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RockWorks TM

v. 2002

RockWare ®
2221 East St., Suite 101 Golden, CO 80401 USA
tel: + 303-278-3534 fax + 303-278-4099 www.rockware.com
RockWorks2002

Copyright Notice

This software and accompanying documentation are copyrighted and contain proprietary
information. Duplication of the original diskette(s) is for the sole use of the purchaser.
Copyright 1983-2001 by RockWare, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
2221 East St., Suite 101
Golden, CO 80401 USA
303-278-3534 fax: 303-278-4099
www.rockware.com
email: rockware@rockware.com

Improvement Notice

RockWare, Inc. reserves the right to make improvements in this product at any time and
without notice.

Limited Warranty

This software, documentation, and other provided material are provided "as is" without
warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied
warranties of merchantability, and fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement of
third-party proprietary rights. In no event shall RockWare, Inc. be liable for incidental
damages, consequential damages, lost profits, lost savings, or any other damages arising out of
the use of or inability to use the software.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the event that the software contains any defect which
adversely affects the use of the software, your sole remedy shall be limited to either a refund of
all or part of the purchase price, or replacement of the software, which determination shall be
made in the sole discretion of RockWare, Inc.

Trademarks / Owners:

RockWorks, RockWorks99, Stratos, RockWare / RockWare, Inc.


ArcView / ESRI, Inc.
AutoCAD / AutoDesk
Microsoft, Windows / Microsoft Corporation.
NOeSYS / Fortner Research
Slicer Dicer / Visualogic
Surfer / Golden Software, Inc.
All other company and product names are TM or ® of their respective trademark owners.

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RockWorks2002

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Introduction 1
Welcome ....................................................................................................................... 1
System Requirements................................................................................................... 2
Installing RockWorks .................................................................................................... 2
Starting Up RockWorks................................................................................................. 5
Uninstalling RockWorks .............................................................................................. 11
What's New in RockWorks2002.................................................................................. 12
RockWorks99 Users Read This!................................................................................. 18
LogPlot Users Read This ............................................................................................ 19
Getting Help ................................................................................................................ 19

Chapter 2 - The Borehole Manager 21


Entering Data - Overview............................................................................................ 21
The Borehole Manager Overview ............................................................................... 22
Importing RockWorks99 Data ..................................................................................... 23
Using the Borehole Manager ...................................................................................... 29
Entering the Borehole Data......................................................................................... 33
Entering the Borehole Data - Overview ............................................................... 33
How to enter well location data............................................................................ 35
How to enter well orientation or downhole survey data ....................................... 36
How to enter lithology data .................................................................................. 37
How to enter stratigraphy data ............................................................................ 39
How to enter geochemical data ........................................................................... 40
How to enter geophysical data ............................................................................ 42
How to enter fracture data ................................................................................... 44
How to enter water level data .............................................................................. 46
How to enter log symbols .................................................................................... 46
How to enter log patterns..................................................................................... 48
View a well data summary ................................................................................... 48
Data Tab Tools .................................................................................................... 49
Other Data Topics................................................................................................ 51
Exporting the Borehole Data ............................................................................... 57

Chapter 3 - The Geological Utilities Datasheet 59


Entering Your Data ..................................................................................................... 59
Geological Utilities Datasheet Overview..................................................................... 60
Using the Datasheet ................................................................................................... 61
Laying Out Your Datasheet......................................................................................... 67
XYZ Data ............................................................................................................. 67
XYZG Data .......................................................................................................... 69
Ternary Data........................................................................................................ 70
Survey (Bearing, Distance) Data ......................................................................... 71
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Survey (Triangulation) Data .................................................................................72


Shotpoint Data......................................................................................................73
Land Grid Well Descriptions.................................................................................73
Land Grid Lease Descriptions ..............................................................................74
Global Map Point Data .........................................................................................75
Global Map Polyline Data.....................................................................................77
Drawdown Data ....................................................................................................78
Hydrograph Data ..................................................................................................78
Hydrochemistry (Ion) Data ...................................................................................79
Strike and Dip Data ..............................................................................................80
Lineation Endpoint Data .......................................................................................82
Movement Data ....................................................................................................83
Beta Pairs Data ....................................................................................................83
PicShow Image Lists ............................................................................................84
OpenGL Vertical Panel Image Lists .....................................................................85
OpenGL Horizontal Panel Image Lists .................................................................85
OpenGL Tubes .....................................................................................................86
OpenGL Oriented Objects....................................................................................87
OpenGL Horizontal Tanks....................................................................................87
OpenGL Vertical Tanks ........................................................................................88
Editing the Datasheet ..................................................................................................89
Importing Data .............................................................................................................96
Exporting Data from the Geological Utilities Datasheet ..............................................96
Digitizing Data..............................................................................................................97

Chapter 4 – Creating Point, Contour and 3D Surface Maps, and


other Maps 99
Point Maps...................................................................................................................99
2D Contour Maps ......................................................................................................102
3D Surface Maps .......................................................................................................107
Land Grid Maps .........................................................................................................110
Shotpoint Maps..........................................................................................................111
Global Maps...............................................................................................................112
Borehole Manager: Translating Map Coordinates.....................................................112
Geological Utilities: Translating Jeffersonian Locations (RTS) to X,Y.......................113
Geological Utilities: Translating Jeffersonian Polygons (RTS) to X,Y .......................113
Geological Utilities: Translating Map Coordinates.....................................................114

Chapter 5 - Creating Strip Logs & Log Sections 115


Creating Strip Logs & Log Sections - Overview ........................................................115
Creating 2D Logs & Projected Sections ....................................................................115
Creating 2D Hole to Hole Sections............................................................................118
Creating 3D Logs.......................................................................................................123
Log Item Summary ....................................................................................................125

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Chapter 6 - Creating Stratigraphy Profiles, Fences, Blocks 127


Creating Stratigraphic Diagrams - Overview ............................................................ 127
Creating Stratigraphic Profiles .................................................................................. 127
Creating Stratigraphic Fence Diagrams.................................................................... 128
Creating Stratigraphic Block Diagrams..................................................................... 129
Picking Stratigraphic Contacts .................................................................................. 130
Creating a Stratigraphic Volume Report ................................................................... 132
Exporting Stratigraphy Data...................................................................................... 133

Chapter 7 - Water Levels: Display as Profiles, Plans, Fences,


and Blocks 135
Creating Water Level Diagrams - Overview ............................................................. 135
Creating a Water Level Profile Diagram ................................................................... 135
Creating a 2D Water Level Surface or Thickness Map............................................. 136
Creating a Water Level Fence Diagram ................................................................... 136
Creating a Water Level Block Diagram..................................................................... 137

Chapter 8 - Creating Solid Models, Profiles, and Fence


Diagrams 139
Solid Modeling Introduction....................................................................................... 139
What to do with a Solid Model? ................................................................................ 140
Geological Utilities: Creating a Solid Model of XYZG Data ...................................... 140
Borehole Manager: Creating Lithology Solid Models, Fences, and Profiles............. 141
Borehole Manager: Creating Geochemistry Solid Models, Fences, and Profiles..... 145
Borehole Manager: Creating Geophysical Solid Models, Fences, and Profiles ....... 147

Chapter 9 - Laying Out Vertical Sections & Fences 151


Drawing a Line of Section for a Projected Log Section ............................................ 151
Drawing a Hole to Hole Section Trace...................................................................... 152
Drawing a Line of Section for a Profile ..................................................................... 154
Drawing Fence Diagram Panels ............................................................................... 155

Chapter 10 - Grid Model Tools 157


Grid Model Tools - Overview .................................................................................... 157
Computing Grid Statistics ......................................................................................... 157
Performing Arithmetic Operations with Grid Models................................................. 158
Filtering Grid Models................................................................................................. 159
Editing Grid Models................................................................................................... 160
Performing a Slope/Aspect Analysis on Grid Models ............................................... 160
Creating Directional Maps of Slope/Aspect Grid Models.......................................... 161
Performing a Trend Surface Analysis ....................................................................... 162
Importing Grid Models into RockWorks .................................................................... 163
Exporting RockWorks Grid Models ........................................................................... 163

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Chapter 11 – Solid Model Tools 165


Solid Menu Tools - Overview.....................................................................................165
Computing Solid Model Statistics ..............................................................................165
Performing Arithmetic Operations with Solid Models ................................................166
Filtering Solid Models ................................................................................................166
Creating and Manipulating Boolean Solid Models.....................................................168
Converting and Extracting Solid Model Data.............................................................169
Editing Solid Model Slices .........................................................................................171
Importing Solid Models ..............................................................................................172
Exporting Solid Models..............................................................................................172
Initializing a Blank Solid Model ..................................................................................173

Chapter 12 - Computing Volumes 175


Volume Menu Tools - Overview ................................................................................175
Geological Utilities: EZ Volume of X, Y, Thickness Data ..........................................175
Geological Utilities: Extracting Solids ........................................................................177
Borehole Manager: Creating a Lithologic Volume Report .........................................178
Borehole Manager: Creating a Stratigraphic Volume Report ....................................179
Borehole Manager: Creating Detailed Geochemistry Volume Reports & Diagrams .180

Chapter 13 - Hydrology Tools 181


Computing Drawdown for a Single Well ....................................................................181
Computing a Drawdown Surface...............................................................................182
Plotting Water Level versus Precipitation ..................................................................183
Computing Total Dissolved Solids.............................................................................183
Computing Ion Balance .............................................................................................184
Creating Piper Diagrams ...........................................................................................184
Creating Stiff Diagrams .............................................................................................185

Chapter 14 - Directional Statistics Tools 187


Computing Lineation Bearing, Length, and Midpoint ................................................187
Creating Strike and Dip Maps....................................................................................187
Creating Arrow Maps.................................................................................................188
Creating Lineation Maps............................................................................................189
Gridding and Mapping Lineation Frequencies, Lengths, and Intersections ..............189
Creating Rose Diagrams ...........................................................................................190
Creating Stereonet Diagrams ....................................................................................191
Performing Movement Analysis.................................................................................191
Computing Planar Intersections - Planar Pairs .........................................................192
Computing Planar Intersections ................................................................................192
Rotating 3D Data .......................................................................................................193
Converting Strike Bearing to Dip Direction ................................................................193
Importing DXF Lineations into the Datasheet............................................................194
Translating Coordinates ............................................................................................194

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Chapter 15 - Statistical Tools 195


Statistical Tools - Overview....................................................................................... 195
Computing Univariate Statistics ................................................................................ 195
Creating Histogram Plots .......................................................................................... 196
Creating a Scattergram (X, Y) Plot for Two Variables .............................................. 197
Creating a Ternary Diagram for Three Variables...................................................... 197
Normalizing Data ...................................................................................................... 198
Standardizing Data ................................................................................................... 198
Generating Random Numbers .................................................................................. 198

Chapter 16 - Survey Tools 199


Survey Menu - Overview........................................................................................... 199
Converting Bearing / Distance Data and Creating Maps .......................................... 199
Converting Triangulation Data to XYZ ...................................................................... 199
Setting Up X,Y Stations ............................................................................................ 200
Interpolating Points Along a Line .............................................................................. 200
Computing Downhole Survey Coordinates............................................................... 201

Chapter 17 – Creating Miscellaneous OpenGL 3D Images 203


OpenGL Menu - Overview ........................................................................................ 203
3D Bitmaps ............................................................................................................... 203
3D Tubes .................................................................................................................. 206
3D Oriented Objects ................................................................................................. 206
3D Storage Tanks ..................................................................................................... 207

Chapter 18 - Miscellaneous Utilities 209


Utilities Menu - Overview ................................................................................... 209

Chapter 19 - RockPlot2D 211


RockPlot2D Overview ............................................................................................... 211
Managing RockPlot2D Files...................................................................................... 211
Importing Files into RockPlot2D................................................................................ 213
Viewing RockPlot2D Files......................................................................................... 214
On-Screen Tools: Measuring and Digitizing ............................................................. 220
Manipulating RockPlot2D Files ................................................................................. 224
Printing RockPlot2D Files ......................................................................................... 229
Exporting RockPlot2D Files ...................................................................................... 230

Chapter 20 - RockPlot3D 231


RockPlot3D Overview ............................................................................................... 231
Managing RockPlot3D Files...................................................................................... 231
Viewing RockPlot3D Files......................................................................................... 235
Manipulating RockPlot3D Images............................................................................. 237
Reference Items ................................................................................................ 237
Data Items ......................................................................................................... 238

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Exporting RockPlot3D Images...................................................................................245


RockPlot3D Reference ..............................................................................................245

Chapter 21 - RockWorks Tables and System Libraries 247


Diagram Legend Tables ............................................................................................247
Color or Line Interval Tables .....................................................................................248
Density Factors Table................................................................................................249
DLG Attributes Table .................................................................................................250
Land Grid Tables .......................................................................................................250
Lithology Keyword Tables .........................................................................................253
Pattern Tables ...........................................................................................................254
Polygon Vertices Tables............................................................................................258
Range Tables ............................................................................................................258
Stratigraphy Tables ...................................................................................................259
Survey Tables............................................................................................................260
Symbol Tables ...........................................................................................................260
Table Editor Tools .....................................................................................................263

Chapter 22 - Reference 267


Gridding Reference ...................................................................................................267
Solid Modeling Reference .........................................................................................271
Stratigraphic Model Reference ..................................................................................274
2-Dimensional Map Layers........................................................................................276
Other 2D Diagram Settings .......................................................................................276
3-Dimensional Diagram Settings ...............................................................................277
ATD File Structure .....................................................................................................278
Borehole Data File Structure .....................................................................................278
AGL File Structure .....................................................................................................278
Exported Borehole Data Structure.............................................................................279
Troubleshooting .........................................................................................................279

Glossary 281

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Chapter 1 - Introduction
Welcome
RockWorks2002 is the newest version of RockWare’s integrated geological data
management, analysis, and visualization tool collection, which began back in 1983.
RockWorks2002 contains an all-new borehole data manager for easy entry of downhole
data: geophysical or geochemical measurements, observed lithologies, stratigraphic
contacts, water levels, fractures, as well as downhole well surveys. It displays point and
contour maps, logs, cross sections (projected and well-to-well), and profiles in a 2-
dimensional plot window with save, export, and printing tools, as well as on-screen
drawing and measurement tools.
It displays logs, surfaces, thickness models, fence diagrams, and solid models in a new 3D
OpenGL plot window. This window provides easy 3-dimensional visualization, with
interactive rotation, panning, zooming, and layering of different images. Adjust lighting,
filter "blobs," adjust colors, easily and quickly. View volumes instantly on the screen.
RockWorks2002 also contains an entire array of general geological utilities for basic
gridding and contouring, solid modeling, volumetrics, hydrological and hydrochemical
tools (drawdown, Piper and Stiff diagrams), 2D and 3D feature analysis (rose and
stereonet diagrams, lineation maps and densities), statistical computations and diagrams
(histograms, scatterplots, ternary plots), survey mapping, coordinate conversions, and
more.
RockWorks2002 runs in Windows98/NT/2000 and is available with both single-user and
network licenses.
RockWorks2002 has most of the tools of RockWorks99, plus an entirely new data
interface for entering borehole data. If you are a RockWorks99 user, be sure to read the
What's Different section and look for this symbol in these help messages.

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RockWorks2002

System Requirements
The minimum system requirements for RockWorks2002 may vary, depending on the type
of data you will be processing and the types of diagrams you will be creating and viewing.
For example, a ternary diagram plot displayed in RockPlot2D and created from a simple
datasheet may require fewer resources than a dense solid model manipulated in
RockPlot3D and created from detailed downhole geochemistry data.
However, RockWorks2002 as a whole, with all its new tools, will require more computer
resources than were necessary in RockWorks99.
In general, the more RAM, the faster the processor, the newer the operating system, the
better.
Here is our recommended system setup for use of RockWorks2002:
Windows2000 or NT.
256 MB of RAM or better.
200 mHz or faster CPU (Pentium or AMD)
3D Graphics card with OpenGL support (or a 400 mHz or faster Pentium III CPU).
Plenty of free disk space.
Display set to GREATER than 800 x 600 pixels.

Installing RockWorks
RockWorks can be installed either from a RockWare-supplied CD-ROM or from a file
you've downloaded from our web site.

Install RockWorks from a CD

! Skip this step if you have already downloaded the software from the internet and don't
wish to overwrite it with what may be an older version on the CD-ROM. The version of
RockWorks that's on the web is almost always the newest version.
To install RockWorks from a RockWare-supplied CD, follow these steps:
1. Insert the CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive of your computer. The installation
program should start up automatically.
(If it does not, select the Run command from the Windows Start menu. Type the
following in the displayed dialog box: x:\cd_setup and click OK, where "x" is
the letter of the drive that contains the CD-ROM.)

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2. Select RockWorks2002 from the installation program's menu, and click the Install
Software button at the top to start the installation.
3. Follow the recommended installation settings unless you specifically want the
program installed in a different folder. To proceed to the next screen at each
installation step, click on the Next button. Should you need to go back to a previous
window, click on the Back button. To cancel the installation entirely, click on
Cancel.
! If this a re-installation, be sure to click the Yes button when the program asks you
whether you wish to have backup copies created for existing files. This will assure
that any factory pattern, symbol, keyword and other modifiable files that you have
edited but not renamed will be saved in the designated backup folder. See also the "!"
below.
4. When the installation is complete, remove the CD from the CD drive.
5. Start up the program as described in “Starting Up RockWorks” (below).
! If you requested the program create backup copies of existing files during installation, be
sure to check that backup folder for the Pattern Table, Symbol Table, or other file(s) that
should be copied back to the main program folder or the program "tables" folder.

Install RockWorks from the internet

If you wish to download RockWorks from the internet and install it, follow these steps:
1. Access the RockWare web site: www.rockware.com
2. Click on the "Download" tab on the home page.
3. Fill in the requested information (name, email address, etc), and click the Submit
button.
4. On the next page, locate RockWorks2002 in the list, insert a check in its check-box,
and click the Submit button at the bottom of the page.
5. Save the downloaded file (“Install_RW2002.exe”) in your "temp" folder on your
computer.
6. When the download is complete, use Windows Explorer or My Computer to locate
the downloaded file in your “temp” folder, and double-click on this
“Install_RW2002.exe” file.
This will start up the standard installation program.

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7. Follow the recommended installation settings unless you specifically want the
program installed in a different folder. To progress to the next screen at each
installation step, click on the Next button. Should you need to go back to a previous
window, click on the Back button. To cancel the installation entirely, click on
Cancel.
! If this a re-installation, be sure to click the Yes button when the program asks you
whether you wish to have backup copies created for existing files. This will assure
that any factory pattern, symbol, keyword and other modifiable files that you have
edited but not renamed will be saved in the designated backup folder. See also the "!"
below.
Re-installing RockWorks does not require un-installing the previous version. In fact,
we discourage this because system libraries and other tables will be removed.
8. Start up the program as described in “Starting Up RockWorks” (below).
! If you requested the program create backup copies of existing files during installation, be
sure to check that backup folder for the Pattern Table, Symbol Table, Lithology Table,
Stratigraphy Table, or other file(s) that should be copied back to the main program folder
or the program "tables" folder.

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RockWorks2002

Starting Up RockWorks
RockWorks can be run in one of three modes. These modes are described below, and
their step-by-step instructions follow these descriptions.

Trialware Mode

Use this mode if you have not purchased the program and wish to run it for a while to try
it out. In Trialware mode all program functionality is intact except the export tools are
disabled. You can input your own data.
In Trialware mode, you are allowed to use the program for 10 days from first startup or for
25 launchings, whichever comes first. You will see the usage/time meter on the initial
screen.
If your trialware screen shows "expired," that means the program was originally installed
more than 10 days ago and/or has previously been used 25+ times. If you run out of time
for a proper evaluation, contact RockWare for a special extension code that will extend the
trial period.
Follow these steps to launch the RockWorks program in “Trialware” mode. (If you have
purchased a single-user license or a network license, you should read those instructions.)
1. Install the program as described in the separate topic.
2. Click on the Start button on the Windows taskbar.
3. Click on the Programs option.
4. Click on the RockWare item, and then on the RW2002 program icon that's displayed
in the pop-up menu.
5. You will see a window containing the text of RockWare’s license agreement. Please
read this. If you choose to purchase a single-user, network, or academic license, it’s
important that you’ve read this and understand the terms of the license. If you accept
the terms of the license agreement, click in the I accept the terms of this agreement
box, and continue on to the next step.
If you do not accept the terms of the license agreement, click the Cancel button. The
program will not launch. Contact RockWare for details.
6. Next, you will see an initial “splash” screen with three startup options. To run in
Trialware mode, click in the Trial Evaluation radio button.

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RockWorks2002

The program will display the number of sessions and the number of days you have
left in your trial period. If the program has never been installed on this computer
before, these should be set to 25 uses and 10 days.
If RockWorks has been installed before on this computer, the uses and/or days may
be used up. This can be true even if you had uninstalled the software before re-
installing. If you need more time, contact RockWare and we may be able to provide
an “extension code.”
7. Click the Show Instructions button on the splash screen if you need more information.
8. Click the Next button to continue.
9. The program will then ask you to select a project folder to work in. If you have
created your own data files, choose that folder name. If you are just beginning with
the program, choose the “Samples” folder. If you aren’t sure what to select, click
Cancel.
! If you are running Window98, the New Folder button in this window may not be
visible.
The program screen will be displayed.
RockWorks2002 contains two separate data windows, with separate sets of tools: The
Borehole Manager for entering/managing borehole data, and the Geological Utilities
Datasheet for more general types of data.
10. To access either data window, just click on its tab, right below the “Project Folder”
prompt.
You will probably also see a “tutorial” window displayed. (If not, you can open it by
clicking on the Help menu and clicking on the Tutorial option.) We recommend that you
go through some of these lessons, as they take you step-by-step through many of the
program functions.
! The next time you launch RockWorks, the splash screen will be displayed, showing you
how many sessions and days remain in your trial period. If you have purchased the
program and are ready to launch in Single User mode (and enter your unlocking code) or
in Network mode, see those instructions.

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RockWorks2002

Single-User Mode

Use this mode if you have purchased a single-user license for the program. Running in
this mode requires an "unlocking code" that is supplied by RockWare. The unlocking
code is computed for the unique "serial number" that you’ll see on the initial program
screen, so you’ll need to call/fax/email us with that number. (This is detailed in the step-
by-step instructions below).
If you have not purchased a single-user license, you should start the program in “Trialware
” model (to try out the software) or in “Network ” mode (if you’ve purchased a network
license).
1. Install the program as described in the separate topic.
2. Click on the Start button on the Windows taskbar.
3. Click on the Programs option.
4. Click on the RockWare item, and then on the RW2002 program icon that's displayed
in the pop-up menu.
5. You will see a window containing the text of RockWare’s license agreement. Please
read this. If you have purchased a single-user license, it’s important that you’ve read
this and understand the terms of the license. If you accept the terms of the license
agreement, click in the I accept the terms of this agreement box, and continue on to
the next step.
If you do not accept the terms of the license agreement, click the Cancel button. The
program will not launch. Contact RockWare for details.
6. Next, you will see an initial “splash” screen with three startup options. To run in
Single-User mode, click in the Single User radio button.

The program will display two prompts and a number. Now it’s time to unlock your
license.

! Click on the Show Instructions button on the splash screen if you need more
information about these procedures.

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RockWorks2002

7. To obtain your unlocking code (Single-User licenses), contact RockWare via:


Email: unlock@rockware.com
Telephone:
within Colorado: 303-278-3534
within the U.S.: 1-800-775-6745
outside the U.S.: + 303-278-3534
Fax: + 303-278-4099
Please include:
Your name,
Your company’s name (if applicable),
The Serial Number you see on the splash screen when the program starts up,
The number printed on a sticker on the CD, registration card, and/or user manual
(if available), and
How we should contact you (email, telephone, or fax).
If you don’t receive a reply immediately, you can still run the program in Trialware
mode until your unlocking code is supplied.
8. When you receive your unlocking code, type that number into the Unlocking Code
prompt.
9. In the Licensee Name prompt, type in the name of the individual or institution for
whom the license has been purchased. This information will later be displayed in the
Help / About window.
10. Click the Next button to continue.
11. The program will then ask you to select a project folder to work in. If you have
created your own data files, choose that folder name. If you are just beginning with
the program, choose the “Samples” folder. If you are not sure what to select, choose
Cancel.
! If you are running Window98, the New Folder button in this window may not be
visible.
The program screen will be displayed.
RockWorks2002 contains two separate data windows, with separate sets of tools: The
Borehole Manager for entering/managing borehole data, and the Geological Utilities
Datasheet for more general types of data.
12. To access either data window, just click on its tab, right below the “Project Folder”
prompt.

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RockWorks2002

You will probably also see a “tutorial” window displayed. (If not, you can open it by
clicking on the Help menu and clicking on the Tutorial option.) We recommend that you
go through some of these lessons, as they take you step-by-step through many of the
program functions.

! The next time you launch RockWorks, the splash screen will be displayed with your
licensee name and unlocking code shown. You can click Next to proceed, without having
to re-enter any information. If you would like to hide the splash screen upon future
launchings, use the View / Preferences / Skip Intro Screen setting.

Network User Mode

Use this mode if you have purchased a network license for the program, which allows
more than one person to access the program at a time. The network version requires a
special network license certificate file, which RockWare will email to you. This file must
be stored on the server in a location to which all users have access.
1. Install the program as described in the separate topic.
2. Install the certificate file: Contact RockWare to obtain your "certificate file" for the
network installation.
Email: tech@rockware.com
Telephone:
within Colorado: 303-278-3534
within the U.S.: 1-800-775-6745
outside the U.S.: + 303-278-3534
Fax: + 303-278-4099
Please include:
Your name,
The name of the company/institution that purchased the network license,
The number of seats you purchased,
The number printed on a sticker on the CD, registration card, and/or user manual
(if available), and
The email address to which the license file should be sent.
When you/your network administrator receives the certificate file via email, save the
file to a folder on the server to which all users have read and write access.
3. Start the program: Click on the Start button on the Windows taskbar.
Click on the Programs option.
Click on the RockWare item, and then on the RW2002 program icon that's displayed
in the pop-up menu.

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RockWorks2002

4. Read the license agreement: You will see a window containing the text of
RockWare’s license agreement. If you have purchased a network license, it’s
important that you’ve read this and understand the terms of the license. If you accept
the terms of the license agreement, click in the I accept the terms of this agreement
box, and continue on to the next step.
If you do not accept the terms of the license agreement, click the Cancel button. The
program will not launch. Contact RockWare for details.
5. Select the network option: You will next see an initial "splash" screen with three
startup options. To run in network mode, click in the Network radio button.

The program will display three prompts.


! Click on the Show Instructions button on the splash screen if you need more
information about these procedures.
6. Enter the network license information: Into the three prompts, type the following:
User Name: This is typically your name or other unique identifying string. The ID
string is limited to 20 characters, including spaces. Your ID will be stored in the
network Certificate File while you are using the program. When you exit RockWorks
using the program's File / Exit command, your ID will be logged out of the
Certificate File.
User Folder: Use the Browse button to access the folder in which you want the
RockWorks program to keep all of your configuration settings and system libraries.
This can be a local folder, or a folder elsewhere on the network to which you have
read/write access. Each network user should maintain their own User Folder to
prevent others overwriting their libraries of symbols, patterns, etc.
The User Folder is not necessarily the same as the user's data directory in which data
files are stored. The user can maintain many data folders, but only a single User
Folder.
Certificate File: Use the Browse button to access the folder in which the network's
certificate file "RW2002.LIC" has been installed. You may not run the network
version of RockWorks without access to the Certificate File which maintains the
network count, among other things. Please see your network administrator if you
cannot locate this file.
7. Click the Next button to continue.

10
RockWorks2002

8. The program will then ask you to select a project folder to work in. If you have
created your own data files, choose that folder name. If you are just beginning with
the program, choose the "Samples" folder. If you are not sure what to select, choose
Cancel.
! If you are running Window98, the New Folder button in this window may not be
visible.
The program screen will be displayed.
RockWorks2002 contains two separate data windows, with separate sets of tools: The
Borehole Manager for entering/managing borehole data, and the Geological Utilities
Datasheet for more general types of data.
9. To access either data window, just click on its tab, right below the "Project Folder"
prompt.
You will probably also see a "tutorial" window displayed. (If not, you can open it by
clicking on the Help menu and clicking on the Tutorial option.) We recommend that you
go through some of these lessons, as they take you step-by-step through many of the
program functions.

! The next time you launch RockWorks, the splash screen will be displayed with your
User Name, User Folder, and Certificate File location still displayed. You can click Next
to proceed. If you wish to hide the splash screen upon future launchings, use the View /
Preferences / Skip Intro Screen setting.

Uninstalling RockWorks
If you install your license of RockWorks on a different computer, you’ll need to remove
the program from the original machine. Follow these steps to remove the RockWorks
program from your computer:
1. Access the Windows Control Panel: Click on the Start button on the Windows
taskbar. Click on the Settings item, and then on Control Panel.
2. Double-click on the Add/Remove Programs icon.
3. Locate the RockWorks2002 item in the program list.
Select the Remove option.
Windows will launch its remove-software program. It will offer you either Automatic or
Custom removal. We generally recommend following the Automatic removal, as this will
remove the program files from your computer, but will not touch any of your own data
files.

11
RockWorks2002

What's New in RockWorks2002

Read this topic if you have used previous versions of RockWorks.


Data Entry: If you have borehole data there’s a whole new "Borehole Manager" for
entering and managing these data. Each borehole has its own set of data "tabs" into which
downhole lithology, stratigraphy, geochemistry, geophysical, water level, or fracture
measurements can be entered. Don’t worry – all the time you spent organizing
stratigraphic elevations into the main RockWorks99 datasheet and linking lithology,
curve, and histogram files wasn’t for naught. Your RockWorks99 [.atd] and [.tem] files
can be imported into the Borehole Manager.

3D Graphics: No more flat projections of 3D images onto a RockPlot2D screen.


RockWorks2002 has a brand new Open-GL 3D graphics program that displays fences,
solid models, surfaces, and logs in an interactive, layerable display.

12
RockWorks2002

Non-Vertical Borehole Support: The Borehole Manager allows input of downhole survey
data for deviated and inclined holes.

13
RockWorks2002

New Diagram Types:


3-D log displays

2-Dimensional profile diagrams

14
RockWorks2002

Projected vertical well sections

Lithology diagrams

15
RockWorks2002

Stratigraphy diagrams

Geophysical diagrams

16
RockWorks2002

Geochemical diagrams

Fracture Diagrams

17
RockWorks2002

RockWorks99 Users Read This!

Your Data

If your RockWorks99 ATD files contain downhole stratigraphy and/or linked downhole
data files (LIT, HIS, CUR, ZON files) you will now work with your data in the Borehole
Manager, the new data window.
See Borehole Manager Overview (page 22) and Importing RockWorks99 Files (page
23) into the Borehole Manager.
If your ATD files do not represent borehole data, you will continue to use the Geological
Utilities datasheet. The information in your template (TEM) file will now be stored as a
header in the ATD file, so you won’t have to manage two files.
See the Geological Utilities Datasheet Overview (page 60) and Opening a
RockWorks99 datasheet (page 61).

Your Plots

If you have a bunch of "RKW" files containing RockWorks99 images, you can still open
these into RockWorks2002. Use the File / RockPlot2D menu command to open a
RockPlot2D window, and use its File / Open command to open existing RKW images.
RockWorks2002 also contains a new OpenGL 3-D plotting window: RockPlot3D (see
page 231). This is the window that will be used to display any new 3D images you create,
such as 3D log displays, fence diagrams, solid models, and 3D surfaces. You cannot open
RKW files in the RockPlot3D window.

Other New Features

The Borehole Manager allows entry of downhole survey measurements for deviated or
inclined borings.

Watch for this symbol throughout the help system for topics specific to RockWorks99
users.

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RockWorks2002

LogPlot Users Read This


There is a separate LogPlot to RockWorks2002 Importer program that is available on our
web site and on the installation CD for a batch importer of multiple LogPlot .DAT files.
Using log design information, this tool can determine the LogPlot entities that can be
imported into RockWorks, and, where possible, it will offer the user control over the
specific import options. Lithology/stratigraphy data (LogPlot: “LITH”), geochemical data
(LogPlot “Histogram”), geophysical data (LogPlot “Curve”), log symbols, and text can be
imported.
Once imported into RockWorks, the user has a variety of program tools at hand: strip
logs, cross sections, solid models, surface maps, and more.
This program is installed and run as a separate application from either LogPlot2001 or
RockWorks2002.

Getting Help
The following documentation and help resources are available for the RockWorks2002
program:
1. On-line tutorial: This small help window will pop up onto the screen display when
you first start the program. It contains lessons on a variety of items pertaining to the
Borehole Manager and the Geological Utilities datasheets. You can leave the tutorial
window displayed on your screen as you follow the lesson instructions. Or, you can
click the Print button to print the current screen.
If you get tired of seeing the tutorial pop up each time you start the program, it can be
turned off by adjusting a setting in the View / Preferences window. Remove the
check-mark from the Tutorial check-box, and the next time you start the program, the
tutorial window will not be displayed. You can re-activate its launch-on-startup just
by re-inserting a check in its View / Preferences setting.
You can also launch the tutorials at any time by choosing the Help / Tutorial
command.
2. Program “abstracts”: The main RockWorks2002 window, and most of its sub-
windows or dialog boxes, contain a “pane” or section along the right side that is used
to display pictures and/or text that pertain to the currently-highlighted menu item or
window setting. So easy – just point to an item and read its description to the right.

19
RockWorks2002

3. Context-sensitive Help system: There is a complete help system installed with the
program. It contains descriptions about the program tools, and step-by-step
instructions about their use. Access the Help system in a variety of ways: Click Help
/ Contents, or press the Help or “?” button in many program screens, or press the F1
key on your keyboard.
4. Web Help: Go to our home page (www.rockware.com) and click on the Support tab
for a variety of support options, including write-ups, email support, etc.
5. This “RoadMap”: This book is designed to be a “roadmap” to summarize program
functions and to direct you to other resources for more information.

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RockWorks2002

Chapter 2 - The Borehole Manager


Entering Data - Overview
When you first start up RockWorks2001, you will see two different data windows:
The Borehole Manager, a new data interface, for entering borehole data (downhole
stratigraphy, lithology, geochemistry, geophysical measurements, water level, etc.):

The Geological Utilities datasheet, for entering other, more general data types (surface
elevations, ion data, etc.)

21
RockWorks2002

This section discusses data entry for the Borehole Manager; see Borehole Manager
Overview (below).
See Geological Utilities Datasheet Overview (Chapter 3) for information about that data
interface.

RockWorks99 (and earlier) users:


If your ATD files contain DOWNHOLE stratigraphy data and/or linked LIT, CUR, HIS,
or ZON files, you’ll use this new Borehole Manager. See Importing Your RockWorks99
Data (page 23).
If your ATD files contain general data (XYZ, survey, hydrochemistry, etc.) you’ll use
the Geological Utilities datasheet. See Using the Datasheet (page 61) and Opening
RockWorks99 ATD files (page 64).

The Borehole Manager Overview


The RockWorks Borehole Manager is a new data interface designed for entering
borehole or downhole data. These data can include geophysical and/or geochemical
measurements, stratigraphic contacts, observed lithologic intervals, downhole survey
measurements for inclined or deviated holes, water levels, and depths for pattern blocks
and symbols.

22
RockWorks2002

The data you enter into the Borehole Manager can be displayed as 2D (flat) images such
as projected stratigraphic sections or plan-view well location maps. It can also be
displayed in 3-dimensional images such as fence diagrams or 3D drillhole models in the
new "RockPlot3D" viewing program.
Why the new data interface? RockWorks2001 can now plot inclined and deviated wells,
there's a completely new 3d plotting engine in the program, and the linked-file method
was becoming too cumbersome. In short, the Borehole Manager is much easier to use.

RockWorks99 (and earlier) users! All of your ATD files and linked LIT, HIS, CUR,
and ZON files can be imported easily into the Borehole Manager. (See Importing Your
RockWorks99 Data, below.)

Importing RockWorks99 Data


If your RockWorks99 ATD and TEM files contain downhole (borehole) data, such as
stratigraphic layers, and/or linked LIT,HIS, CUR, or ZON files, you’ll need to import
them into the new RockWorks2002 Borehole Manager.

23
RockWorks2002

! If your RockWorks99 ATD/TEM files do not contain borehole information, you can
open them into the other RockWorks2002 data window, marked with the Geological
Utilities data tab. See the Geological Utilities Datasheet in Chapter 3 for information.
The RW99 data importer is found in the Borehole Manager’s File / Import menu. It
will create a new project containing separate files for each row (borehole) in your RW99
datasheet, and the different types of downhole data will be listed in the Borehole
Manager data tabs.
Follow these steps to import a RockWorks99 ATD file into the Borehole Manager.

Part One: Double-check and back up your RockWorks99 Data

This first section isn’t essential, but for efficient and accurate import, we recommend
you follow these steps:
1. Check your ATD file’s data layout by opening it up in RockWorks99.
Be sure there is a column that lists a name or ID for each borehole.
RockWorks2002 will use these to assign a name to each borehole file that will be
created.
Be sure your Eastings and Northings are listed in the same units as your depths
(such as feet or meters). Use RockWorks99’s Coords menu tools to convert
longitude / latitude coordinates into feet or meters. RockWorks2002 provides
interactive 3D displays and automatic volume computations that require X, Y, and
depth units to be the same.
Be sure your stratigraphy columns have unique names. Having multiple formations
named "sand," for example, will cause problems.
2. Close RockWorks99, saving any necessary changes to the ATD and TEM files.
3. Make a backup copy of the RockWorks99 ATD and TEM files by copying them to
another folder on your computer. Just a precaution. Never hurts.

