth). This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2. you can determine the available Network IDs. For this example.000 hosts each.0 and the network address of 192.248.36. the subnet mask would be 255. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 214 .

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001 in the last octet.255.36. In dotted-decimal format.000 or .36.0 255.36 (overall network address) 192.) NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.126 128 . (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask.255. For example.96 192.0.32 192.0 255.36.191 192 .223 216 . A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255.36.64 192.0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255.160 192.0.255. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID. they are on the same network. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192.192 The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001). up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID.0.0 CLASS ID 1 . If it is different. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address. this means that the number starts with .0. The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network.0. or one that is located on a remote network.0.255. the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery.0.255. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet.255.36. these are reserved for broadcast addresses. The only restrictions are that you cannot use .36.0.255.128 192. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255.

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or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. Click the radio button to enable DNS. you may specify a particular IP address. click the Protocols tab. and click Properties. 218 . Next. other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. However. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. DNS You can enable or disable DNS.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. IP Address Here. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information. in addition to other hardware and software configurations.

WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. 219 .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. default gateway. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients. WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses. and subnet mask configuration. On some screens. This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. It also includes the DNS configuration. Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways. Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet POP3 Definition 220 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Keyword Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 221 .

Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9. 12. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6. What is a domain? 7. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. 4. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. 10. What are five reasons to use subnetting? 222 . IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number.

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The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager Cisco Work SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator. the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network.SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base). you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. In addition. From the database and the software interface. 224 . Using one of these products. Network Managers . It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data.

Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. An additional SNMP command is the trap. Set: sends a configuration value to a device. 225 . The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. A community can also restrict access. Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). therefore providing a level of security.

NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table. 226 . Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. TRACERT. Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses. Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. but did not cause a stop. ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. This includes critical system errors. serious (!). Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table. and normal (i). Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. and TCP/IP events and errors. NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination.

clicking Run. 227 .Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. and typing in either cmd or command.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host. NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address. Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot.12. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. and will display the current configuration of a computer. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain.” Ping works at the IP level. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client. the IP of a host might be 192. For example. PING The lowest level test to find out if a remote host is “alive. 228 .1.168.

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Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition 230 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

List as many as you can. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2. 231 . In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. 3. each device will need to be _________ compliant. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Review Questions Chapter 9 1. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow.

before you set up the network. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter. The best time to set up your network security. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. As you might have already deduced. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. unless safeguards are built in. of dollars. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. Most users will also be able to access shared files. depending on the roles they play in your company. or at least have your plan intact. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. Therefore. the user will be inclined to 232 . data encryption. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. creating chaos and costing thousands. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. or even millions. Password practices and procedures. Very few users will have access to administrative features. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. or an irresponsible prank. the results can be devastating. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. motivated by curiosity. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. Users should be held responsible and accountable for the security of their individual workstations. A disgruntled employee. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). is right up front. can deliberately damage your network. Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. Whether the sabotage is malicious. he or she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of their particular network.

should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. 233 . It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. the user can edit the file as necessary. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process. while the original file remains intact. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. This way. However.Chapter 10 – Network Security be less attentive to personal security. and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. such as a template or another type of file. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. users can access a shared resource. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. In a manner similar to the signature on a document. among other things. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. This way. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. a gesture of respect for the user and the system. Password protection is.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Password Security 234 .

Files need to be backed up daily. Vista. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. at the very least. This is great for internal protection. Windows XP. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. This needs to be handled in such a way 235 .Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. they can be host-based. As the system administrator. you would block port 80. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information. you will most likely be using E-mail. 2003 and 2008 Server all have Windows Firewall built into the OS. It is an important part of a network security plan. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. Network protection should be a hardware based firewall. you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. For example. and even more often on larger networks. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. and work at the application level. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. or auditing. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs.

As you might guess.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide that production will not be interrupted. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. called the backup medium. In addition. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. you must answer important questions about what to backup. the other can take over without compromising network operations. it is still a viable option.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. and how often backups will be performed. how the backup information will be tested. There are several options available. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. Floppy disk capacities today. Remember. rather than one larger server. Although slower than RAID. While planning your backup strategy. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. range from 1. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. plan to fail. and the procedure to follow for recovery. 236 . It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. Ideally. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. those who fail to plan. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. If anything happens to one. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. As a computer professional. and are more commonly known as RAID. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk.

Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. Differential and Incremental. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today. The Full backup. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. both the differential backup tape copies and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. Full. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. the last full backup and the most recent incremental backup tapes will be needed. To restore. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. This usually involves some 237 . When recovering from a failure. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. Differential. will backup all data on the network. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. is called fault tolerance. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. but will be the easiest to restore from. This type of backup is usually performed weekly. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. as its name implies. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full.

and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. in that if one disk fails. only that some part of it is. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent. such as a single file.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide degree of redundancy. Several operating systems. This method does provide fault tolerance. this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful. (Provides no fault tolerance. 238 .Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 .Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. parity protocols check transmitted data for errors in transmission.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 . if anything happens to one of the drives. including Novell NetWare. the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved.) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware. and is a standard feature of RAID systems. support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing.” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data. data is not lost.Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 . Using an additional bit for every 8bits of data. The data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure. The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . This method does not identify which part (bit or bits) of the transferred data is inaccurate. However.Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 . Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 .