Part Two: Set up the project.

1. Start up RockWorks2002 if necessary.


2. Click on the Borehole Manager tab to bring that data window to the front.
3. Click on the Project Folder prompt (right below the upper-most menu items) and
locate the folder in which your RockWorks99 ATD and TEM files are stored, and
click the OK button.
4. Back at the Borehole Manager, click the File menu’s Import command, and click
on the RockWorks99 Project from the pop-up window.
24
RockWorks2002

5. In the displayed window, click on the large file name button. Locate the name of
the RockWorks99 ATD file to be imported, click on it once, and click the Open
button. Back at the Select RW99 Project window, click on the OK button.
Next, you’ll see window in which you can select a folder for the RockWorks2002
project. Use the "+" or "-" buttons to open existing folders on your computer.
6. Click on the folder in which you want the new RockWorks2002 project to be saved,
and click OK.
! This should be a new folder. This should not be the folder in which the original
RockWorks99 file was saved. If you are running Windows2000 or Windows NT
there will be a New Folder button you can use to create a new folder. If you are
running Window98 you may not see this button; if this is the case you will need to
use Windows Explorer or My Computer to create a new folder.
Next you’ll see an important window. This will ask you for the name of the TEM or
template file that contains the layout for the ATD file selected back in step #4. The
program cannot import the data properly without the information contained in the
template file.
7. Click on the large file name button, locate this TEM file, click the Open button.
Back at the Import Old Template window, click OK.

Part 3: Set up the Borehole Locations

The next window will be used to tell the program what kind of data is contained in the
columns of the RockWorks99 ATD file. In the background, you will see your ATD file
displayed in the general datasheet. Follow these steps to set up the imported data. We’ll
start with the location data.
1. Borehole Name: Click on the down arrow to choose the column in the ATD file that
contains the well ID or borehole name.
! This is an essential field. RockWorks2002 will use the borehole’s ID to name the
individual borehole files that will be created in the new project folder. If you don’t
have an ID or name listed in your RockWorks99 file, you can Cancel this operation
to insert one (using RockWorks99), or select another field in the file that might
work for well names.
2. Easting, Northing: Select the names of the columns that contain the X (Easting)
and Y (Northing) coordinates for the boreholes.

25
RockWorks2002

! These coordinates must be in the same units as your borehole depth units. If they
are not, you should Cancel this operation and convert the coordinates in
RockWorks99. The Coords menu contains tools to convert longitude / latitude
coordinates to feet or meters.
3. Elevation: Select the column that contains the surface elevations for the boreholes.
4. Total Depth: Select the column that contains the boreholes’ total depth.
5. Symbols: Select the column that contains the borehole symbols. If none are
present, select a blank column and a default symbol will be selected during the
import.

Part 4: Set up the Downhole Data

In the Downhole Data section of the Select Columns to Import window, set up the linked
files, if any. The import tool will try to read the column types from the RockWorks99
TEM file, but you should confirm the specific columns containing data.
1. Lithology: If you have linked lithology files, select the column that contains these
LIT file names. In the drop-down list to the right, specify whether the
RockWorks99 lithology descriptions were entered by elevation, by positive depths,
or by negative depths.
! This is important – the import tool will translate the LIT, HIS, CUR, and ZON
data into depths based on the surface elevation declared above and the data format
you declare.
2. Geochemistry: If you have linked geochemistry files, select the column that
contains these HIS file names. In the drop-down list to the right, specify whether
the RockWorks99 geochemistry intervals were entered by elevation, by positive
depths, or by negative depths.
3. Geophysics: If you have linked geophysical files, select the column that contains
these CUR file names. In the drop-down list to the right, specify whether the
RockWorks99 geophysical points were entered by elevation, by positive depths, or
by negative depths.
4. Zone: If you have linked "zone" files, select the column that contains these ZON file
names. In the drop-down list to the right, specify whether the RockWorks99 text,
pattern, or symbol locations were entered by elevation, by positive depths, or by
negative depths.
If any of these linked file types are not present in your RockWorks99 file, the program
should set these columns to blank.

26
RockWorks2002

If you have linked data files but do not wish to import them, set their columns to "-none-
".

Part 5: Set up the Stratigraphy Data

In the Stratigraphy section of the import window, set up the stratigraphic intervals, if
any.
The import tool will list all of the column names listed in the RockWorks99 TEM file,
and it will display the "active" stratigraphy layers with check-marks.
1. Insert or remove check-marks as necessary to tell the program which stratigraphy
layer names you wish to import into a new project "Stratigraphy Table" and which
elevations you wish to import into the Borehole Manager data tabs. If your
RockWorks99 data file contains no stratigraphic elevations, be sure these check-
boxes are cleared.
2. Include stratigraphy without depths: Insert a check here to include blank
stratigraphic layers in individual boreholes rather than omitting the layer entirely.
In the Borehole Manager, each borehole will contain a "stratigraphy" tab that lists
the stratigraphic intervals encountered for that RW99 borehole. Missing formations
can be either not listed at all, or listed with blanks, or listed with the same depth as
the next present formation. By inserting a check in the Include stratigraphy
without depths check-box, the importer will list with missing formation in the
Stratigraphy tab and the depth fields will be left blank.

27
RockWorks2002

See also: Missing Formations (page 53).

Part 6: Import the data

When you have completed the previous steps, click the OK button at the bottom of the
Select Columns to Import window.
RockWorks2002 will get busy:
1. It will create the borehole files: A separate file with the extension ".bh" will be
created for each borehole (row) in the RockWorks99 data file. The file names for
each boring will match the borehole’s ID or name (e.g. "dh-1.bh" or "smith-2.bh").
All BH files will be saved in the same, current project folder.
2. It will extract the location data for each borehole and list the information in each
"Location" tab.
3. It will create a RockWorks2002 Stratigraphy Table: Stratigraphy names and
patterns are read from the RockWorks99 TEM file and stored in a new
RockWorks2002 "Stratigraphy Table".
4. It will record stratigraphy data: Stratigraphic elevations are read from the ATD file,
converted to depths, and listed in the Stratigraphy tabs.
5. It will create a RockWorks2002 Lithology Table: A copy of the last-used Lithology
Table in RockWorks2002 will be copied to the current project folder.
6. It will record lithology data: Downhole lithology data is read from any
RockWorks99 LIT files, converted to depths if necessary, and listed in each
Lithology tab.
7. It will record geochemistry data: Downhole geochemistry data is read from any HIS
files, the intervals are converted to depths if necessary, and are listed in each
Geochemistry Tab.
8. It will record geophysical data: Downhole geophysical data is read from any CUR
files, converted to depths if necessary, and listed in each Geophysics tab.
9. It will record zone data: Downhole patterns and symbols are read from any ZON
files, converted to depths if necessary, and listed in the separate Patterns and
Symbols tabs.
The completed data will be displayed in the Borehole Manager data tabs.

What Next?

Once your RockWorks99 datasheet has been imported into the Borehole Manager, you
might follow some of these steps:
28
RockWorks2002

1. Click on a borehole name listed in the Borehole File section to the left. Its data will
be loaded into the data tabs to the right. Click on some of the tabs to verify that the
data was loaded correctly. Repeat this for other boreholes.
2. If you have lithology data, please check the contents of the Lithology Table (use
View / Preferences / Tables / Lithology Table, or click the Lithology Table name
above the data tabs). By default, RockWorks will copy the last-used
RockWorks2002 Lithology Table to the project folder; you may need to copy your
RockWorks99 "keyword" table (they are the same thing) to your project folder, and
use View / Preferences / Tables / Lithology Table to set this as the table to use.
The RW2002 Lithology Table contains two additional fields for your use – see
Lithology Tables (page 253) for details.
3. Enter new types of data into the Borehole Manager: Downhole survey information
for deviated or inclined holes (Orientation tab), fracture data for display on logs
(Fractures tab), water levels and dates (Water Level tab). See Entering the Borehole
Data (page 33).
4. Run through the tutorial, if you haven’t already. See Help / Tutorial to launch the
lessons.

Using the Borehole Manager


The RockWorks Borehole Manager is a new data interface designed for entering
downhole data. It is one of two data windows available in RockWorks2002.
This section discusses how to create new Borehole projects, how to add new wells and
delete wells, and how to open and save these data files.
See also: Importing RockWorks99 Data (page 23).

How to access the Borehole Manager

1. To access the Borehole Manager, first start up the RockWorks program.


2. Look for the two main data tabs right below the menu items at the top of the
program window.

29
RockWorks2002

3. Click on the Borehole Manager tab.


The program will bring the Borehole Manager window to the front.

! Note that the menu items at the top of the window will change depending on which
data entry program is currently activated. The General Utilities datasheet has its own
suite of menus and program options, and the Borehole Manager has a different suite of
menus and options.

How to create a new borehole project folder

Each project displayed in the Borehole Manager must have its own folder on your
computer. Follow these steps to start a new project folder:
1. Access the Borehole Manager as necessary.
2. Click anywhere in the Project Folder prompt.

30
RockWorks2002

3. Click the New Folder button.


! If you are running in Windows98, the New Folder button may not be visible. If
this is the case, you’ll need to create the new folder yourself using My Computer or
Windows Explorer, and follow the instructions for opening an existing project
folder.
4. In the displayed window select the existing drive and folder in which you want to
create the new folder.
5. Type in the name for the new folder and click OK.
The program will create the new project folder. There will be no borehole files listed in
the manager window, and you are ready to enter the first well entry.
See also: Create a new well entry (below).

How to create a new well entry

Each well in a borehole project is stored in a separate file in the project folder. To create
a new well in the existing project, follow these steps:
1. Access the Borehole Manager as necessary.
2. If necessary, access the project folder that contains the data to which you wish to
add the new well.
3. Select the File / New Log command.
4. Enter the name for the well, such as "DH01". This should probably be (but isn’t
required to be) the same as the well ID so that you can quickly identify it when
listed in the manager.
The program will use the well name as the name of the file in which its data will be
stored. For example, the data for a well named "DH01" will be stored on disk under
the file name "DH01.BH." The Borehole Manager will also assign the entered name
to the Borehole Name field on the well’s Location tab. You can change that if you
wish.
5. Click OK.
This well will be shown in the Borehole File listing. There will be a blank suite of data
tabs ready for your data.
See also: Entering the Borehole Data (page 33).

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RockWorks2002

How to delete a well

Each well in a borehole project is stored in a separate file in the project folder. To
remove an existing well from the current project, follow these steps:
1. Access the Borehole Manager as necessary.
2. If necessary, access the project folder that contains the data you wish to edit.
3. In the pane to the left, click on the name of the Borehole File that you wish to
remove from the current project. For example, to remove the borehole named "DH-
5", click on that well’s name.
4. Select the File / Erase Log command.
The program will prompt you, "Are you sure you want to send "file.bh" to the Recycle
Bin?"
5. Click Yes to continue and delete the entire borehole file from the project folder.
Click No to cancel the Erase Log operation.
! If you choose Yes, the data in the selected borehole file will be removed from the
project folder and placed into the Windows Recycle Bin. Should you change your mind
about the deletion, access the Recycle Bin and restore the [.bh] file to its original
location.

How to open an existing borehole project

Each borehole project must be stored in a separate project folder on your computer. To
open an existing project, follow these steps:
1. Access the Borehole Manager as necessary.
2. Click anywhere in the Project Folder prompt.

3. Locate the folder in which the project is stored and click OK.
The existing project will be loaded into the Borehole Manager.

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RockWorks2002

How to access a well's data

To access the data for a particular well in a project, follow these steps:
1. Access the Borehole Manager as necessary.
2. Open the existing project as necessary.
The wells in the current project will be displayed in the pane along the left side of the
window.
3. Click on the name of the well you wish to view.
The program will load its data into the data tabs.
See also: Entering the Borehole Data (below).

How to save borehole data

The Borehole Manager stores the data for each boring in a separate data file. All of the
borings for a particular project are stored in the same folder (the project folder) on your
computer.
RockWorks automatically saves any changes you make for a boring, so that as you click
on one borehole file and then another, each will be saved on disk before advancing to the
next.

Entering the Borehole Data

Entering the Borehole Data - Overview

The RockWorks Borehole Manager uses data "tabs" for entering the different types of
downhole data. For example, if your well is inclined or deviated, you can enter the
downhole survey information in the "Orientation" tab. If you have geophysical data, you
can enter these into the "Geophysics" tab.
When you add a new well to a project, the program will display a blank suite of data
tabs. Simply click on a tab to bring it to the front for entering your data. You may leave
those tabs blank for which you have no data.
This section discusses the different data tabs and how you enter the data. All tabs but
the Location tab may be left blank.
Location: This is used to enter the well ID, X and Y location coordinates (Eastings and
Northings), surface elevation, and total depth (all required fields). You may also choose
a specific symbol for the well, which can be used to note the well location in maps.
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RockWorks2002

There is also a "Comments" field where you can enter well-specific notes. There are
optional fields for entering well locations in Range and Township notations or in
longitude and latitude coordinates, for translation into Eastings and Northings.
Orientation: This tab is where you enter your downhole survey information, in a depth,
bearing, inclination format. If the well is vertical, this tab can be left blank.
Lithology: Enter into this tab observed downhole lithologies. This tab connects to the
library of lithology types and their patterns that was shipped with the program or that
you have created or modified. (See Lithology v Stratigraphy on page 51 for help on
definitions.) Lithology data can be displayed in 2D and 3D logs, projected cross
sections, profiles, fences, and solid models.
Stratigraphy: Into this tab you can enter interpreted downhole stratigraphic data. This
tab connects to the library of stratigraphic names and patterns that was shipped with the
program or that you have created or modified. (See Lithology v Stratigraphy on page
51.) Stratigraphy data can be illustrated in strip logs, and can be used to build
stratigraphic surface maps, isopach maps, projected stratigraphic sections, fence
diagrams, stratigraphic block diagrams, and more.
Geochemistry: This tab is used to enter downhole data that was sampled over a depth
interval. These data can be displayed as bar graphs along 2D and 3D strip logs, and can
be used to build geochemistry vertical profiles, fence diagrams, and solid models.
Geophysics: This tab is used to enter downhole elog data that was sampled at individual
points. These data can be displayed as curves along 2D and 3D strip logs, and can be
used to build geophysical vertical profiles, fence diagrams, and solid models.
Fractures: Use this tab to enter sub-surface fractures that you wish to display on logs
and log cross sections.
Water Levels: This tab is used to enter dates and water levels for the borehole, for
display in logs, profiles, fences, and solids.
Symbols: Use this tab to select specific graphic symbols to be plotted at particular
depths for this well, on a log or in a section.
Patterns: Use this tab to select specific graphic patterns to be plotted along a depth
interval in a log or in a cross section.

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RockWorks2002

How to enter well location data

The Borehole Manager Location tab is used to enter well locations, depth ranges, and
more. Most of the information in this tab is required for all wells.
1. Access the Borehole Manager.
2. Create a new project and/or new well as necessary.
3. Click on the Location tab for the well. If the Location tab is not visible, enlarge the
RockWorks window or click on the buttons to scroll through the tabs.
4. Click in the Borehole Name box and type in a name for the borehole.
This field is used to label logs and base maps. It does not need to be the same as the
boring's name (assigned when the log is added to the project).
5. Click in the Easting box and type in the Easting or X-coordinate for the well.
(Required.) See Limits (below).
6. Click in the Northing box and type in the Northing or Y-coordinate for the well.
(Required.) See Limits (below).
7. Click in the Elevation box and type in the elevation at the top of the well.
(Required.)
! The program will use this to translate your depth data to elevations for the output
diagrams.
8. Click in the Total Depth box and type in the total depth for the well. If the well is
inclined or deviated, this should be the measured depth, not the true vertical depth.)
(Required.)
9. Click on the Symbol picture and select the symbol to be used to represent this well
in borehole location maps. (Required.)
10. If you have any comments you wish to enter, these can be entered into the
Comments field. These are for your use only.
Easting and Northing Limits
The well location Easting (X) and Northing (Y) coordinates may be listed in global units
(UTM meters or feet) or in local units (meters or feet). Note the following:
* It's important that the location coordinates be declared in the same units in which the
depths are recorded. Thus, if your depths are entered in feet, so must be your
Eastings and Northings. If your depths are entered in meters, then enter your
Eastings and Northings in meters also.

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RockWorks2002

* If your location coordinates are in decimal longitude and latitude units (such as "-
106.89765" or "42.574635"), note:
! You should enter you decimal longitude and latitude coordinates in the longitude
and latitude prompts at the bottom of the Location window. Then use the Borehole
Manager's Map / Adjust Coordinates / Longitude/Latitude -> Easting/Northing
command to change them to UTM meters or feet.
* If your location coordinates are in Range/Township/Section notation:
! You should enter the Range, Township, Section, and Description information in
the appropriate prompts at the bottom of the Location tab. Then use the Borehole
Manager's Map / Adjust Coordinates / Jeffersonian -> Easting/Northing
command to change them to UTM meters or feet. See the discussion of that topic
for details about how to enter the information.
* The X-coordinates or Eastings must increase in value to the East, and the Y-
coordinates or Northings must increase in value to the North. If you are using
lon/lat coordinates for translation to meters or feet, be sure that western longitudes
and southern latitudes are entered as negatives.

How to enter well orientation or downhole survey data

The Borehole Manager Orientation tab should be used only if your well is not vertical.
If your well is vertical, leave the Orientation tab blank.
1. Access the Borehole Manager.
2. Create a new project and/or new well as necessary.
3. Click on the Orientation tab for the well. If the Orientation tab is not visible,
enlarge the RockWorks window or click on the buttons to scroll through the
tabs.
4. Click in the Depth column and type in the first depth at which a downhole survey
measurement was made.
! The depth units must be the same as the units declared for the xyz coordinates for
the hole. For example, if the x,y location and collar elevation are expressed in local
feet, then the depth listings must be in feet as well.
! The depth values must be positive.
5. Click in the Bearing column and type in the bearing of the well at this depth. (You
can use the Tab key to advance from cell to cell.)
The bearings must be expressed in azimuth degrees (0 to 360, with 0 = north).

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RockWorks2002

6. Click in the Inclination column and type in the inclination at this depth.
The inclination data follows a convention in which zero is a horizontal line, -90
points straight down, and +90 points straight up.
7. Repeat this process for additional downhole survey locations. If you have an
inclined drill hole, only one survey listing is needed.
Other Orientation Tab Notes
There is no limit to the number of survey points that you may list for each drill hole.
Survey data must be listed in a sequential order, from the start of the hole to the end.
The "start" of the hole may be lower in elevation than the "end" of the hole if the boring
curves back on itself.
RockWorks uses an averaging method of drawing the drill hole trace based on the
survey data in order to create smooth bends. Compare the following cartoons, based on
the data shown. The hole on the left abruptly turns at a depth of 100 to follow the new
survey inclination (not realistic) while the hole on the right curves to the horizontal dip
at 100 feet.

How to enter lithology data

The Borehole Manager Lithology tab is used to enter observed lithologies only. See
Lithology versus Stratigraphy (page 51) for details.
1. Access the Borehole Manager.
2. Create a new project and/or new well as necessary.
3. Verify that the desired "Lithology Table," is correctly identified in the program.
4. Click on the Lithology tab for the well. If the Lithology tab is not visible, enlarge
the RockWorks window or click on the buttons to scroll through the tabs.
5. Click in the Depth to Top column and type in the measured depth to the top of the
first lithologic interval for the well.
! The depth values must be positive.

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RockWorks2002

6. Click in the Depth to Base column and type in the measured depth to the base of the
first lithologic interval for the well. (You may also use the <Tab> key to advance
from cell to cell.)
7. Double-click in the Keyword column and choose from the "Select a Keyword"
window a description that matches the rock interval. You may scroll up and down
in this window to view the current library of keywords. As you click on different
keywords, you can see the pattern style and colors currently defined for that rock
type.
Click OK in the Select a Keyword window when the desired keyword has been
highlighted. You will be returned to the Lithology tab with that keyword displayed.
Or, click the Lithology Table button if you wish to add a keyword or change the
pattern or color for the selected keyword, or access a different lithology table
altogether. See the Lithology Table (page 253) for complete details about these
functions.
8. Click on the Description column and type in any additional text you have for this
interval. This text can be plotted along with the keyword in your strip logs, but we
advise keeping this text short since it is not wrapped when displayed on the log.
9. Repeat this process for additional lithologic intervals.

See also: Importing RockWorks99 Lithology Data (below), Importing


RockWorks99 Projects (page 23).

How to import RockWorks99 Lithology Data


Use the Borehole Manager’s Lithology / Import / RockWorks99 Lithology File tool to
import into the Lithology tab of the current borehole the downhole data stored in a
RockWorks99 ".LIT" file. The layout of these .LIT files are almost identical to the
layout of each Lithology tab in a RockWorks2002 project; the main difference is that
RockWorks99 permitted the downhole data to be entered as elevations or depths, while
RockWorks2002 requires positive depths. This import tool will take care of any
necessary elevation to depth unit changes.

RockWorks99 users: This tool is used to import a single .LIT file only, for a single
borehole. Note that there is a whole-project importer that works quite nicely – see
Importing RockWorks99 Projects (page 23).
1. Access the Borehole Manager.
2. Click on the borehole where the data is to be imported.
3. Click on the Lithology tab.
4. Choose the Lithology / Import / RockWorks99 Lithology File menu command.

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RockWorks2002

5. File Name: Click on this item to browse for the file to be imported. Typically, this
file would have the extension ".LIT".
6. Vertical Units: Select whether the RockWorks99 Lithology file lists the downhole
intervals as elevations or as depths and, if the latter, as positive values or as negative
values.
7. Click OK.
The program will read the indicated .LIT file, translate elevations or negative depths to
positive depths, and record the depth intervals, keywords, and descriptions (if any) into
the current Lithology tab. This process can be repeated for additional boreholes and
.LIT files.

How to enter stratigraphy data

The Borehole Manager’s Stratigraphy tab is used to enter interpreted stratigraphic data
only. See Lithology versus Stratigraphy (page 51) for details. You may leave this tab
blank if you have no stratigraphy data.
1. Access the Borehole Manager.
2. Create a new project and/or new well as necessary.
3. Verify that the desired "Stratigraphy Table," is correctly identified in the program.
4. Click on the Stratigraphy tab for the well. If the Stratigraphy tab is not visible,
enlarge the RockWorks window or click on the buttons to scroll through the
tabs.
5. Click in the Depth to Top column and type in the measured depth to the top of the
first stratigraphic horizon for the well.
! The depth values must be positive.
6. Click in the Depth to Base column and type in the measured depth to the base of the
first stratigraphic horizon for the well. (You may also use the <Tab> key to advance
from cell to cell.)
! Unlike previous versions of RockWorks, which assumed each layer to extend
down to the top of the next layer, RockWorks2001 allows you to enter the top and
the base of each formation.
7. Double-click in the Formation column and, from the Select a Unit window, choose
the formation that describes the interval. You may scroll up and down in this
window to view the current library of formation names. As you click on different
formation, you can see the pattern style and colors currently defined for that unit.

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RockWorks2002

Click OK in the Select a Unit window when the desired formation name has been
highlighted. You will be returned to the Stratigraphy tab with that formation name
displayed.
Or, click the Stratigraphy Table button if you wish to add a formation name or
change the pattern or color for the selected formation, or access a different
stratigraphy table altogether. See the Stratigraphy Table (page 259) for complete
details about these functions.
8. Repeat this process for additional stratigraphic layers.
! It's really important to note that the stratigraphic layers be listed in the same order from
borehole to borehole.

See also: Importing RockWorks99 Projects (page 23), Pick Stratigraphy from
Lithology or Geophysical Logs (page 130), Missing Formations (page 53).

How to enter geochemical data

The Borehole Manager Geochemistry tab is used to enter "geochemical" data, sampled
at depth intervals. See Geophysical data (next topic) for information about entering
point-sampled ("curve") data. Leave this tab blank if you have no geochemical data.
1. Access the Borehole Manager.
2. Create a new project and/or new well as necessary.
3. Click on the Geochemistry tab for the well. If the Geochemistry tab is not visible,
enlarge the RockWorks window or click on the buttons to scroll through the
tabs.
4. Click in the Depth to Top column and type in the measured depth to the top of the
first sampled interval for the well.
Or, if you have already copied a block of data from another application (a
spreadsheet or similar table), type Ctrl+V or select the Paste command from the
Edit menu.
! The depth values must be positive.
5. Click in the Depth to Base column and type in the measured depth to the base of the
first sampled interval for the well. (You may also use the <Tab> key to advance
from cell to cell.)
6. Click in (or <Tab> to) the Chem1 column and type in the measured value for that
downhole interval.

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RockWorks2002

If you have no data for an interval, you can leave the cell blank or enter a non-
numeric value (such as "-" or "nd"). Blank cells and non-numeric values will
simply be skipped during processing.
! To change the track names, simply left-click in one of the column’s data cells,
then right-click on the column title and type in a name, such as "Benzene" or
"Gold". The column names for the Geochemistry and Geophysics tabs are store in
the current project folder in a file named "coltitle.txt".
7. Click in the Chem2 column and type in any additional measured value for the
interval.
8. Continue in this manner for the first depth interval, listing up to 25 measured items.
9. Move on to the second row, clicking in its Depth to Top column, and type in the
measured depth to the top of the second sampled interval for the well. Continue in
this manner, specifying depth intervals and measured values, for the entirety of your
data.
There is no limit to the number of downhole intervals that you may list for each drill
hole, though if you are creating solid models, the more intervals the slower the
processing.

See also: Importing RockWorks99 projects (page 23), How to Import RockWorks99
Geochemistry files (below).

How to Import RockWorks99 Geochemistry Data


Use the Borehole Manager’s Geochemistry / Import / RockWorks99 Histogram File
tool to import into the Geochemistry tab of the current borehole the downhole data
stored in a RockWorks99 ".HIS" file. The layout of these .HIS files are almost identical
to the layout of each Geochemistry tab in a RockWorks2002 project; the main difference
is that RockWorks99 permitted the geochemistry data to be entered as elevations or
depths, while RockWorks2002 requires positive depths. This import tool will take care
of any necessary elevation to depth unit changes.
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RockWorks2002

RockWorks99 users: This tool is used to import a single .HIS file only, for a single
borehole. Note that there is a whole-project importer that works quite nicely – see
Importing RockWorks99 Projects (page 23).
1. Access the Borehole Manager.
2. Click on the borehole where the data is to be imported.
3. Click on the Geochemistry tab.
4. Choose the Geochemistry / Import / RockWorks99 Histogram File menu
command.
5. File Name: Click on this item to browse for the file to be imported. Typically, this
file would have the extension ".HIS".
6. Vertical Units: Select whether the RockWorks99 Histogram file lists the downhole
intervals as elevations or as depths and, if the latter, as positive values or as negative
values.
7. Click OK.
The program will read the indicated .HIS file, translate elevations or negative depths to
positive depths, and record the depth intervals and up to 25 columns of measured values
into the current Geochemistry tab. This process can be repeated for additional boreholes
and .HIS files.

How to enter geophysical data

The Borehole Manager Geophysics tab is used to enter "geophysical" data, sampled at
single depth points. See Geochemical data (above) for information about entering
interval-sampled ("histogram") data. Leave this tab blank if you have no geophysical
data.
1. Access the Borehole Manager.
2. Create a new project and/or new well as necessary.
3. Click on the Geophysics tab for the well. If the Geophysics tab is not visible,
enlarge the RockWorks window or click on the buttons to scroll through the
tabs.
4. Click in the Depth column and type in the measured depth at the first measurement
in the well.
Or, if you have already copied a block of data from another application (a
spreadsheet or similar table), type Ctrl+V or select the Paste command from the
Edit menu.

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RockWorks2002

! The depth values must be positive.


5. Click in the Elog1 column and type in the measured value for that downhole point.
(You may also use the <Tab> key to advance from cell to cell.)
If you have no data for an interval, you can leave the cell blank or enter a non-
numeric value (such as "-" or "nd"). Blank cells and non-numeric values will
simply be skipped during processing.
! To change the track names, simply left-click in one of the column’s data cells,
then right-click on the column title and type in a name, such as "Gamma" or
"Resistivity". The column names for the Geochemistry and Geophysics tabs are
store in the current project folder in a file named "coltitle.txt".
6. Click in the Elog2 column and type in any additional measured value for the point.
7. Continue in this manner for the first depth, listing up to 25 measured items.
8. Move on to the second row, clicking in its Depth column, and type in the measured
depth at the second measurement in the well. Continue in this manner, specifying
depths and measured values, for the entirety of your data.
There is no limit to the number of downhole points that you may list for each drill hole,
though if you are creating solid models, the more points, the slower the processing.

See also: Importing RockWorks99 projects (page 23), Importing RockWorks99


CUR files (below), Digitizing data (page 97) for information about using an electronic
digitizing tablet to digitize data into this tab.

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RockWorks2002

How to Import RockWorks99 Geophysical Data


Use the Borehole Manager’s Geophysics / Import / RockWorks99 Curve File tool to
import into the Geophysics tab of the current borehole the downhole data stored in a
RockWorks99 ".CUR" file. The layout of these .CUR files are almost identical to the
layout of each Geophysics tab in a RockWorks2002 project; the main difference is that
RockWorks99 permitted the downhole data to be entered as elevations or depths, while
RockWorks2002 requires positive depths. This import tool will take care of any
necessary elevation to depth unit changes.

RockWorks99 users: This tool is used to import a single .CUR file only, for a single
borehole. Note that there is a whole-project importer that works quite nicely – see
Importing RockWorks99 Projects (page 23).
1. Access the Borehole Manager.
2. Click on the borehole where the data is to be imported.
3. Click on the Geophysics tab.
4. Choose the Geophysics / Import / RockWorks99 Curve File menu command.
5. File Name: Click on this item to browse for the file to be imported. Typically, this
file would have the extension ".CUR".
6. Vertical Units: Select whether the RockWorks99 Curve file lists the downhole
intervals as elevations or as depths and, if the latter, as positive values or as negative
values.
7. Click OK.
The program will read the indicated .CUR file, translate elevations or negative depths to
positive depths, and record the depths and up to 25 columns of measured values into the
current Geophysics tab. This process can be repeated for additional boreholes and .CUR
files.

How to enter fracture data

The Borehole Manager’s Fractures tab is used to enter the depth, orientation, and dip of
downhole fractures. These can be displayed as oriented disks on individual logs and
those displayed in cross sections.
1. Access the Borehole Manager.
2. Create a new project and/or new well as necessary.
3. Click on the Fractures tab for the well. If the Fractures tab is not visible, enlarge the
RockWorks window or click on the buttons to scroll through the tabs.

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RockWorks2002

4. Click in the Depth column and type in the measured depth for the first fracture you
wish to record.
! The depth values must be positive.
5. Click in the Direction column (or use the <Tab> key to advance to it) and enter the
dip bearing in azimuth degrees (from 0 to 360) of the fracture.
6. Click in the Dip Angle column and enter the angle in degrees from horizontal (0 =
horizontal, -90 = straight down, and 90 = straight up).
7. Double-click in the Color column and choose a color for the fracture "disk" that will
be displayed in the logs and log sections.
8. Click in the Radius cell and enter a size for the fracture disk. This is entered as a
percent of the study area width, and should be set in relation to the other log items
that you’ll be plotted. For example, if your lithology column is typically plotted at a
size of 2, then you might set the fracture radius to 4.

! This setting will be ignored if, during strip log setup, you set the Fractures /
Dimensions to Fixed and enter a value there.
9. Click in the Aperture cell and enter the fracture thickness. When displayed in
RockPlot3D this will affect the thickness of the fracture disk as it’s displayed with
the logs. The fracture aperture is entered as actual thickness units, BUT NOTE that
this must be in the same units as your other downhole data. For example, if your
other log data is entered in feet, the fracture aperture must also be entered as
decimal feet.

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RockWorks2002

! This setting will be ignored if, during strip log setup, you set the Fractures /
Dimensions to Fixed and enter a value there.
10. Repeat this process for additional downhole fractures.

How to enter water level data

The Borehole Manager’s Water Level tab is used to enter one or more dates, depths, and
optional text for observed water level(s) in the borehole. These can be displayed in strip
logs and log sections, and in profiles, fence diagrams, and solid models.
1. Access the Borehole Manager.
2. Create a new project and/or new well as necessary.
3. Click on the Water Level tab for the well. If the tab is not visible, enlarge the
RockWorks window or click on the buttons to scroll through the tabs.
4. Click in the Date column and type in the date on which the measurement was taken.
On logs, the date field can be displayed as a text label.
For profile, plan, fence, and solid diagrams, RockWorks will use the Date field to
match like measurements between wells. For this reason, you can enter the date in
any format, but you must be consistent between wells. For example, an entry of
"1/1/01" will not match with an entry of "01/01/01" or "Jan 1 2001" in other
boreholes.
5. Click in the Depth to Top column and type in the measured depth to the top of the
water level.
! The depth values must be positive.
6. Click in the Depth to Base column and type in the measured depth to the bottom of
the water interval. If you wish to display the water level as a surface of little or no
thickness, set the Base depth to slightly greater than or equal to the Top depth.
7. Repeat this process for additional water intervals.

How to enter log symbols

The Borehole Manager’s Symbols tab is used to enter one or more depths for each
borehole and the symbol to be plotted at each depth in individual logs and in log cross
sections.
1. Access the Borehole Manager.
2. Create a new project and/or new well as necessary.

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RockWorks2002

3. Click on the Symbols tab for the well. If this tab is not visible, enlarge the
RockWorks window or click on the buttons to scroll through the tabs.
4. Click in the Depth column and type in the measured depth for the first symbol you
wish to record.
! The depth values must be positive.
! The symbol will typically be positioned with its center plotted at the declared
depth. This is not the case if the symbol's "origin," as it was created in the symbol
editor, is not in its center. Compare the two examples below. The symbol on the left
(#5 in the factory table), when displayed in the symbol editor, is centered at the
design origin in the middle of the screen. This symbol will be centered on the depth
you declare in the plotted log. The symbol on the right (#44), sits on the design
origin. This will, accordingly, sit on the depth you declare.

5. Double-click in the Symbol cell to the right to pick the desired symbol from the
displayed index. You can pick a color for the symbol by clicking in the Color box.
Click OK to return to the data tab.
See Using the Select Symbol Window (page 261) for information about accessing a
different symbol table.
See Using the Symbol Editor (page 262) if you wish to edit a symbol or create a
new one.
6. Click in the Caption cell and type in any text you want to be plotted with the
symbol on the log. This is not required.
7. Repeat this process for additional downhole symbols.

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RockWorks2002

How to enter log patterns

The Borehole Manager’s Patterns tab is used to enter one or more depth intervals for
each borehole and the pattern block to be plotted between these depths, in individual
logs and in log cross sections.
1. Access the Borehole Manager.
2. Create a new project and/or new well as necessary.
3. Click on the Patterns tab for the well. If this tab is not visible, enlarge the
RockWorks window or click on the buttons to scroll through the tabs.
4. Click in the Depth to Top column and type in the measured depth to the top of the
interval to be filled with the pattern block.
! The depth values must be positive.
5. Click in the Depth to Base column and type in the measured depth to the bottom of
the pattern interval.
6. Double-click in the Pattern cell to the right to pick the desired pattern from the
displayed index. You can pick foreground and background colors for the pattern by
clicking in the Color boxes. You can also adjust the pattern density by adjusting the
Density setting; the Preview box will show you the current design, colors, and
density for your reference. Click OK to return to the data tab.
See Using the Select Pattern Window (page 254) for information about accessing a
different pattern table.
See Using the Pattern Editor (page 256) if you wish to edit a pattern or create a new
one.
7. Click in the Caption cell and type in any text you want to be plotted with the pattern
on the log. This is not required.
8. Repeat this process for additional downhole patterns.

View a well data summary

If you wish to see a summary of the data contained in a particular well in your borehole
project, follow these steps:
1. Access the Borehole Manager.
2. Open the existing borehole project if necessary.
3. Click on the name of the well in the list to the left, for which you wish to see a data
summary. The program will load that well's data.
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RockWorks2002

4. Select the Strip Log / Summary command.


The program will scan the current well's data listing and will display its summary in a
text window. Included will be a summary of the given data (coordinates, total intervals,
etc.) as well as computed coordinates from the survey data. An example is shown
below.
File Name: C:\Program
Files\RockWare\RW2002\ProjectB\dh08.bh
Well ID: DH-8
Collar Easting: 750.000000
Collar Northing: 250.000000
Collar Elevation: 0.000000
Total Depth: 824.000000
Symbol Number: 7
Symbol Color: 255
Survey Points: 10
Interpolated Survey Points: 100
Lithology Intervals: 23
Statigraphy Intervals: 7
Left-Geochem Intervals: 79
Right-Geochem Intervals: 79
Left-Elog Intervals: 790
Right-Elog Intervals: 790
Water Levels: 0
Fractures: 0
Special Symbols: 3
Special Patterns: 1
X-Min: -50.000000
X-Max: 1097.532888
Y-Min: -50.000000
Y-Max: 1029.106467
Z-Min: -752.400000
Z-Max: 5280.000000
X-Coordinate at TD: 542.488031
Y-Coordinate at TD: 431.361717
Z-Coordinate at TD: -535.831920

Data Tab Tools

The data tabs in the Borehole Manager offer some simple editing tools. They can be
accessed by clicking on the Borehole Manager’s Edit menu.
Not all tools are available for all tabs. More information can be found in the on-line
Help messages.
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RockWorks2002

Cut: Removes the contents of the highlighted cell(s) in the current tab, placing the
contents in the computer's memory or "clipboard" for later pasting.
Copy: Places a copy of the contents of the highlighted cell(s) in the current tab, placing
the copy in the clipboard for later pasting.
Paste: Places the contents of the computer's clipboard memory into the current tab,
starting at the first currently-highlighted cell.
Delete: Deletes the contents of the highlighted cell(s) in the current tab. The contents
are not placed on the computer's clipboard memory; they are just deleted.
Cut All: Removes the entire contents of the current tab, placing the contents in the
computer's clipboard memory for later pasting. This is the same operation as would
occur if you were to hand-select all of the cells in the current tab and then select the Edit
/ Cut command.
Copy All: Places a copy of the entire contents of the current tab in the clipboard
memory for later pasting. This is the same operation as would occur if you were to
hand-select all of the cells in the current tab and then select the Edit / Copy command.
Paste All: Replaces the current tab with the contents of the clipboard.
Columns / Insert: Inserts a new, blank column in the active datasheet.
Columns / Delete: Deletes one or more columns from the active datasheet.
Columns / Math: Performs simple arithmetic operations on the values within a selected
column in the current datasheet.
Columns / Merge: Merges the contents of two columns in the active datasheet, with a
user-specified separator.
Columns / Increment: Lists numeric values in a column, incrementing the values by
the real number you declare.
Columns / Combine: Used to combine symbol + color columns or linestyle + color
columns, in the Geological Utilities datasheet only.
Columns / Fix: Strips out commas, tabs and spaces from numeric values in a selected
column.
Rows / Insert: Inserts a user-specified number of rows above the currently active row in
the data tab, offering the user the option to change the default row number.
Rows / Delete: Deletes a user-specified number of rows in the current data tab, offering
the option to change the default row number.

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RockWorks2002

Rows / Go to: Advances to a specific row in the current data tab.


Rows / Sort: Sorts the rows in the current data tab based on a selected column of
values.
Digitize: This tool can be used to digitize points or line endpoints into the current data
tab. See Digitizing Data (page 97) in the Geological Utilities datasheet for details.

Other Data Topics

Lithology versus Stratigraphy


RockWorks recognizes two distinct types of borehole rock data:
* Observed lithology: This is what many people initially enter. Observed lithology
encompasses your downhole rock descriptions, as you see them. They may repeat
(sand, clay, sand, clay) and are not correlatable (yet) from well to well. "Observed"
is the key word. Observed rock types for each borehole are entered into the
Lithology tab, listing depth to top, depth to base, and rock type.
* Interpreted stratigraphy: These are interpreted formations, often groups of
lithologies, which are more layered in nature than observed lithology, and are
consistent in their order from the surface downward. Interpreted stratigraphies are
entered into the Stratigraphy tab, with depth to formation top, depth to base, and
formation name.
This means that if you do not initially know the regional stratigraphy, and cannot define
discrete layering, you can still plot observed lithology in logs and log-based cross-
sections.

And you can use the tools in the Borehole Manager’s Lithology menu to create solid-
model-based lithology profile, fence, and solid diagrams.

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RockWorks2002

Then, using lithology logs you can group the lithologies into interpreted stratigraphic
units, entering the depths and formation names into the Stratigraphy tab. There’s also a
Pick Contacts tool in the Stratigraphy menu that allows you to view a lithology (or
geophysical) cross section and point-and-click to record stratigraphy depths.
Once you have stratigraphy units defined, they can be displayed in strip logs and cross
sections.

Because stratigraphic units can be correlated between wells, you can display hole to hole
log sections with panels:

RockWorks can create surface models of each stratigraphic layer for 2D and 3D display,
projected stratigraphic sections, and solid model diagrams.

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Lithology Stratigraphy
Represents observed rock Represents interpreted
type layers or formations
Is often the first step Is often the second step
Often contains multiple
lithologies
Can contain repeated Does not contain repeated
sequences (sand, clay, sequences
sand, clay)
No lateral variability Often has lateral
variability
Data is entered in the Data is entered into the
Lithology tab Stratigraphy tab
No correlation is possible Correlation is possible in
in hole to hole vertical hole to hole vertical
sections. sections.
Is modeled as a solid Layers are modeled as
model (using the surface (grid) models,
"lithoblend" algorithm) using the algorithm of
for display as profiles, your choice, for display as
fences, and block profiles, fences, and block
diagrams. diagrams.

Missing Formations
There are 3 ways to note missing stratigraphic formation data in the Borehole Manager
"Stratigraphy" tab. The method you use will affect, at its most basic, how 2D strip logs
and log sections are displayed. It will also affect how stratigraphic surface maps,
thickness maps, profiles, fence diagrams, and block models are created.
Zero-Thickness Formations
One method of noting a missing formation is to assign the formation top an elevation
that results in zero thickness. This formation would not appear in individual strip logs.
It would be displayed in hole to hole cross sections as pinched out at the well, with
pattern fill.
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The formation’s depths for that borehole would be included in computations that
generate surfaces and thickness calculations. Note how in this stratigraphic fence
diagram, the yellow surface is pulled up to lie on top of the lower surface.

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Blank Formations
Another way to note "no data" is to leave the cells blank for the formation top elevation.
This tells the program that that formation is missing, and it should not be represented in
individual strip logs. It would be displayed in hole to hole sections as pinched out at the
well, with no pattern fill.

The blank formation would not be included in computations that generate surfaces and
thickness calculations. Note how the yellow surface now is not pulled up to lie on top of
the lower surface. Its "interference" with the lower formation is noted with the splotchy
lines.

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RockWorks2002

Missing Formations
New to RockWorks2002 is the ability to omit a formation entirely from a borehole’s
data tab. In this case, the formation will not be represented in strip logs. It would be
displayed in hole to hole sections as pinched out between wells. It would not be included
in surface and thickness computations.

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It will be represented in hole to hole cross sections as , and should not be "pinched out"
in fence diagrams or cross sections. The wells with no tops listed will be ignored when a
contour, color-filled, or 3D surface map is created for that formation, or when that
formation top is used in thickness computations. Its fence diagram would look identical
to that shown for "blank formations."

Exporting the Borehole Data

The Borehole Manager’s File / Export tools are used to export the contents of one or all
boreholes to a variety of formats. Borehole locations and individual data tabs can be
exported to the RockWorks Geological Utilities datasheet. Data for individual or all
boreholes can be exported to ASCII (text), binary, or Excel formats, to create separate
files or spreadsheets for stratigraphy, lithology, geochemistry, geophysics, etc.
See these Help topics:

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Entering Your Data / Exporting the
Borehole Data / How to....
Export all borehole locations to the Geological Utilities datasheet
Export the current data tab to the Geological Utilities datasheet
Export the data for all logs to ASCII
Export the data for all logs to binary
Export the data for all logs to Excel

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Notes

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Chapter 3 - The Geological Utilities Datasheet


Entering Your Data
When you first start up RockWorks2001, you will see two different data windows:
The Geological Utilities datasheet, for entering general types of data.

The Borehole Manager, a new data interface, specifically for entering borehole data
(stratigraphy, lithology, geochemistry, geophysical measurements, water level, etc.):

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This section discusses data entry for the Geological Utilities datasheet; see Datasheet
Overview.
See Borehole Manager (Chapter 2) for information about that data interface.

RockWorks99 (and earlier) users: If your ATD files contain stratigraphy data and/or
linked LIT, CUR, HIS, or ZON files, you’ll use the new Borehole Manager. See
Importing Your RockWorks99 Data (page 23).
If your ATD files contain general data (XYZ, survey, surface hydrochemistry, etc.)
you’ll use the Geological Utilities datasheet. See Using the Datasheet (below) and
Opening RockWorks99 ATD files.

Geological Utilities Datasheet Overview


The RockWorks general utilities datasheet is a spreadsheet-style data window designed
for entering miscellaneous data. These data can include simple XYZ data for generating
point and contour maps, strike and dip data for stereograph plots, hydrochemical ion lists
for Piper diagrams, and many more. This is a simplified datasheet that operates much
like other general spreadsheet applications.

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The data you enter into the Geological Utilities datasheet can be used to create many
different types of maps and diagrams within RockWorks.
The RockWorks datasheet is saved in an ASCII Tab-Delimited format with the file name
extension [.ATD]. NEW: The column headings and column styles (text or symbols or
lines) are stored in a header block at the top of the file. RockWorks no longer uses an
accompanying [.TEM] file for data layout. See ATD File Format in the Help /
Reference section for details.

Using the Datasheet


The "Geological Utilities" datasheet is a basic row-and-column data window that is one
of two data windows available in RockWorks.
This section discusses how to create new datasheet files, and how to open, save, and
print these data files.

RockWorks99 users note that there are distinct instructions for opening
RockWorks99 ATD files. See the topic below.

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How to access the datasheet

To access the RockWorks Geological Utilities datasheet, click on the Geological


Utilities tab right below the main program menu:

How to create a new datasheet

To display a new, blank datasheet, follow these steps:


1. Access the Geological Utilities Datasheet.
2. Select the File / New command.
If there have been changes in the existing datasheet that have not yet been saved, the
program will prompt you whether you wish to save them.
Click Yes to save changes in the existing datasheet, or click No to discard the
changes in the existing datasheet.
3. Choose from the next window the type of column headers for the new file.

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This window will list a variety of column layouts, from generic styles with
numbered column titles, to hydrochemistry ion layout. You may expand topics
(click on the "+" symbol) to view sub-topics. When you click on a layout sample,
the column titles and their types will be displayed to the right.
! If you don't know which to choose or prefer to design your own column titles,
choose Numbered Column Titles. Later, use the View / Columns tool to modify the
column names and types.

! RockWorks99 users: Column headings are no longer stored in the [.TEM]


files. In fact, RockWorks2002 no longer uses [.TEM] files at all. See ATD file
format in the Help messages Reference section for details.
4. Click OK.
The program will display a new, untitled datasheet, with the column headings you
selected. The file will be displayed as untitled in the upper title bar ("untitled.atd").

How to open an existing datasheet (RW2002)

To open an existing datasheet that you have saved in RockWorks2002, follow these
steps:
1. Access the Geological Utilities datasheet.
2. Select the File / Open command.
3. Click on the large button to locate existing RockWorks2002 [.ATD] file you wish to
open, accessing other drives and directories as necessary.
Or, choose a file from the "Recent Files" list shown in the window.
The default data file type is [.ATD]. See ATD File Format for more details.
4. When the desired file name is shown in the window, click OK to continue.
The program will load the file information into the datasheet’s cells. The column
headers are loaded from the header block, if any, listed in the file. The name of the
current data file will be displayed in the title bar at the top of the program window.
Refer to the files in the "samples" directory for formatting examples.

RockWorks99 users: The RockWorks2002 datasheet no longer uses an


accompanying [.TEM] file to declare column layout.
See also: Opening RockWorks99 Datasheets (below) for information about opening
earlier-version files. View / Columns for information about changing column titles and
types.

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How to open a RockWorks99 (and earlier) datasheet

Since RockWorks2002 no longer uses a "Template" [.TEM] file for datasheet layout,
the process of opening a datasheet created in an earlier version of the program is slightly
different.
See also: Importing RockWorks99 data into the Borehole Manager (page 23) if your data
represents downhole data.
Follow these steps to open RockWorks99 (and earlier) [.ATD] files into the Geological
Utilities datasheet:
1. Access the Geological Utilities datasheet.
2. Select the File / Open command.
3. Click on the large button to locate existing RockWorks99 (or RockWorks98 or
Stratos98) [.ATD] file you wish to open, accessing other drives and directories as
necessary.
4. When the desired file name is shown in the window, click OK to continue.
In the next window, the program will explain that the selected [.ATD] file doesn't
contain a header block because it's from an older version of RockWorks or Stratos.
5. Insert a check in the Import column data from old Template file check-box if you
wish to set up the columns as per the data template file ([.TEM]) that had been
created along with the selected [.ATD] file in the older version of the program.
Click on the large file name button to locate the name of this Template file.
Or, leave this box un-checked if you can't find the Template file or simply wish to
set the column headers to consecutive numbers.
6. Click OK to continue.
The program will display the data in the Datasheet.
7. If the formatting (column titles or styles) needs adjusting, choose the View /
Columns command.
! If you save this newly-formatted file, note that the column setup will be saved in a
"header" block in the [.ATD] file. This will render it unusable in earlier versions of
RockWorks unless you delete the header block.

See also Help / Contents / Reference / ATD File Format.

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How to save a datasheet

Changes you have made to the data currently displayed in the Geological Utilities
datasheet can be saved on disk using the Save command.
1. Select the File / Save command.
If the data file already has a name (as shown in the program title bar), selecting Save
will save the current version on disk, under the same name.
If the data file is untitled (as shown in the program title bar), the program will
display a dialog box, in which you can specify the name under which the data file is
to be saved.
2. Save Datasheet As: Click on the large button to access a standard Windows dialog
box where you can type in the name to assign to the data file, accessing other drives
or directories as necessary.
Data files are stored with an [.ATD] file name extension, for "ASCII Tab-
Delimited" files.
3. Click OK.
The program will save the information in the data window on disk, and the default name
shown in the program’s title bar will be updated as necessary.

RockWorks99 users: Column headings are no longer stored in the [.TEM] files; they
are stored right in the ATD file itself. RockWorks2002 no longer uses [.TEM] files at
all.

See also Help / Contents / Reference / ATD File Format.

How to save a datasheet under a different name

If you wish to save the current Geological Utilities datasheet under a different file name,
use the Save As command.
1. Select the File / Save As command.
The program will display a dialog box in which you can specify the name under
which the data file is to be saved.
2. Save Datasheet As: Click on the large button to access a dialog box where you can
type in the name to assign to the data file. Data files are stored with an [.ATD] file
name extension, for "ASCII Tab-Delimited" files.
3. Click OK.

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The program will save the information in the Datasheet on disk under the specified file
name, and will update the default name shown in the program’s title bar.

How to print your datasheet

To output the data contained in Geological Utilities datasheet to your printer, follow
these steps:
1. Select the File / Print command.
The program will display a dialog box for establishing some printing settings.
Along the left will be displayed all of the column names, as defined in the header of
the [.ATD] file.
2. Print?: This is a yes/no setting that tells the program whether the column should be
included on the printout. To change the setting, just double-click on the cell with
your mouse. This will toggle the setting from No to Yes and vice versa. Note that if
you choose to print the symbol and/or color columns, you will see their text version
- symbol number or color number. You will not see the graphic symbol or color
block. Color numbers may extend up to 10 characters.
3. Printer Setup: Click on this button to establish the type of printer you are using.
When invoked, the program will display a dialog box with a pop-up list box
containing the printers that are currently installed within Windows. You may select
the printer you wish to use. The Options button will display additional printer
configuration dialog boxes for the selected printer, such as paper orientation, etc.
See your Windows documentation for information about installing printer drivers,
and see your printer’s documentation regarding specific printer settings.
When you have established the printer settings to your satisfaction, choose the OK
button to return to the RockWorks Spreadsheet Printing Options window. Note that
once your printer is set up within the program, you will not need to re-select it
unless the setup changes in some way.
4. To send the selected data to the selected printer, click OK at the bottom of the
Spreadsheet Printing Options window.
The program will display a dialog box displaying print options specific to your
printer. This is typically used to establish the range of pages to be printed, the
number of copies, and so on.
5. Choose the OK button when you are ready to have the file printed.
The spreadsheet data will be sent to the printer. The program will dimension the width
of the columns automatically to assure that all data is visible. It will automatically panel
the columns and/or rows not visible on the first page onto additional pages. The font

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used in the printout should match the font displayed on the screen (established under
View / Preferences / Data Manager).

Laying Out Your Datasheet


The Geological Utilities datasheet in RockWorks is used to enter rows and columns of a
variety of different kinds of data. This section discusses how to set up different kinds of
data for use in the program, and how to change the column headings and column types.

! With a few exceptions, most of these data structures are flexible. In the examples
provided, we have tried to illustrate the minimum required data as well as "typical" data
layouts, but you can organize your data columns any way you wish. During processing
you can always specify which spreadsheet columns contain what data.
See also The Borehole Manager (page 21) re: setting up downhole lithology,
stratigraphy, geophysics, and other data.

More information for all of these data structures is included in the RockWorks Help
system. At the main program screen, select Help / Contents, and locate the Geological
Utilities Datasheet, Entering Your Data section.

Throughout this section, look for this symbol and search the contents or index for the
indicated terms.

XYZ Data

"XYZ" data can be entered into the Geological Utilities datasheet to represent X and Y
location coordinates and a measured "Z" value of some kind, such as elevations or
geochemistry. This basic data layout can be run through Map / EZ Map to create a
simple point map or line/color-filled contour map. Or, you can create a grid model of
the XYZ data (Map / Grid-Based Map) for display as a 2D contour map or 3D surface.

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! RockWorks offers a variety of data layout suggestions, but you can organize your data
columns any way you wish. During processing you can always specify which column
contains what data.
Sample files: Xyelevations.atd

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When creating a new XYZ file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column Titles
window: Use the Generic heading and select XYZ (Easting, Northing, Elevation) or
XYZ (ID, Symbol, Easting, Northing, Elevation).

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
XYZ Data

XYZG Data

"XYZG" data can be entered into the Geological Utilities datasheet to represent X, Y,
and Z location coordinates (easting, northing, and elevation) and a measured "G" value
of some kind, such as geochemistry or geophysical measurements. This basic data
layout can be run through Solid / Model for display as a 3-dimensional isosurface or
block diagram.

! Use the new Borehole Manager instead of the Geological Utilities datasheet if you
have multiple downhole measurements for each well. See Entering the Borehole Data
and How to Enter Geophysical Data (page 42) or Geochemical Data (page 40).
Example 1: This example shows how you might enter X,Y,Z,G data into the Geological
Utilities datasheet for modeling.

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Example 2: RockWorks can also create a solid model from a separate ASCII XYZG
file. In this case, no data is read from the Geological Utilities datasheet. Such a file can
be exported from many software programs. See the Help file for details.
Sample files: = XYZG.atd
When creating a new XYZG file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column Titles
window: Click on the Generic heading and select XYZG.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
XYZG Data

Ternary Data

"Ternary" data can be entered into the Geological Utilities datasheet to list 3 or more
components to be represented in a ternary diagram (Stats / Ternary).
This example is from the file "Ternary.atd" which illlustrate how you might set up a date
file to list different soil components. This file could be used with the Stats / Ternary
option to illustrate the components in a ternary diagram.

Sample Files: Ternary.atd for z-values representing three soil components (sand, shale,
clay) for use in a ternary diagram.
When creating a new ternary file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column Titles
window. You can expand the Generic grouping and choose Ternary Diagram for a
generic data layout. Or, expand the Civil Engineering heading and select Soil
Classification. This will set up the column headings with sand, shale, and clay.
Remember that you can change column names and column types easily using View /
Column Titles.

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For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
ternary diagrams.

Survey (Bearing, Distance) Data

These data files, entered into the Geological Utilities datasheet, identify locations using
bearing and distance (and optionally inclination) measurements. These can be translated
to XYZ coordinates and/or illustrated as a survey map (Survey / Bearing/Distance).

You must enter information for both the known control points and for the survey
stations. See the Help file for details.
Sample files: = Survey.atd
When creating a new survey file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column Titles
window. Double-click on the Surveying heading and select Pace and Compass Style
Surveying.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
survey data

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Survey (Triangulation) Data

These data files, entered into the Geological Utilities datasheet, identify locations using
2 or more sightings in bearing and inclination to known control points. These can be
translated to XYZ coordinates using the Survey / Triangulation command.

You must enter information for both the known control points and for the survey
stations. See the Help file for details.
Sample files: = Trisurvey.atd
When creating a new survey file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column Titles
window. Double-click on the Surveying heading and select Triangulation Based
Surveying.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
survey data

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Shotpoint Data

These data files are typically imported into the Geological Utilities datasheet using the
File / Import / SEG-P1 tool. They can be represented as shotpoint maps using the Map
/ Shotpoints command.

Sample files: Shotpoints.sp1, which must be imported into the datasheet using the
Import / SEG-P1 Data tool.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
SEG-P1 data.

Land Grid Well Descriptions

"Land Grid" well descriptions are entered into the Geological Utilities datasheet using a
Range, Township, and Section notation format. RockWorks can compute (or "spot")
X,Y location coordinates for these descriptions using a commercial or idealized
reference land grid as reference (Coords / Jeffersonial Points -> Cartesian). Once the
wells have X,Y location coordinates, their locations can be displayed in a point map
(Map / EZ Map).

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! Also required for translation of this type of well location description into X,Y is a
"reference" land grid file that contains necessary section boundary coordinate
information. These land grid data files must be created by you prior to spotting your
wells, by importing commercial land grid data or creating an idealized land grid.
Sample files: Spot.atd.
When creating a new well description file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column
Titles window. Double-click on the Jeffersonian Land Grid heading and select
Congressional well locations.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
land grid well descriptions.

Land Grid Lease Descriptions

"Land Grid Lease" descriptions are entered into the Geological Utilities datasheet using
a Range, Township, and Section notation format. RockWorks can compute (or "spot")
X,Y location coordinates for the lease corners using a commerical or idealized reference
land grid as reference (Coords / Jeffersonial Polygons -> Cartesian). Once the leases
have X,Y corner coordinates computed, their locations can be displayed in a lease map
(Map / Land Grid / Lease Map).

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! Also required for translation of this type of lease description into X,Y is a "reference"
land grid file that contains necessary section boundary coordinate information. These
land grid data files must be created by you prior to spotting your lease blocks, by
importing commercial land grid data or creating an idealized land grid.
Sample files: LeaseMap.atd.
When creating a new lease description file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet
Column Titles window. Double-click on the Jeffersonian Land Grid heading and select
Leases.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
land grid lease descriptions.

Global Map Point Data

If you wish to plot individual points on a RockWorks global map, you simply need to
enter the longitude and latitude coordinates for the points in two columns in the main
datasheet. This example illustrates both global points and polygons.

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Column summary:
Longitude, Latitude Coordinates: Required. The program must have location
coordinates in order to plot the points on the global map. These must be listed in
longitude/latitude.
Sample files: Sphere_points.atd
When creating a new global point file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column
Titles window. Double-click on the Mapping heading and select SpherePlot Points.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
sphere maps.

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Global Map Polyline Data

If you wish to plot one or more point-to-point lines on a RockWorks global map, you
simply need to enter the longitude and latitude coordinates for the endpoints in two
columns in the main datasheet. This example illustrates both global polylines and point
locations.

Sample files: Sphere_polylines.atd


When creating a new global polyline file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column
Titles window. Double-click on the Mapping heading and select SpherePlot Polylines.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
sphere maps.

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Drawdown Data

Well drawdown data can be entered into the Geological Utilities datasheet for the
purpose of computing and displaying a drawdown surface (Hydro / Drawdown
Surface). Specific fields are required.

Sample file: Drawdown.atd.


When creating a new drawdown data file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column
Titles window. Double-click on the Hydrology/Hydrogeology heading and select
Drawdown Surface Modeling.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
drawdown.

Hydrograph Data

Water level and precipitation data can be entered into the Geological Utilities datasheet
for the purpose of creating a hydrograph diagram (Hydro / Hydrograph). Hydrograph
files list sampling dates and water level and/or precipitation measurements for that date.

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Sample files: HydroGraph.atd


When creating a new hydrograph data file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column
Titles window. Double-click on the Hydrology/Hydrogeology heading and select
Hydrograph.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
hydrographs.

Hydrochemistry (Ion) Data

Anion and cation concentrations can be entered into the Geological Utilities datasheet
for the purposes of creating Piper diagrams, Stiff diagrams, computing total dissolved
solids, and/or ion balances. These "hydrochemistry" files list cation and anion
concentrations in parts per million (or milligrams per liter). There are 4 required cations
and 4 required anions; additional cations and anions may be included as you wish.

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Sample files: HydroChem.atd


When creating a new hydrochemistry data file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet
Column Titles window. Double-click on the Hydrology/Hydrogeology heading and
select Hydrochemistry.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
hydrochemistry (ion) data.

Strike and Dip Data

Strike and dip measurements can be entered into the Geological Utilities datasheet for
the purposes of creating strike and dip maps, rose diagrams (bearings only), stereonet
diagrams, and of computing planar intersections. There are a variety of ways you can
structure these files, depending on your desired output.
Example 1: This example lists site-specific strike and dip measurements, with strike
shown in azimuth bearings. These data could be displayed as a strike and dip map,
stereonet diagram, rose diagram, or computed for planar intersections.

Example 2: This example lists site-specific strike and dip measurements, with strike
shown in quadrant format.

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! Note that the dip angle must NOT include any directional notation.
Example 3: This example lists strike and dip measurements with no X,Y location
coordinates. This setup could be used to create stereonets and/or rose diagrams, with
symbols for the sample sites (used in Stereonet only).

Sample files: StrikeDip_azimuth.atd, StrikeDip_quadrant.atd, Stereo.atd.


When creating a new strike and dip data file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet
Column Titles window. Double-click on the Structural Geology heading and select
Strikes and Dips.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
strike and dip data.

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Lineation Endpoint Data

Lineation endpoint data can be entered into the Geological Utilities datasheet for the
purposes of computing lineation azimuth/midpoint/lengths and lineation densities &
intersections, and for creating rose diagrams, lineation maps, and arrow maps.
Example:

Sample file: Lines.atd


When creating a new lineation endpoint data file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet
Column Titles window. Double-click on the Structural Geology heading and select
Lineation Endpoints for a simple X1Y1X2Y2 layout, or Colored Lineations for a setup
that will also include an ID and linestyle column.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
lineations or line endpoint data.
See also: Digitizing data (page 97) for information about digitizing line endpoint data
directly into the datasheet. Movement Data structure (below) for X1Y1X2Y2 data that
also have elevation and time measurements associated with them, for movement
analysis.

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Movement Data

"Movement Data" files list the X1,Y1 beginning coordinates and X2,Y2 ending
coordinates of samples, with optional elevation and time measurements. These can be
used in "movement analysis" (DirStat menu) in which direction and distance, with
optional inclination and velocity, can be measured between beginning and ending points,
and stored in the datasheet.
Example: .

Sample file: Movement.atd


When creating a new movement data file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column
Titles window. Double-click on the Civil Engineering heading and select Movement
Analysis.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
movement data.

Beta Pairs Data

These files list the strike bearing and dip angle for pairs of planes, for which you wish to
compute intersection bearing and plunge.
Example:

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This example illustrates data entered using the Right Hand Rule format (dip direction
clockwise from strike); you may also enter the planar data as dip direction and dip angle.
Sample file: BetaPairs.atd.
When creating a new beta pairs data file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column
Titles window. Double-click on the Structural Geology heading and select Beta Pairs.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
beta pairs.

PicShow Image Lists

These files are used to display JPG or BMP images in a RockWorks "slide show," using
the PicShow option in the Util menu. This program requires only two columns of
information: The names of the images to be displayed in the "slide show," and the delay
time between frame display.
Example:

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Sample file: none


When creating a new picshow file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column Titles
window. Double-click on the Miscellaneous heading and select PicShow Image List.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
picshow.

OpenGL Vertical Panel Image Lists

These files are used to display one or more JPG or BMP images as 3-dimensional panels
in RockPlot3D. (See OpenGL / Images / Panels / Vertical.) This program requires 8
columns of information: The names of the images to be displayed in the OpenGL
panels, their layer name, and the X, Y, and Z coordinates for the lower-left and upper-
right corners of the bitmap image.
Example:

Sample file: GPRpanels.atd which reference these bitmaps: GPR_south.jpg,


GPR_north.jpg, GPR_west.jpg, and GPR_east.jpg.
When creating a new vertical panel file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column
Titles window. Double-click on the Miscellaneous heading and select Vertical Image
Panels.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
OpenGL vertical panel image lists.

OpenGL Horizontal Panel Image Lists

These files are used to display one or more JPG or BMP images as non-vertical panels in
RockPlot3D. (See OpenGL / Images / Panels / Horizontal.) This program requires 14
columns of information: The names of the images to be displayed in the OpenGL
panels, their layer name, and the X, Y, and Z coordinates for each corner.
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! OpenGL vertical panels are assumed to be vertical and coordinates for only two
corners are required. By contrast, RockWorks allows you to enter X, Y, and elevation
coordinates for each corner of these "horizontal" panels. Thus, these panels are not
required to be horizontal.
When creating a new horizontal panel file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column
Titles window. Double-click on the Miscellaneous heading and select Horizontal
Image Panels.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
OpenGL horizontal panel image lists.

OpenGL Tubes

These files are used to build a 3D image containing tubes or pipes drawn between pairs
of user-specified XYZ points. (See OpenGL / Tubes.) This program requires 8
columns of information: The "names" or labels for the individual tubes, the tube color,
and the X, Y, and Z coordinates for the beginning and ending points of the tubes.
Example:

Sample file: Minework.atd.


When creating a new tube file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column Titles
window. Double-click on the Miscellaneous heading and select 3D Tubes.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
OpenGL Tubes.
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OpenGL Oriented Objects

These files are used to build a 3D image containing rectangular prism shapes at specific
XYZ locations, with a declared bearing and inclination. (See OpenGL / Oriented
Objects.) This program requires 7 columns of information: The object name, color, X,
Y, and Z coordinates, bearing, and inclination.
Example:

Sample file: Fossils.atd.


When creating a new oriented object file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet Column
Titles window. Double-click on the Miscellaneous heading and select Oriented
Samples.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
OpenGL Oriented Objects.

OpenGL Horizontal Tanks

These files are used to build a 3D image containing horizontal cylinders at specific XYZ
locations, with a declared radius and color. (See OpenGL / Tanks / Horizontal.) This
program requires 8 columns of information: The object name, X and Y location of one
end of the tank, X and Y coordinate for the other end of the tank, tank elevation, radius,
and color.
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Example:

Sample file: Horizontal_tanks.atd.


When creating a new horizontal storage tank file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet
Column Titles window. Double-click on the Miscellaneous heading and select
Horizontal Storage Tanks.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
OpenGL horizontal tanks.

OpenGL Vertical Tanks

These files are used to build a 3D image containing vertical cylinders at specific XYZ
locations, with a declared radius, height and color. (See OpenGL / Tanks / Vertical.)
This program requires 8 columns of information: The object name, X Y Z location of
the tank, radius, height, and color.
Example:

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Sample file: Vertical_tanks.atd.


When creating a new vertical storage tank file from scratch, you’ll see the Datasheet
Column Titles window. Double-click on the Miscellaneous heading and select Vertical
Storage Tanks.

For complete information, see Help / Contents / click on the Index tab and type in:
OpenGL vertical tanks.

Editing the Datasheet

Editing the Datasheet - Overview

This section summarizes some of the tools used to modify the contents of the Geological
Utilities datasheet in RockWorks.

More complete information can be found in the on-line help. See Help / Contents /
Geological Utilities / Entering Your Data / Editing the Datasheet.

Changing Column Titles and Styles

Change a data column title


To change the name of a column in the current Geological Utilities datasheet, follow
these steps:
1. Access the Geological Utilities datasheet.
2. Select the View / Columns command.
The "Title" column in the Column Settings window lists the column names. The names
listed here are also displayed in the gray heading cells at the top of the datasheet.
3. Left-click in the cell containing the title to be changed to highlight the existing text.
4. Type in the new text for the column title.
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! You should limit the column names to 20 characters, including spaces.


5. Repeat this process for as many columns as you wish in the scrolling list, by
clicking in each cell and typing a new name.
Change the Column Type
The column "type" determines how the information in a Geological Utilities datasheet
column will be displayed or how it will "behave": as text, graphic symbols, graphic
lines, graphic patterns, hyperlinked files, and so on.
To change the column type, follow these steps:
1. Access the Geological Utilities datasheet.
2. Select the View / Columns command.
The "Data Type" column in the Column Settings window lists the column types.
3. Left-click in the Data Type cell for the column to be changed.
The program will display a pop-up window that lists all of the available column
types.
4. Select the data column's type by clicking in the appropriate selection.
Text columns display their contents as textual characters, both alphabetic and
numeric.
Most of your columns will probably be set to Text columns, including X and Y
location coordinates, any sample ID’s, measured data values, and other project
information. Text columns simply display their contents as letters and numbers.

You may also display symbols, colors, lines, and patterns as text if you prefer not
to see their graphic display.
Symbol columns display the contents of the column as graphic symbols, in a user-
selected color.
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Datasheet columns that you set as Symbol columns are used to display actual
symbol designs and colors that you have selected for each well or sample site.

To select a symbol simply double-click in the appropriate cell in the datasheet's


Symbol column, and select a symbol from the displayed list.
The symbols are actually stored in the [.ATD] file as textual entries of the
selected symbols' index numbers. If you were to look at the [.ATD] file in a text
editor, you would see that symbol number 5 is recorded with a "5", and symbol
number 17 is recorded with a "17". See the Help messages for more information
about symbol columns.
Color columns display the contents of the column as a block of color.
Since RockWorks99, Color columns are not as commonly used as they were in
RockWorks98 and earlier versions, since the program now stores colors along
with symbols designs and line styles in the Geological Utilities datasheet.
You may still wish to use an independent Color column, however, if you have
strike and dip data and wish to create a strike and dip map with specific colors for
each sample. Color columns are also still used for OpenGL items such as tanks
and pipes.
! RockWorks98 and earlier users: See the Edit menu's Columns / Combine /
Symbols & Colors or Line Types & Colors commands for information about
how to automatically append color information to your symbol or line style
columns.
Line columns display the contents of the column as graphic lines in a user-selected
color.
Datasheet columns that you set as Line columns are used to select a line style and
thickness for each sample listed in rows in the main datasheet. The actual line
styles and colors are displayed in the column. These are typically used when
plotting lineation or arrow maps (DirStat menu).
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To select a line style and color, simply double-click in the appropriate cell in the
datasheet's Line column, and select a line style and width from the displayed list.
See the Help messages for more information about line columns.
Pattern columns display the contents of the column as a graphic pattern. More …
Datasheet columns that you set as Pattern columns are used to display actual
pattern designs and colors that you have selected for each sample or row in the
datasheet. These are often used in lease boundary files to declare a particular
pattern with which to fill the lease area in a map.

To select a pattern simply double-click in the appropriate cell in the datasheet's


Pattern column, and select a pattern and colors from the displayed list.
The patterns are actually stored in the [.ATD] file as textual entries of the
selected patterns' index numbers. If you were to look at the [.ATD] file in a text
editor, you would see that pattern number 1 is recorded with a "1", and pattern
number 20 is recorded with a "20".

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Patterns are also stored with their "density" as well as the user-selected
foreground and background colors. In Text view, the pattern density, and color
of the pattern lines (foreground) and the color of the background will be listed
after the pattern index number.
Note that color numbers can range up into the millions.
Hyperlink columns are used to list the names of files and to link automatically to
the program installed on your computer specific to the file name's extension.
Datasheet columns that you set as Hyperlink columns are used to list file names
that can be linked automatically to other applications based on the file name
extensions.

Hyperlink column controls: Double-clicking on the cell or pressing the <Enter>


key activates the link, launching the program application specific to the listed file
name extension. Right-clicking acts like the Browse button, permitting you to
locate the name of the file to be listed in the cell. Any other key allows manual
editing.
5. Repeat this process for as many columns as you wish in the scrolling list, by
clicking in each cell and choosing a type.

Wondering where the Curve, Histogram, Lithology, and Zone columns went? These
data are now entered in the Borehole Manager. See Entering the Borehole Data (page
33) for details.

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Filtering Data

To create a filtered subset of the data currently displayed in the datasheet, follow these
steps:
1. Access the Geological Utilities datasheet.
2. Open the datasheet to be manipulated.
3. Click on the Filter button on the toolbar or choose the Edit / Filter command.
4. A: First, be sure there is a check-mark in the upper-most check-box so that the top
row of filter parameters is displayed.
In the top row of filter settings, click in the Column list box to select the first
column for which you wish to establish filtering parameters. The column names
shown in the list are taken directly from the datasheet and its template.
For that column, enter in the two prompt boxes the minimum and maximum
numeric value that you wish to filter for.
5. B, C, D, and E: Repeat this process for any additional columns on which you wish
to impose filtering restrictions.
Here's an example in which the filtered subset will contain only those records with
Easting coordinates between 200 and 575 AND Northing coordinates between 350
and 700.

! This operates as an "AND" filter, not an "OR" filter. That means that only those
records that meet all of the filtering criteria will be included in the output file.
! You cannot impose multiple filters on a single column.
6. Click the OK button to proceed.

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The program will read through the data displayed in the main datasheet and determine
those records that meet all of the filtering parameters you established. These records
will be displayed in a new, untitled datasheet.

Other Data Editing Tools

Delete: Deletes the contents of the highlighted cell(s) in the current datasheet. The
contents are not placed on the computer's clipboard memory; they are just deleted.
Cut All: Removes the entire contents of the current datasheet, placing the contents in
the computer's clipboard memory for later pasting. This is the same operation as would
occur if you were to hand-select all of the cells in the current datasheet and then select
the Edit / Cut command.
Copy All: Places a copy of the entire contents of the current datasheet in the clipboard
memory for later pasting. This is the same operation as would occur if you were to
hand-select all of the cells in the current datasheet and then select the Edit / Copy
command.
Paste All: Replaces the current datasheet with the contents of the clipboard.
Columns / Insert: Inserts a new, blank column in the active datasheet.
Columns / Delete: Deletes one or more columns from the active datasheet.
Columns / Math: Performs simple arithmetic operations on the values within a selected
column in the current datasheet.
Columns / Merge: Merges the contents of two columns in the active datasheet, with a
user-specified separator.
Columns / Increment: Lists numeric values in a column, incrementing the values by
the real number you declare.
Columns / Combine: Used to combine symbol + color columns or linestyle + color
columns, in the Geological Utilities datasheet only.
Columns / Fix: Strips out commas, tabs and spaces from numeric values in a selected
column.
Rows / Insert: Inserts a user-specified number of rows above the currently active row in
the datasheet, offering the user the option to change the default row number.
Rows / Delete: Deletes a user-specified number of rows in the current datasheet,
offering the option to change the default row number.
Rows / Go to: Advances to a specific row in the current datasheet.
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Rows / Sort: Sorts the rows in the current datasheet based on a selected column of
values.