The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. such as battery time remaining. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. In this case. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. There are different types of UPS devices. RAID-53. 239 . the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. is an issue. it offers better performance. is not being used commercially at the moment to an large degree. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. since it is not dependent on another computer. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. Cost. and each type provides power for a different length of time. and sags in the power supply. This. also called surge suppressors. are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. however. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. surges. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. which allows for better performance. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. It functions faster. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. but at a greater cost. Like RAID-10. SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. is like RAID-10. which provides for even more fault tolerance. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. as you might guess. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI).

” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. such as when an employee leaves. Passwords should be changed frequently in high-security networks. personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. No one. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. away. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. numbers and symbols. In order for this policy to be effective. and numbers. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters long and use a combination of letters. This is known as a security audit. etc. no matter who they are. he or she will know how to accomplish the task. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. but are easy enough that users can remember them. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. include characters. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being adhered to. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. symbols. Passwords should be changed at certain designated times. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. 240 . an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets. So. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network.

The name comes from their initials. Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. and most recently has been used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. Adi Shamir. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. 241 . can understand the message. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). Even with encryption.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. and Leonard Adleman. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. This method uses a 56-bit private key. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. other than the person for whom the message was intended. the Internet is not the securest of environments.

which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. It is similar to DES. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. As the name implies. 242 . but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. Viruses can be caught from various sources including: shareware. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. will ensure a much quicker recovery. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. Many viruses are simple annoyances. Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. in order to send the same key to both parties. much less a day. files downloaded from the Internet. The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run. Initially. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. the Public Key method must be used. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability. is called a digital signature. Symmetrical Keys are known as Private Keys. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. and in this method of encryption both parties have the same key. If the receiver wishes to respond. both on location and at backup sites. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. it is not a completely secure encryption method. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. software from unknown origins.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Extra data appended to a message. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). and bulletin boards.

Keep your anti-virus program updated. Hundreds of viruses are written each month. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing Windows. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). Use extreme caution when you download files. These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. they will go to work on the system. Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine. These days. With this in mind. 243 . Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site. Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. Macro Virus: The biggest nuisance now is macro viruses (such as those that infect Word documents). many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. but when loaded. (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. just from running a program. Make sure it is compatible with Windows. If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files).

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 .

Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 245 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

In a share level model. 3. What does the acronym RAID stand for? 5. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? 246 . passwords are assigned to __________. What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1. What are the six common levels of RAID? 6. What is the function of a firewall? 4.

Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities 247 .

you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. if you are the expert. you will most likely be called when there is a problem.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. you must be organized. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. identify the affected area. Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). select the most probable cause. it is well defined by the person who calls and complains. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. computers never fail at a convenient time. They always fail in the middle of a job. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. After all. As a troubleshooter. This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. If fact. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. Remember. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. test the result. and good listening skills. Remember. while for others it is a struggle. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. To make matters worse. but they often hold the keys to the problem. and progress on with some specific tools you can employ to simplify the process. “as reported. Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. a pen (or pencil). For those who must endure the struggle. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of 248 . not the symptom. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. you are looking for the cause. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. They are as follows: establish the symptoms. establish what has changed. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. implement a solution. In most cases. In order to do this.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. not when all is well. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper.

but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. These never seem to occur when you are present. do not intimidate the user. If it is an operatorinduced problem. The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work towards the more complex. and most importantly. recent software upgrade.) Show me how to create the error. You will need to create your own list based on the situation. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that causes the failure. If possible. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem. network or computer moved. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. screen changes. You may. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. and when. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. it is important to observe how it is created. but to call you. as well as the results. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. Sometimes. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. lights. the failure occurs. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. Do not make the questions too technical. For example. and so forth). With a little experience. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. however. the process of elimination is all that you can do. One thing that might help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. This will take time and patience.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network the failure. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. 249 . That way the “evidence” is not disturbed. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know.

If you must make any assumptions. Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. If for example. You may have to refer back to them later. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user 250 . Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. write them down. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. Do not make any assumptions. Document every action and its results. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. In the case of a network problem. For example. and move forward. it is important to follow it through. but you cannot receive any E-mail. Starting from the top. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. It requires two simple steps.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. Once a plan is created. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. make a plan and follow it.

In these situations. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. it may require some additional effort. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. 251 . Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). Implement the solution. This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. It is important to use another operator. the problem may be caused by the operator. However. be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. as well as the one that is causing problems. Note: If the problem is software-oriented.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Once the search has been narrowed. For example. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems. either repair or replace the defect. if an operator is afraid of computers in general. To resolve these types of problems. you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. With hardware. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). and not the hardware or the system. if the problem is software or configuration related. you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. In these cases.

Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. 252 . The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. This is one way to build. In troubleshooting.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. document the problem and the repair. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. maintain. and share experience. there is no substitute for experience. Document the solution Finally. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms. and the repair. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction. You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. the problem. The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user.

a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician. Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools. The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire. let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. Punch Down Tool 253 . Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network. Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack. They secure the connection between the wires and the block.

it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. it is still possible to test for continuity. we will have to know how to test for continuity. If the test is negative (no light or noise). With it you can test various electronic components. When working with network cabling. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete. the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. the circuit is broken. A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. Since it is made up of wires. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. We will start by looking at a multimeter. The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. You can test for AC and DC voltage. Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. in principle. very easy to troubleshoot. If your meter does not have a continuity setting. the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. Some meters will let you test for current as well. Network cabling is. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. If the wire is broken. For example. The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured. as well as the electrical power in the computer. a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. and continuity. Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). resistance. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. you can have only one of two problems. 254 . In a wire for example. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps).

The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). testing for continuity will require an additional wire.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician will have one. to find pairs of wires in a bundle. thus locating the wires. called tone generators and tone locators. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. this is not a problem. However. 255 . The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. When used together. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. there are more often than not. However. If both ends are in the same location. You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. This applies a signal on the wires. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. it will emit a tone. and test at the other end.

It has the transmit and receive wires connected. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable. It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. If you are able to send a signal and have it return. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable. They will monitor network traffic. The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. A crossover cable is similar to a loopback. but is double-ended. are usually a PC with a special network card. Be careful when using a crossover cable. Software analyzers. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. 256 . there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. capture packets and generate reports. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. the location of any break or short can be determined. also called packet sniffers. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. and therefore back to the network card.

OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back. but used for fiber optic cabling.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR. 257 .

If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate. You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. the traffic is not moving. Therefore. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. For some reason. Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth 258 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. Some passwords are case-sensitive. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. the network. or a disk resource. Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. It could be the processor.

so does the traffic. As networks grow. the network slows down. and moves information. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 259 . deletes. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours. check for memory bottlenecks. For example.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. You must defragment the drive. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives. tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it.

0. On a Macintosh system. It also lets you know the time that it takes. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on the Internet your packet is going. On a Windows 95/98 computer. and TRACERT commands to test the network. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network. This will test the protocol stack in the computer. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities. Remember this address. If you are using TCP/IP.0. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation.1. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu. The first step is to PING the loopback address. PING. The loopback address is 127. you will use it often. because as a network professional. These commands work from a command prompt. 260 .

WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly. 261 .6. your dialog box will look like the following. If you are using Windows. This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT/2000 system.55.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195.48. WINIPCFG.

then there is a problem with the protocol. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: 262 . you receive a message like the following. use the ipxping command. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t.55.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide PING 195.48. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday. For the IPX/SPX networks. With each step. and so on. PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address. you will be testing a larger portion of the network. If at any stage. they must be okay. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems. the server. you have encountered a problem.

How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. have two names. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. the first thing to do is find out what has changed. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. Earlier. we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. If these files are being used. To resolve this problem. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). respectively. Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory. or hosts. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network. Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. These are ASCII text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. If there is a sudden change in performance. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. Beyond that. One is the IP address number. If no lights are on. suspect a loose or disconnected cable. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup. but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow.” With nslookup. while green lights indicate that all is well. In general. 263 . you can be sure that the network is not being detected. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. If present.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer. we learned that workstations.

A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. everything slows down. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request. and average time to print the document. To create a baseline. Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. the more packets that can be moved). or maximum speed that traffic can move. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. if any one component is performing poorly. This can slow down data transfer. Latency Small delays in packet movement that is caused by devices is called latency. after you identify the problem. adding to the network load. are negligible. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. 264 . The answer lies in creating a performance baseline. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. if the traffic gets too congested. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. The speed limit. Therefore. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. but are interrelated. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now. For example. it will affect the entire network. Then. From this information. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. slow. if you are experiencing slow printing. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). For example. This means that for a small amount of time. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. Latency delays. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. for the most part. Resolving performance problems can be easy.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. at a later date. you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. Just like our highway. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. you will know the high.

Windows Performance Monitor 265 . you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. To collect these statistics. Windows NT has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. percent of network utilization. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. With this activated. available memory. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. etc. With this tool. etc.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition 266 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

What tool would you need to find the short? 5. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. and think it might be shorted. You have just connected a workstation to the network. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. You have a Windows NT network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. You have located the cable in question #3. After repairing a problem.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Review Questions Chapter 11 1. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. What is the loopback IP address? 7. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? 267 . You are troubleshooting a cable problem. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6.

After taking a practice exam. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. as you like. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. you are ready to sit for your certification exam. be sure to review any areas that need improvement. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. To measure your retention of these materials. Remember. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. and as often. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. at Specialized Solutions. and don’t forget to use the Glossary. We love to hear from our students. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. When you are ready to schedule your exam. 268 . so if you have any questions.

Conclusion 269 .

Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. They are specified based on their impedance. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series. It is expressed in ohms. Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 270 . Maximum of 4 repeaters.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing Ethernet cabling.

Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 3 3 10Base5 10Base2 10BaseT Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet UTP Bus Bus Star 10 10 10 5 5 5 4 4 4 hubs 271 . Description Stranded wire core. ArcNet networks. such as cable television. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max. Length (meters) 500 185 100 Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment 100 30 1024 Max Segments Max. but also used for broadband transmissions. Military specification of RG-58 A/U. Broadband transmission. Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59.Appendix A – Tech Summary Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core.

Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG. Same as type 1. Not Defined Two 62.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps. Voice-grade cable. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). but adds voice capability along with data. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. Six twisted pairs.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. Data grade up to 100 Mbps. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. Contains a shield for use under carpets. Two STP – 26 AWG wire. Two STP –26 AWG wire. Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch. Plenum grade. Fiber Optic Data patch cables. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 272 .