Importing Data
Many of you will enter your data right within the RockWare program's Geological
Utilities datasheet, by typing directly from the keyboard, or by cutting and pasting data
from another document.
Another method of getting data into the program is to import data from other
applications or commercial sources. The following import tools are available.
See these Help topics:

Help / Contents / Geological Utilities datasheet / Entering Your Data / Importing


Data / ….
Importing ASCII Data into the Datasheet.
Importing DBF Files into the Datasheet.
Importing DXF XYZ Data into the Datasheet.
Importing Laser Atlanta Data.
Importing RockBase Data.
Importing SEG-P1 Shotpoint Data.
Importing XLS (Excel) Data.

Exporting Data from the Geological Utilities Datasheet


If you wish to export the data contained in the Geological Utilities datasheet, use the File
/ Export command. It offers export as a text file, a DBF-format file, or a Microsoft
Excel (XLS) file.
See these Help topics:

Help / Contents / Geological Utilities datasheet / Entering Your Data / Exporting


Data / ….
Exporting the Datasheet to ASCII Format
Exporting the Datasheet to DBF Format
Exporting the Datasheet to XLS Format

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Digitizing Data

Digitizing Data - Overview

RockWorks offers two tools in the Edit menu that permit you to use an electronic
digitizing tablet to enter either X and Y point data or line endpoints directly into the
Geological Utilities datasheet. In this way, you can enter your sample site location
coordinates or lineation endpoint coordinates directly off of a paper map.
The digitizing tool is also available in the View / Preferences / Polygon Vertices editor,
in the Borehole Manager Geophysics tab, and in the Borehole Manager’s Geochemistry
tab.

! In order to use the digitizing capability of the program, you must have an electronic
digitizer attached to your computer and a Windows "driver" for the digitizer installed on
your computer. These drivers are supplied by the digitizer manufacturer. You must also
be sure that you have correctly set up your digitizing tablet. If there is no
communication between the digitizer and your computer, you aren’t going to be able to
digitize any points!
See these Help topics:

Help / Contents / Geological Utilities datasheet / Entering Your Data / Digitizing Data
/ ….
Install the digitizer driver
Start the digitizing process
Calibrate the digitizer
Digitize Your Points

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Notes

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Chapter 4 – Creating Point, Contour and 3D


Surface Maps, and other Maps

These are some of the most commonly used tools of the RockWorks program: Mapping
sample locations (wells or simple surface sites), creating maps that illustrate a
quantitative value (elevations, formation thickness, surface geochemistry, density of
take-out pizza restaurants, etc.) measured at multiple X,Y locations. These can be 2D
contour maps or 3D surface maps. Creating maps that illustrate shotpoint locations,
land grid sections or leases, global points or polylines.

Point Maps
The procedures you will follow to create a point map will vary depending on whether you
have entered your data into the Borehole Manager (presumably you have well locations
and sub-surface data) or into the Geological Utilities datasheet (you have X,Y locations, at
minimum). This discussion is divided into Borehole Manager maps and Geological
Utilities maps.

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Borehole Manager: Creating a 2-Dimensional Borehole Location Map

Use the Borehole Manager's Map / Borehole Locations / 2D tool to create a 2-


dimensional or plan view of your borehole locations. These maps may include unique
symbols and labels for each borehole, with optional borehole trace plots for deviated
holes, borders, and bitmap backgrounds.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool will specifically read the borehole Easting and
Northing coordinates and well symbols from the Location tab, and the downhole survey
data (if any) from the Orientation tab. See Chapter 2 for details.
Menu command: Map / Borehole Locations
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: Check your coordinates: If your borehole locations (as entered into the Location
tabs) are not in Eastings and Northings, you’ll need to translate your longitude/latitude
or Range/Township/Section descriptions first.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create a Borehole Location Map.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Maps

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Translating Map Coordinates

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Geological Utilities: Creating an EZ Symbol Map

The EZ-Map tool is used to build 2-dimensional (flat) maps for X, Y, and Z coordinate
data that can include several map layers. (Contour lines and color-filled contours are
optional. See also a later section regarding including contour lines.)
Datasheet: Geological Utilities “XYZ” file (page 67)
Menu command: Map / EZ-Map
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: RockWorks can create maps with uniform or variable symbol styles, and with
uniform or variable symbol sizes. This can be handy for differentiating your sites, and/or
for illustrating different measured values at those sites. You can include single or multiple
labels for each symbol. The program can automatically offset labels if overprinting is a
problem.
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Create a Point and Surface Maps, Create an EZ Point
Map.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Creating Maps / Easy Maps

Geological Utilities: Creating Multivariate Maps

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The Geological Utilities Map / Multivariate Maps tools are used to create maps that
illustrate two or more components at specific X,Y locations.
Pie chart maps illustrate the relative percentage of the selected variables as varying-
width pie "slices" at each sample location. Examples include whole-rock geochemistry,
relative sand/silt/clay ratios, and non-geological parameters such as population
breakdowns.
Starburst maps illustrate the relative percentage of the selected variables as varying-
length pie "slices" at each sample location. Each component within a starburst has a
scaling factor that determines the radius of the wedge. This allows you to create
diagrams for variables with different units. For example, one wedge within a starburst
could represent amount of silica, which another could represent fracturing, which a third
might represent amount of alteration.
Bar chart maps illustrate the relative percentage of the selected variables as varying-
length histogram bars at each sample location.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities “XYZ” file, with multiple Z-value columns (page 67)
Menu command: Map / Multivariate Maps / Pie Chart Map or Starburst Map or
Bar Chart Map
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: Refer to the Help messages for details about how to set up the data columns and
apply a scaling multplier for the starburst and bar chart maps.
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Analyze Component Data, Illustrate Multiple
Components in a Pie Chart Map.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Creating Maps / Multivariate


Maps

2D Contour Maps
Contour maps illustrate quantitative values that have been measured over space. They can
be used to illustrate geological topics such as surface elevations, formation thickness or
average geochemical concentrations. They can illustrate non-geological topics such as
average voter turnout in a city or numbers of crimes in a neighborhood.
Entire books have been written about the subject computer contouring, and that is a
subject well beyond the scope of this manual. Here we offer a summary of the tools you
can use in RockWorks to generate contour maps. For more information about the
concepts of gridding and contouring, please refer to the Help messages.

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To grid or not to grid?

RockWorks offers two methods of creating 2D contour maps: Delaunay triangulation


contouring and grid-based contouring.

Delaunay Contouring
To generate contours, the Delaunay triangulation method constructs a series of triangles
with a data point at each vertex. The triangles are constructed so that the angles are as
close as possible to equi-angular. Contour lines are then interpolated between the
triangle vertices and connected together to form the map. This process has been referred
to as "dip-contouring" by some geologists.
Because it by-passes the gridding step, this mapping method operates the most quickly.
In addition, it honors all of the data values; many people prefer this method of
contouring since there is no loss of data integrity as a result of gridding. However,
RockWorks cannot build 3D surface maps using this method. Also, non-grid
triangulation can leave blank areas in the map where there are no control points, unless
you tell the program to insert "edge points." Contours tend to be very angular.

Grid-Based Contouring
Gridding is a process in which scattered, spatially-distributed data can be transformed into
a regular grid of numeric values. You might picture a grid model as a grid of imaginary
lines that overlays your source data points. In the process of gridding, the program assigns
a value to the grid line intersections, called grid nodes. RockWorks offers several
mathematical methods to do this interpolation of your data. Each operates differently, and
each has strengths and weaknesses.
A grid file is the computer file of numbers that contains the results of the gridding process.
It contains a listing of the X and Y location coordinates of the regularly-spaced grid nodes
and the extrapolated Z value at each node.
Because gridding is an interpolation process, it’s possible for the resulting map to look
quite different than you had expected. The benefits of gridding include having more
control over the map process, editing and filtering tools, smoother maps, and the ability to
construct 3D surfaces.
We generally recommend that you create both types of maps: Create a quick contour map
using the Delaunay triangulation technique, and then create another based on a grid model.
Compare them to determine which more accurately models your data.

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Geological Utilities: Creating a Delaunay-Triangulation Contour Map

The EZ-Map tool is used to build 2-dimensional (flat) maps for X, Y, and Z coordinate
data, using the Delaunay triangulation technique. The maps can include several map
layers. (On an earlier page, we discussed creating a simple point map of X,Y data. It’s
the same program tool – just be sure to turn on line or color contours.)
Datasheet: Geological Utilities “XYZ” file (page 67)
Menu command: Map / EZ-Map
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: Because this contouring method draws a triangulation network among the given
control points only, the Interpolate Edge Points map option can be used to force the map
edges to a full rectangular shape.
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Create an EZ Contour Map.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Creating Maps / Easy Maps

Geological Utilities: Creating a Grid-Based Contour Map

The Geological Utilities Grid-Based Map tool is used to create grid models of XYZ data
in the Geological Utilities datasheet or in an external ASCII file. This data can represent

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surface elevations or geochemistry or virtually any measured value. You can choose the
"gridding" method used to model the Z values. You can then create a 2-dimensional (flat)
map or 3-dimensional surface map of the grid model. This section discusses 2D maps.

! If you have borehole data and wish to create grid-based formation surface maps, see the
next topic.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities “XYZ” file (page 67) Note that this tool will also grid
and map XYZ data stored in an external ASCII file
Menu command: Map / Grid-Based Map
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: This tool creates either a grid model of the XYZ data and/or a map. Since the
grid model is saved on disk, you can create a map from an existing grid model (no need
to re-grid). This is useful if you have processes a grid model through the filtering tools
in the Geological Utilities Grid menu. This tool can create 3D surface maps of grid
models, as well.
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Create a Grid-Based 2D Contour Map.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Creating Maps / Grid-Based Maps

Borehole Manager: Creating 2D Stratigraphic Surface Maps

Use the Borehole Manager's Stratigraphy / Structural Elevations / 2-Dimensional


tool to create a 2-dimensional (flat) contour map representing the elevations the surface
of a selected stratigraphic unit. You can choose the "gridding" method used to model the
surface elevations. The surface map can include a variety of map layers.
See also: Grid-based maps for information about creating 2D contour maps from simple
XYZ data in the Geological Utilities datasheet.

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Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads header, orientation (if any),
and stratigraphy data (pages 35, 36, and 39).
Menu command: Stratigraphy / Structural Elevations / 2-Dimensional
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: Be sure you have your formations listed correctly in the Stratigraphy Table.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Stratigraphy Diagrams / Create 2D Stratigraphic
Surface Maps.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Stratigraphy Tools / Structural Elevation


Maps

Borehole Manager: Creating 2D Stratigraphic Thickness (Isopach) Maps

Use the Borehole Manager's Stratigraphy / Stratigraphic Thicknesses / 2-


Dimensional (Isopach) tool to create a 2-dimensional (flat) contour map representing
the thickness of a selected stratigraphic unit. The "isopach" map can include line
contours, color contours, border annotation, and/or labeled cells (representing grid
values).
RockWorks creates the thickness model by gridding the formation's upper surface
elevations, gridding the formation's lower surface elevations, and then subtracting the
lower grid from the upper. The resulting isopach grid can be saved for future use.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads header, orientation (if any),
and stratigraphy data.
Menu command: Stratigraphy / Stratigraphic Thicknesses / 2-Dimensional
(Isopach)

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Output window: RockPlot2D


Notes: Be sure you have your formations listed correctly in the Stratigraphy Table. If
you want the program to save on disk the grid model of formation thickness, be sure to
insert a check in the Save Grid box and enter a grid file name.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Stratigraphy Tools / Stratigraphic


Thickness Maps

3D Surface Maps
“3-dimensional” surface maps are really just a 3D view of a 2-dimensional contour map.
Like the 2D maps, they illustrate quantitative values that have been measured over space.
Like the 2D maps, they can be used to illustrate geological topics (surface elevations,
formation thickness, average geochemical concentrations) as well as non-geological topics
such as crime incidents in a precinct.
RockWorks offers both a grid-based and a non-grid based means of creating 2D maps.
By contrast, 3D surface maps must be generated from a grid model. See the previous
section for details.

Geological Utilities: Creating a Grid-Based 3D Surface Map

The Geological Utilities Grid-Based Map tool is used to create grid models of XYZ data
in the Geological Utilities datasheet or in an external ASCII file. This data can represent
surface elevations or geochemistry or virtually any measured value. You can choose the
"gridding" method used to model the Z values. You can then create a 2-dimensional (flat)
map or 3-dimensional surface map of the grid model. This section discusses 3D maps.

! If you have borehole data and wish to create grid-based formation surface maps, see the
next topic.

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Datasheet: Geological Utilities “XYZ” file (page 67) Note that this tool will also grid
and map XYZ data stored in an external ASCII file
Menu command: Map / Grid-Based Map
Output window: RockPlot3D
Notes: This tool creates either a grid model of the XYZ data and/or a map. Since the
grid model is saved on disk, you can create a map from an existing grid model (no need
to re-grid). This is useful if you have processes a grid model through the filtering tools
in the Geological Utilities Grid menu. This tool can create 2D surface maps of grid
models, as well (discussed previously).
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Create a Grid-Based 3D Surface.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Creating Maps / Grid-Based Maps

Borehole Manager: Creating 3D Stratigraphic Surface Maps

Use the Borehole Manager's Stratigraphy / Structural Elevations / 3-Dimensional


tools to create 3-dimensional images representing the surface elevations of one or all
stratigraphic unit(s) in the project.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads header, orientation (if any),
and stratigraphy data (pages 35, 36, and 39).
Menu commands: Stratigraphy / Structural Elevations / 3-Dimensional / One
Surface or All Surfaces.
Output window: RockPlot3D
Notes:
If you create surfaces for all formations, the program will automatically name the grid
models using the formation name with the *.GRD file name extension.

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The all-surfaces tool includes a setting (X,Y Dimensions based on all points) which
will set the X,Y extent of all of the surface grid models to be the same, corresponding
to the northern-, southern-, eastern-, and westernmost points in the entire project. If
not checked, each surface grid model will extend only to the extents of its own data.
Be sure you have your formations listed correctly in the current Stratigraphy Table.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Stratigraphy Diagrams / Create 3D Stratigraphic
Surface Maps.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Stratigraphy Tools / Structural Elevation


Maps

Borehole Manager: Creating 3D Stratigraphic Thickness Maps

Use the Borehole Manager's Stratigraphy / Stratigraphic Thicknesses / 3-


Dimensional tool to create a 3-dimensional image which represents the thickness of a
selected stratigraphic unit. The completed image will be comprised of a surface
representing the formation's top, a surface representing the formation's base, and
enclosing sides.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads header, orientation (if any),
and stratigraphy data (pages 35, 36, and 39).
Menu command: Stratigraphy / Stratigraphic Thicknesses / 3-Dimensional
Output window: RockPlot3D
Notes:
In RockPlot3D the program will display the computed volume and mass of the
selected formation. In order for these computations to be accurate, be sure that your
depth units are the same as your X,Y units (such as feet) so that the cubic volume (as
in ft3) makes sense. In addition, the mass computation is based on the density per
cubic unit as declared in your Stratigraphy Table.
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If you want the program to save on disk the grid model of formation thickness, be
sure to insert a check in the Save Grid box and enter a grid file name

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Stratigraphy Tools / Stratigraphic


Thickness Maps

Land Grid Maps

The Land Grid option in the Map menu contains two tools designed to work with
Jeffersonian Land Grid information:
* It creates "section maps" that illustrate Range, Township, and Section land grids
(either commercial or idealized).
* It creates maps illustrating lease boundaries.
In order to create a land grid section or lease map, you must have a set of land grid data
imported or “interpolated” into the program.

Creating Section Maps

Section maps illustrate Jeffersonian land grid boundaries (Range, Township, Section).
Datasheet: Land Grid Table (page 250)
Menu command: Map / Land Grid / Section Map
Output window: RockPlot2D

Notes: ! In order to create a land grid section map, you must have already created a
"Land Grid Table" which lists the longitude and latitude coordinates of each section’s
corners. This table can be the result of (1) Importing a commercial data grid and saving
it in the RockWorks datasheet (*.ATD), or (2) Creating a new, idealized grid and saving
it in the RockWorks datasheet (*.ATD).
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Create Land Grid Maps.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Creating Maps / Land Grid Maps
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Creating Lease Maps

Use the Map / Land Grid / Lease Map tool to create a map illustrating lease block
boundaries, filled with patterns and/or colors.

! If your lease blocks are described using land grid Section-based quarter/quarter or lot
information, it will be necessary first to compute the X,Y coordinates for the lease
corners. See Spotting Jeffersonian Polygons.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities land grid lease descriptions (page 74).
Menu command: Map / Land Grid / Lease Map
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: The input data file should include lease corner coordinates and patterns. Use the
Coords / Spot Jeffersonian Polygons tool if your lease blocks are listed only in Range,
Township, and Section descriptions. (You need to have X, Y corner coordinates.)
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Create Land Grid Maps.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Creating Maps / Land Grid Maps

Shotpoint Maps

The Shotpoints command in the Map menu is used to create a map that illustrates
shotpoint locations as read from the datasheet.
The shotpoint data must include (at minimum) a shotpoint line number, a symbol, and an
X and Y coordinate for the individual shotpoint. You may optionally include the point
number (not used in the map) and a label for points, typically representing distance.
Each seismic line will have two or more data rows containing individual point records.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities shotpoint data (page 73).
Menu command: Map / Shotpoints
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: See also Importing SEG-P1 Data (page 96) re: import of SEG-P1 shotpoint files.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Creating Maps / Shotpoint Maps

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Global Maps

The Sphere option in the Geological Utilities Map menu creates global maps in either a
spherical or cylindrical (flat) projection. It reads global information (coastlines, islands,
rivers) from a program database. It can also read user-entered longitude and latitude
coordinates from the main datasheet for plotting of individual points and/or connected
line segments ("polylines") on the global map.
Applications include seismic events, volcanoes, ocean temperatures, atmospheric
temperatures, and more.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities, global map point and/or polyline data (pages 75and 77).
Menu command: Map / Sphereplot
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: See also Importing SEG-P1 Data (page 96) regarding automatic import of SEG-
P1 shotpoint data files.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Creating Maps / Global Maps

Borehole Manager: Translating Map Coordinates


Use the Borehole Manager's Stratigraphy / Stratigraphic Thicknesses / 3-
Dimensional tool to create a 3-dimensional image which represents the thickness of a
selected stratigraphic unit. The completed image will be comprised of a surface
representing the formation's top, a surface representing the formation's base, and
enclosing sides.
The Borehole Manager requires that the well locations, which are entered into the
Location tab, be declared in the same units as the depth data. This assures that the
downhole surveys, stratigraphic volumes, and solid volumes are correctly computed.

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The Map menu contains two coordinate translation tools should your coordinates not
match your depth measurement units:
See these Help topics:

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Maps / Translating Map Coordinates / How
to…
Convert lon/lat coordinates to meters or feet.
Convert RTS locations to meters or feet.

Geological Utilities: Translating Jeffersonian Locations (RTS) to


X,Y
The Geological Utilities Coords / Jeffersonian Points->Cartesian option is used to
translate well locations listed in Range, Township, Section descriptions (footage or
quarter/quarter) to Cartesian X,Y coordinates. This translation is based on either an
"idealized" or a commercially-purchased "Land Grid Table".

This tool was previously located in the Map / Land Grid menu.

! In order for this tool to work, it is necessary that it have land grid information upon
which to translate the Section descriptions. This information must be in the form of a
"Land Grid Table" This table can be created from commercial land grid data, or from an
idealized land grid, as discussed in the Land Grid Tables section (page 250).
See this Help topic:

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Coordinate Conversions / Range


Township Section Descriptions / How to…
Translate RTS locations to X,Y.

Geological Utilities: Translating Jeffersonian Polygons (RTS) to


X,Y
The Geological Utilities Coords / Jeffersonian Polygons->Cartesian option is used to
generate X,Y coordinates for each corner of leases that are listed with Range, Township,
Section descriptions (quarter/quarter or lots). This translation is based on an "idealized"
or commercial "Land Grid Table".

This tool was previously located in the Map / Land Grid menu.

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! In order for this tool to work, it is necessary that it have land grid information upon
which to translate the lease descriptions. This information must be in the form of a
"Land Grid Table" This table can be created from commercial land grid data, or from an
idealized land grid, as discussed in the Land Grid Tables section (page 250).
See this Help topic:

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Coordinate Conversions / Range


Township Section Descriptions / How to…
Translate RTS leases to X,Y.

Geological Utilities: Translating Map Coordinates


The Geological Utilities Coords menu contains a number of utilities that can be used to
translate coordinates that are listed in the Geological Utilities datasheet.
See these Help topics:

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Coordinate Conversions


Converting Longitude/Latitude Coordinates to UTM
Converting UTM Coordinates to Longitude/Latitude.
Converting Pennsylvania-Style Location Descriptions to Cartesian Coordinates
Converting Decimal Degrees to Degree-Minute-Second
Converting Degree-Minute-Second to Decimal Degrees
Translating Polar Coordinates to X,Y
Translating X,Y Coordinates to Polar
Shift datasheet coordinates.
Rotate datasheet coordinates.
Rescale datasheet coordinates.

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Chapter 5 - Creating Strip Logs & Log Sections


Creating Strip Logs & Log Sections - Overview

There are a variety of tools available in the Borehole Manager's Striplogs menu for
creating 2-dimensional (flat) or 3-dimensional logs of individual or multiple borings.
The log data is taken directly from the Borehole Manager data tabs.
The log settings are pretty much the same for these different log views. You may choose
to include any combination of the following in the logs: Well name, log axis, depth
labels, left and/or right curves (geophysical data), left and/or right bar graphs
(geochemical data), left and/or right reference grids for the curves and bar graphs,
patterns and text captions for observed lithology, patterns and text captions for
interpreted stratigraphy, aquifer intervals, special symbols, special pattern blocks,
fractures (3D only), and border annotation.
See also: Profiles in Chapters 6 , 7, and 8 for information about creating vertical slice
views of stratigraphic or solid models.

Creating 2D Logs & Projected Sections

What is a Projected Cross Section?

A projected cross section is one in which the logs of individual borings are "projected"
onto a single section line cut.

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This was added to RockWorks 2002 so that it can display vertical, inclined, and deviated
boreholes. By projecting onto a line of section, the orientation of the logs will be
honored.
In projected sections, the distance between logs is determined by their perpendicular
projection onto the section line. (This differs from hole-to-hole sections, in which the
distance between the logs is proportional to the well distances on the ground.) In
RockWorks, drawing the section line is easily done on a plan-view display of the well
locations, or you can enter known coordinates for the section endpoints. In addition, you
can enter a filtering distance to limit the cross section to only proximal wells.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Laying Out Vertical Sections and Fences

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Creating a Single 2D Strip Log

Use the Borehole Manager's Striplogs / Vertical Projection / Single Log tool to create
a vertical, 2-dimensional (flat) strip log of a single well. The log can include any
combination of the available log items. The log data is read from the data tabs. The
boring can be vertical, inclined, or deviated.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool reads information all of the available tabs,
depending on which log items are requested (see page 33).
Menu command: Striplogs / Vertical Projection / Single Log
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: Before selecting the menu command, be sure to click on the name of the
borehole whose data is to be displayed in the log, so that its name is highlighted. Be
sure also that the check-box to the left of the borehole name is checked so that the
borehole is enabled.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Lithology Diagrams (lith logs), Create
Stratigraphy Diagrams (strat logs), Create Geochemistry Diagrams (geochemical
logs), Create Geophysical Diagrams (geophysical logs), Create Water Level
Diagrams (logs with water level symbols).

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Strip Logs and Log Sections / 2D Logs &
Projected Sections.

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Displaying Multiple Logs in a 2D Projected Section

Use the Borehole Manager's Striplogs / Vertical Projection / Multiple Logs tool to
create a projected 2-dimensional vertical display of strip logs of multiple boreholes. The
logs can include any combination of the available log items. The log data is read from
the data tabs. The borings can be vertical, inclined, or deviated.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool reads information all of the available tabs,
depending on which log items are requested (see page 33).
Menu command: Striplogs / Vertical Projection / Multiple Logs
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: When drawing the line of section among the boreholes, the program offers a
“clipping” zone beyond which distant logs will not be included in the projected section.
See page 151 for information about drawing the section slices.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Lithology Diagrams (lith sections), Create
Stratigraphy Diagrams (strat sections), Create Geochemistry Diagrams (geochemical
sections), Create Geophysical Diagrams (geophysical sections).

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Strip Logs and Log Sections / 2D Logs &
Projected Sections.

Creating 2D Hole to Hole Sections

What is a Hole to Hole Cross Section?

A hole to hole cross section is created by selecting individual boreholes, in any order,
that are to be displayed from left to right in the section.

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Hole to hole sections can include strip logs (with any/all available log items displayed).
If stratigraphy data is available, you can also include correlation panels with
lines/colors/patterns. In addition, the logs can be hung on any listed stratigraphic
interval.
In hole to hole sections, the distance between logs is proportional to the physical
distances between the boreholes on the ground. (This differs from projected sections, in
which the distance between logs is determined by their perpendicular projection onto a
single section line.) Because the hole to hole trace can contain multiple segments that
differ in direction, it’s impossible to project a 3-dimensional log, so all boreholes are
plotted as vertical.
In RockWorks, drawing the hole to hole section lines is easily done on a plan-view
display of the borehole locations. The program will remember the traces from one
session to the next within the current project.

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Displaying Multiple Logs in a 2D Hole to Hole Section

Use the Borehole Manager's Striplogs / Hole to Hole Section tool to create a 2-
dimensional vertical display of strip logs of multiple boreholes. The logs can include
any combination of the available log items, whose data is read from the data tabs. Hole
to hole sections also offer background stratigraphic correlation panels, and the ability to
hang the section from a selected stratigraphic unit.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool reads information all of the available tabs,
depending on which log items are requested (see page 33).
Menu command: Striplogs / Hole to Hole Section
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: Unlike projected sections, logs in hole-to-hole sections must be plotted as
vertical.
The correlation panels are built separately from the boreholes. You do not need to
display stratigraphic intervals in the individual logs to have the correlation panels
included in the background. It is required, however, that you have (1) data entered
into the Stratigraphy tabs and (2) a defined Stratigraphy Table in order to plot
correlation panels. See Stratigraphic Correlation Panels (below) for details.
It is not necessary to display the stratigraphy in the cross section in order to hang the
section on a unit. It is required, however, that you have (1) data entered into the
Stratigraphy tabs and (2) a defined Stratigraphy Table in order to adjust the logs to
establish a datum. See More on Hanging Sections, below.
In a hole-to-hole cross section, the order in which the drill holes are selected will
make a big difference in the appearance of the diagram. The first hole you select,
regardless of its position in the map, will be at the left edge of the cross section, and
the last will be at the right edge. The intermediate drill holes will be spaced in the
diagram relative to each other in space. You do not need to include all boreholes in
the cross section.
See page 152 for information about drawing the section trace.
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Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Lithology Diagrams (lith sections), Create


Stratigraphy Diagrams (strat sections), Create Geochemistry Diagrams (geochemical
sections), Create Geophysical Diagrams (geophysical sections).

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Strip Logs and Log Sections / 2D Hole to
Hole Sections.
Missing Formations (page 53) for information about the effect of missing stratigraphic
layers on the look of the cross section.

Stratigraphic Correlation Panels

In RockWorks2002, there are several methods of illustrating stratigraphic information as


a panel.
This first example illustrates a hole to hole section (Striplogs / Hole to Hole Section)
containing individual strip logs with left and right geophysical curves. In addition,
stratigraphic correlation panels activated. The program reads the formation depths from
the project’s Stratigraphy tabs.

To build the correlation panels in hole to hole sections, the program will simply connect
the tops and bases of like-units between boreholes. If formations are missing from any
borehole, the program either pinches the formation at the well or between wells,
depending on how the data is entered. (See Missing Formations on page 53.) You can
select panel fill with lines and/or colors only and/or patterns. Hole to hole sections can
be comprised of multiple panels.
This next example illustrates a stratigraphic profile (Stratigraphy / Profile). To create
this type of diagram, the program first creates a grid model of each formation’s surface
and each formation’s base, and then displays them as they lie along the single profile cut.

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Other tools in the Stratigraphy menu can be used to create 3-dimensional diagrams of the
surface and base grid models, such as fence diagrams and block models, shown below.

More on Hanging Sections

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Creating 3D Logs

Creating a Single 3D Strip Log

Use the Borehole Manager's Striplogs / 3-D View / Single Log tool to create a three-
dimensional view of the strip log of a single well. The log can include any combination
of the available log items. The log data is read from the data tabs.

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Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool reads information all of the available tabs,
depending on which log items are requested (see page 33).
Menu command: Striplogs / 3-D View / Single Log
Output window: RockPlot3D
Notes: Before selecting the menu command, be sure to click on the name of the
borehole whose data is to be displayed in the log, so that its name is highlighted. Be
sure also that the check-box to the left of the borehole name is checked so that the
borehole is enabled.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Lithology Diagrams (lith logs), Create
Stratigraphy Diagrams (strat logs), Create Geochemistry Diagrams (geochemical
logs), Create Geophysical Diagrams (geophysical logs).

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Strip Logs and Log Sections / 3D Logs.

Displaying Multiple Logs in 3D

Use the Borehole Manager's Striplogs / 3-D View / Multiple Logs tool to create a three-
dimensional view of the strip logs of two or more wells. The logs can include any
combination of the available log items. The log data is read from the data tabs.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool reads information all of the available tabs,
depending on which log items are requested (see page 33).
Menu command: Striplogs / 3-D View / Multiple Log
Output window: RockPlot3D

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Notes: Before selecting the menu command, be sure to click on the name of the
borehole whose data is to be displayed in the log, so that its name is highlighted. Be
sure also that the check-box to the left of the borehole name is checked so that the
borehole is enabled.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Lithology Diagrams (lith logs), Create
Stratigraphy Diagrams (strat logs), Create Geochemistry Diagrams (geochemical
logs), Create Geophysical Diagrams (geophysical logs).

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Strip Logs and Log Sections / 3D Logs.

Log Item Summary


The following items are available for display in strip logs, displayed individually or in
groups, in 2D or in 3D. Note that not all components are available for all log views.
Title: Plots the boring's name at the top of the log, read from the Location tab. Font
settings adjust the text orientation, thickness, etc.
Axis: Plots the log's trace down the hole. This is most useful for deviated holes
when neither lithology nor stratigraphy patterns are being plotted. You can adjust
the line style, thickness, and color.
Depth Labels: Plots depth labels down the left side of the log. Settings include
labeling interval, font style, etc.
Left Curve, Right Curve: Plots a point to point curve, with or without fill, along the
left and/or right edge of the log, representing data read from the Geophysics tab.
The Curves have a variety of settings.
Left Bargraph, Right Bargraph: Plots a bargraph along the left and/or right edge
of the log, representing data read from the Geochemistry tab. The bargraphs have a
variety of settings.
Stratigraphy Column: Plots a column containing intervals of pattern and color that
correspond to formation names listed in the Stratigraphy tab. The pattern <->
stratigraphy name association is made in the active Stratigraphy Table. Options
include column width and inclusion of formation names and thickness.
Lithology Column: Plots a column containing intervals of pattern and color that
correspond to observed rock types listed in the Lithology tab. The pattern - rock
type association is made in the active Lithology Table. Options include adjusting
the column width, and inclusion of lithology "keywords," descriptions, and
thickness.
Aquifers: Plots one or more interval blocks (representing depth to surface and base
declared in the Water levels tab) in 2D and 3D logs.
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Fractures: Plots an oriented disk in 3D logs to show fracture depth, orientation and
dip.
Special Symbols: Plots user-selected symbols at specific depths in the log, as read
from the Symbols tab. There are a variety of special-symbol options.
Special Patterns: Plots user-selected pattern blocks between specific depths in the
log, as read from the Patterns tab. These are commonly used to show screened
intervals, and they have a variety of options.
Border: (2-dimensional logs and cross sections only) The border can display
vertical elevations and horizontal distances.
Reference cage: (3-dimensional log displays only) The reference frame labels
elevations, and X and Y coordinates.
Other Options: This grouping contains settings that control downhole resolution for
deviated boreholes.
Lithology Legend: (3-dimensional log displays only) This legend displays rock
types and colors as read from the active Lithology Table. Settings include location,
size, and offset.
Stratigraphy Legend: (3-dimensional log displays only) This legend displays
formation names and colors as read from the active Stratigraphy Table. Settings
include location, size, and offset.

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Chapter 6 - Creating Stratigraphy Profiles,


Fences, Blocks
Creating Stratigraphic Diagrams - Overview

Use the tools in the Borehole Manager Stratigraphy menu to visualize your
stratigraphic data (listed in the project’s Stratigraphy tabs) in a variety of ways: Create
2D maps and 3D images of stratigraphic surfaces and thickness, 2D stratigraphic profiles
sliced anywhere in the project area, 3D stratigraphic fence diagrams, and 3D
stratigraphic block diagrams.
We have already covered the surface and thickness maps back on page 99. In this
section, we will discuss the remaining Stratigraphy menu tools.
If you don’t have stratigraphic layers entered into your project’s Stratigraphy tabs, you
can use the Pick Formations tool to record stratigraphic depths from elogs or lithology
logs.
Unlike lithology data, which represents observed rock types which can repeat in a
borehole and be inconsistent in order, stratigraphic data represents organized formations,
consistent in order between boreholes, and non-repeating. RockWorks uses surface
modeling or gridding tools to illustrate the stratigraphic layers.
Formation names and the colors and patterns to be used to represent them are listed in
the project’s Stratigraphy Table.

Creating Stratigraphic Profiles

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Use the Borehole Manager's Stratigraphy / Profile tool to create a 2-dimensional (flat)
vertical profile of a multiple stratigraphic layers read from Stratigraphy tab, between any
two points in the study area. The profile layers can be color- or pattern-filled. During
the process of building the profile, the program will create a grid model for each of the
active stratigraphic layers using the user-selected gridding method.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and stratigraphy data (pages 35, 36, 39).
Menu command: Stratigraphy / Profile
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: Be sure the stratigraphic names are correctly defined in the current Stratigraphy
Table. See Missing Formations (page 53) for tips on how to enter your stratigraphy data.
See page 154 for information about drawing the section slice.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Stratigraphy Diagrams / Create a Stratigraphic
Profile.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Stratigraphy Tools / Stratigraphic Profiles.

Creating Stratigraphic Fence Diagrams

Use the Borehole Manager's Stratigraphy / Fence tool to create a 3-dimensional fence
diagram that illustrates stratigraphic layers. You may request regular panel spacing, in a
variety of configurations, or you can draw your own panels.
The stratigraphy will be color-coded based on the formation's background color in the
Stratigraphy Table. During the process of building the fence panels, the program will
create a grid model for the upper and lower surface of each of the active stratigraphic
layers using the user-selected gridding method.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and stratigraphy data (pages 35, 36, 39).

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Menu command: Stratigraphy / FenceOutput window: RockPlot3D


Notes: Be sure the stratigraphic names are correctly defined in the current Stratigraphy
Table. See Missing Formations (page 53) for tips on how to enter your stratigraphy data.
See page 155 for information about drawing the fence panels.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Stratigraphy Diagrams / Create a Stratigraphic
Fence Diagram.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Stratigraphy Tools / Stratigraphic Fence


Diagrams.

Creating Stratigraphic Block Diagrams

Use the Borehole Manager's Stratigraphy / Model tool to create a 3-dimensional block
diagram that illustrates stratigraphic layers. The stratigraphy will be color-coded based
on the formation's background color in the Stratigraphy Table.
During the process of building the block diagram, the program will create a grid model
for the upper and lower surface of each of the active stratigraphic layers using the user-
selected gridding method. These grid models will be stored in the project folder.
The completed diagram will be displayed in a RockPlot3D window, with formation
upper surfaces, lower surfaces, and side panels. Volume and mass of each formation
will be displayed in the RockPlot3D window.
The program offers optional creation of a 3D solid model containing stratigraphy grid
models layered from the bottom up, for use with other analysis tools.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and stratigraphy data (pages 35, 36, 39).
Menu command: Stratigraphy / Solid
Output window: RockPlot3D
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Notes:
Be sure the stratigraphic names are correctly defined in the current Stratigraphy
Table.
See Missing Formations (page 53) for tips on how to enter your stratigraphy data.
! Insert a check in the Save Model option if you want the program to store on disk a
numeric 3-dimensional solid model, with voxel nodes representing stratigraphy type.
Use a [.mod] file name extension.
RockWorks will not use this [.mod] file when displaying the stratigraphic block in
RockPlot3D at this time; it will instead display the grid surfaces. But, you may still
want to store the model on disk for later filtering, volumetric computations, etc., and
later 3D display with the Geological Utilities Solid menu tools.
The program will create grid models of the surfaces and bases of the formations listed
in the Stratigraphy tabs, storing the models on disk. The grid files will be assigned
names in the background based on the formation: "formation_top.grd" and
"formation_base.grd". Two grid models will be created for each formation.
If you have requested a 3D stratigraphic model, it will be initialized, at the north-
>south and east->west dimensions of the grid models, and with an elevation range to
accommodate the lowest and highest stratigraphic elevations. It will then "insert"
each gridded formation into the numeric stratigraphic model, by assigning the voxel
the integer "G" value listed in the Stratigraphy Table. The program will store this
stratigraphic model file on disk using the file name you requested.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Stratigraphy Diagrams / Create a Stratigraphic
Block Model Diagram.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Stratigraphy Tools / Stratigraphic Block


Diagrams.