2 802.x Standard 802.4 802.9 802.Appendix A – Tech Summary IEEE 802.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model.11 802.6 802. They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls.3 802.10 802.1 802.5 802. 802.7 802.8 802.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 273 .

The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually 274 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs. COM4 COM1. however.

The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F .Appendix A – Tech Summary In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address.LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F .LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 3A0 to 3AF 275 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model 276 .

x to 191.0 Number of Networks 126 16.x 128.152 Number of Host 16.x.255.x.534 254 277 .x.x.214 65.255.x. x. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001.777.x.x.x.x to 223.097.0 255.384 2.255.x.x to 126.x 192.0. Repeaters Switches Brouter Computers Gateways Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address.0.x. x.0.x Default Subnet Mask 255. Hubs.0 255.Appendix A – Tech Summary OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Bridges NICs.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. the subnet mask. Use the loopback address (127. it will return. and default gateway. Uses a MAC address to find an IP address.1) to test the IP architecture and configuration. Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address. Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the user’s network interface configuration. Sends a test packet to a specified address. If all is well. the subnet address. PING ARP RARP 278 .0.0. Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses).

279 . Used to verify the route to a remote host.Appendix A – Tech Summary ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. (Pronounced Trace Route.) Used to verify entries on a DNS server. Used to check the status of current IP connections. Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. all computers are connected in a series. all computers are connected to a hub. In a star topology. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries. Used to check the resolutions of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses.

280 . all computers are connected to each other. all computers are connected in a circle. In a mesh topology.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In a ring topology.

resistance. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks. Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry.Appendix A – Tech Summary Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. Protocol Analyzer 281 . TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements. Also called a network analyzer.

and bridges). Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers. and networks. interface cards. servers. Displays or prints a list of events. Used to provide information for network baselines. routers. Event Viewer SNMP 282 . hubs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations.

Appendix A – Tech Summary 283 .

microsoft.com Other Helpful Sites http://www.net 284 .warriorsofthe.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www.cnet.com http://www.novell.compuserve.com CompuServe http://www.com Novell http://www.

Appendix B – Useful Web Sites 285 .

let alone the networking industry. 286 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. As its name implies. it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry. In the computing industry. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. This is a common code for basic characters and numbers. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. For additional information. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards. search for these organizations on the Internet. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set.

ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. the data can be smoothly transferred. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. Since they cover a wide variety of equipment.x committee. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language. Inc. 287 . These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model. the IEEE is subdivided into committees.x sub-committees.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment. As long as both are SQL compliant. As you may guess from its name.

vue. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test. go to www. or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time. When you call.com for Prometric or www. To register via the Internet. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE. please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number. Date you wish to take the test.com for VUE. Payment is made at the time of registration. Prices subject to change without notice. Method of payment. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers. either by credit card.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE. credit card or voucher. Payment must be made each time you take the test. 288 .2test.

Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam 289 .

so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. Software. or computers on the network (nodes). The file server on an AppleTalk network. it supplies functions to applications. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies. Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth 290 . usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). A dedicated server for applications. or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. or bits per second (bps). Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. A continuously variable signal. The highest layer of the OSI Model. opposite of digital. The Apple networking protocol. Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. these three terms are often used interchangeably. program.

An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. such as IBM. GM. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. or DEC. A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems.Appendix E – Glossary Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. A form of mobile computing. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). User computer “being served” by another computer. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances. IP Address used by very large networks. The signal flow is uni-directional. such as Microsoft. Hardware that connects one network with another. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. these are all in use at the present time. 291 Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Client . A bus driver. Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC.

Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable Software used by the client. is a number derived from. from computer or network to another. Cyclic Redundancy Check.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide called a server. or Cyclic redundancy Code. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. A form of multitasking. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. which is. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. using a specific protocol. to allow other tasks to run. stored. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. Data that is encoded for security reasons. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor. itself. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption 292 . Same as a hub. or language.

DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. A limited form of bus mastering. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. for sending on the Physical layer. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 293 .Appendix E – Glossary Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. It also receives acknowledgement frames. which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. (Simple “on” or “off” signal.) Being able to recover data from a disaster. Also called data striping. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. in a round-robin fashion. The Data Link layer splits data into frames. such as an individual file. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients. so that one can take over for the other if it fails.

and other control information. error detection. A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. that enables two DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex Gateway 294 . A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. A group of bits containing address information.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files.25 packet switching technology. A computer that acts as a translator. A network’s central computer. A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. An improved version of X. sent over a communications channel. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network.

HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. It precedes the actual data. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation. and informational messages related to IP.Appendix E – Glossary networks. DOS command that tells you the IP address for your 295 HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address IPCONFIG . test packets. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. RFC 792. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. RFC 791. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. to communicate with each other. but only one at a time. or ring topologies. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. star. GSNW Half-Duplex Header Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). and other information. A network topology that combines bus. defined in STD 5. using different protocols. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol.

Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. a 32-bit bus. introduced by ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU MCA Bus 296 . a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. IPsec IRQ A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. Micro Channel Architecture. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC.” Server used for E-mail. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. across a network connection. A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide computer. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. and video data sources. data. it’s “hardware address. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring. Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk.