Picking Stratigraphic Contacts


Use the Borehole Manager’s Stratigraphy / Pick Contacts tool to determine depths to
stratigraphic tops (and bases) from geophysical and/or lithology data.
This is one of the most powerful tools in this program since it lets you visualize existing
lithology blocks or geophysical curves in a 2D display, and then point-and-click to pick
the stratigraphic contacts. The contact depths are recorded in the project’s Stratigraphy
tabs.

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! This tool will assign formation depths assuming vertical boreholes. If your boreholes
are deviated, you may need to eventually edit by hand the picked formation depths,
based on how the stratigraphic surfaces or log intervals look when displayed in diagrams
that can accommodate the borehole’s deviated downhole trace.
We encourage you to follow very carefully the steps listed in the How To section which
is described fully in the help messages and summarized below.
1. Enter your known data: Typically this would be lithology intervals down the hole, or
geophysical (elog) measurements.
2. Build a hole to hole section: This is not required, but it’s helpful to be sure your data
is good, for setting up the proper section alignment, and for determining the
formations that are present.
3. Create a Stratigraphy Table: With a good idea of the look of the existing downhole
lithology or geophysical data, you need to create a "Stratigraphy Table" which lists
the names of the formations, from the surface downward, that are represented in your
project.
4. Set up the formation picker display: This should be set up just like the hole to hole
section in step 2.
5. Pick the wells to be displayed: You can choose the same boreholes as were chosen in
step 2.
6. Pick the first formation in the Contact Picker window: Select the name of the
formation to be recorded and left-click on each log where that formation’s top is
displayed. The program will record the depths in the table. Right-click on each log at
the formation’s base, and these will be recorded.
7. Pick the next formations: Select the name of the next formation to be recorded, left-
click to pick tops and right-click to pick bases. Continue in this manner for additional
formations.
8. End the session: Click on the Exit button and discard, save, or adjust-and-save
changes.
Contact picker - what next? Now that you have the stratigraphic units defined, use the
Stratigraphy / Model tool to create a 3-dimensional solid model of the units. The
Stratigraphy menu also offers display of surfaces, thicknesses, profiles, and fences.
Create 3-Dimensional log displays of the borehole data, and append them to the
stratigraphic model.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Stratigraphy Tools / Picking Stratigraphic


Constacts.

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Creating a Stratigraphic Volume Report

Use the Borehole Manager’s Stratigraphy / Volumetrics tool to read a saved


stratigraphic model and compute volume of each stratigraphic layer. The resulting
computations are displayed in the Geological Utilities datasheet.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and stratigraphy data (pages 35, 36, 39).
Menu command: Stratigraphy / Volumetrics
Output window: Geological Utilities datasheet
Notes:
Be sure the stratigraphic names are correctly defined in the current Stratigraphy
Table.
Stratigraphic models can be saved when you create a block diagram using the
Stratigraphy / Model tool.
You can select from Volume or Mass. Volume will be reported in cubic units
(typically meters or feet, depending on your X, Y, and depth/elevation units). If you
select the Mass option, these computations are based on the Density Factor declared
in the current Stratigraphy Table which declare mass per cubic unit.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Stratigraphy Tools / Creating a


Stratigraphic Volume Report.

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Exporting Stratigraphy Data


Use the Borehole Manager's Stratigraphy / Export tool to export stratigraphy depth,
elevation, or thickness data for each borehole to an ASCII (Text) XYZ file. The
resulting file will contain the X and Y location coordinates for the formation contact in
each borehole (taking into account any boring deviation or inclination), and the selected
depth, upper elevation, lower elevation, or thickness. (Thickness is drilled thickness, as
recorded in the Stratigraphy tab, not grid-based thickness.) This file can be imported
into the RockWorks Geological Utilities datasheet, or into other applications.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and stratigraphy data (pages 35, 36, 39).
Menu command: Stratigraphy / Export
Output window: ASCII XYZ file representing observed depth, upper elevation, base
elevation, or thickness.
Notes:
Be sure the stratigraphic names are correctly defined in the current Stratigraphy
Table.
To load this exported file into the Geological Utilities datasheet, follow these steps:
Click on the Geological Utilities tab, choose File / New Datasheet, select the
"Generic XYZ" format for the layout, and use the File / Import / ASCII option to
import the text file into the data window.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Stratigraphy Tools / Exporting Stratigraphy


Data.

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Notes

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Chapter 7 - Water Levels: Display as Profiles,


Plans, Fences, and Blocks
Creating Water Level Diagrams - Overview

Use the tools in the Borehole Manager Hydrology menu to visualize your water level data
(listed in the project’s Water Level tabs) in a variety of ways: Create 2D profiles and
surface maps, 3D fences and block diagrams of the upper and lower surfaces. These can
be particularly useful when combined with other 2D and 3D diagrams of your project (as
in the example above, combined with a stratigraphy diagram).
The water levels are modeled using surface modeling or gridding tools.

Creating a Water Level Profile Diagram

Use the Borehole Manager's Hydrology / Profile tool to create a 2-dimensional (flat)
vertical profile of a single aquifer listed for a particular data in the Water Level tab. The
profile can be drawn between any two points in the study area. The profile can be color-
or pattern-filled. During the process of building the profile, the program will create a grid
model of the upper and lower surface of the aquifer using the user-selected gridding
method.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and water level data (pages 35, 36, 46).
Menu command: Hydrology / Profile
Output window: RockPlot2D.
Notes: The grid models will be named automatically: “date_top.grd” and
“date_base.grd.” See page 154 for information about drawing the section slice
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Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Hydrology Tools / Creating a Water Level
Profile diagram.

Creating a 2D Water Level Surface or Thickness Map

Use the Borehole Manager's Hydrology / Plan tool to create a 2-dimensional (flat)
contour map of the aquifer surface, base, or thickness. During the process of building the
contour map, the program will create a grid model for the upper and lower surfaces of the
aquifer, and of the aquifer thickness, using the user-selected gridding method. The grid
models will be stored as ".grd" files on disk.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and water level data (pages 35, 36, 46).
Menu command: Hydrology / Plan
Output window: RockPlot2D.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Hydrology Tools / Creating a Water Level
Surface or Thickness Map.

Creating a Water Level Fence Diagram

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Use the Borehole Manager's Hydrology / Fence tool to create a 3-dimensional fence
diagram that illustrates the aquifer at a selected date. You may request regular panel
spacing, in a variety of configurations, or you can draw your own panels. During the
process of building the fence panels, the program will create a grid model for the upper
and lower surface of the aquifer layers using the user-selected gridding method.
The completed fence diagram will be displayed in a RockPlot3D window, where you can
manipulate the image and append other 3D images (as in the above example).
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and water level data (pages 35, 36, 46).
Menu command: Hydrology / Fence
Output window: RockPlot3D.
Notes: The grid models will be named automatically: “date_top.grd” and
“date_base.grd.” See page 155 for information about drawing the fence panels.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Hydrology Tools / Creating a Water Level
Fence Diagram.

Creating a Water Level Block Diagram

Use the Borehole Manager's Hydrology / Model tool to create a 3-dimensional block
diagram that illustrates a selected aquifer layer. The later will be displayed in the color of
your choice.
During the process of building the block diagram, the program will create a grid model for
the upper and lower surface of the aquifer using the user-selected gridding method. These
grid models will be stored in the project folder.
The completed diagram will be displayed in a RockPlot3D window, with the upper
surface, lower surface, and side panels. Volume of the aquifer will be displayed in the
RockPlot3D window. The aquifer block can be combined with other 3D diagrams, such
as the stratigraphy block diagram above.
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Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any), and water
level data (pages 35, 36, 46).
Menu command: Hydrology / Solid
Output window: RockPlot3D.
Notes: The grid models will be named automatically: “date_top.grd” and
“date_base.grd.”

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Hydrology Tools / Creating a Water Level
Fence Diagram.

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Chapter 8 - Creating Solid Models, Profiles, and


Fence Diagrams
Solid Modeling Introduction
Solid modeling is a true 3-dimensional gridding process, used to create a “box” of
regularly-spaced nodes from your irregularly-spaced data. For known X,Y, and Z points
in space (such as boreholes) the program can interpolate measured values such as
geochemistry, geophysical measurements, even lithology types, or any other downhole or
subsurface quantitative value.
The Geological Utilities Solid / Model tool creates solid models from X, Y, Z, and G data
listed in the main datasheet or in an external ASCII file. The Borehole Manager
Lithology, Geochemistry, and Geophysics menu tools (Fence and Model) create solid
models from lithology, geochemistry, or geophysical data in the respective data tabs.
Once it knows the dimensions of your study area, the program divides it into three-
dimensional cells or "voxels," their dimensions automatically or user-determined. Each
voxel is defined by its corner points or node. Each node is assigned the appropriate X, Y,
and Z location coordinates according to its relative placement within the study area. A
fourth variable, "G", which can represent grade of ore, concentration of pollutants, etc., is
estimated based on the G value of the given data points.

There are several methods offered to do this interpolation of your data. Each operates
differently, and each has strengths and differences. These are discussed under Solid
Modeling Methods in the Reference section.

! There is a subtle but important difference between what RockWorks calls "solid models"
and "stratigraphic models." The former represents the 3-dimensional distribution of a
specific "G" value. The latter represents a 3-dimensional layering of individual surface
models.

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What to do with a Solid Model?


Once you have a solid model (or “.MOD”) file created, illustrating the distribution of
your geochemistry, geophysical measurements, lithology, or other measured values, it
can be used in a variety of ways:
See it:
Illustrate it as a 3-dimensional block diagram.
Display a vertical slice of the model as a 2-dimensional profile.
Display multiple vertical slices of the model as a 3-dimensional fence diagram.
Manipulate it:
Use the new RockPlot3D window to visually manipulate solid models, setting high
and/or low G value nodes to transparent, inserting slices, rotating the display.
Use the Geological Utilities Solid menu tools to filter models, perform computations
on nodes, edit models, and more.
Compute its volume (and mass):
Volume is automatically computed for the solid models (and updated as filters are
applied) when displayed in RockPlot3D.
Create a detailed volume report of the model after filtering it based on G values,
surface polygons, overburden ratios, and more.
Create a simplified pit design by fitting a grid surface below specified zones of a solid
model.

Geological Utilities: Creating a Solid Model of XYZG Data

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If you have X,Y,Z,G data displayed in the Geological Utilities datasheet, or stored in an
external ASCII file, you can use the Solid / Model tool to create solid models of this
data. The X (Eastings), Y (Northings) and Z (elevation) coordinates note the sample
locations, and "G" represents the measured value to be modeled. G can represent
geochemical concentrations, geophysical measurements, etc. A variety of modeling
algorithms are available. The Solid / Model tool is also used to create 3-dimensional
diagrams to illustrate solid models.

! If you have geochemical, geophysical, or lithology data from boreholes, recorded as


depths and measured values, use the Borehole Manager’s tools to create solid models.
(See next topic.)
Datasheet: Geological Utilities “XYZG” file (see 69).
Menu command: Solid / Model
Output window: RockPlot3D
Notes: You can use this tool to create a solid model only (e.g. no diagram). You can
use this tool to create a 3-D diagram from an already-existing solid model (e.g. no new
model).

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Creating Solid Models

Borehole Manager: Creating Lithology Solid Models, Fences, and


Profiles

Creating Lithology Diagrams - Overview

Use the tools in the Borehole Manager's Lithology menu to display your downhole
lithology in a variety of ways: As a vertical profile slice, as a fence diagram with any
number and arrangement of panels, and as a solid block diagram.
The lithology descriptions are read from the Lithology tab, which lists depths and
observed rock types. Unlike stratigraphy listings, lithology descriptions can repeat, and
don't need to be listed in the same order in each boring.

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Because of this, RockWorks does not use surface modeling tools to display lithology,
but rather, solid modeling tools. There is a specific solid model algorithm designed to
interpolate lithology from depth intervals in borings out to a solid model, called
"lithoblend." The resulting solid model is then sliced vertically to create the profile
diagram, horizontally for the plan-view diagram, and in vertical panels for the fence
diagram.
Lithology types are represented in the solid model as integer values, based on the "G"
value you have listed for each rock type in the Lithology Table. For example, "gravel"
might be coded with a "1", and "sand" with a "5," for example. In the output diagrams,
each lithology is represented using the background color you've selected for its pattern,
also in the Lithology Table.

Creating a 3D Lithology Block Diagram

Use the Borehole Manager's Lithology / Model tool to create a 3-dimensional block
diagram that illustrates lithology types. The lithologies will be color-coded based on
their background colors in the Lithology Table. During the process of building the block
diagram, the program will create a solid model of the lithologies using the “lithoblend”
algorithm.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and lithology data (pages 35, 36, 37).
Menu command: Lithology / Model
Output window: RockPlot3D
Notes:
Be sure the lithology keywords are listed in the currently-defined Lithology Table.
For lithology models, you should use the Horizontal Lithoblending algorithm
because it was designed specifically to model lithology types.
Once you have the solid model file created, you can use that existing model for future
block, fence, and profile diagrams.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Lithology Diagrams / Create a lithology solid
model diagram.
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Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Lithology Tools / Creating a 3D Lithology


Block Diagram.

Creating a Lithology Fence Diagram

Use the Borehole Manager's Lithology / Fence tool to create a 3-dimensional fence
diagram that illustrates lithology. You may request regular panel spacing, in a variety of
configurations, or you can draw your own panels.
The different lithologies will be color-coded based on their background color in the
Lithology Table. During the process of building the fence panels, the program will
create a solid model for the entire project, and then display the lithologies present on the
selected fence panels.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and lithology data (pages 35, 36, 37).
Menu command: Lithology / Fence
Output window: RockPlot3D
Notes:
Be sure the lithology keywords are listed in the currently-defined Lithology Table.
For lithology models, you should use the Horizontal Lithoblending algorithm
because it was designed specifically to model lithology types.
Once you have the solid model file created, you can use that existing model for future
block, fence, and profile diagrams.
See page 155 for information about drawing the fence panels.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Lithology Diagrams / Create a lithology fence
diagram.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Lithology Tools / Creating a Lithology


Fence Diagram.

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Creating a Lithology Profile Diagram

Use the Borehole Manager's Lithology / Profile tool to create a 2-dimensional (flat)
vertical profile of lithology, between any two points in the study area. The profile layers
are color-coded based on rock type. During the process of building the profile, the
program will create a solid model for the entire project area, and then "slice" the model
vertically along the selected profile line.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and lithology data (pages 35, 36, 37).
Menu command: Lithology / Profile
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes:
Be sure the lithology keywords are listed in the currently-defined Lithology Table.
For lithology models, you should use the Horizontal Lithoblending algorithm
because it was designed specifically to model lithology types.
Once you have the solid model file created, you can use that existing model for future
block, fence, and profile diagrams.
See page 154 for information about drawing the section slice.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Lithology Diagrams / Create a lithology profile.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Lithology Tools / Creating a Lithology


Profile Diagram.

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Borehole Manager: Creating Geochemistry Solid Models, Fences,


and Profiles

Creating Geochemistry Diagrams - Overview

Use the tools in the Borehole Manager's Geochemistry menu to display your downhole
"geochemistry" data in a variety of ways: As a vertical profile slice, as a fence diagram
with any number and arrangement of panels, and as a solid block diagram.
"Geochemistry" data is entered into the Borehole Manager's Geochemistry tab. This is a
catch-all term for data that was recorded for depth intervals (as opposed to point
measurements). The data tab will show two columns of depth listings, for each interval's
top and bottom depth (uppermost intervals listed first) and one or more columns of
measured values. The data can represent assay values, pollutant concentrations,
aggregate quality or grain size, etc. (Point-measured data is entered into the Geophysics
tab.)
RockWorks creates a solid model of the geochemistry data for display as these diagram
types. A variety of modeling methods or algorithms are offered. The resulting solid
model is then sliced vertically to create the profile diagram, in vertical panels for the
fence diagram, or displayed in full for block diagrams.

Creating a 3D Geochemistry Block Diagram

Use the Borehole Manager's Geochemistry / Model tool to create a 3-dimensional block
diagram that illustrates your downhole geochemical values. The geochemistry values
can be color-coded in a variety of ways. During the process of building the block
diagram, the program will create a solid model of the downhole data using the user-
selected algorithm.
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Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and geochemistry data (pages 35, 36, 40).
Menu command: Geochemistry / Model
Output window: RockPlot3D
Notes: Once you have the solid model file created, you can use that existing model for
future block, fence, and profile diagrams.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Geochemistry Diagrams / Create a geochemistry
solid model diagram.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Geochemistry Tools / Creating a 3D


Geochemistry Block Diagram.

Creating a Geochemistry Fence Diagram

Use the Borehole Manager's Geochemistry / Fence tool to create a 3-dimensional fence
diagram that illustrates your downhole geochemistry. You may request regular panel
spacing, in a variety of configurations, or you can draw your own panels. The
geochemistry values can be color-coded in a variety of ways. During the process of
building the diagram, the program will create a solid model for the entire project area,
and then "slice" the model vertically along the selected fence panel line(s).
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and geochemistry data (pages 35, 36, 40).
Menu command: Geochemistry / Fence
Output window: RockPlot3D
Notes: Once you have the solid model file created, you can use that existing model for
future block, fence, and profile diagrams. See page 155 for information about drawing
the fence panels.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Geochemistry Diagrams / Create a geochemistry
fence diagram.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Geochemistry Tools / Creating a


Geochemistry Fence Diagram.
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Creating a Geochemistry Profile Diagram

Use the Borehole Manager's Geochemistry / Profile tool to create a 2-dimensional (flat)
vertical profile of geochemistry, sliced anywhere in the study area. The profile layers
can be color-coded in a variety of ways. During the process of building the profile, the
program will create a solid model for the entire project area, and then "slice" the model
vertically along the selected profile line.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and geochemistry data (pages 35, 36, 40).
Menu command: Geochemistry / Profile
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: Once you have the solid model file created, you can use that existing model for
future block, fence, and profile diagrams. See page 154 for information about drawing
the section slice.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Geochemistry Diagrams / Create a geochemistry
profile.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Geochemistry Tools / Creating a


Geochemistry Profile Diagram.

Borehole Manager: Creating Geophysical Solid Models, Fences,


and Profiles

Creating Geophysics Diagrams - Overview

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Use the tools in the Borehole Manager's Geophysics menu to display your downhole
"geophysical" data in a variety of ways: As a vertical profile slice, as a fence diagram
with any number and arrangement of panels, and as a solid block diagram.
"Geophysical" data is entered into the Borehole Manager's Geophysics tab. This is a
catch-all term for data that was recorded at depth points (as opposed to depth intervals).
The data tab will show one column of depth listings (uppermost depths listed first) and
one or more columns of measured values. The data can include all types of geophysical
(elog) data: resistivity, gamma,etc.) By contrast, interval-measured data is entered into
the Geochemistry tab.
RockWorks creates a solid model of the geophysical data for display as these diagram
types. A variety of modeling methods or algorithms are offered. The resulting solid
model is then sliced vertically to create the profile diagram, in vertical panels for the
fence diagram, or displayed in full for the block diagram.

Creating a 3D Geophysics Block Diagram

Use the Borehole Manager's Geophysics / Model tool to create a 3-dimensional block
diagram that illustrates your downhole elog data. The geophysical values can be color-
coded in a variety of ways. During the process of building the block diagram, the
program will create a solid model of the downhole data using the user-selected
algorithm.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and geophysical data (pages 35, 36, 42).
Menu command: Geophysics / Model
Output window: RockPlot3D
Notes: Once you have the solid model file created, you can use that existing model for
future block, fence, and profile diagrams.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Geophysical Diagrams / Create a geophysical
solid model diagram.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Geophysics Tools / Creating a 3D


Geophysics Block Diagram.

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Creating a Geophysics Fence Diagram

Use the Borehole Manager's Geophysics / Fence tool to create a 3-dimensional fence
diagram that illustrates your downhole geophysical data. You may request regular panel
spacing, in a variety of configurations, or you can draw your own panels. The
geophysical values can be color-coded in a variety of ways. During the process of
building the diagram, the program will create a solid model for the entire project area,
and then "slice" the model vertically along the selected fence panel line(s).
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and geophysical data (pages 35, 36, 42).
Menu command: Geophysics / Fence
Output window: RockPlot3D
Notes: Once you have the solid model file created, you can use that existing model for
future block, fence, and profile diagrams. See page 155 for information about drawing
the fence panels.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Geophysical Diagrams / Create a geophysical
fence diagram.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Geophysics Tools / Creating a Geophysics


Fence Diagram.

Creating a Geophysics Profile Diagram

Use the Borehole Manager's Geophysics / Profile tool to create a 2-dimensional (flat)
vertical profile of your geophysical data, between any two points in the study area. The
profile layers can be color-coded in a variety of ways. During the process of building
the profile, the program will create a solid model for the entire project area, and then
"slice" the model vertically along the selected profile line.

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Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool specifically reads location, orientation (if any),
and geophysical data (pages 35, 36, 42).
Menu command: Geophysics / Profile
Output window: RockPlot2D
Notes: Once you have the solid model file created, you can use that existing model for
future block, fence, and profile diagrams. See page 154 for information about drawing
the section slice.
Borehole Manager Tutorial: Create Geophysical Diagrams / Create a geophysical
profile.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Geophysics Tools / Creating a Geophysics


Profile Diagram.

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Chapter 9 - Laying Out Vertical Sections & Fences


During the process of building a vertical cross section or fence diagram, RockWorks
displays a window that illustrates the borehole locations, onto which you draw the
section or fence panel line(s). The look of this window changes depending on the type
of diagram being created, but the general operations are the same.

Drawing a Line of Section for a Projected Log Section

The Borehole Manager Striplogs / Vertical Projection / Multiple Logs tool is used to
display multiple boreholes as if projected onto a vertical line of section.
Once you have set up the diagram settings, the program will scan the project database
and extract the borehole locations (Eastings and Northings) from the Location tab of
each active borehole. It will display the well locations in the Vertical Section Location
window as a plan-view map, with boring name and symbol color tied to each well. Any
previous line drawn for this project will also be displayed on the map. You may also
turn on the display of the borehole traces if your wells are inclined or deviated.
(See page 115 for details about setting up the projected log section itself. )
1. To accept the existing cross section cut as-is, simply click the OK button at the
bottom of the window.
2. Or, to draw a new section line, onto which the borehole logs will be projected, simply
left-click on the map location to become the left edge of the cross section and then
left-click on the location to become the right edge of the section. You do not need to
refresh the screen between drawing lines.

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The line can be oriented in the direction of your choice. You may redraw this line of
section as many times as you like until you are pleased with its placement. Note that
the prompt at the top of the window will read "Click on panel starting point" or "Click
on panel ending point" to let you know what it's expecting.
3. Click OK when you are ready to continue.
The program will create the diagram and display it in the RockPlot2D window (page
211).

See also: Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Laying Out Vertical Sections
and Fences for these additional topics:
How to exclude logs (or portions of logs) from the section.
How to enter specific cross section endpoints.
How to change the Vertical Section Location window's display.
How to zoom in and out of the display.

Drawing a Hole to Hole Section Trace

The Borehole Manager Striplogs / Hole to Hole Section tool is used to display multiple
boreholes strung together in multiple panels. Because there can be multiple panels, hole
to hole cross sections will plot borings as vertical (no inclination or deviation).
Once you have set up the diagram settings, the program will scan the project files and
extract the borehole locations (Eastings and Northings) from the Location tab of each
active borehole. It will display the well locations in the Select Boreholes window as a
plan-view map, with boring name and symbol color tied to each well. Any previous
panels drawn for this project will also be displayed on the map.
(See page 118 for details about setting up the hole to hole log section itself. )
1. Decide what you want to do:
Accept the current selection: If the existing cross section trace is to your satisfaction,
simply click the OK button at the bottom of the window to proceed.
To append more wells to the current selection, start at Step 3, below.
To start over with a new cross section trace, start at Step 2, below.
2. Reset the display (if necessary): Rockworks will remember any borehole selections
from previous sessions with this tool. If you wish to discard any existing selections
and start well-picking from scratch, click the Edit menu’s Reset option.
3. Pick the first borehole / Append another borehole: Click on the first borehole to be
displayed along the left edge of the cross section. If you are appending to an existing
trace, pick the first borehole to be added to the existing list.
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The program will draw a border around the symbol and, if you are appending wells, a
line from the last borehole to this one.
4. Pick the next borehole, and the next and the next. Each selected borehole will be
shown with a border and will be connected to the previous selection with a line. If
you don't click directly on a symbol, that's okay; the program will pick the closest one
for you.

Well Order: In a hole-to-hole cross section, the order in which the drill holes are
selected will make a big difference in the appearance of the diagram. The first hole
you select, regardless of its position in the map, will be at the left edge of the cross
section, and the last will be at the right edge. The intermediate drill holes will be
spaced in the diagram relative to each other in space. You do not need to include all
boreholes in the cross section.
Mistakes? Choose the Edit / Undo option to remove the last-picked well. You can
use this command repeatedly to remove holes in backward order. Or, choose Edit /
Reset to clear the display and start over.
5. Click the OK button when the section line is displayed to your satisfaction.
The program will create the diagram and display it in the RockPlot2D window (page
211).

See also: Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Laying Out Vertical Sections
and Fences for these additional topics:
Change the hole to hole section window's display.
Zoom in and out of the display.

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Drawing a Line of Section for a Profile

The Borehole Manager Profile tools are available within the Lithology, Stratigraphy,
Geochemistry, Geophysics and Hydrology menus. They are used to display a vertical
slice from the inside of a solid or stratigraphic model to illustrate lithology distribution,
stratigraphic or water level elevations, or geochemical/geophysical values.
Once you have set up the diagram settings, the program will scan the project database
and extract the borehole locations (Eastings and Northings) from the Location tab of
each active borehole. It will display the well locations in the Vertical Section Location
window as a plan-view map, with boring name and symbol color tied to each well. Any
previous line drawn for this project will also be displayed on the map. You may also
turn on the display of the borehole traces if your wells are inclined or deviated.
(See Creating Lithology (page 144), Stratigraphic (page 127), Geochemistry (page 147),
Geophysics (page 149) or Water Level (page 135) Profile Diagrams for details about
setting up the diagrams themselves.)
1. To accept the existing cross section cut as-is, simply click the OK button at the
bottom of the window.
2. Or, to draw a new section line, along which the solid/strat model will be sliced,
simply left-click on the map location to become the left edge of the cross section and
then left-click on the location to become the right edge of the section. You do not
need to refresh the screen between drawing lines.

The line can be oriented in the direction of your choice. You may redraw this line of
section as many times as you like until you are pleased with its placement. Note that
the prompt at the top of the window will read "Click on panel starting point" or "Click
on panel ending point" to let you know what it's expecting.
3. Click OK when you are ready to continue.

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The program will create the diagram and display it in the RockPlot2D window (page
211).

See also: Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Laying Out Vertical Sections
and Fences for these additional topics:
How to enter specific cross section endpoints.
How to change the Vertical Section Location window's display.
How to zoom in and out of the display.

Drawing Fence Diagram Panels

The Borehole Manager Fence tools are available within the Lithology, Stratigraphy,
Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Hydrology menus. They are used to display one or
more vertical slices from the inside of a solid model to illustrate lithology distribution,
stratigraphic or water level elevations, or geochemical/geophysical values.
Once you have set up the diagram settings, the program will scan the project database
and extract the borehole locations (Eastings and Northings) from the Location tab of
each active borehole. It will display the well locations in the Fence Diagram
Configuration window as a plan-view map, with boring name and symbol color tied to
each well. Any previous lines drawn for this project will also be displayed on the map.
You may also turn on the display of the borehole traces if your wells are inclined or
deviated.
(See Creating Lithology (page 143), Stratigraphic (page 128), Geochemistry (page 146),
Geophysics (page 149), or Water Level (page 136) Fence Diagrams for details about
setting up the diagrams themselves.)
1. Decide what you want to do:
Accept the current selection: If the existing fence panel arrangement is to your
satisfaction, simply click the OK button at the bottom of the window to proceed.
To append more panels to the current selection, start at Step 3, below.
To start over with a new fence panels, start at Step 2, below.
2. Reset the display (if necessary): Rockworks will remember any fence panels you
drew in previous sessions with this tool. If you wish to discard any existing selections
and start panel-picking from scratch, click the Edit menu’s Reset option.
3. To draw a new fence panel by hand, simply left-click on the map location to become
the one edge of the cut and then left-click on the location to become the other edge of
the cut. The program will connect the points with a line (see below, left).

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Another option for fence panels is to select a pre-configured panel arrangement by


choosing an option from the Panels menu. For example, for an automatic "X" panel
layout that extends to the edge of the solid model, choose the Panels / Diagonal
option (above, right).
You can use any combination of hand-drawn and pre-configured panels that you
wish.
Mistakes? Choose the Edit / Undo option to remove the last-picked panel. You can
use this command repeatedly to remove panels in backward order. Or, choose Edit /
Reset to clear the display and start over.
4. Click the OK button when the fence panel(s) are displayed to your satisfaction.
The program will create the fence diagram and display it in the RockPlot3D window
(page 231).

See also: Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Laying Out Vertical Sections
and Fences for these additional topics:
Select preset fence panels.
Enter specific fence panel endpoints.
Change the Fence Diagram Configuration window's display.
Zoom in and out of the display.

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Chapter 10 - Grid Model Tools


Grid Model Tools - Overview
Within RockWorks, you can perform "basic" gridding of XYZ data using the Geological
Utilities Map / Grid-Based Map command. You can also create grid models of
stratigraphic surfaces using the Borehole Manager’s Stratigraphy menu tools. The
program offers several gridding methods to do this interpolation of your data. Each
operates differently, and each has strengths and differences. See "Gridding Methods".
The tools in the Geological Utilities Grid menu are used to summarize, manipulate, and
illustrate existing numeric grid models.

Computing Grid Statistics


The Grid menu’s Statistics utility is used to get a general summary of the contents of an
existing grid file. The computations are reported as a:
Textual report, in which the summary of grid node values and computed statistics are
displayed in a document in a text editor.
Plottable frequency histogram of the node values, reported as numbers or percent.
Plottable "Krajewskigram" or X,Y scattergram of original Z values (X-axis) versus
computed node values (Y-axis).
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. This tool reads existing grid models (*.grd files).
Menu command: Grid / Statistics
Output window: Text report: text window; histogram & Krajewskigram: RockPlot2D
Notes: You can use the statistical summaries in a variety of ways:
If you are performing mathematical operations with two grid files, you can create a
report summary of each to assure that they have the same dimensions and numbers of
nodes.
If you are creating a grid model of a surface using different gridding algorithms, you
can create a report or histogram summary of each model to view the differences in the
range and/or distribution of the Z-values.
If you have created a grid model of a column of thickness values, the grid summary
will give you a quick volume summary.
A Krajewskigram can give you a quick look at the relationship between observed and
computed Z-values and offer some quantitative error analysis.

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Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Grid Model Tools / Computing
Grid Statistics.

Performing Arithmetic Operations with Grid Models


The tools in the Grid / Math menu are used to perform a variety of mathematical
operations on an existing grid file, storing the results in a new grid file.
Grid & Grid: This tool performs arithmetical operations with the grid node Z-values
in two existing grid files.
Grid & Constant: This tool performs arithmetical operations with the node Z-values in
a single grid model and a constant.
Density Conversion: Use this tool to multiply the grid cell volume (cell-width * cell-
height * Z-value, thickness) by a constant (representing density per unit volume) to
create a new "density" grid.
Absolute Value: Use this tool to convert the Z-values within an existing grid file to
their absolute values, storing the new node values in a new grid file.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. These tools read existing grid models (*.grd files).
Menu command: Grid / Math / Grid & Grid Math, Grid & Constant Math/ Density
Conversion/ Absolute Value
Output window: Results are re-stored in a grid model (.GRD); 2D map: RockPlot2D;
3D map: RockPlot3D

Notes: ! In order for the program to match up corresponding nodes in the two input
grid files in the Grid & Grid Math option, they must have the same dimensions (X
and Y coordinates and range) and numbers of nodes. If you aren’t sure of the "size"
of any grid file, use the Grid / Statistics / Report option to obtain a summary.
During gridding, you can manually establish the grid dimensions and node spacing by
activating the Confirm Model Dimensions check-box in the Model Dimensions
window.
! For the Density Conversion tool, the Z-values of the input grid must represent
thickness, and the thickness units must be the same as the X and Y coordinate units in
order to compute a meaningful volume. You can use the tools in the Coords menu to
translate X and Y coordinates to different units. You can use the RockWorks Edit /
Columns / Thickness command to compute the thickness between two selected data
sheet columns. The thickness values can then be gridded using the Map / Grid-
Based Map option. Sample conversion factors can be found in the Density Factors
system library.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Grid Model Tools / Performing
Arithmetic Operations with Grid Models.

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Filtering Grid Models


The tools in the Grid / Filter menu are used to read an existing grid file and alter the
grid node Z values by imposing a filter of some kind. The resulting node values are
stored in a new grid file.
The Boolean Filter transforms a real number grid file to a Boolean (true/false) file in
which nodes are set to "1" if their Z-value falls within a user-specified range, and a
"0" if the Z-values do not.
The Normalizing Filter normalizes the node values in an existing grid file to range
between two user-entered values.
The Polygon Filter reads a user-created file listing polygon boundary coordinates, and
sets a grid file’s nodes that lie either inside or outside the polygon to a constant value
or to the value of the corresponding node in another grid model.
The Range Filter deletes high or low Z-values from a grid file, reassigning them a
user-specified constant.
The Rounding Filter reads Z-values stored in a grid file and rounds them up or down
to the user-declared rounding interval.
The Smoothing Filter reads an existing grid file and averages the Z-values based on a
user declared "filter" size. The smoother can be run 1 or more times, to get rid of
spurious "noise" within the grid model and bring out regional trends.
The Standardizing Filter computes the standard deviation for each node in an existing
grid file, and stores those values in a new grid file. This can be helpful in finding
anomalies in your data.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. These tools read existing grid models (*.grd files).
Menu command: Grid / Filters / Boolean, Normalize, Polygon Clip, Range, Round,
Smooth, Standardize.
Output window: Results are re-stored in a grid model (.GRD); 2D map: RockPlot2D;
3D map: RockPlot3D.
Notes:
The Polygon Vertices editor contains a button that will plot the polygon in a
RockPlot2D window. If you save that image, it can then be plotted over your resulting
map using RockPlot2D's Utilities / Append command. See Polygon Vertices Tables
(page 258) for more information.

See Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Grid Model Tools /
Filtering Grid Models.

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Editing Grid Models


The Grid / Edit command is used to edit the node values stored in a RockWorks grid
model, or to create from scratch a new grid with user declared dimensions and node
values.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. This Grid tool reads existing grid models (*.grd files).
Menu command: Grid / Edit.
Output window: Results are re-stored in a grid model (.GRD).
Notes: The Grid Editor is used to modify node "Z" values only. It cannot be used to
modify the X,Y location coordinates of the nodes themselves

See Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Grid Model Tools / Editing
Grid Models.

Performing a Slope/Aspect Analysis on Grid Models


The Slope/Aspect Analysis command in the RockWorks Grid menu is used to compute
the changes in Z-values (elevations, concentrations, etc.) between neighboring nodes in
an existing grid file, and store these in up to three new grid files:
A slope grid which contains the change (or slope) between node Z-values, expressed
in degrees, percent, or radians.
An aspect grid which contains the direction of the slope, expressed in azimuth
degrees.
A second-derivative grid which contains the change in slope (the slope of the slope
grid) to illustrate bends.
Your "basic" grid file containing structural elevation values, for example, can generate a
nice looking contour map from which you can determine the elevation for any particular
location. Or, a grid file containing contaminant data can be used to produce a contour
map illustrating the concentrations as they are distributed within a study area.
The Slope/Aspect Analysis tool can take this information one step further. A slope grid
can tell you the steepness of a tightly-contoured structural face, and an aspect grid can
inform you of the direction it is facing. Its second-derivative grid can tell you how
quickly a contaminant's concentration changes in space.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. These Grid menu tools read existing grid models
(*.grd files).
Menu command: Grid / Slope/Aspect Analysis.

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Output window: Results are re-stored in a grid model (.GRD).


Notes:
The grid files that result from the Slope/Aspect Analysis utility can be used to create
a directional map (Grid / Directional Maps) such as upgradient or downgradient
vector maps, flow maps, or strike and dip maps. These require both a slope (dip) grid
and an aspect (direction) grid.
They can also be used to create a contour map (Map / Grid-Based Map) to illustrate
selected slope angles (for example, areas where slope exceeds 10 degrees).

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Grid Model Tools / Performing
a Slope/Aspect Analysis on Grid Models.

Creating Directional Maps of Slope/Aspect Grid Models


The Directional Maps option in the RockWorks Grid menu is used to illustrate slope
and aspect grid models (from Grid / Slope/Aspect Analysis) as a variety of 2-
dimensional maps:

Downgradient vector maps display a small arrow at each node, pointing down-slope in
the direction of the slope as modeled in the slope and aspect grid models. You may
request that the arrows be scaled proportionally to the slope value.
Upgradient vector maps display a small arrow pointing up-slope at each node, with the
option of the arrows scaled proportionally to the slope steepness.