Appendix E – Glossary IBM for its PS/2 computer line. MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems. Much like your local radio station. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS A method of data transmission. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. 297 Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card Network Administrator . Also known as a network interface card. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). and is used by CompuServe. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. Single Frequency Radio. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission. Provides the physical connection to the network cable. The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network. totally incompatible with the original PC bus. among others. A type of hub.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Peer-to-Peer 298 . They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. including network connectivity. A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network. A generic term used to describe a unit of data. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model. depending on the protocol. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. Acts as a connection point only. depending upon the needs of the user. All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server.

A hardware device. many third-party applications are available. The Presentation layer formats data exchange.Appendix E – Glossary Performance Monitor A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server. and running on TCP/IP. and even if a process takes full control. The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer. converting character sets and encrypting data. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack. such as a printer or scanner. used to circulate air through a building. Dedicated server for printing.1. other processes will still run. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. Although included as part of Windows NT.5 of Windows 3. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 299 . Defines a channel between a device and the processor.

Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. Redirects a call from one port to another. For example. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. the proxy server. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. the devices are connected in a continuous loop. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN 300 . to be accessed via a modem. i. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. Used to increase cable distances in network environments. For example. including support for dialup and logon. which then routes the signal appropriately. Connector used with standard telephone wire. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors. the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps.e. In Token-Ring networks. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. In a Ring topology. The signal is beamed towards a central unit. A device that forwards packets between networks.

Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. normally used on Ethernet. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). A uni-directional data channel. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use.Appendix E – Glossary Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. defined in RFC 1055. ceilings. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. Simple Network Management Protocol. data transfer. usually over Ethernet. as opposed to duplex. was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. to be used over a serial link. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. connection establishment and release. until it reaches the receiver. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15. Transmission rates are slower with this type. Software that resides on a server. Synchronous Optical Network 301 SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP SONET . etc. RFC 1157. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. acknowledgments (ACK).

An access method used in a Token Ring topology. Using binary addition. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. such as bodies of water or deserts. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together.5 Standard) environment. The SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk Tone Generator 302 . Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. that uses a large diameter. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. If the hub fails.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Spread-Spectrum Radio Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. the entire network goes down. The maximum speed that “traffic” can move. or across large flat open areas. the official protocol of the Internet. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). this applies a signal on the wires. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. The process of subdividing a network into logical units. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce.

Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding. Tool for stripping and cutting wire TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 303 . defined in STD 6. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. A device that transmits and receives data. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. User Datagram Protocol. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. The “hound. Used on transceivers.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments. which. thus locating the wires. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. like TCP. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer. it will emit a tone. The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol.Appendix E – Glossary “fox. is layered on top of IP.” Tone Locator A receiver set to the frequency of the generator.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves. using zones Zones 304 . AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks. such as Token Ring. A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address.

Appendix E – Glossary 305 .

Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. such as data. Review Questions Chapter 1 1. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. 7. like one office). 8. 5. Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. configure. applications. Simple to install. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). A WAN is not geographically limited. 2. 306 . Name some advantages of having centralized documents. and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). It is confined to a limited area. 4. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. and peripheral devices. 6. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. No security. Files are easily accessed by all users. 3. data backups can be more easily and routinely performed.

They represent what the topology looks like. Ease of data backups. The three basic topologies are: Bus. 10. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. Centralized administration. Can be expanded as network grows. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Centralized location of resources (server). What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. Review Questions Chapter 2 1. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. Some NOS function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. 9. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. 307 . Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. Token Passing. Name the three basic topologies. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. 11. and Demand Priority. 12. Star. Increased performance on large networks. and Ring. In non-preemptive multitasking the CPU is never taken from a task. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). More difficult to install and configure. 2.

9. 4. 550 MB of free hard drive space. groups. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. What happens when the number of users exceeds the number of licenses? The number of users on a NetWare network may exceed the number of licenses. and volumes is also handled with NDS. Organization of network resources such as users. 6. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. Unlike NetWare. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. but only the licensed number of users will be allowed to log on at any one time. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. 308 . redirecting them to the server. 10. Purchasing NetWare requires a type of licensing. and file and print services. web-publishing.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 3. name service. 5. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. messaging. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. routing. 8. Define interoperability. servers. 64 MB RAM. management. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. 7. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments.

12 MB RAM. What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 18. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. A UNIX system consists of a Host (or central computer) with terminals for the users. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems. 14. 125 MB free hard drive space. 13. 15.1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network. Describe a UNIX system. The UNIX host will run this software as just another application.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT. What are the minimum hardware requirements for a Windows NT Workstation? 486DX-33 CPU. UNIX is a multi-tasking.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. Because all of its functions are file based. 12. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. These terminals rely solely on the Host for services and are not stand-alone systems. It is possible to convert a UNIX host into a file server using software. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. 110 MB free hard drive space. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. 16 MB RAM. general-purpose operating system. it is a very bulky operating system. 16. 309 . What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU. multi-user. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 17.

Application. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. Session. Presentation. managing. Presentation layer 7. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. This is not the actual application or program. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. Physical 10. and ending connections? The Session layer 310 . 11. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Data Link layer 5.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 3 1. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 4. Data Link. and Physical 3. Network. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. Which OSI layer is responsible for NIC to NIC communication? The Data Link layer 8. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. Network Layer 6. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. 9. 2. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Transport.

Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 16. Describe protocol binding. Which is faster.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 12. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. 13. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. It is a computer’s physical address. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. 19. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster. In order to function. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com. 17. without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 15. They are incompatible with each other. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. 311 . It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications.2 18. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. 20. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer 14.

5. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above. SLIP. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. UDP. SNA. Will this work? Why or Why not? No. which is used to circulate air in a building). SMB. 6. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 21.25. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps 312 . DECnet. IPX/SPX. TCP/IP. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. AppleTalk. PPTP. PPP. XNS 22. X. Review Questions Chapter 4 1. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. which would end up being circulated throughout the building. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol. 7.

16. What is the difference between simplex. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. half-duplex. For example. For example.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 9. making it the most popular cable type. and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way. Describe broadband. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. What is the function of a network adapter card? 313 . 13. 14. 19. a CB radio. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. It is also flexible and easy to install. a pager. which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. 17. For example. 18. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable. segment lengths of up to several miles. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. 15. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. 11. and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. 10. making the signal flow unidirectional. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths. Half-duplex communication can send or receive. it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. It is also flexible and easy to install. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. However. the telephone. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. but not at the same time. making it the most popular cable type. Describe baseband. can receive but not send.

and Microwave 25. to backup a cable-based network. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 23. In Token Ring networks. Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances. In what type of network would you expect to find boot PROM capabilities? Remote Boot PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared. for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly. 24. 20. (They make the physical connection to the network. what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. 22. Laser. remote boot PROM allows the computer to boot using information located on a remote computer. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. Computers usually use information located on a floppy or hard drive to boot up. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally. High-security networks sometimes use diskless workstations to make it impossible for data to be downloaded and stolen. 26. 21. 314 . to provide a mobile network environment. Radio. outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network. including network connectivity.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). 14. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 316

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The IEEE 802.3 standard 15. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802.5 standard 16. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token, data collisions are avoided. 18. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. 19. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. IEEE 802.5 says it travels clockwise, while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise, however. 20. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. 21. Describe a MIC connector. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 22. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. If no other computer is using the address, it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. 23. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. It also provides a print server. 24. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. 25. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2, etc. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2.

Review Questions Chapter 6

1. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. 2. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. 3. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. 4. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. 5. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 6. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. However, he intends to expand the network in the future. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 5 cabling instead of CAT 3. It will be less costly to install CAT 5 now than to replace the CAT 3 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 10 MHz to 100 MHz to handle the higher traffic. 7. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards, but they are not all the same. Why should you refuse this offer? First, you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. Also, having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network. 8. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows NT. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS, but not enough to run it efficiently. 9. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows NT? Check the hardware compatibility list (HCL).

Review Questions Chapter 7

1. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. 2. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. An active hub requires some input power. Passive hubs are used only to make connections.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 3. Define a repeater, a bridge, a router, and a gateway. Repeater - A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. They do not translate or filter any information. They do however, amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model. Bridge - A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN, thus reducing the traffic for each segment. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Router - A router has all the features of a bridge, but it can switch packets across multiple networks. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. Not all network protocols will work with a router. For example, NetBEUI is not routable. Gateway - Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. 4. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. 5. A form of digital line that is capable of 1.544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. Name three advanced WAN environments. Frame Relay, ISDN, and SONET 7. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). 8. Name three RAS protocols. SLIP, PPP, PPTP and L2TP 9. Name four forms of RAS security. Auditing, Callback Security, Security host, and PPTP filtering. 10. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. In older modems, BAUD and bps were the same thing.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers

Review Questions Chapter 8

1. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application, Transport, Internet and Network Interface. 2. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP, UDP, IP, ICMP, and ARP. 3. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3, SMTP, FTP, SNMP, and HTTP. 4. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. 5. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. An example is http://www.microsoft.com. 6. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. 7. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. 8. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. 32 10. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11)

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 11. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. 12. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment

Review Questions Chapter 9

1. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status. 2. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network, each device will need to be _________ compliant. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. List as many as you can. Event Viewer, ROUTE, NBTSTAT, NETSTAT and TRACERT.

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What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. 4. Resources 3. 323 . In a share level model.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 10 1. 2. 5. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. What does the acronym RAID stand for? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. What are the six levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 2 Parallel array with ECC RAID 3 Parallel array with parity RAID 4 Striped array with parity RAID 5 Striped array with rotating parity 6. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. passwords are assigned to __________.

2. 6. You are troubleshooting a cable problem.0. 5. 3. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. WINIPCFG from the RUN command.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. and Repair the Problem. 4. You have just connected a workstation to the network. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. You need to know the IP address of a workstation.1 7. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. What is the loopback IP address? 127. 324 . What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP. After repairing a problem. The fox and hound. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. Isolate the Problem. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. You have located the cable in question #3. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution. and think it might be shorted.0. 8.

What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 325 .Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 9. 10. You have a Windows NT network and received complaints that the server is running slow. Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted.