Strike and dip maps display at each node a small line in the direction of the strike, with a
smaller line perpendicular to this in the direction of the dip. Locations with zero dip
angle are noted with closed circle symbols.

Flow maps illustrate the high-to-low pathway in the grid models using lines.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. These tools read existing grid models (*.grd files).
Menu command: Grid / Slope/Directional Maps / Downgradient Vectors,
Upgradient Vectors, Strike and Dip Symbols, Flow Map.
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Output window: RockPlot2D.


Notes: See also Arrow Maps in the DirStat menu (page 188) for information about 2-
dimensional maps with arrows that represent lineations.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Grid Model Tools / Creating
Directional Maps of Slope/Aspect Grid Models.

Performing a Trend Surface Analysis


Use the Grid / Trend Surface Analysis tools to determine regional trend for selected
data in the main data sheet. This can help you to determine what trend order to select
when creating a Trend Surface grid model, and it can help you to isolate regional
anomalies by computing trend residuals. These tools are offered:
Use the Trend Surface Analysis / Report command to perform a trend surface
analysis on a selected Z-value column in the data sheet and to list the correlation and
residuals for first through sixth order polynomials in a report. The completed report
is loaded into a RockWare text window. You may save the report text to disk, print
the report, or copy its contents to the Clipboard for pasting into other applications.
Use the Trend Surface Analysis / Residuals command to perform a trend surface
analysis on a selected z-value column and compute the residuals for a selected
polynomial order, representing the difference between observed z-values and trend z-
values. The residuals are stored in a data sheet column of the user’s choice.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. These tools read existing grid models (*.grd files).
Menu command: Grid / Slope/Trend Surface Analysis / Report, Residuals.
Output window: Report: text window. Residuals: Geological Utilities datasheet.
Notes: The trend surface report can be used to determine how well any of the trend
surface models fit your data. The higher the correlation coefficient, the better the fit.
This information can be helpful in determining whether there is much regional trend
to your data. By isolating regional behavior, local anomalies can stand out.
This report can also be helpful if you are creating a trend surface map of your data, by
providing correlation information. See Trend Surface Gridding in the Help messages
for information about creating trend surface maps, and examples of different
polynomials.
Use the residuals to determine where localized differences from the regional
background may be.
Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Grid Model Tools / Performing
a Trend Surface Analysis

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Importing Grid Models into RockWorks


The Grid / Import Grid command is used to read an existing set of gridded data stored
in one of the accepted formats and translate the data into a RockWorks grid file format.
This tool also imports JPG or BMP images and translates them into a grid format.
ASCII: ASCII grid files consist of a list of space-delimited xyz values in which each
line contains one node, also referred to as "Text" format.
Bitmap: RockWorks can import BMP or JPG images and store them as grid models.
Be sure the input file, declared at the top of the window, has a ".bmp" extension if it's
a BMP file, and a ".jpg" extension if it's a JPG file.
Digital Elevation Model (DEM): RockWorks can import Canadian Government,
USGS 30-Meter, or USGS 3 Arc Second DEM formats.
ESRI ASCIIGRID: This tool imports a grid model from an ESRI GIS (r) program
that has been saved in an ASCII format.
GXF: This represents GXF (Grid eXchange Files) output from the Geosoft program.
This program does not import "compressed" GXF grid models.
RockWorks7: These grid models are binary files that were created by the last DOS
version of RockWorks.
Surfer: RockWorks can import ASCII or binary grid models from Surfer 6 and 7.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. These tools read external grid models for import as
RockWorks grid models.
Menu command: Grid / Import.
Output window: Imported grids are saved as RockWorks grid models (.GRD).

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Grid Model Tools / Importing
Grid Models into RockWorks.

Exporting RockWorks Grid Models


Use the Grid / Export Grid command to export the data contained in a RockWorks grid
model to another file format. It offers grid export to a variety of different formats, with a
variety of options:
ASCII XYZ: X and Y node locations and Z values are listed in three columns,
separated by the character of your choice, at the decimal precision you select, with or
without a header.

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ASCII Matrix: The Z-values only of the grid file are listed in rows and columns,
with the number of entries corresponding to the numbers of nodes horizontally and
vertically in the grid file. The Z-values are listed at the decimal precision you select.
AutoCAD DXF Matrix: These ASCII files can be read into any software application
that reads files in a DXF format. They will appear as a three-dimensional mesh
surface, with line color, layer number, vertical exaggeration, and other parameters
user-selected.
Geosoft GXF: GXF (Grid eXchange Files) are an ASCII grid format read by Geosoft
software.
ESRI ASCIIGRID: Export the RockWorks grid to an ASCII grid file that's
importable into ESRI GIS programs for contouring and other spatial analysis.
Ohio Automation ENZ: X and Y node locations and Z values are listed in three
columns in an ASCII format, with columns separated by commas. The node order is
the same as that listed for the ASCII XYZ, above.
RockWorks7: This grid file format is read by the RockWorks version 7 program for
DOS, published by RockWare.
RockWare RTM: The RockWare Terrain Model (RTM) format is a binary grid file
format originally designed as a compact method for shipping Digital Elevation Model
(DEM) data.
Surfer: Both ASCII and binary formats are available for Surfer grid files.
VistaPro: This is a binary grid format read by VistaPro, for loading into that program
as DEM data.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. These Grid menu tools specifically read RockWorks
grid models (*.grd) for export to other grid model format.
Menu command: Grid / Export.
Output window: n/a.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Grid Model Tools / Exporting
RockWorks Grid Models.

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Chapter 11 – Solid Model Tools


Solid Menu Tools - Overview
Solid models are discussed in Chapter 8. They are used to illustrate the 3-dimensional
distribution of geochemistry, geophysical, lithology, or other measured values.
The tools in the Geological Utilities Solid menu are used to filter, extract, edit, and
otherwise manipulate these solid models.
See also: Solid Modeling Reference (page 271).

Computing Solid Model Statistics


The Geological Utilities Solid / Statistics utility is used to get a general summary of the
contents of an existing solid model file. The statistical summary can be displayed in two
ways:
As a textual report, in which the summary of node values and computed statistics are
displayed in a document in a text editor.
As a plottable frequency histogram of the node values, reported as numbers or
percent.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. This tool reads existing solid models (*.mod files).
Menu command: Solid / Statistics
Output window: Text report: text window; histogram: RockPlot2D
Notes: You can use the statistical summaries in a variety of ways:
If you are performing mathematical operations with two solid model files, you can
create a summary of each to assure that they have the same dimensions and numbers
of nodes.
If you are creating a solid model of geophysical or geochemical data using different
modeling methods, you can create a summary of each model to view the differences
in the range of the G-values.
Be warned that histograms of high-density solid models may take a significant
amount of time to create, or they may exceed the capacity of your computer system.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Creating Solid Models /


Computing Solid Model Statistics.

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Performing Arithmetic Operations with Solid Models


The tools in the Geological Utilities Solid / Math option are used to perform arithmetic
operations on the values stored in an existing solid model file, storing the results in a
new solid model file. The following options are available:
Model & Model: This tool performs arithmetical operations with the node G-values
in two existing solid model files.
Model & Constant: This tool performs arithmetical operations with the node G-
values in a single solid model and a constant.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. These tools read existing solid models (*.mod files).
Menu command: Solid / Math / Model & Model, Model & Constant
Output window: Results are re-stored in a solid model (.MOD); RockPlot3D
Notes:

! In order for the program to match up corresponding nodes in the two input model,
they must have the same dimensions (X, Y, and Z coordinates and range) and
numbers of nodes. If you aren’t sure of the "size" of any solid model, use the Solid
/ Statistics / Report option to obtain a summary. During modeling, you can
manually establish the model dimensions and node spacing by activating the
Confirm Model Dimensions check-box in the Model Dimensions window.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Creating Solid Models /


Performing Arithmetic Operations with Solid Models.

Filtering Solid Models


The Filter option in the Solid menu is used to filter the nodes contained within an
existing solid model file.
The following tools are available.
The Smoothing Filter tool reads an existing solid model and averages the G-values
based on a user declared "filter" size. The smoother can be run 1 or more times, to
get rid of spurious "noise" within the model and bring out regional trends.
The Range Filter deletes high or low G-values from a solid model file, reassigning
them a user-specified constant.
The Polygon Filter reads a user-created file listing polygon boundary coordinates, and
sets a solid model’s nodes that lie either inside or outside a vertical projection of the
polygon to "0".
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The Distance Filter is used to filter an existing solid model file based on the nodes'
distance from the drill holes. All nodes that lie beyond the distance cutoff will be set
to zero. This can be used to remove low-confidence areas from a model.
The Grid Filter is used to adjust the voxel values in a solid model based on their
location above or below one reference grid model, or above, between, or below two
reference grid models. This can be a handy way to assert stratigraphic surface
constraints on a solid model.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. These tools read existing solid models (*.mod files).
Menu command: Solid / Filter / Smooth, Range Filter, Polygon Clip, Distance Filter,
Grid Filters
Output window: Results are re-stored in a solid model (.MOD); RockPlot3D
Notes:
The model-smoothing tool pays no attention whatsoever to the original data from
which the model was generated and makes no effort to honor the observed data
values.
The Polygon Filter tool requires an existing “polygon vertices table” that lists the X
and Y coordinates of the polygonal area (assumed to be on the surface) below which
the solid model will be clipped.
When filtering a solid model based on one or two grid surfaces, note that the input
solid model and the input grid file must have the same dimensions and numbers of
nodes in the X and Y directions in order for this filter to work. If you aren't sure, you
can use the Statistics option in the Grid and Solid menus to view a summary of
model dimensions and node spacings for grid and solid models, respectively.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Creating Solid Models /


Filtering Solid Models.

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Creating and Manipulating Boolean Solid Models


The Solid menu's Boolean Ops listing contains tools to transform a real number solid
model file to a Boolean (true/false) file in which nodes are set to "1" if their G-value
falls within a user-specified range, and a "0" if the G-values do not. In addition, there
are tools to manipulate the resulting Boolean models.
The following options are available:
Boolean Conversion: This tool transforms a real number solid model file to a Boolean
(true/false) file. In this process, the G-values of nodes are set to "1" if their original
G-value falls within a user-specified range, and to a "0" if the G-values do not fall
within the range. (Then, multiply this model back against the original to zero-out
areas where your criteria aren't met.)
Minimum Ore Zone Thickness: This tool is used to specify a minimum thickness for
any individual ore or material zone to be included in the output model and
computations. This is a means of discarding non-economic areas from the totals.
Minimum Total Ore Thickness: This tool is used to specify a minimum thickness for
the combined, total ore or material zones to be included in the output model and
computations. This is also a means of discarding non-economic areas from the totals.
Maximum Total Waste Thickness: This tool is used to remove small pockets of "non-
ore" material from surrounding "ore" blocks, translating them to "ore" classification
and including them in the output solid model for future calculations.
Stripping Ratio, Solid Models: This tool is used filter a Boolean solid model based on
the ratio between the thickness of the overburden ("waste") and the thickness of the
zone of interest ("ore"). Several methods of computing the stripping ratio are offered,
based on individual ore zones or total ore zones.
Density Conversion: This tool is used to enter a multiplier for individual Boolean
voxels so that the program can compute total mass as well as total volume. The X, Y,
and Z-values of the input model must be in the same units in order to compute a
meaningful volume
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. These tools read existing solid models (*.mod files).
Menu command: Solid / Boolean Ops / Boolean Conversion, Minimum Ore Zone
Thickness, Minimum Total Ore Thickness, Maximum Waste Thickness, Stripping
Ratio, Density Conversion.
Output window: Results are re-stored as a Boolean solid model (.MOD); RockPlot3D

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Notes:
The tools listed after Boolean Conversion can read ONLY BOOLEAN SOLID
MODELS.
See also the Solid / Convert / Ore Thickness to Grid tool if you wish to convert the
output Boolean model to a grid model for display as a 2D contour map.
Be sure that the conversion factor you enter for the Density Conversion tool matches
the volume units that the program is using! If the program will be computing volume
in cubic feet but your conversion constant represents weight per cubic inch, you
would need to convert the constant to weight per cubic foot before entering it here.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Creating Solid Models /


Creating and Manipulating Boolean Solid Models.

Converting and Extracting Solid Model Data


The Solid menu's Convert listing contains tools to convert certain solid model data to 2-
dimensional grid model format, to extract 2-dimensional "layers" from solid models as
grid files, and to insert 2-D grid model layers into solid models. These tools are
available:
Ore Thickness to Grid: This tool translates a Boolean solid model file representing
"ore" versus "not-ore" into a 2-dimensional grid file that represents total ore
thickness, for display as a contour map, 3D surface, etc.
In this example, the solid model displays in dark clay zones that are > 3 feet thick
(created in the Solid / Boolean Ops / Minimum Ore Zone Thickness tool). The
contour map shows a plan view of the total clay thickness.

Overburden Thickness to Grid: This tool is used to translate a Boolean solid model
file representing "ore" versus "not-ore" into a 2-dimensional grid file that represents
total overburden ("not-ore") thickness. The resulting grid file can be illustrated as a
contour map, 3D surface, etc.
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In this example, the solid model displays in dark clay zones that are > 3 feet thick
(created in the Solid / Boolean Ops / Minimum Ore Zone Thickness tool). The
contour map shows a plan view of the total thickness of the NOT-CLAY or
“overburden”.

Extract Grid from Model: This tool "pulls" out a 2-dimensional grid file from an
existing real number or Boolean solid model file. The grid file can be extracted from
any horizontal (constant Z) or vertical (constant Y or X) layer in the original solid
model.
Insert Grid into Model: This tool is used to insert a 2-dimensional grid file "slice"
into an existing real number or Boolean solid model file, replacing the existing node
values with the grid's node values. The grid file can be inserted into any horizontal
(constant Z) or vertical (constant Y or X) layer in the original solid model.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. These tools read existing solid models (*.mod files).
Menu commands: Solid / Convert / Ore Thickness -> Grid, Overburden Thickness -
> Grid, Extract Grid from Model, Insert Grid Into Model.
Output window: Results are re-stored as a solid model file (.MOD) or grid file (.GRD).
Notes:
The Ore Thickness to Grid and Overburden Thickness to Grid tools read ONLY
BOOLEAN SOLID MODELS.
See Notes on Orientation (below) for information on the coordinates that are
represented in the Extract and Insert Grid tools.
See Editing Grid Models (page 160) for details about editing the extracted grid model.
See Creating Grid-Based Maps (page 104) if you wish to illustrate the extracted grid
file as a map.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Creating Solid Models /


Converting and Extracting Solid Model Data.
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Notes on Orientation

Because of the different orientations of the different slice planes, the X and Y axes of the
2-dimensional slice that is extracted from a solid model are not always going to coincide
with the X and Y axes of the solid model. For the north/south and east/west vertical
slices, the following drawings illustrate how the program will define the X and Y axes of
the 2-D slice it extracts:
South-North Vertical Section: X in grid = Y in model. Y in grid = Z in model.

West-East Vertical Section: X in grid = X in model. Y in grid = Z in model.

In the case of horizontal slices, however, the X and Y axes remain the same:

Editing Solid Model Slices


The Edit command in the Solid menu is used to edit the contents of a real number or
Boolean solid model file, one "slice" at a time. The slice you specify will be loaded into
the Grid Editor for viewing and editing. When your work in the Grid Editor is complete,
the edited slice will be re-inserted into the solid model. The modified solid model is
saved on disk under a different file name.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. This tool reads existing solid models (*.mod files).
Menu commands: Solid / Edit.

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Output window: Results are re-stored as a solid model file (.MOD).


Notes:
Because of the different orientations of the different slice planes, the X and Y axes of
the 2-dimensional slice that is extracted from a solid model are not always going to
coincide with the X and Y axes of the solid model. See Notes on Orientation (above)
for information. In addition, the solid model voxel G value will be displayed in the
Editor as the Z value.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Creating Solid Models / Editing
Solid Model Slices.

Importing Solid Models


The Solid / Import command is used to read an existing set of regularly-spaced XYZG
data stored in an ASCII format and translate the data into a RockWorks solid model file
format.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. This tool reads external solid model files.
Menu commands: Solid / Import.
Output window: Results are stored as a RockWorks solid model file (.MOD).
Notes: See the Solid Model Import Format in the Help messages for details about the
input file’s required structure.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Creating Solid Models /


Importing Solid Models.

Exporting Solid Models


If you wish to export the data contained in a solid model file created within RockWorks,
use the Solid / Export command. It offers model export to these different formats, with
a variety of options:
ASCII XYZG: XYZ node locations and G values are listed in four columns,
separated by the character of your choice, at the decimal precision you select, with or
without a header.
NOeSYS (T3D): The NOeSYS program provides an excellent way to visualize
XYZG data modeled in RockWorks. The output file is ASCII in format. RockWorks
permits you to launch T3D automatically when the file export is completed.

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Slicer Dicer: This program is another excellent visualization tool for 3D data.
RockWorks offers launching of Slicer Dicer automatically when the export process is
complete.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. These tools read existing solid model files (.MOD).
Menu commands: Solid / Export.
Output window: Results are stored as an external solid model file.
Notes:
See the help messages for details about the output file structure.
See the help messages, also, for details about “automatic” versus “manual” opening of
the exported file in the Slicer Dicer program.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Creating Solid Models /


Exporting Solid Models.

Initializing a Blank Solid Model


Use the Solid / Initialize tool to create a new solid model from scratch, at the
dimensions and node spacing you declare. All model nodes will be initialized to a
single, user-declared value.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities.
Menu commands: Solid /Initialize.
Output window: Results are stored as a RockWorks solid model file (.MOD).

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Creating Solid Models /


Initializing Solid Models.

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Notes

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Chapter 12 - Computing Volumes


Volume Menu Tools - Overview
RockWorks offers a number of tools for computing volumes of stockpiles, of
formations, and of specific material zones in solid models.
The Geological Utilities EZ Volume tool reads X, Y, and thickness values from the
datasheet and computes volume using a Delaunay triangulation method. The output is a
textual report. This is often used to compute stockpile volume.
The Geological Utilities Extract Solid reads an existing solid model (such as soil
chemistry or lithology type), determines the volume of a pit that would be required to
extract the portions of the solid model that fall within a specified range (e.g.
contaminated soil or a selected lithotype). The output is a report that lists the pit and
contaminant volumes and the stripping ratios, a 2D diagram illustrating the pit
elevations, and/or a 3D diagram showing the filtered solid and the pit elevations.
The Borehole Manager’s Stratigraphy Volumetrics tool computes volumes of
stratigraphic layers at elevation intervals, displaying a report in the Geological Utilities
datasheet. This is an easy method for computing volumes of stratified material.
The Borehole Manager’s Lithology Volumetrics tool computes volumes of lithology
zones at elevation intervals, displaying a report in the Geological Utilities datasheet.
This is an easy method for computing volumes of non-stratified material.
The Borehole Manager’s Geochemistry Volumetrics tool performs a variety of filtering
operations on an existing solid model to create a detailed report and diagram of
material volume (or mass). Filters include overburden (stripping ratio), zone thickness,
polygon boundaries, distances from boreholes. This can be used in both mining
(marketable-material volumes) and remediation (contaminated soil volumes).

Geological Utilities: EZ Volume of X, Y, Thickness Data


This "EZ" volume calculator is used to compute the volume for a column of thickness
values in the Geological Utilities datasheet and list the volume in a textual report. It uses
a basic approach: Volumes are computed using a Delaunay triangulation method in
which the samples are connected together in a network of triangles, a sample at each
vertex. The volume of each triangle is computed, based on the thicknesses used as Z-
values, and then the total volume added up.

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This method tends to provide lower estimates of total volume than an orthogonal grid-
based calculation. Optional volume-to-mass conversion is available.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. This tool reads XYZ files where the Z value represents
thickness. (See page 67.)
Menu command: Volumetrics /EZ Volume.
Output window: The report is displayed in a text window.
Notes:
This tool is well suited to computing simple volumes of stockpiles. Be sure the
surface elevations of your stockpile are adjusted to represent thickness (subtract the
base elevation from the surface elevation).
The X and Y coordinates and the Thickness values must be in the same units in order
for the volume calculations to make sense! (Cubic degree-feet units aren’t very
intuitive…) Therefore, if your X and Y coordinates are in decimal longitude and
latitude, for example, you would need to have the program convert them to feet or
meters to match your thickness units in order to get a sensible volume calculation.
RockWorks contains a variety of coordinate conversion utilities (see the Coords
menu).
If you want meaningful mass computations, be sure that the conversion factor
you enter matches the volume units that the program is using! If the program
will be computing volume in cubic feet but your conversion constant represents
weight per cubic inch, you would need to convert the constant to weight per cubic
foot before entering it here. See the help messages for details. If you want no
conversion, enter 1.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Computing Volumes / EZ


Volume.

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Geological Utilities: Extracting Solids

The Geological Utilities Volume / Extract Solid tool reads an existing solid model
(such as soil chemistry or lithology type), determines the volume of a pit that would be
required to extract the portions of the solid model that fall within a specified range (e.g.
contaminated soil or a selected lithotype). The output is a report that lists the pit and
contaminant volumes and the stripping ratios, a 2D diagram illustrating the pit
elevations, and/or a 3D diagram showing the filtered solid and the pit elevations.
This program assumes you have already created a solid model that illustrates the
distribution of the desired material. This can be created using the Geological Utilities
Solid / Model tool (for XYZG data in the datasheet or external file) or using the
Borehole Manager Model tools (Lithology, Stratigraphy, Geochemistry, Geophysics
menus).
You may also input solid models that have already been filtered for G value range or
with a polygon filter (Solid / Boolean Ops or Solid / Filter tools).
Datasheet: Geological Utilities. This tool reads existing real number or Boolean solid
model files.
Menu command: Volumetrics /Extract Solid.
Output window: The report is displayed in a text window; the grid surface in
RockPlot2D or 3D; the solid diagram in RockPlot3D.
Notes:
This extraction process makes the following assumptions:
* The initial ground surface is assumed to be flat.
* The excavation walls are vertical (no benches or slopes).
Use the Report Captions settings to fully customize your report to your units. See the
help messages for examples.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities Datasheet / Computing Volumes /


Extracting Solids.

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Borehole Manager: Creating a Lithologic Volume Report

Use the Borehole Manager’s Lithology / Volumetrics tool to read an existing lithologic
solid model and compute volume of each rock or soil type. Lithology solid models are
created in the Lithology / Profile, Fence, and Solid options.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool reads existing lithology solid model (.mod)
files.
Menu command: Lithology /Volumetrics.
Output window: The report is displayed in the Geological Utilities datasheet.
Notes:
Be sure the Lithology Table that was used when the lithology solid model was created
is currently set as the default table.
If you select the Mass option, these computations are based on the Density Factor
declared in the current Lithology Table which declare mass per cubic unit.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Lithology Tools / Creating a Lithologic


Volume Report.

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Borehole Manager: Creating a Stratigraphic Volume Report

Use the Borehole Manager’s Stratigraphy / Volume tool to read a saved stratigraphic
model and compute volume of each stratigraphic layer. Stratigraphic models can be saved
when you create a block diagram using the Stratigraphy / Model tool.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool reads existing stratigraphic solid model files.
Menu command: Stratigraphy /Volumetrics.
Output window: The report is displayed in the Geological Utilities datasheet.
Notes:
Be sure the Stratigraphy Table that was used when the stratigraphy model was created
is currently set as the default table.
If you select the Mass option, these computations are based on the Density Factor
declared in the current Stratigraphy Table which declare mass per cubic unit.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Stratigraphy Tools / Creating a


Stratigraphic Volume Report.

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Borehole Manager: Creating Detailed Geochemistry Volume


Reports and Diagrams
The Borehole Manager’s Geochemistry / Volumetrics tool is designed to perform a
variety of “what-if” filtering operations and volume computing operations on an existing
geochemical solid model. The input model can represent precious metal assays,
contaminant concentrations, or any measurable component for which you wish to compute
volume.
This volume calculator specializes in models that are not stratified or homogeneous. You
can filter the solid model for interbed thickness, material zone thickness, polygon areas,
and distance from a borehole.
Datasheet: Borehole Manager. This tool reads existing geochemistry solid model files.
Menu command: Geochemistry /Volumetrics.
Output windows:
The final, filtered Boolean solid model file that represents the distribution of
favorable materials can be displayed in RockPlot3D.
The final thickness or mass grid model can be displayed in RockPlot2D or 3D.
The detailed or summarized text report is displayed in a text window.
Notes:

This tool replaces the RockWorks99 Volume / 3D Solid Model tool.


See also: RockPlot3D for display of solid model or stratigraphy volume right in the
3D window. The Solid / Statistics / Report tool for a quick report of dimensions and
volume of any solid model.

Help / Contents / The Borehole Manager / Geochemistry Tools / Creating Detailed


Geochemistry Reports and Diagrams.

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Chapter 13 - Hydrology Tools

The Geological Utilities Hydro menu contains tools used for computing water level
drawdown, creating water level and precipitation graphs, and hydrochemistry diagrams
and calculations.

Computing Drawdown for a Single Well

The Geological Utilities Hydro / Drawdown (1 Well) utility is used to calculate water-
level drawdown for a single well using the Theis non-equilibrium equation. Data for a
single well is entered directly into the program dialog box; it is not read from the
program datasheet.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. The user inputs data directly into the program
window.

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Menu command: Hydro / Drawdown (1 well).


Output windows: The program will display computed drawdown numbers at user-
selected distance increments in the program window. The optional diagram is displayed
in RockPlot2D.
Notes: See the help messages for a listing of the Theis equation.
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Create Hydrology/Hydrochemisty Diagrams / Compute
water level drawdown for a single well.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Hydrology Tools / Computing Drawdown


for a Single Well.

Computing a Drawdown Surface

The Geological Utilities Hydro / Drawdown Surface utility is used to generate a


potentiometric surface model based on pumping and/or injection wells using the Theis
non-equilibrium equation.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads drawdown data (page 78).
Menu command: Hydro / Drawdown Surface.
Output window: RockPlot2D.
Notes: See the help messages for a listing of the Theis equation.
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Create Hydrology/Hydrochemisty Diagrams / Compute
water level drawdown for multiple wells.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Hydrology Tools / Computing a


Drawdown Surface.

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Plotting Water Level versus Precipitation

The Geological Utilities Hydro / Hydrograph command reads from the main datasheet
listings of water level and precipitation measurements over time, and creates a
HydroGraph diagram that illustrates their relationship.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads hydrograph data (page 78).
Menu command: Hydro / HydroGraph.
Output window: RockPlot2D.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Hydrology Tools / Plotting Water Level
versus Precipitation.

Computing Total Dissolved Solids


The Geological Utilities Hydro / Total Dissolved Solids command is used to read a
listing of ion concentrations from the datasheet and compute total dissolved solids for
each sample.
Total dissolved solids represent the sum of all "declared" ions, as listed in the Data
Input Columns, in the parts per million (or milligrams per liter) units read from the
Geological Utilities datasheet.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet, Hydrochemistry data (page 79).
Menu command: Hydro / Total Dissolved Solids.
Notes: You may choose up to 4 additional cations and up to 4 additional anions in the
computations.

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Output window: Geological Utilities datasheet.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Hydrology Tools / Computing Total


Dissolved Solids.

Computing Ion Balance


The Geological Utilities Hydro / Ion Balance tool is used to read a listing of ion
concentrations from the datasheet and compute cation:anion ratio for each sample, in
milli-equivalents per liter.
RockWorks uses the following equation for the ion balance:
(( cations - anions ) / ( cations + anions ) ) x 100
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet, Hydrochemistry data (page 79)
Menu command: Hydro / Ion Balance.
Output window: Geological Utilities datasheet.
Notes: You may choose up to 4 additional cations and up to 4 additional anions in the
computations.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Hydrology Tools / Computing Ion


Balance Dissolved Solids.

Creating Piper Diagrams

The Geological Utilities Hydro / Piper command is used to read a listing of ion
concentrations from the datasheet and create a Piper diagram for groundwater ion
concentration analysis.

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Piper diagrams consist of three parts: Two trilinear diagrams along the bottom and one
diamond-shaped diagram in the middle. The trilinear diagrams illustrate the relative
concentrations of cations (left diagram) and anions (right diagram) in each sample. Each
sample will be represented by a point in each trilinear diagram; unique symbols may be
selected for each sample and can be referenced in a symbol index at the top of the
diagram. Symbols may be accompanied by labels if desired. The diamond field is
designed to show both anion and cation groups.
Circles may be plotted around each point to illustrate total dissolved solids ("TDS") for
the sample. The total dissolved solid computation will include all components listed in the
data file ("standard" ions and additional ions).
Concentrations entered in the source data file in units of milligrams per liter are converted
to milli-equivalents per liter for display on the diagram.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet, Hydrochemistry data (page 79)
Menu command: Hydro / Piper.
Output window: RockPlot2D.
Notes: You may choose up to 4 additional cations and up to 4 additional anions for the
TDS computations.
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Create Hydrology/Hydrochemisty Diagrams / Create a
Piper diagram.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Hydrology Tools / Creating Piper


Diagrams.

Creating Stiff Diagrams

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The Geological Utilities Hydro / Stiff command is used to read a listing of ion
concentrations from the datasheet and create a Stiff diagram for groundwater ion
concentration analysis.
Stiff diagrams plot milli-equivalent concentrations of cations on the left side of the
diagram and of anions on the right. Each ion is plotted as a point, and the points are
connected to form a polygonal shape. The ions are plotted in a consistent order (Na+K
across from Cl; Ca across from HCO3 + CO3; Mg across from SO4) so that each
polygon becomes that sample's "signature". Additional ions, if present, are plotted in the
order that they are listed, below the standard ions.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet, Hydrochemistry data (page 79)
Menu command: Hydro / Stiff.
Output window: RockPlot2D.
Notes:
You may choose up to 4 additional cations and up to 4 additional anions for display in
the Stiff polygons.
Use the Vertical Point Spacing and Polygons Per Page settings to control lengths of
polygons. Use the Horizontal Scaling setting to determine widths of polygons; if you
choose Automatic and there are multiple pages, be warned that each page may
represent a different horizontal scale.
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Create Hydrology/Hydrochemisty Diagrams / Create a
Stiff diagram.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Hydrology Tools / Creating Stiff


Diagrams.

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Chapter 14 - Directional Statistics Tools

The Geological Utilities Dirstat menu contains tools used for performing analyses on
and creating diagrams of directional (2D or 3D) data.

Computing Lineation Bearing, Length, and Midpoint


The Geological Utilities Dirstat / Lineation Properties command is used to compute
the bearing, length, and/or midpoint of lineations listed in the main datasheet as X1 Y1
X2 Y2 line endpoint coordinates.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet, X1Y1X2Y2 data (page 82).
Menu command: Dirstat / Lineation Properties.
Output window: Separate columns in the Geological Utilities datasheet.
Notes: See Digitizing Data for information about digitizing endpoint data directly into
the datasheet.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Directional Statistics Tools / Computing


Lineation Length, Bearing, and Midpoint.

Creating Strike and Dip Maps

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The Geological Utilities DirStat / Strike & Dip Map utility is used to plot a strike and
dip map based on X and Y coordinates, strike, dip, and color data from the data sheet.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads strike and dip data (page 80).
Menu command: Dirstat / Strike & Dip Map.
Output window: RockPlot2D.
Notes: See also directional maps of slope/aspect grid models (page 161).
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Analyze Directional Data – 3D Lineations and Planes /
Create a strike and dip map of planar data.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Directional Statistics Tools / Creating


Strike & Dip Maps.

Creating Arrow Maps

The Geological Utilities Dirstat / Arrow Map tool is used to create a map in which
lineations are represented with arrows plotted from the beginning X,Y coordinates to the
ending coordinate pair.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet, X1Y1X2Y2 data (page 82).
Menu command: Dirstat / Arrow Map.
Output window: RockPlot2D.
Notes: See Digitizing data for information about digitizing line endpoint data directly
into the data sheet. See Creating lineation maps (below) for maps without arrowheads..

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Directional Statistics Tools / Creating


Arrow Map.

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Creating Lineation Maps

The Geological Utilities Lineation Map utility (DirStat menu) is used to create a map
of lineations from line endpoint data.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet, X1Y1X2Y2 data (page 82).
Menu command: Dirstat / Lineation Map.
Output window: RockPlot2D.
Notes: See Digitizing Data for information about digitizing line endpoint coordinates
directly into the data sheet. See Creating Arrow Maps (above) for information about
creating maps in which the lineations contain arrowheads.
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Analyze Directional Data – 2D Lineations / Display
lineations in a 2D map.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Directional Statistics Tools / Gridding and
Mapping Lineation Frequencies, Lengths, and Intersections Lineation Maps.

Gridding and Mapping Lineation Frequencies, Lengths, and


Intersections

The Geological Utilities Dirstat / Lineation Gridding menu command is designed to


read lineation data (in X1, Y1, X2, Y2 endpoint coordinate format), and create a grid file

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that models the lineation frequency, cumulative lengths, and/or intersections, with a
variety of weighting options.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet, X1Y1X2Y2 data (page 82).
Menu command: Dirstat / Lineation Gridding.
Output windows: RockPlot2D or RockPlot3D.
Notes: See Digitizing Data for information about digitizing line endpoint coordinates
directly into the data sheet. See Creating Lineation Maps (in an earlier topic) for
mapping the lineations themselves.
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Analyze Directional Data – 2D Lineations / Compute
lineation densities and display them as a color-filled contour map.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Directional Statistics Tools / Gridding and
Mapping Lineation Frequencies, Lengths, and Intersections.

Creating Rose Diagrams

The Geological Utilities Dirstat / Rose Diagram utility reads either bearing or line
endpoint data and generates a directional diagram that depicts the orientations of the
linear features. Full or half-rose diagrams are available. Line endpoint data can be
interpreted as directional (1-direction) or oriented (2-directions).
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet, bearing data (page 80) or X1Y1X2Y2 line
endpoint data (page 82).
Menu command: Dirstat / Rose Diagram.
Output window: RockPlot2D.
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Analyze Directional Data – 2D Lineations / Display
lineation directions in a rose diagram.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Directional Statistics Tools / Creating


Rose Diagrams.
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Creating Stereonet Diagrams

The Geological Utilities Dirstat / Stereonet utility reads planar, linear, or rake data from
the data sheet, and displays the orientation of these features on a stereonet diagram using
points and great circles. Optional gridding is available to display point density with line
or color-filled contours.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads strike and dip data (page 80)
representing planar features, linear features, or rake data.
Menu command: Dirstat / Stereonet.
Output window: RockPlot2D.
Notes: Data can be listed as right-hand rule or dip direction. Equal area and Equal angle
projections are available. Gridding can be using the Step Function or Spherical
Gaussian methods. See the help messages for details about the stereonet statistics and
more.
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Analyze Directional Data – 3D Lineations and Planes /
Create a stereonet diagram of planar data.
Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Directional Statistics Tools / Creating
Stereonet Diagrams.

Performing Movement Analysis


The Geological Utilities Dirstat / Movement Analysis utility is used to determine the
direction, inclination, distance, and velocity for X, Y, Z and time data.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet, movement data (page 83).
Menu command: Dirstat / Movement Analysis.
Output window: Geological Utilities datasheet.
Notes: Be sure that elevations, if used, are in the same units as the X and Y coordinates.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Directional Statistics Tools / Performing


Movement Analysis.
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Computing Planar Intersections - Planar Pairs


The Geological Utilities Dirstat / Beta Pairs tool is used to read the strike and dip of
pairs of planes and calculate the lineations resulting from their intersections. The
bearing and plunge of these lineations are stored in new columns in the datasheet.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet, beta pairs data (page 83).
Menu command: Dirstat / Beta Pairs.
Output window: Geological Utilities datasheet.
Notes: A comparison: Beta Intersections (below) reads a listing of individual planar
strike and dip measurements from the data sheet and calculates the lineations that result
from the intersection of each plane with each other plane in the data set. This can result
in a tremendous number of computed lineations! Beta Pairs, on the other hand, reads
strike and dip measurements for pairs of planes, and for each pair computes the single
resulting lineation.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Directional Statistics Tools / Computing


Planar Intersections – Planar Pairs.

Computing Planar Intersections


The Geological Utilities Dirstat / Beta Intersections command reads a listing of planar
orientations from the RockWorks data sheet and calculate the lineations resulting from
the intersections of all of the planes in the file. The linear values will be stored in an
ASCII text file that can be displayed in the RockWorks text editor when completed.
The number of intersections that will be computed is:
number = n ( n - 1 ) / 2 where n is the number of individual planes in the input file.
As the number of original planes increases, the number of resulting lineations increases
dramatically. For example, a data set with 20 planes will result in 190 lineations, and
200 planes will produce 19,900 lineations!
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet, strike and dip data (page 80).
Menu command: Dirstat / Beta Intersections.
Output window: ASCII text file.
Notes: A comparison: Beta Intersections (above) reads a listing of individual planar
strike and dip measurements from the data sheet and calculates the lineations that result

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from the intersection of each plane with each other plane in the data set. This can result
in a tremendous number of computed lineations! Beta Pairs, on the other hand, reads
strike and dip measurements for pairs of planes, and for each pair computes the single
resulting lineation..

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Directional Statistics Tools / Computing


Planar Intersections.

Rotating 3D Data
Use the Geological Utilities Dirstat / Rotate Data command to rotate 3D features
(planes or 3D lineations) by a specified amount, and to list the resulting strike and dip
(or dip direction, dip angle) values in two new columns of your data sheet. The input
data can be entered using the right-hand rule or as dip direction, dip angle.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet, strike and dip data (page 80).
Menu command: Dirstat / Rotate Data.
Output window: Geological Utilities datasheet.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Directional Statistics Tools / Rotating 3D


Data.