...........28.............................................................................................191 Analog........49 AUI connector.................. 220 ATM...............................................................................................................................88 AWG.............126 binding.........................100 Baseband.........................................................115 Active Directory................................................ 88 backup utility......................................87 Boot Prom’s.......................................................................................................................................................................................77.........................................36 Address Resolution Protocol....... 128 Application Layer.................................................................................26 ARCNet..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................230 Bandwidth............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................73 BNC......................................................51 active hubs.....69 C 326 ..........................................................................................................................................................................75.................................................................. 121 10BaseFL......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................130 ARP..............................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Index 1 100BaseX..............235 BOOTP.............121 10BaseT.......................................................................................................87....................95 Broadband Optical Telepoint...........................................123 10Base2...........................................................................................................................................257 Banyan VINES....................................................................................................................................... 121 10Base5...............................................................121 A access method.98 AppleShare............................................................................................................................................95 B backbone...............................................................................68 attributes......196 BRI........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................68 Broadband.................................................................................................................129 AppleTalk........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................172 bridge.................................................................................................................................105 brouter.........................................................................100 Boot Sector................................................87............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................58 application server.95 Beaconing.............................................................................................................................................................................51 base memory address............................................171 attenuation.............................................................................................123 100VG-AnyLAN.................................................

........................33............................................................................................................................................................................................235 EISA..................................................................100 domain...................................118 D Data Link Layer..............................230 Digital.........................................................................................200 Client Software...............................................................Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD...........................................................................68 E EES.......................................194 Domain Reflectometer (TDR)..............................................................................................115..................................166 Category 3................49..........................................................................................................................151 Ethernet...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................99 DLC......................................................................... 121 EtherTalk....................................... 116 CSNW.....................................................................................................50 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP)....................................................................................................................................................................................................45 clients........................................45 DECnet.............................................................116 DES (Data Encryption Standard).........................98 Direct Memory Access (DMA)..........................................................................................................................................................102 EMI..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................158 connection-oriented.............................................................. 194 domain controller.............................................................................................................................167 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC)......................................75 demand priority........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................49 Circuit-switched.....................................26 Clocking.................................................................................................................78 coaxial cable......................................................................................................................................................................73 continuity...........................................................................................................................................249 DSMN........................................................200 Class B...................................................200 Class C......................................................................................................107 Change...................90 environment...............33 Carriers.........................................................................................................90 Cellular Networking..............................................................................................................................................................129 327 .....................234 Differential backup.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................169 Class A.......................................................98 cloud..............60 Data Protection.............................................................................................................................................................................................................247 CSMA/CD................................90 Category 5...........................50 CSU/DSU....................196 dynamic routers........................................................................................78 DMA...................................................49 Domain Name Service (DNS)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................86 Computer compatibility.................................................................................................................

...................................................................Fiber Distributed Data...........49 fault tolerance...............................................................................................................230 FDDI .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (IEEE)........................................30 I I/O port number................................................230 Full Control........................................................................................................................................................................100 IBM cabling.........................105 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers..91 File Infectors................................................192 HTTPS.................................................230 Infrared........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................197 IFCONFIG................................................................................................................................................................................................191 Incremental backup.............................................................................................. 192 Full backup........................................................228 FPNW....................................................................................................................................49 Full-Duplex........................................................218 F Fast Ethernet...........................................................................................79 ICS................123 ground probe........................127 ICA................................................................172 FTP........................................................................................................................................................................................... Inc...............................................................192 hubs....................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Event Viewer.......................................................................................................................................................................220 IMAP4..............................................50 Frame Relay......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................195 gateways.........235 fire codes............................95 firewall......92 IBM Type 3 UTP..................95 headers.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................76...............................................................................................................................................................................195 HTTP.....................................................................................................................................................................................................165 Gigabit Ethernet.................................................................................................................................................................................118 HOSTS file........................................................................................................................51 GSNW.......34 FAT......................................................................178 ICMP...................................................................................................................................................................171 fiber-optic............................................................69 Gateways..................................191 328 ................................................................................................................................................................................247 Group policies.......................................................................163 hybrid topologies..............................................................................................................................................................................................................64 Headers.................................................................................70 Internet Control Message Protocol..............................................................................................................................................................................................50 H Half-Duplex................95 G gateway...................................................................................