Converting Strike Bearing to Dip Direction


The Geological Utilities Dirstat / Strike -> Dip Direction command is used to translate
azimuth bearings representing strike to dip direction. This permits you to change the
format of your data from "right hand rule" to "dip direction."
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet, strike and dip data (page 80) recorded using
the right hand rule.
Menu command: Dirstat / Dip Direction.
Output window: Geological Utilities datasheet.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Directional Statistics Tools / Converting


Strike Bearing to Dip Direction.

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Importing DXF Lineations into the Datasheet


The Geological Utilities Dirstat / Import utility is used to import lineation endpoint
data from a DXF file, storing the endpoint coordinates in the main RockWorks data
sheet.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads external DXF files.
Menu command: Dirstat / Import.
Output window: Geological Utilities datasheet.
Notes: "LINE" and "POLYLINE" entities only are read from the DXF file.
"POLYLINE" entities will be broken down into their individual segments. See also
Importing Files into RockPlot2D (page 213) for information about importing DXF
images into the plotting window.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Directional Statistics Tools / Importing


DXF Lineations into the Datasheet.

Translating Coordinates

Converting Azimuth to Quadrant

The Geological Utilities Coords menu contains two tools for translating decimal-style
azimuth bearings (i.e. 135) into quadrant-style bearings (i.e. S45E), and vice versa.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet (strike and dip data, page 80)
Menu command: Coords / Azimuth -> Quadrant and Quadrant -> Azimuth
Output window: Geological Utilities datasheet.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Coordinate Conversions / Quadrant and


Azimuth Coordinates / How to…
Convert azimuth bearings to quadrant.
Convert quadrant to azimuth.

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Chapter 15 - Statistical Tools


Statistical Tools - Overview

The Geological Utilities Stats menu includes program for computing univariate, bivariate,
and trivariate statistics as well as for creating a variety of statistical diagrams.

Computing Univariate Statistics


The Geological Utilities Stats / Univariate Statistics tool is used to calculate statistics for
a single column of samples in the current datasheet. Data may be filtered out when an
appropriate filter range is selected.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads a single column of numeric
values.
Menu command: Stats / Univariate.
Output window: Text window report.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Computing Univariate


Statistics.

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Creating Histogram Plots

The Geological Utilities Stats / Histogram tool is used to read a single column of data
from the datasheet and determine the frequency or percentage of the total number of
measurements for that variable that falls in each user-defined grouping or "cell." These
values are represented as a bar histogram plot.

It also contains a tool for creating multiple histogram plots of separate data columns and
combining them into a single image.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads a single column of numeric
values.
Menu command: Stats / Histogram / Single or Multiple.
Output window: RockPlot2D.
Notes: The Multiple Histogram tool is a handy way to see quickly the distribution of
numerous variables.
Geological Utilities Tutorial: Analyze Component Data / Create a histogram plot of a
single variable.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Creating Histogram


Plots.

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Creating a Scattergram (X, Y) Plot for Two Variables

The Geological Utilities Stats / Scattergram tool is used to plot the data listed within a
designated column in the datasheet against the data within another column.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads two columns of numeric
values.
Menu command: Stats / Scatter.
Output window: RockPlot2D.
Notes: Linear Regression and Polynomial Fit are available for interpolation.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Creating a Scattergram


(X,Y) Plot for two Variables.

Creating a Ternary Diagram for Three Variables

The Geological Utilities Stats / Ternary tool is used to generate a trilinear diagram based
on three columns of data. Optional contouring is available to show point density.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads three columns of numeric
values.
Menu command: Stats / Ternary.
Output window: RockPlot2D.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Creating a Ternary


Diagram for Three Variables.
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Normalizing Data
The Stats / Normalize utility is used to read a single column of values from a RockWorks
data sheet and normalize the data values so that they range between two user-specified
values. The resulting data are listed in a new data sheet column.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet containing a single column of numeric values.
Menu command: Stats / Normalize.
Output window: The Geological Utilities datasheet.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Normalizing Data.

Standardizing Data
The Geological Utilities Stats / Standardize utility is used to read a single column of
values from a RockWorks data sheet and to calculate the mean and the deviation of each
sample value relative to the mean. The resulting data are stored in a new column in the
data sheet. Once computed, display the standardized values as a contour map to show
anomalous areas
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet containing a single column of numeric values.
Menu command: Stats / Standardize.
Output window: The Geological Utilities datasheet.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Standardizing Data.

Generating Random Numbers


The Geological Utilities Stats / Random utility is used to generate random numbers
within a specified range or from a normal distribution. This utility can generate both
positive and negative numbers with or without decimal values.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool generates a single column of
numeric values.
Menu command: Stats / Random / Completely Random or Normal Distribution.
Output window: The Geological Utilities datasheet.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Generating Random


Numbers.

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Chapter 16 - Survey Tools


Survey Menu - Overview
The Survey option in the Map menu contains four main tools, designed to translate
different kinds of survey data:

Converting Bearing / Distance Data and Creating Maps

The Geological Utilities Survey / Bearing/Distance tool is used to convert survey data to
XYZ coordinates for display in a new datasheet, and/or to create a plottable map that
illustrates the survey stations and/or transect lines with a variety of labeling options. The
survey data must list one or more control points, and bearing, distance, and inclination to
the survey stations.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads survey (bearing/distance) data
(page 71).
Menu command: Survey / Bearing/Distance.
Output windows: The XYZ coordinates will be stored in the Geological Utilities
datasheet, and the survey map will be displayed in RockPlot2D.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Survey Tools / Converting Bearing /


Distance Data and Creating Maps .

Converting Triangulation Data to XYZ


The Geological Utilities Survey / Triangulation tool is used to convert triangulation
survey data to XYZ coordinates for display in the current datasheet. This program
requires that two or more stations have known X,Y, Z (elevation) coordinates from which
other coordinates can be computed.

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Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads survey (triangulation) data
(page 72).
Menu command: Survey / Triangulation.
Output window: The XYZ coordinates will be stored in the Geological Utilities
datasheet.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Survey Tools / Converting Triangulation


Data to XYZ.

Setting Up X,Y Stations

The Geological Utilities Survey / Setup XY Stations tool is used to create a new set of
X,Y coordinates based on a single user-entered coordinate, a known grid-based station
arrangement, and a user-entered spacing.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool generates XY coordinates.
Menu command: Survey / Setup XY Stations.
Output windows: The XY coordinates will be displayec in the Geological Utilities
datasheet.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Survey Tools / Setting Up X,Y Stations.

Interpolating Points Along a Line

The Survey / Interpolate Points Along a Line tool is used to create a new set of X,Y
coordinates based on beginning and ending coordinates of a line, and the point spacing
along that line.
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Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool generates XY coordinates.


Menu command: Survey / Interpolate Points Along a Line.
Output window: The XY coordinates will be displayec in the Geological Utilities
datasheet.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Survey Tools / Interpolating Points Along
a Line.

Computing Downhole Survey Coordinates

The Survey / Drill Hole Survey tool is used to read depths, bearings, and inclinations
from a downhole survey table, and compute XYZ coordinates at user-specified intervals
down the borehole. It also offers a 2D and 3D diagram view of the deviated borehole.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool generates XY coordinates.
Menu command: Survey / Drill Hole Survey.
Output windows: The XYZ coordinates can be saved in the Geological Utilities
datasheet; 2D images are displayed in RockPlot2D; 3D images are displayed in
RockPlot3D.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Survey Tools / Computing Downhole


Survey Coordinates.

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Notes

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Chapter 17 – Creating Miscellaneous OpenGL 3D


Images
OpenGL Menu - Overview

RockWorks2002 contains an all-new 3D plotting window for display of surfaces, solids,


fences, and other 3-dimensional images created in many Borehole Manager and
Geological Utilities tools. This new window is called "RockPlot3D" and it is OpenGL-
based.
The OpenGL menu (available from the Geological Utilities datasheet) contains additional
tools for creating general-purpose 3D images which can be appended to other 3D images
right within RockPlot3D.

3D Bitmaps
Use the Geological Utilities OpenGL / Images tools to apply 3-dimensional
characteristics to bitmap (BMP or JPG) images. This includes floating a bitmap
horizontally at a specified elevation, draping an image over a surface, or displaying
images as horizontal or vertical panels.

Float a bitmap at a particular elevation

This tool reads an existing bitmap image and, given input user coordinates and an
elevation, generates a flat, floating 3D image of the bitmap.

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Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads an existing bitmap image
(JPG or BMP).
Menu command: OpenGL / Images / Float.
Output window: RockPlot3D.
Notes: Be sure the X and Y coordinates you assign to the bitmap corners are in the same
units as those in the project with which you’ll be combining this image. Once the image
is created, use RockPlot3D’s File / Save As to save the floating bitmap view, then use
File / Append to append an existing RockPlot3D view to this image.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Miscellaneous OpenGL


3D Images / 3D Bitmaps

Drape a bitmap over a surface

This tool reads an existing bitmap image and, given an existing grid model, generates a 3D
image of the bitmap that confirms with the grid surface.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads an existing bitmap image
(JPG or BMP) and an existing RockWorks grid model (.GRD) over which it will be
draped.
Menu command: OpenGL / Images / Drape.
Output window: RockPlot3D.
Notes: Use RockPlot3D’s File / Save As to save the draped bitmap view, then use File /
Append to append an existing RockPlot3D view to this image.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Miscellaneous OpenGL


3D Images / 3D Bitmaps.

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Display bitmap images as vertical panels

This tool read a list of bitmap images and their coordinates, and displays them as vertical
image panels.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads an OpenGL Vertical Panel
Image List (page 85).
Menu command: OpenGL / Images / Panels / Vertical.
Output window: RockPlot3D.
Notes: Use RockPlot3D’s File / Save As to save the panels, then use File / Append to
append an existing RockPlot3D view to this image.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Miscellaneous OpenGL


3D Images / 3D Bitmaps

Display bitmap images as horizontal panels

This tool read a list of bitmap images and their coordinates, and displays them as
horizontal or inclined image panels.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads an OpenGL Horizontal Panel
Image List (page 85).
Menu command: OpenGL / Images / Panels / Horizontal.
Output window: RockPlot3D.
Notes: Use RockPlot3D’s File / Save As to save the panels, then use File / Append to
append an existing RockPlot3D view to this image.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Miscellaneous OpenGL


3D Images / 3D Bitmaps

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3D Tubes

The Geological Utilities OpenGL / Tubes option reads X1Y1Z1 X2Y2Z2 locations from
the datasheet and draws 3D tubes between these locations for display in RockPlot3D. Use
this to display pipes, mine workings, structural diagrams in 3D space.
Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads an OpenGL “Tubes” file
(page 86).
Menu command: OpenGL / Images / Tubes.
Output window: RockPlot3D.
Notes: Use RockPlot3D’s File / Save As to save the image, then use File / Append to
append an existing RockPlot3D view to this image.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Miscellaneous OpenGL


3D Images / 3D Tubes

3D Oriented Objects

The Geological Utilities OpenGL / Oriented Objects option reads location, bearing, and
inclination data from the datasheet and draws 3-dimensional rectangular prisms at those
locations for display in RockPlot3D. Use this to display fossils, archeological items or
other oriented items in 3D space.

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Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads an OpenGL “Oriented


Objects” file (page 87).
Menu command: OpenGL / Images / Oriented Objects.
Output window: RockPlot3D.
Notes: Use RockPlot3D’s File / Save As to save the image, then use File / Append to
append an existing RockPlot3D view to this image.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Miscellaneous OpenGL


3D Images / 3D Oriented Objects.

3D Storage Tanks

The Geological Utilities OpenGL / Tanks tools reads location, elevation, radius and color
data from the datasheet and draws 3-dimensional cylindrical tanks at those locations for
display in RockPlot3D. Use this to display underground or surface tanks with your 3d
images. The tanks can be oriented vertically or horizontally.

Create a horizontal tank image

Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads an OpenGL “Horizontal


Tanks” file (page 87).
Menu command: OpenGL / Images / Tanks / Horizontal Objects.
Output window: RockPlot3D.
Notes: Use RockPlot3D’s File / Save As to save the image, then use File / Append to
append an existing RockPlot3D view to this image.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Miscellaneous OpenGL


3D Images / 3D Storage Tanks.

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Create a vertical tank image

Datasheet: Geological Utilities datasheet. This tool reads an OpenGL “Vertical Tanks”
file (page 87).
Menu command: OpenGL / Images / Tanks / Horizontal Objects.
Output window: RockPlot3D.
Notes: Use RockPlot3D’s File / Save As to save the image, then use File / Append to
append an existing RockPlot3D view to this image.

Help / Contents / The Geological Utilities / Statistical Tools / Miscellaneous OpenGL


3D Images / 3D Storage Tanks.

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Chapter 18 - Miscellaneous Utilities


Utilities Menu - Overview

The RockWorks Geological Utilities Util menu contains a variety of miscellaneous


geology, financial, graphic, and reference tools.

For more information about each of these utilities, please see Help / Contents / The
Geological Utilities / Miscellaneous Utilities.
3-Point Contouring
The Geological Utilities Util / 3-Point tool is used to compute strike and dip based on
three points and plot a surface as a contour map. The X,Y,Z points are typed into the
program window (they are not read from the datasheet).
Financial Utilities
The Geological Utilities Util / Financial Utilities tools are used to calculate cost and
profit breakdown, lease analysis, and amortization on loans by changing various factors
within the utility equations.
The Break-even Analysis program is used to determine when a project has paid for
itself. The program may also be used to estimate profits and losses.
The Lease Analysis program calculates square footage rates, monthly rent, and
annual rent based on any combination of the other variables.
The Loan Analysis (amortization) program is used to determine various loan-related
items such as when a loan will be paid off, the total amount paid at the end of the loan
period, and so on.
Geometry Calculator
The Geological Utilities Util / Geometry Calculatortool is used to perform geometric
calculations such as surface areas, volumes, and side lengths of various geometric shapes
and solids.
Geological Time Chart
The Geological Utilities Util / Geological Time Chart tool is an interactive program
designed to show the duration, ages, and major events of various geological time periods.

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Igneous Rock Identification


The Geological Utilities Util / Igneous command is an interactive program used to
identify igneous rocks by displaying a series of questions about the rock characteristics,
and offering a classification based on your responses.
Periodic Table
The Geological Utilities Util / Periodic Table tool is used to retrieve information about
various elements by pointing at the elemental symbol on the table and pressing the mouse
button.
Trigonometry Calculator
The Geological Utilities Util / Trigonometry Calculator tool is used to perform various
trigonometric calculations, such as apparent dip or true dip, drilled thickness, strike and
dip from 3 points, and more.
Unit Converter
The Geological Utilities Util / Unit Converter tool is used to convert measurement units
(length, area, pressure, velocity, etc.) By entering a single value in a particular
measurement system, you can create a table displaying an equal measurement in other
units.
The program reads the conversion data from a text file named "unitconv.tab." This file
lists in blocks the different measurement types, and within each block the unit values for 1
"standard" unit.

Displaying a RockWorks PicShow


The Geological Utilities Util / Images / PicShow option is used to read a list of names of
bitmap images (BMP or JPG format) from the main RockWorks data sheet, and display
them in order, with an adjustable delay between frames. The PicShow can run once or be
continually looped to repeat the display list.
Translate BMP and JPG Images
The Geological Utilities Util / Images / BMP -> JPG and JPG -> BMP tools are used to
read an existing BMP or JPG image and translate it to the other format.

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Chapter 19 - RockPlot2D
RockPlot2D Overview

RockPlot2D is one of the two plotting engines for RockWorks. It is used to display 2-
dimensional maps and diagrams as they are being created, and for opening saved images
at a later date. RockPlot2D contains its own set of menu and toolbar commands, which
are discussed in this section.
See also: RockPlot3D (page 231) for information about manipulating images in the
RockWorks 3-D plotting window.

Managing RockPlot2D Files


This section discusses the process of opening and saving "RKW" files that are displayed
in the RockPlot2D window.

Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Managing RockPlot2D Files.

How to create a new RockPlot2D window

A new RockPlot2D window is created automatically any time that a 2-dimensional map or
diagram is created within RockWorks. Multiple RockPlot2D windows may remain open
at any time.

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If you are working in RockWorks and wish to open an existing map or diagram that has
already been saved in a binary RKW format, you'll need to access a RockPlot2D window
first.
If a RockPlot2D window is already open:
1. Simply click in that RockPlot2D window to make it active and follow the instructions
about Opening Plot Files (below).
To locate an existing plot window that may be hidden behind the main RockWorks
data screen, you can either move the data window out of the way (by grabbing its title
bar) or click on its Windows menu to see a listing of available plot windows. From
there you can click on the name of the plot window you wish to access.
If there is no RockPlot2D window open:
1. You can launch RockPlot2D by selecting the RockPlot2D command from the
RockWorks File menu.

How to open a RockPlot2D plot file

Use RockPlot2D's Open-file toolbar button or File menu / Open command to open an
existing 2-dimensional RockWorks graphic file, such as a map, cross section, or rose
diagram, that has been saved in a binary RKW format. This can be an RKW plot file
created by RockWorks2002 or "recent" versions of RockWorks99.

! If there is no RockPlot2D window yet displayed on the screen, you will need to create a
new RockPlot2D window first (previous topic).

! If you are opening an RKW file that was created with an older version of RockPlot
(older RockWorks99 [pre-7/21/99] and RockWorks98, or Stratos98 and RockWare
Utilities), the program will need to convert these older graphic formats to the newer
graphic format. The versions of RockWorks released after July, 1999 store data, process
data, and store graphics using an 8-byte, double-precision real number structure. This
means that large numbers with high precision (such as longitude/latitude coordinates) are
more accurate. You will be presented with a prompt notifying you of this conversion
process, with the option of canceling (see Step #4 below).
1. To open an existing RockWorks "RKW" graphic file, select the Open command from
the File menu.
The program will display a prompt window in which you may specify the name of the
file to open. RockPlot2D opens files that were stored in a binary "RKW" file format
only.

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2. In the displayed dialog box, select the file you wish to open, accessing other drives or
directories as necessary.
3. When you are ready to plot the image in a window on the screen, choose the OK
button.
The program will load the plot file into the RockPlot2D window.
If the RKW file was created by an older version of RockWorks, you may be warned,
"Filename is a RockPlot 32-bit Single Precision file. Do you want to convert?"
4. Click Yes if it’s okay to convert the old graphic to the newer format, for display in an
Untitled window. The new format cannot be opened in the older version of the
program.
Click No if you do not wish to convert the graphic.

How to save RockPlot2D files

When RockPlot2D is first "called" by RockWorks, it will display the map or diagram in
an Untitled window. (This means that the plot window's title bar will read "Untitled.")
Graphic images will also be displayed in an Untitled window if they have been imported
into RockPlot2D, have resulted from using the RockPlot2D Utilities menu tools, etc.
1. If you wish to save the map or diagram on disk, select the Save As command (File
menu).
The program will display a dialog box where you may specify the file name (and
other drive and directory path information) for the map or diagram.
2. Type in the name under which to store the plot file on disk, and click on the Save
button.
RockPlot2D always stores plot files in a binary "RKW" format. If you need to export the
image to a BMP, JPG, DXF, WMF, or EMF format, you can use the Export command.

Importing Files into RockPlot2D


RockPlot2D saves graphic images on disk in a binary "RKW" format.
There are also graphic importing/opening routines available so that other kinds of graphic
files can be displayed right within RockPlot2D, saved in a RKW format, combined with
existing RKW maps, etc. These imports include AGL import ("Ascii Graphics Language"
created by RockWare), DLG import (Digital Line Graph from the USGS), DXF import
(used in many CAD systems), and E00 import (used in ArcInfo).

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See the following Help topics.

Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Importing Files into RockPlot2D.


How to import DXF files
How to import DLG files
How to import AGL files
How to import ArcInfo E00 files
DXF Import Limitations: The DXF Importer imports the following DXF entities: LINE,
POLYLINE, LWPOLYLINE, TEXT, and MTEXT, with the following limitations:
TEXT and MTEXT may not be placed or sized identically to the original. The font
used will be the current default font from the RockWorks system (established in the
View / Preferences / Graphic Font command). In addition, there are cases where text
may be cut off, if the text blocks extend beyond other diagram entities upward or to
the right.
The DXF Importer will not import BLOCK entities, HATCH patterns, line styles,
CIRCLE’s and more. If the program encounters an item in the DXF file that it does
not import, it will display a warning on the screen. At that time you may choose to
abort the import process or ignore unrecognized items.
DLG Import Limitations: DLG data is published by the U.S. Geological Survey and must
be acquired through them or their agents. DLG data is not provided with this program
other than in the form of a sample data file, called "dlg1.dlg."
The DLG import procedure can read USGS Digital Line Graph data extracted from
1:100,000 or 1:2,000,000-scale maps, Optional format. Boundary, transportation,
hydrography, hypsography (contour) and land grid categories are supported.
The SDTS format is not currently supported.
E00 Import Limitations: RockPlot imports "e00" polylines only.

Viewing RockPlot2D Files


RockPlot2D is the plotting engine for "flat" or 2-dimensional maps and diagrams within
RockWorks, and these maps and diagrams are plotted automatically into a RockPlot2D
window on the screen upon their completion.
Once the image is plotted on the screen, you may do any of the operations discussed in the
topics below.

Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Viewing RockPlot2D Files.

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How to resize the RockPlot2D window

Follow these steps to resize a RockPlot2D window:


1. Be sure there’s a RockPlot2D window open. (See Creating a New RockPlot2D
Window, page 211.)
2. To fill the screen with the image window, click on the Windows Maximize button
in the upper-right corner of the window.
To make a maximized window smaller, click on the Windows Restore Down
button.
To adjust a window size by hand, position the cursor on a window boundary or
corner. When you see the cursor change shape to a double-sided arrow (<->), click
and hold the left mouse button, and drag the boundary to the desired location.
Once a window is resized, the image within it will not be redrawn until you select one of
the scaling buttons from the toolbar or menu commands.

How to change the screen scaling of the image

When you have a diagram displayed in a RockPlot2D window, you may change the size
of the window (as discussed under Resizing Windows) as well as change how the diagram
is plotted within its window.
Follow these steps to adjust the display of an image in the plot window:
1. Be sure there’s a RockPlot2D window open. (See Creating a New RockPlot2D
Window, page 211.)
2. Select one of the scaling options.

Best Fit
The Best Fit command (View menu) or toolbar button will fill the window as best it
can with the current diagram while keeping the x (horizontal) and y (vertical) axis
scales equal. This is best for most maps, for single page diagrams (rose, ternary, etc.),
and for some RockWorks logs and cross-sections which are rescaled as they are
created for equal x and y axis scaling.

Stretch
The Stretch toolbar button or View menu command is used to fill the current window
with the diagram, regardless of the horizontal and vertical scaling used. The
represented vertical exaggeration will be displayed in the Exag item in the toolbar.

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! Note that if you prefer to have the vertical axis stretched or compressed by a specific
scale factor, use the Vertical Exaggeration option.
Example: Let's say you have opened a RockWorks strip log diagram. You can use your
mouse to resize the RockPlot2D window to be long vertically and narrow horizontally.
Then, choose the Stretch button to fill this window with the log.
See also: Printing RockPlot2D files (page 229) regarding print scaling.

How to zoom in and out of the screen image

Follow these steps to enlarge/reduce the image display in the RockPlot2D window.
1. Be sure there’s a RockPlot2D window open. (See Creating a New RockPlot2D
Window, page 211.)
2. Use the Zoom In toolbar button or menu command to enlarge a portion of the map or
diagram plotted within RockPlot2D.

Select the Zoom In button or command.


Position the magnifying glass tool at one corner of the area to be enlarged. Depress
the mouse button and drag the tool to the opposite corner.

Release the mouse button when you have reached the opposite corner of the area to be
enlarged.

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When you release the mouse button, the program will redraw the selected area on the
screen.

If the original image was plotted at equal x and y scales, its zoomed image also will
be.
3. Use the Zoom Out toolbar button or View menu command to restore the active
RockPlot2D window to its original scaling.

Simply click once on the Zoom Out tool to re-plot the active plot file at its original
scaling.
The original diagram scaling is restored even if you "zoomed in" several times. Equal vs.
non-equal x- and y-scaling will be preserved.

How to use the Navigation Rose to shift the current view

RockPlot2D contains a new tool that you can use to shift your view of the current plot file
if it’s being viewed in a "zoomed in" state. This "navigation rose" sits in the RockPlot2D
toolbar (to the left of the image).

The inner set of arrows is used to shift the diagram by one-half of the current window size
in the indicated direction.
For example, let's say you have "zoomed into" a map as shown below.
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Clicking the inside left arrow would pan to the left one-half screen, resulting in this
view:

The outer set of arrows is used to shift the diagram by the full window size in the
indicated direction.

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How to adjust the vertical exaggeration

RockPlot2D initially displays images on the screen at equal scales vertically and
horizontally. This can create problems if you are plotting logs or cross section that are
significantly longer (deeper) than wide, or significantly wider than deep.
You can use the Vertical Exaggeration button in the toolbar (and in the View menu) to
stretch or compress the vertical axis of the screen image by a specific factor. (By contrast,
the Stretch button will fill the screen with the image, often changing both the horizontal
and vertical axis scaling.)
1. Be sure there’s a RockPlot2D window open. (See Creating a New RockPlot2D
Window, page 211.)
2. Click on the Exag item in the left-hand toolbar, or choose the View / Vertical
Exaggeration command.
3. Type in the desired vertical exaggeration. To make the image taller, enter a value > 1.
To make the image flatter, enter a value < 1.
The program will redraw the current image at the indicated exaggeration. Subsequent use
of any of the other image resizing tools (zooming, panning with the navigation rose, etc.)
will maintain the selected exaggeration.
4. To restore the exaggeration to "1", click on the Exag item in the left-hand toolbar, or
choose the View / Vertical Exaggeration command, and type in: 1.

How to return to the main RockWorks data window

The RockPlot2D window is created automatically from RockWorks for display of 2-


dimensional (flat) maps and diagrams (2D logs, cross sections, ternary diagrams, rose
diagrams, etc.). RockWorks allows multiple RockPlot2D windows to remain open at the
same time.
Because of this, it’s quite easy to find your computer display full of windows. To access
the main RockWorks data window, either the Geological Utilities datasheet or the
Borehole Manager data tabs, follow these steps:
1. If the RockPlot2D window is full-screen (or big enough to obscure the RockWorks
window in the background), use the Return to Data Window button to move the
plot window to the background and display the data window.
Or, if the RockPlot2D window is small enough to see the RockWorks window in the
background, simply click on the RockWorks window. This will move the plot
window to the background, and move the data window to the top.

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How to access an already-open RockPlot2D window

RockWorks allows multiple RockPlot2D windows to be open simultaneously. As you


click back and forth between data and plot windows, it can become difficult to keep house
and locate buried images.
To locate and bring to the front a specific plot window, follow these steps:
1. Access the main RockWorks data window (use the Return to Data Window button
if necessary).
2. Click on the RockWorks Windows menu. RockWorks will list there all currently-
open RockPlot2D windows.
3. Click on the name of the RockPlot2D window you wish to access.
! RockPlot2D windows are created with the names "Untitled1," "Untitled2" (etc.) for the
current session. Any window that has not been saved as a RockPlot2D image ("RKW"
file) will be displayed as "Untitled.." in the Windows menu listing.

On-Screen Tools: Measuring and Digitizing


RockPlot2D contains eight tools used to record measurements and digitize coordinates
right on the screen itself. In addition, digitized points, lines, "polylines" and polygons
added to the screen can be appended to the underlying map or other graphic image.
Digitized coordinates or computed measurements are displayed in the "RockPlot2D data
window" that sits to the right of the graphic window. This information can be copied to
the clipboard for pasting into other applications.
RockPlot2D Tutorial / Measure Distances on the Map, Add Lines to the Map.

Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / On-Screen Tools: Measuring and Digitizing.

Measurement and Drawing Options

Use the Options command in the RockPlot2D Measure and Data menus to establish
settings for the measurement and digitizing tools.
1. If necessary, open the diagram to be measured/drawn on (see Opening Plot Files,
page 212) or click in the current RockPlot2D window containing the diagram.
2. Select the Options command from either the Measure or Data menu.
The program will display a set of tabs for the available items.

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3. Click on the tab of the item whose settings you wish to view or modify. See Help for
details.
4. When you are ready to accept the changes you made and to return to the RockPlot2D
window, click the OK button. To discard any changes, click the Cancel button.

The RockPlot2D Data Window

The RockPlot2D "Data Window" is displayed to the right of the RockPlot2D image
window. It is used to display computed measurements and coordinates which result from
the use of the Measure and Draw menu tools. Each plot window that is open will have its
own data window.

The RockPlot2D Data Window contains the following tools which can help you manage
your measurements or digitized coordinates. These tools are available as buttons above the
Data Window, or as commands in the Data menu.

Save: Saves the contents of the data window in a text file.

Clear: Clears all entries so that you can start a new data listing. You will NOT be
warned that data will be lost.

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Copy all Data: Copies all data, including numbers and text labels, to the Windows
clipboard for pasting elsewhere. Below is an example of what's copied to the clipboard
for three points digitized using the Draw / Points command:
Point: 7,303.22 11,324.51
Point: 8,885.57 10,898.5
Point: 10,346.2 12,846
! Don't use Ctrl+C to copy the data displayed in the data window. That command is
reserved for copying the current plot - the picture itself - to the clipboard.

Copy Numeric Data: Copies numeric data only (computations and/or digitized
coordinates) to the Windows clipboard for pasting elsewhere.
Below is what's copied to the clipboard for the same three points as shown above:
7,303.22 11,324.51
8,885.57 10,898.5
10,346.2 12,846
! Don't use Ctrl+C to copy the data displayed in the data window. That command is
reserved for copying the current plot - the picture itself - to the clipboard.

New Graphic: Creates a new plot window containing the graphic representation of
the Draw items (points, lines, polylines, and/or polygons) listed in the data window. The
line style and color in which the lines are to be drawn should be established under Draw /
Options prior to creating the new graphic.
The new plot window can be saved as a RKW file (File / Save), appended to another
RKW file (Utilities / Append), and so on. Below is an example of digitized
correlation lines saved as a new graphic.

Append Current Graphic: Creates a new plot window containing the graphic
representation of the Draw items (points, lines, polylines, and/or polygons) which are
listed in the data window, overlaying the existing image in the current plot window. The
line style and color in which the lines are to be drawn should be established under Draw /
Options prior to creating the new graphic.

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The new plot window can be saved as a RKW file (File / Save), appended to another
RKW file (Utilities / Append), and so on. Below is an example of these same
correlation lines appended to the existing graphic.

! You need to use the data tools shown above to store the data in the clipboard or record
the data as graphic entities before closing the plot window, or you'll lose all of the data
items. The data items are not stored in the graphic RKW file.

! The Draw items are held in temporary memory only. If you redraw the image (using
Zoom In, Zoom Out, Best Fit, Stretch, or Vertical Exaggeration) the drawn items will
disappear from the graphic display. Since they are recorded, however, in the Data
Window, the Copy all Data, Copy Numeric Data, New Graphic, and Append Current
Graphic tools are still available.

! The Data Window is not designed for you to edit the coordinates or measurements
there. Thus, there is no Paste command for the Data Window. You may utilize either of
two copy-data buttons, described below, for copying the data to the Windows clipboard
for pasting elsewhere.
See the following Help topics:

Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / On-Screen Tools: Measuring and Digitizing / …


How to measure the area within a polygon.
How to measure the bearing of a line.
How to measure the distance between two points.
How to measure the perimeter of a polygon.
How to draw points.
How to draw lines.
How to draw polylines.
How to draw polygons.
How to append drawn items to the underlying graphic image.
How to display the drawn items in their own plot window.
How to copy the contents of the Data Window to the clipboard.
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Manipulating RockPlot2D Files


The commands in the RockPlot2D Utilities menu are used to manipulate plot files
displayed on the screen, with border annotations, legends, rescaling or combining files,
clipping images, and converting coordinates.

Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Manipulating RockPlot2D Files.

Adding Border Annotations to RockPlot2D Images

The Annotate command in the RockPlot2D Utilities menu is used to add axis tick marks
and labels representing coordinate units to a two-dimensional map, such as a sample map
or contour map. In order to preserve the existing plot file, the annotated map will be
loaded into a new, untitled RockPlot2D window.

! RockWorks also permits you to include this annotation when the map or diagram is
being created.
If you wish to combine maps (via the Append command), you should combine the maps
first, then annotate them.
RockPlot2D Tutorial / Annotate the Map.

See Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Manipulating RockPlot2D Files / Adding Border


Annotations to RockPlot2D Images.

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Adding Legends to RockPlot2D Images

The Legend tool in the RockPlot2D Utilities menu is used to add a legend to a map or
diagram that is displayed on the screen, and to display the new map in a new RockPlot2D
window. The legend can include any combination of the following items: Bitmaps
(logos, etc.), titles, a north arrow, x-axis scale bar, y-axis scale bar, symbol index, pattern
index, color index, line style index, and seven lines of notes. The legend can be appended
to the right edge or the lower edge of the map or diagram.
RockPlot2D Tutorial / Add Legends to the Map.

See Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Manipulating RockPlot2D Files / Adding


Legends to RockPlot2D Images.

Combining 2D Plot Files

The Append command in the RockPlot2D Utilities menu is used to add the contents of a
RockPlot2D file (*.RKW) onto the end of a diagram displayed on the screen, thereby
combining the two. This is a handy way to combine, for example, project contours with a
reference base map.
In order to preserve the existing plot file, the combined image will be loaded into a new,
untitled RockPlot2D window.
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Tips on Appending Files: One of the most important concepts in combining 2D plot files
is that the two maps or diagrams must occupy the same coordinates in space in order for
them to overlay correctly. Some examples:
* You can overlay a RockWorks point map of a data set with a contour map created of
the same data set since they have the same x and y coordinate range.
* You cannot overlay a map of Oklahoma onto a map of Maine since their real world
coordinates don't coincide.
* You cannot overlay a point map of Colorado cities that is in longitude and latitude
coordinates onto a contour map of Colorado that is in UTM coordinates - again, the
coordinates don't coincide.
You can use the coordinate display in the RockPlot2D toolbar to get an idea of the
coordinate range of any diagram. Just move the mouse pointer around the RockPlot2D
window and note the change in the coordinate listing.
You can use the RockPlot2D Utilities / Rescale command to rescale a map to a different
coordinate range. You can use the Utilities / Degrees to UTM or UTM to Degrees
commands to convert between decimal longitude / latitude and UTM coordinates.
See also: The Montage tool for information about rescaling and combining plots.
RockPlot2D Tutorial / Open, Zoom Into, and Combine Maps.
See Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Manipulating RockPlot2D Files / Combining 2D
Plot Files.

Rescaling 2D Plot files

The Rescale command in the RockPlot2D Utilities menu is used to change map or
diagram coordinates using one of two available schemes:
* Rescale by establishing a new X,Y origin coordinate and scaling the X and Y axes by
a constant value.
* Rescale by establishing new boundary coordinates for one or more axes.
Note that these rescaling schemes change the actual coordinates that are stored for the
lines, symbols, and such in a map or diagram. In order to preserve the existing plot file,
both utilities create a new, Untitled window for display of the rescaled map or diagram.
If you do not need to change the coordinates of the plot file but simply want to change the
scale at which it is printed, this is done within RockPlot2D’s Print utility itself. See
Printing RockPlot2D Files (page 229) for more information. Or, if you want to change the
scale at which it is viewed on the screen, there are zoom-in and zoom-out tools for this –
see Viewing RockPlot2D Files (page 214).

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See Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Manipulating RockPlot2D Files / Rescaling 2D


Plot Files.
! If you need to know the coordinate range of any RockPlot2D image, select the Rescale /
By New Coordinates command from its Utilities menu. A dialog box will be displayed
with the current boundary coordinates for the plot. You can then select the Cancel button
to return to the RockPlot2D window.

Clipping RockPlot2D Files

The Clip command in the RockPlot2D Utilities menu is used to extract from an existing
map or diagram all of the contents that lie within a user-declared rectangular area. The
clipped image is displayed in a new, Untitled RockPlot2D window.
This can be used, for example, to illustrate portions of a regional map that lie within your
study area or lease. Or, it can be used to clip only particular portions of a diagram for
export.
See also: RockPlot2D’s On-Screen Tools (page 220) for information about digitizing
coordinates on the screen.

Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Manipulating RockPlot2D Files / Clipping


RockPlot2D Files.

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Combining Multiple RockPlot2D Images into a Montage

The Montage command in the RockPlot2D Utilities menu is used to combine multiple
plot files (*.RKW) into a single "montage," using coordinate information that you enter
into a table. The new image containing the combined plots is displayed in a new, untitled
RockPlot2D window.
The files to be combined must be RockWorks "plot" files, stored on disk as ".rkw" files.
The files must reside in the same directory as the montage table itself.

Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Manipulating RockPlot2D Files / Combining Multiple


RockPlot2D Images into a Montage.

Converting Plot File Coordinates

The Degrees to UTM and UTM to Degrees commands in the RockPlot2D Utilities menu
are used to convert plot file coordinates from longitude / latitude decimal degrees to
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) meters, and vice versa. The converted map is
displayed in a new, untitled RockPlot2D window.