....................................................................127 Multimeter......................................................................................................................................................167 K Kerberos........................75 IRQ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................30 MHS...........................................................................................................................220........................................Multiple Access Units.................................................................................................................127.................................102 ISDN.................................................................................................................................................105 Linux.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................41 329 .............................................................52 Macro Virus............25 Laser..................................................................................................................................................................195 LocalTalk.....................................................................................................................................................................100 ISA...........121 LMHOSTS..............48 MIB (Management Information Base).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................129 logical topology...............................33 Media Compatibility........35 media access methods........................................................................................178 LAN.....................................................75 M Macintosh....................................................................................................................................................198 IPCONFIG...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................173 MSAU........177 IPv6.............................................................................................................................................105 LAT..............................................................................................................................................................157 Media Tester......................................... 163 MAUs .............................................................................................247 mesh topology......................................................................................178 L L2TP..............................................................................................................................................................................................51 LLC...........30 LSL..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................200 IPX.... 190 IP address......................................................................48 IP 76..............................190 interoperability.......................................................................................75 modem...............................................247 multitasking................45 MAU.......................105 MLID.......................................Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Internet Protocol (IP)...............................172 ISDN adapters..............................................................................................................................................................................................236 Managing User Accounts..................78 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................178 Line-of-Sight Infrared.................................................................................127 Microwave....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................216 MIC (Media Interface Connectors).......................................................... 253 IPsec..................................................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................77 NLSP......................................................................................................................................................................................................48 NetWare Print Services.......................................................................................................................35 Passwords.................175 NWLink...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................196 NBTSTAT................................................................78 NETBIOS.......................................................................................................................232 NFS..........47 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh...............................................................................................................................................75 No Access............................................................................................................................................................................................................................102 PCMCIA........................................................................................................................................40 NSLOOKUP...........42 Network standards...........................47 NetWare Client32 for OS/2......................................................................Primary Domain Controller............................................................................................................................................................72 Open Systems Interface (OSI).................98 Network Layer.......................................................48 Network Adapter Cards...218 NCP..........................................................................................................................................................................................75 NDIS............................................................................................................................44 P Packet switching....................................................................................................233 Patch Panel...........................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide N NAT...........................................................................................................................77 Network-attached storage (NAS)................................................................................................................................................................................................169 Packet-Radio Networking.............................................................................57 operating system..........40 OS/2...................................................................................... 76 O ODI..............................................................................................................47 NetWare file server................................................................................................72 NDS (NetWare Directory Services).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................102 PDC ...............................48 NetWare security...............................................................................................................................................................................47 NetWare Client32 for DOS...........................................................................................218 NetWare.............................................................................................................60 Network Neighborhood....................195 NETSTAT.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................220 NTFS............107 packets............................................49 NOS – Network Operating System................................................................................163 PCI....................................................................................................................................................................................................47 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95.................49 Null-Modem......98 passive hub..................................................................26 330 ...........50...........................................................................................................................................118 parallel communication........................................................................................................121 Network Time Protocol (NTP)............47 NetBEUI...............

...........................................................................................................................79.....................................................................................49 redirector.................................................................................................................................................................196 Punch Down Tool...............................................................................................................................28 serial communication.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................105 RAID...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................220 PING...............................................114 protocols....................................................30 Ping...218 router...............229 removable optical disk...........................................................................79..............................................................................................................46 ring topology...Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers peer-to-peer.....................................................................................................41 PRI...........................................................................................................98 Server room....................26 331 ........................27 Peer-to-peer LANs..................57........................................................... 225 segment..............................................................................220 Read..........................................................................................231 RARP..........................................235 physical topologies....................................................................................246 R Radio..........................................................................46 Reflective Infrared...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 164 requester...........................................42 PGP........................................................................................................................172 security...... 72 proxy server...................................................................151 Remote Access Server or RAS.....................................................................................................105 relative humidity......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................45 server-based network............229 repeater.............165 routers...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................68..........................................253 plenum............................................. 77 ROUTE................................................................................................................................................151 Server Software............................................................... 73 RPC.... 176 PPTP................................................................................................................................29 RIP...........................................................................................................................75............................................175 removable disks................................................................................................................................................................................................178 Security...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................107 Scatter Infrared..............................................................................................................................................................172 protocol..............................................................................................................................................45......................79 RSA.......................................................................................................................................................76 Satellite Station Networking.............................................................105 SDH.............. 176 Preemptive multitasking...................................................68..................................................................................234 S SAP.............................95 PPP.......................................

.................................................159 star topology........................................................241 trunk...............................................................................236 troubleshooting.................................................119 transceiver................................................................................................................. 176 SMAU..........................................77 terminator....................... 88 thicknet..................................................86 throughput................................................................................................................68 Storage Area Network (SAN)..........................................229 TCP..........................................................................................................................86 Thinnet....................................................................................................................172 SMTP..76 SMDS........................................................................................44 servers.................................. 187 332 .................................................257 TLS...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28....... 253 Trailer.....................172 SPX...................................................................................................................................................................................................29 static routers...................................................................................................................................................................... 116 token ring...........................................................................................................................................................................79................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................218................................................................................................................................................33...76 Trojan Horses...90 Subnetting.................79...............28 twisted-pair. 192 SNA.......................................................178 token passing........................................................................................................................................................................76 sneaker net.......................................................................249 SONET.........................................................................76......178 Standards..................................................................................76.............................................................................28.........59 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)............................................................89 U UDP..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Server-based network...........................................................................................................................................................77.......................................................216 Simplex......................75 SSL......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................24 SNMP.......................................95 SLIP......................28 TRACERT.................................................................................................................................... 88 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)...........................................................................................................................................................................................88 Transport Layer.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................125 topology..............................................................................26 sharing applications.................................................................................................................................... 189 Telnet.................................................................................................................................................................................................................203 T tape backup..................................................... 192 Software analyzers...............................................................127 SMB..............................................232 STP....................................................................................................................24 signal bounce...........................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................89 virtual connections..................................Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers UNIX..............................................235 VLAN.......................................................................................................................................................................................170 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks).........................50 WINS.....................................................................................31.........................................................................................................44 Windows 2000......................................................66 Viruses............................................................................................................................................25......................................................190 UTP.............................................234 W WAN....................................................... 171 XDR.............................101 workstation.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................246 Wireless............................89 V vampire taps.....................................................................42 Windows NT Print Servers..........................................................................................................77................................................................................42 Windows for Workgroups..................................................26 X X............................................................................................25 Warp Connect...........................................................161 Windows 95/98......................................51 User Datagram Protocol (UDP)................ 131 wireless network....................................................................................................................................78 333 ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................104 Wireless NICs.....................195 Wire Crimper...............................79 XNS....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................