! These utilities convert graphic coordinates - the coordinates that are stored for each line,
symbol, etc., in the plot file. If you wish instead to convert the original X,Y data
coordinates that are listed in your datasheet, you can do so using the tools in the
RockWorks Geological Utilities Coords menu.
! The RockWorks and RockPlot2D coordinate conversions are based on NAD27. They
are probably adequate for relatively low resolution work, but may not provide the
accuracy of dedicated coordinate-conversion packages when working in small map areas.
If you need information about other conversion tools, please see the RockWorks web site
(www.rockware.com) and look for a program called Tralaine.

Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Manipulating RockPlot2D Files / Converting Plot File


Coordinates.

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Printing RockPlot2D Files


You may output the map or diagram contained in a RockPlot2D window to your printer
using the Print Setup and Print commands (File menu).
RockPlot2D Tutorial / Print the Map.

Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Printing RockPlot2D Files

How to set up your printer

The RockPlot2D Print Setup command (File menu) is used to establish the type of printer
you are using.
1. Select the File / Print Setup command.
When invoked, the program will display a dialog box with a pop-up list box
containing the printers that are currently installed within Windows.
2. You may select the printer you wish to use. You may also select paper size and
orientation. The Options command button will display additional printer
configuration dialog boxes for the selected printer.
! See your Windows manual for information about installing printer drivers, and see your
printer's documentation regarding specific printer settings.

How to Print …

See the following Help topics:

Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Printing RockPlot2D Files / …


How to print maps and diagrams.
How to print cross sections.
How to print strip logs.

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Exporting RockPlot2D Files


The RockPlot2D program saves plot files on disk in a binary "RKW" format.
If you want to save the plot in a BMP (Windows Bitmap), JPG (JPEG), DXF (supported
by many CAD and drawing-style applications), WMF (Windows MetaFile), EMF
(Enhanced Metafile) format you can do so with the Export command (File menu).
See the following Help topics:

Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Exporting RockPlot2D Files / …


How to Export RockPlot2D files to a Bitmap format
Export RockPlot2D files to a JPEG format
Export RockPlot2D files to a DXF format
Export RockPlot2D files to a WMF format
Export RockPlot2D files to an EMF format
RockPlot2D Tutorial / Export the Map and Insert it into a Document.

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Chapter 20 - RockPlot3D
RockPlot3D Overview

RockPlot3D is a true 3-dimensional display tool that is used by the RockWorks2002


Borehole Manager and General Utilities for display of 3D objects, such as stratigraphic
and water level surfaces, solid models, strip logs, and other items such as bitmaps and
storage tanks. These items can be displayed individually, or in combination as shown
above.
RockPlot3D permits interactive movement of the display (rotate, zoom, pan) and easy
viewing and hiding of image objects.

Managing RockPlot3D Files


This section discusses the process of opening, appending, and saving "R3D" files that
are displayed in the RockPlot3D window.
RockPlot3D Tutorial / All Topics.

Help / Contents / RockPlot3D / Managing RockPlot3D Files / …

How to Create a new RockPlot3D window

A new RockPlot3D window is created automatically any time that a 3-dimensional


image is created within RockWorks. Multiple RockPlot3D windows may remain open
at any time.
If you are working in RockWorks and wish to open an existing image that has already
been saved as an R3D file, you’ll need to access a RockPlot3D window first.
If a RockPlot3D window is already open:
1. Simply click in that RockPlot3D window to make it active and follow the
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instructions about Opening a RockPlot3D View (below).


To locate an existing plot window that may be hidden behind the main RockWorks
data screen, you can move the data window out of the way (by grabbing its title
bar). Or, because RockPlot3D is run as a separate program, you will see its icon on
the Windows taskbar; just click on that icon to bring its window to the front.
If there is no RockPlot3D window open:
1. You can launch RockPlot3D by selecting the RockPlot3D command from the main
RockWorks File menu (available in both the Borehole Manager and the Geological
Utilities).

How to Open a RockPlot3D view

RockPlot3D saves its views in files with a file name extension .R3D. This is a format
unique to RockPlot3D. If you have already saved a view in RockPlot3D, you can open
it again into the program at any time. Follow these steps:
1. Access RockPlot3D if necessary. (See above.)

2. Click on the RockPlot3D File button and choose Open. (Or, click on the File menu
and choose Open.)
3. In the pop-up menu click on the name of the R3D scene you wish to open.
Or, if you don't see the scene listed there, click on the Select… option, and locate
the R3D file you wish to display, accessing other drives or folders as necessary.
The program will close any existing file, and load the contents of the selected R3D file.
4. At this time you can proceed to adjust the view (exaggeration, rotation, etc.),
manipulate the display, append another scene, print the scene, etc.
! Problems loading? See Troubleshooting File / Open (page 245).

How to Append an R3D file to the current view

RockPlot3D permits you to combine 3D views by appending the data objects in one
R3D file to the end of an existing view. Here's how:
1. If necessary, open the R3D file to which another file is to be appended (above ).

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2. Click on the RockPlot3D Append button and choose Select. (Or choose the File /
Append menu command and click Select.)
3. In the displayed window, locate the existing R3D file to append to the current view,
click on its name to highlight it, and click OK.
The program will load the data items from the selected R3D file and display them in the
current view. The program will automatically update the view’s dimensions if necessary
to accommodate the new data elements.
4. If you wish to save this new view, choose the Save command to save it under the
same file name as the original scene, or the Save As command to assign the
combined scene a new name. (See Saving RockPlot3D Views, below.)
! The view being appended should reside in the same folder as the original R3D file. If
it does not, be warned that any files liked to the appended view (.MOD files, .GRD files,
etc.) will need to be located for the program the next time the saved, appended image is
opened.

! If the scene being appended has radically different coordinate ranges, you may get a
strange-looking display. Be sure the data elements being appended really overlay each
other.

! Problems loading? See Troubleshooting File / Open (page 245).


See also: Saving a RockPlot3D view as a Zip file (page 234).

How to Save a RockPlot3D view

Follow these steps to save a RockPlot3D view or changes made to an existing view:
1. If the scene is untitled (has no name) or if it has a name and you wish to save under
that name, click on the Save button, or choose File / Save.
If the scene is currently untitled, you can type in a name for the scene and click OK.
The default file name extension is R3D.
2. If you wish to save the scene changes under a different name, choose the File / Save
As command.
Type in the new name to assign to the scene, and click OK. The default file name
extension is R3D.
! RockPlot3D stores in the R3D file a list of the data items, as well as the status of the
reference and data items: whether the item is "on" or "off", its transparency or color, and
other characteristics.

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! RockPlot3D does not store in the R3D file the actual data contained in grid models,
solid models, bitmap images, or other file-based items displayed in the current view.
Instead, it stores their file names. You need to be sure to keep all of these files together
in the same folder. See also: Save a RockPlot3D view as a zip file (below) for
information about zipping the R3D file and all linked files.

! RockPlot3D does not store any display information in the R3D file, such as last
viewpoint, lighting, or vertical exaggeration.

How to Save a RockPlot3D view as a zip file

Because RockPlot3D’s "R3D" files can contain links to bitmap images, grid models,
solid models, and other external files, it can be confusing to keep track of what files to
send to co-workers for viewing, or what files you need to keep when you are house-
cleaning. RockPlot3D offers a save option that stores the R3D and all linked files as a
ZIP file. Follow these steps:
1. Click on the File / Save As menu command.
2. In the Save as Type prompt, click the down arrow if necessary to select the Packed
(*.zip) option.
3. In the File Name prompt, type in the name for the ZIP file, and then click Save
button.
RockPlot3D will create a ZIP-format file containing the R3D file and all linked surface
grids, vertical grids, solid models, bitmaps, color tables, and other linked files. (All
linked file names are displayed in the lower-right pane of the RockPlot3D window.) The
default file name extension is ".ZIP".

! RockPlot3D cannot open a ZIP-format file. To later access the contents of the ZIP file,
you will need to have a software program capable of extracting files from the ZIP
archive.

Print a RockPlot3D view

Follow these steps to print a 3D image:


1. If necessary, open the R3D file you wish to print.
2. Adjust the image view to your satisfaction. This includes, but is not limited to, the
rotation angle, zoomed-in state, vertical exaggersion, etc. This is important because
the printing tool captures a bitmap image that’s based on what’s displayed in the 3D
View.
3. Select the File / Print menu command.
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4. Be sure the printer information displayed along the right side of the screen is
correct. (This information is taken directly from the Window-installed printer
driver.) Double-check that the displayed printer name is the one to which the output
should be sent. Use the printer’s Properties or Setup button to access printer-
specific settings.
5. Along the left side of the print window, you can choose from Draft quality (150
dots per inch or dpi), Good quality (300 dpi), or Best quality (600 dpi) output.
6. Click OK to send the print job to the printer.
TIPS:
If you need printouts larger than a single page, we recommend that you export the image
to a high resolution JPG or BMP image, and then print from a graphic application. (See
Exporting RockPlot3D Images, page 245.)
The general shape of the image must be adjusted before selecting the File / Print
command (see step #2). Unlike 2-dimensional (flat) images like contour maps, 3D
images cannot be printed at a specific horizontal and vertical units-per-inch scale.

Viewing RockPlot3D Files


RockPlot3D is the plotting engine for all surfaces, fence diagrams, solid models and
other 3-dimensional objects within RockWorks, and these images are plotted
automatically into a RockPlot3D window on the screen as they are generated.
What you'll see when RockPlot3D first opens is your image displayed on the left side or
"pane" of the screen, with a listing of the standard reference items and the current data
items shown in the right pane.

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Once the image is plotted on the screen, you may do any of the following operations
which are discussed in the Help topics below.

Help / Contents / RockPlot3D / Viewing RockPlot3D Files / How to…


Change the size of the 3D View pane.

Rotate the 3D view.

Zoom into/out of the view.

Move the image in the 3D display.

Spin the 3D image.


Select a pre-set view. (View / Above, Below, Compass Points)

Change the 3D view dimensions and vertical exaggeration.

Change the lighting of the 3D view.

Change the 3D view background color.


RockPlot3D Tutorial / Plot 3D Logs, etc.

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Manipulating RockPlot3D Images


The RockPlot3D screen contains an image pane along the left, and a listing of the data
items to the right.
You can adjust interactively the view of the image in the 3D Image pane by following
the instructions in Viewing RockPlot3D Files.
If you want to change the look of individual items in the Image view, that’s possible,
too. This section discusses these tools. This discussion is split up into the Reference
Items, which are available for all RockPlot3D images, and the Data Items which are
specific to each image created by RockWorks.
RockPlot3D Tutorial / All Topics.

Help / Contents / RockPlot3D / Manipulating RockPlot3D Images

Reference Items

RockPlot3D offers the following reference items used to orient yourself in the scene:

Orientation marker: Displayed in the lower-right corner of the 3D View, it shows


the current orientation of the X-axis (red), the Y-axis (blue), and Z-axis or elevation
(green). If you rotate the display, the orientation marker will be updated.
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Axes: The X, Y, and Z (elevation) axes are plotted in the middle of the currently-
defined scene dimensions.
World Outlines: Expand this item to access individual reference grids for the Top,
Base, West, North, East, and South boundaries of the scene. Right-click on any
item to adjust the color, fill, and opacity of the reference grids. Choose View /
Dimensions to adjust the scene dimensions.
Axis labels, which note the Top, Base, West, North, East, and South directions.
These reference items are listed at the top of the Data List in the right pane of the
RockPlot3D screen.
See these Help topics:

Help / Contents / RockPlot3D / Manipulating RockPlot3D Images / Reference


Items…
How to Turn on/off the reference items.
How to Change the density/color/opacity of the reference grids.

Data Items

The "Data Items" are the logs, surfaces, solids, or other entities that were created by
RockWorks. They can be displayed individually…

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or they can be displayed in groups.

Groups of items are shown with the Group symbol. Simply click on the Group’s
"+" button to view the data items within. Expand any data item’s "+" button to view its
components.
Each of the data types has characteristics you can modify right within RockPlot3D. Just
double-click on the item in the Data pane (on the right side of the RockPlot3D screen) to
access the settings.
See the following Help topics:

Help / Contents / RockPlot3D / Manipulating RockPlot3D Images / Data Items / How


to…
Turn on/off the display of the data items.
Change the 3D surface settings.
Change the 3D Isosurface settings (for solid models displayed as isosurfaces).
Change the 3D solid model settings (for solid models displayed with all
voxels).
Adjust the 3D slice settings (for slices inserted into solid models).
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Change the 3D fence panel settings.


General RockPlot Data items – adjusting transparency.
RockPlot3D Surface Settings
RockPlot3D can display 3-dimensional surfaces that are based on grid models. These
might result from gridding X/Y/Elevation data in the Geological Utilities datasheet
(Map / Grid-Based Map), from modeling a drawdown surface (Hydro / Drawdown
Surface), or from modeling stratigraphic surfaces or water level surfaces in the Borehole
Manager (Stratigraphy / Structural Elevations or Hydrology / Plan). Surfaces can be
displayed individually or in groups.

1. To access the surface settings, right-click on the surface item’s name or icon in
the right pane, and choose Options. You can also double-click on the surface item
to access the grid options.
The program will display a Grid Options window in which you can adjust the color
scheme, surface style, opacity, smoothing, and data filter.
See the following Help topics:

Help / Contents / RockPlot3D / Manipulating RockPlot3D Images / Data Items /


RockPlot3D Surface Settings / How to…
Adjust the surface color scheme.
Adjust the surface style.

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Adjust the surface transparency.


Adjust the surface smoothing.
Apply a Z-value filter.
RockPlot3D Tutorial / Append Stratigraphic Surfaces.
RockPlot3D Isosurface Settings
RockPlot3D can display 3-dimensional isosurfaces that are based on solid models.
These might result from modeling X,Y,Z,G data in the Geological Utilities datasheet
(Solid / Model), or from modeling geochemical or geophysical data in the Borehole
Manager (Geochemisty / Model, Geophysics / Model).

1. To access the isosurface settings, right-click on the item’s name or icon in the
right pane, and choose Options. You can also double-click on the isosurface item
to access the options.
The program will display the Isosurface Options window in which you can adjust the
color scheme, surface style, opacity, and smoothing. You can change the minimum G
level enclosed in the isosurface "skin", and adjust the appearance of the model at the
boundary edges. You can also insert horizontal and vertical slices.
See the following Help topics:

Help / Contents / RockPlot3D / Manipulating RockPlot3D Images / Data Items /


RockPlot3D Isosurface Settings / How to…
Adjust the isosurface color scheme.
Adjust the isosurface style.
Adjust the isosurface transparency.
Adjust the isosurface smoothing.
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Establish the minimum iso-level.


Display the isosurface volume.
Adjust the isosurface "cap" appearance.
Insert solid model slices.
RockPlot3D Tutorial / Append a Geochemical Isosurface…
See also: RockPlot3D Solid Model Settings, below.

RockPlot3D Solid Model Settings


RockPlot3D can display solid models as isosurfaces or as "all voxels". The All Voxel
display is typically used for display of lithology solid models or Boolean models that
result from the Geological Utilities Solid menu filtering tools, but can also be used for
geochemistry or geophysical models.

1. To access the solid model settings, right-click on the item’s name or icon in the
right pane, and choose Options. You can also double-click on the solid model item
to access the options.
The program will display the Solid Model Options window in which you can adjust the
color scheme, surface style, opacity, and smoothing. You can adjust the minimum and
maximum G values displayed, and you can insert horizontal and vertical slices.
See the following Help topics:

Help / Contents / RockPlot3D / Manipulating RockPlot3D Images / Data Items /


RockPlot3D Solid Model Settings / How to…
Adjust the solid model color scheme.
Adjust the solid model style.
Adjust the solid model transparency.
Adjust the solid model smoothing.
Filter G values from the display.
Display the RockPlot3D solid model volume.
Insert solid model slices.
See also: RockPlot3D Isosurface Settings (above).

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RockPlot3D Slice Settings


RockPlot3D can display 3-dimensional solid models as isosurfaces or using all voxels.
In addition, you can display horizontal and vertical slices within the solid model (see
Isosurfaces / How to insert a slice or Solid Models / How to insert a slice in the Help
messages).

Once created, these solid model slices then become data items of their own with their
own. You can adjust the surface appearance, transparency, smoothing, and position.
1. To access the slice settings, right-click on the slice’s name or icon in the right
pane, and choose Options. You can also double-click on the slice item to access the
options.
The program will display the Slice Options window.
See the following Help topics:

Help / Contents / RockPlot3D / Manipulating RockPlot3D Images / Data Items /


RockPlot3D Slice Settings / How to…
Adjust the slice’s surface style.
Adjust the slice’s transparency.
Adjust the slice’s smoothing.
Adjust the slice’s position.

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RockPlot3D Fence Panel Settings


RockPlot3D displays fence diagrams as vertical panels which are extracted from solid
models. These might result from modeling geochemical, geophysical, or lithology data
in the Borehole Manager (Geochemisty / Fence, Geophysics / Fence, Lithology /
Fence).

Each fence panel is stored as a "vertical grid" file (fence*.grd) which will be shown as
linked to the diagram. You can modify a number of the fence panel characteristics.

! Stratigraphy and water level fence panels are drawn a little differently (not from solid
models) and do not offer the same options as solid-model-based fences.

1. To access the vertical grid settings, expand the fence diagram group and expand
the fence panel’s group (if necessary). Then, right-click on the vertical grid item’s
name or icon in the right pane, and choose Options. You can also double-click
on the vertical grid to access the options.
The program will display a Grid Options window in which you can adjust the color
scheme, surface style, opacity, smoothing, and data filter.
See the following Help topics:

Help / Contents / RockPlot3D / Manipulating RockPlot3D Images / Data Items /


RockPlot3D Fence Panel Settings / How to…
Adjust the fence panel’s color scheme.
Adjust the fence panel’s surface appearance.
Adjust the fence panel’s transparency.
Adjust the fence panel’s smoothing.
Apply a fence panel G-value filter.

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General RockPlot3D Data Items - Adjusting Transparency


Some of the more complicated components of RockPlot3D displays (isosurfaces, grid
surfaces, etc.) have lots of options for adjusting colors, filtering data, and more. These
are discussed earlier in this section.
Some components of the displays are quite simple – they contain only a general
transparency setting.
See the following Help topics:

Help / Contents / RockPlot3D / Manipulating RockPlot3D Images / Data Items /


General RockPlot3D Data Items / How to…

Adjust the transparency of a group of items.


Adjust the transparency of individual items.

Exporting RockPlot3D Images


The RockPlot3D program saves image information in an "R3D" file, with links to
external bitmaps, solid models, grid models, etc. that are displayed in the image. (See
Saving Files, page 233.)
RockPlot3D also offers export of the screen display as other image types: BMP
(Windows Bitmap), JPG (JPEG), and AVI (animation) formats. These tools are in the
File / Export menu command.
See these Help topics:

Help / Contents / RockPlot3D / Exporting RockPlot3D Images / ...


Export RockPlot3D files to a Bitmap format.
Export RockPlot3D files to a JPEG format.
Export RockPlot3D images to an AVI (animation) format.
RockPlot3D Tutorial / Export and Zip the Final Image…

RockPlot3D Reference

Troubleshooting File / Open

RockPlot3D stores the current 3D view in an "R3D" file. Some of the information in the
view is recorded in the R3D file itself; this includes all of the reference and data item
names, whether the items are set to "on" or "off", their current attributes, and much
more.
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What is not stored in the R3D file, however, is the contents of any RockWorks-created
models or bitmap images that may be displayed in the 3D view. In other words, a large
solid model file (.MOD) containing contaminant data is not stored in the R3D file.
Neither is a stratigraphic surface’s grid model (GRD). Instead, their file names are
stored in the R3D file, and then RockPlot3D loads the data itself from the linked file.
The names of files linked to the current view are displayed in the lower-right pane of the
RockPlot3D window. RockPlot3D assumes that all files referenced in the R3D are
stored in the same folder as the R3D file.
So, what this means is that if the R3D file and any linked grid, solid model, bitmap, or
other files get separated, you may see the following message when RockPlot3D tries to
open that R3D file, or append that R3D file to another file:
Filename has been moved. Do you want to browse for this file?

1. Click the Yes option if you want to locate the missing file(s), and use the standard
Windows to change folders and/or drives as necessary.
Click No if you prefer not to locate the missing file(s), and the scene will be loaded
without those data elements.

Troubleshooting OpenGL

RockPlot3D uses OpenGL to deliver the responsive, interactive scenes you see on the
screen. We HIGHLY recommend that you use RockWorks2002/RockPlot3D on a
computer that contains a video card with OpenGL support.
How do you know if you have a video card that supports OpenGL? The easiest way is to
access the RockPlot3D Help menu, click on the About item, and then click on the
OpenGL Troubleshooting tab that’s displayed there. The window will display the driver
that’s installed on your system.
If there is a driver installed, its manufacturer and renderer and version will be listed. You
should opt for the Use Hardware Acceleration setting if your computer contains a good
card with a driver. You will be able to display and manipulate bigger images better.
If no driver is installed (typical of many laptops) you may see something like Driver
Vendor: Microsoft Corporation, Driver Renderer: GDI Generic. In this situation,
RockPlot3D will make use of RAM memory to provide the umph to drive the graphics.
You should choose the Use Software Acceleration setting. For this to work effectively,
we recommend that you have lots of RAM (more than 256 MB) and a faster processor
(400 mHz or faster Pentium III CPU).

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Chapter 21 - RockWorks Tables and System


Libraries
Diagram Legend Tables

Color Index Tables

A "Color Index Table" is used to plot a color legend inside a map/diagram legend box in
the RockPlot2D program. (These RockPlot2D legends can also include line style
legends, pattern legends, and symbol legends, described in following topics.) Although
many RockWorks color diagrams (maps, stratigraphic blocks, etc.) offer automatic color
legends, it can be handy to include a custom color index in an overall diagram legend to
emphasize anomalous areas, etc.
The factory default Color Index Table is named "Colindex.tab". It is stored in the
"Tables" folder in the RockWorks2002 program folder. This table is ASCII in format.

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Diagram Legend
Tables / Color Index Tables / How to...
Edit the Color Index Table.
Open a different Color Index Table.
See also: Colorfill Tables (page 248).

Line Style Index Tables

A "Line Style Index Table" is used to plot a legend showing different line styles and
captions inside a map/diagram legend box in the RockPlot2D program. (These
RockPlot2D legends can also include color legends, pattern legends, and symbol
legends, described in previous and following topics.)
The factory default Line Style Index Table is named "Linindex.tab". It is stored in the
"Tables" folder in the RockWorks2002 program folder. This table is ASCII in format.

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Diagram Legend
Tables / Line Style Index Tables / How to...
Edit the Line Style Index Table.
Open a different Line Style Index Table.

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Pattern Index Tables

A "Pattern Index Table" is used to plot a legend showing different pattern designs and
captions inside a map/diagram legend box in the RockPlot2D program. (These
RockPlot2D legends can also include color legends, line style legends, and symbol
legends, described in previous and following topics.)
The factory default Pattern Index Table is named "Patindex.tab". It is stored in the
"Tables" folder in the RockWorks2002 program folder. This table is ASCII in format.

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Diagram Legend
Tables / Pattern Index Tables / How to...
Edit the Pattern Index Table.
Open a different Pattern Index Table.
See also: Pattern Tables (page 254).

Symbol Index Tables

A "Symbol Index Table" is used to plot a legend showing different map symbol designs
and captions inside a map/diagram legend box in the RockPlot2D program. (These
RockPlot2D legends can also include color legends, line style legends, and pattern
legends, described in previous topics.)
The factory default Symbol Index Table is named "Symindex.tab". It is stored in the
"Tables" folder in the RockWorks2002 program folder. This table is ASCII in format.

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Diagram Legend
Tables / Symbol Index Tables / How to...
Edit the Symbol Index Table.
Open a different Symbol Index Table.
See also: Symbol Tables (page 260).

Color or Line Interval Tables

Colorfill Tables

A "Colorfill Table" is used to define a listing of value intervals and their corresponding
colors, to be used by the program when building 2D or 3D colorfill contour maps, solid
models, etc. for which you have requested "Custom" color intervals.

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The factory default Colorfill Table is named "Colorfil.tab". It is stored in the "Tables"
folder in the RockWorks2002 program folder. This table is ASCII in format.

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Color or Line
Interval Tables / Colorfill Tables / How to...
Edit the Colorfill Table.
Open a different Colorfill Table.
See also: Color Index Tables (page 247).

Contour Tables

A "Contour Table" is used to define a listing of Z-values and their corresponding line
styles and (optionally) contour labels, to be used by the program when building 2D line
contour maps for which you have requested "Custom" intervals.
The factory default Contour Table is named "Contours.tab". It is stored in the "Tables"
folder in the RockWorks2002 program folder. This table is ASCII in format.

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Color or Line
Interval Tables / Contour Tables / How to...
Edit the Contour Table.
Open a different Contour Table.

Density Factors Table


The RockWorks "Density Factors Table" can be used as a reference table for
determining the densities of various rock types, to be used if you wish to compute total
density in the 2D and 3D Volume tools.

! This table is designed to offer sample densities only. We encourage you to measure
your own rock density in your project areas, and add them to this listing.
The factory default Density Factors Table is named "Density.tab". It is stored in the
"Tables" folder in the RockWorks2002 program folder. This table is ASCII in format.

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Density Factors
Table / How to...
Edit the Density Factors Table.
Open a different Density Factors Table.
Measure your rock density.

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DLG Attributes Table


RockPlot2D (the RockWorks plotting program) offers import of USGS Digital Line
Graph ("DLG") data extracted from 1:100,000 or 1:2,000,000-scale maps, Optional
format. Boundary, transportation, hydrography, hypsography (contour) and land grid
categories are supported. The SDTS format is not currently supported.
In order to know how to plot the different DLG entities (roads vs. rivers, etc.), the
program uses the information stored in the "DLG Attribute Table." This Table lists
different DLG entity types, plus the line style, thickness, and color to be used to plot
them.
The factory default DLG Attributes Table is named "DLG_Atrb.tab". It is stored in the
"Tables" folder in the RockWorks2002 program folder. This table is ASCII in format.

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / DLG Attributes
Table / How to...
Edit the DLG Attributes Table.
Open a different DLG Attributes Table.

Help / Contents / RockPlot2D / Importing Files into RockPlot2D / Import DLG files

Land Grid Tables

Land Grid Tables Overview

RockWorks contains two tools in the Coords menu that translate Jeffersonian-style
locations (which reference Range, Township, and Section or "RTS" information) to
Cartesian X,Y coordinates. In addition, RockWorks contains two tools in the Map
menu that create section boundary maps or lease maps.
In order to perform the coordinate translation or plot the maps, the program needs a list
of reference coordinates which are stored in a "Land Grid Table."
Where do these reference coordinates come from? RockWorks offers two options:
One option is to purchase RTS land grid information from a commercial source.
This requires that you import that data into the Land Grid Table.
The second option is to create an idealized land grid, which requires only that you
define a single known latitude and longitude coordinate for a corner of a Township
and the number of townships to be listed.

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Below is an example of how a Land Grid Table would look when the data is imported or
interpolated.

* Each row contains data for a single Section.


* The Sections do not need to be listed in any particular order.
* If Sections are missing from Township, they simply will not be plotted on the final
map.
* No blank cells are permitted. If there is data missing for a particular Section, the
entire row should be removed.
! The Land Grid program permits listing of only four corner points per Section. If you
imported commercial land grid data that has more points defined for a Section, this
program will pick the four best points possible to represent the Section as a four-sided
shape.
See also: Land Grid Maps (page 110).

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Importing Commercial Land Grid Data

If you have purchased land grid data from a commercial vendor and wish to use this data
as a means of spotting wells or leases and/or for creating section or lease maps, this data
must be imported into the RockWorks Land Grid Table. This import tool can read data
provided by these commercial vendors:
* Petroleum Information / Dwights * TMC * Tobin * White Star
Because the native format of these files is not consistent with the RockWorks Land Grid
Table, these commercial files must be imported into the table prior to mapping, well
spotting, etc.
If you have not purchased commercial data, see Creating Idealized Land Grids.
See this Help topic:

Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Land Grid Tables /
Importing Commercial Land Grid Data / How to Import commercial land grid data.

Interpolating an Idealized Land Grid

If you do not have commercially-available land grid data, it is still possible to create an
"idealized" land grid for mapping or well spotting, given a user-defined longitude and
latitude coordinate. We certainly don’t live in a perfect world, however, so be advised of
these assumptions and limitations with interpolated land grids:
* The program will create data for entire Townships of 36 square Sections each.
Partial Townships and irregular Sections are not possible.
* It will base its coordinate assignments on the longitude and latitude coordinates you
declare for a specific land grid point.
If you have purchased commercial data, see Importing Commercial Land Grid Data.
See this Help topic:

Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Land Grid Tables /
Interpolating an Idealized Land Grid / How to Interpolate an idealized land grid.

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Lithology Keyword Tables


RockWorks uses "lithology keywords" to make a link between observed lithology data
and the patterns/colors to be plotted in strip logs and the colors to be plotted in other
lithology diagrams. The lithology data is entered into the Borehole Manager's
"Lithology" tab.
To know what type of pattern to plot for a particular lithologic keyword, the program
refers to the current Lithology Keyword Table or "Lithology Table."

! By contrast, interpreted stratigraphy patterns are declared in the "Stratigraphy Table"


(page 259) with data listed in the Borehole Manager's "Stratigraphy" tab.

! Because lithology is project-specific, we recommend that you keep the project’s


Lithology Table in the current project folder. This table is ASCII in format.

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Lithology Keyword
Tables / How to ...
Edit the Lithology Table.
Open a different Lithology Table.
Import a LogPlot Keyword Table.
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Pattern Tables

Pattern Tables Overview

Patterns are repeating graphic units that can be associated with some kind of data item,
such as lithology keywords in the Borehole Manager's Lithology tab, or formation names
in the Stratigraphy tab. The actual pattern <-> data associations are made within the
Lithology Table (for lithology) and the Stratigraphy Table (for stratigraphy).
RockWorks is shipped with a large number of patterns already installed, in a "Pattern
Table." The factory default Pattern Table is named "RW_pat.pat". It is stored in the
"Tables" folder in the RockWorks2002 program folder. Unlike some of the other
program tables (*.TAB files), this table is binary rather than ASCII in format.
To access the Pattern Table, where you can view the current pattern set, open a new
pattern set, or even access the Pattern Editor where you can modify existing patterns or
create new patterns, follow these steps:
1. Choose View / Preferences from the main RockWorks menu. The Pattern Table
can also be accessed from within the Keyword Editor, the Template Editor, and
"pattern-type" columns in the main data sheet.
2. Double-click on the Tables item to expand it.
3. Click on the Patterns item. The program will display the default Pattern Table in
the Select Pattern window.
Here you can view and select patterns from the current pattern library. It also lets you
access the Pattern Editor where you can edit existing pattern designs and create new
patterns. See the topics below.

The Select Pattern Window

The Select Pattern window displays all of the pattern designs contained in the current
Pattern Table. The factory default Table is "RW_pat.pat" (in the "Tables" folder of the
main program folder).
This window is used to view patterns, select pattern colors and density, open other
Pattern Tables, and access the Pattern Editor.

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1. To view pattern samples that are not currently visible, drag the scroll bars up or
down as appropriate.

See: Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Pattern Tables / The
Select Pattern Window / How to ...
View the index number for a pattern design.
Select a pattern to be active.
Adjust the pattern density.
Select pattern colors.
Open a different Pattern Table.
Save the current Pattern Table under a new name.
Create a printable index to the current Table.
Access the Pattern Editor.

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Using the Pattern Editor

The Pattern Editor is a tool that permits you to edit an existing pattern design or create a
new pattern design for use to illustrate rock types in logs, cross sections, etc. Pattern
designs are stored in a RockWorks "Pattern Table."
The Pattern Editor is accessed from the Select Pattern window. From the main
RockWorks menu, you can display the Select Pattern window by following these steps:
*
1. Choose View / Preferences from the main RockWorks menu.
2. Double-click on the Tables item to expand it.
3. Click on the Patterns item. The program will display the default Pattern Table in
the Select Pattern window.
4. If you wish to edit pattern(s) contained in a different Pattern Table, open that Table
(click the File button and choose Open).
5. Click on the pattern design you wish to edit, scrolling down through the samples as
necessary, so that it is displayed as default in the upper Preview box. Or, if you want
to create a new pattern, click on a blank pattern design.
6. Click the Edit button at the top of the Select Pattern window.
The selected pattern design (or blank pattern) will be displayed in the Pattern Editor.

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(* The Select Pattern window can also be accessed from within the Lithology Table, the
Stratigraphy Table, and "pattern-type" columns in the Geological Utilities data sheet. )

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Pattern Tables /
Using the Pattern Editor / How to ...
Create new patterns.
Import existing patterns.
Edit existing patterns.
Draw patterns.
Understand the pattern origin.
View pattern sizes.
Exit the Pattern Editor.

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Polygon Vertices Tables


A Polygon Vertices Table contains a listing of X (Easting) and Y (Northing) coordinates
that identify the boundary vertices of a polygonal area. In RockWorks, you can use this
polygon to filter grid values (Grid / Filter), solid model values (Solid / Filter), and
more.
The program is shipped with a default Polygon File called "PolyClip.tab" in the Tables
folder. This file is ASCII in format.

! The Polygon Vertices table also contains a digitizing tool for digitizing the X, Y
vertices right into the table, using an electronic digitizer. See Digitizing Data for details.

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Polygon Vertices
Tables / How to ...
Edit the Polygon Vertices Table.
Open a different Polygon Vertices Table.
Plot the polygon outline.

Range Tables
All of the point-mapping tools in the RockWorks Geological Utilities (Map / EZ Map,
etc.) offer variable scaling of symbols. This means that the size of the symbols can vary
across the map or diagram, based on the quantitative value measured at each sample site.
With this scheme, you can declare actual symbol sizes for as many z-value ranges as you
wish, using a "Range Table." Once you have a Range Table set up, you can save it for
later use. You can also load an existing Range Table that you have saved on disk.
The program is shipped with a default Range Table called "RangeTab.tab" in the Tables
folder of the main program directory. This file is ASCII in format.

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Range Tables / How
to ...
Edit the Range Table.
Open a different Range Table.

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Stratigraphy Tables
The Borehole Manager uses a "Stratigraphy" data tab for entry of formation layer names.
These formations can be illustrated in strip logs, as surface maps, fence diagrams, and
more using the Borehole Manager's Stratigraphy tools. The "Stratigraphy Table" defines
for the program the names of the formations for the current project, and the graphic
pattern / color to use for each formation in logs and other diagrams.

It also lists for each formation the percent fill for the pattern (when displayed in strip
logs), the formation density for volume/mass computations, and the "G" value to be
assigned for that layer in stratigraphic models.

! By contrast, observed lithology patterns are declared in the "Lithology Table" (page
253) with data listed in the Borehole Manager's "Lithology" tab.
Because stratigraphy is project-specific, we recommend that you keep the project’s
Stratigraphy Table in the project folder. This table is ASCII in format.

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Stratigraphy Tables /
How to ...
Open the default Stratigraphy Table.
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Open a different Stratigraphy Table.


Add a new formation name.
Select a pattern for the formation.
Enter the percent fill for the formation.
Enter the density for the formation.
Measure your rock density.
Save changes and close the Stratigraphy Table.

Survey Tables
The Survey menu’s Drill Hole Survey tool reads downhole orientation data from a
"Survey Table" and computes XYZ coordinates at user-specified intervals down the drill
hole, and/or creates 2D or 3D images of the deviated borehole.
Once you have a Survey Table set up, you can save it for later use. You can also load an
existing Survey Table that you have saved on disk. The program is shipped with a
default Survey Table called "Survey.tab" in the Tables folder of the main program
directory. This file is ASCII in format.

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Survey Tables / How
to ...
Edit the Survey Table.
Open a different Survey Table.

Symbol Tables

Symbol Tables Overview

Symbols are small line drawings that can be associated with each record (row) in the
Geological Utilities data window, representing a different sample site or drill hole
location. The symbols will be used by the program to note the sample locations in point
maps, ternary diagrams, stereonets, etc.
Symbols will also be associated with each borehole in the Borehole Manager (shown on
the Location tab).
RockWorks is shipped with an existing set of symbols already installed, in a "Symbol
Table." The factory default symbol Table is named "RW_sym.sym". It is stored in the
"Tables" folder in the RockWorks2002 program folder. Unlike some of the other
program tables (*.TAB files), this table is binary rather than ASCII in format.

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To access the Symbol Table, where you can view the current symbol set, open a new
symbol library, or even access the Symbol Editor where you can modify existing
symbols or create new ones, follow these steps:
1. Choose View / Preferences from the main RockWorks menu. *
2. Double-click on the Tables item to expand it.
3. Click on the Symbols item. The program will display the default Symbol Table in
the Select Symbol window.
Here you can view and select symbols from the current symbol library. It also lets you
access the Symbol Editor where you can edit existing symbol designs and create new
symbols. See the topics below.
* The Symbol Table can also be accessed from within the Geological Utilities data sheet,
by double-clicking on a graphic symbol cell. It can also be accessed by clicking on the
picture of the symbol in the Borehole Manager Location tab.

Using the Select Symbol Window

The Select Symbol window displays all of the symbol designs in the current Symbol
Table. The factory default Table is "RW_sym.sym" (in the "Tables" folder of the main
program folder). This window is used to view symbols, select symbol colors, open other
Symbol Tables, and access the Symbol Editor.

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To view symbol samples that are not currently visible, drag the scroll bars up or down as
necessary.

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Symbol Tables /
Using the Select Symbol Window /How to ...
View the index number for a symbol.
Select a symbol to be active.
Move symbols within the table.
Import symbols from another Symbol Table.
Open a different Symbol Table.
Save the current Symbol Table under a new name.
Create a printable index to the current Table.
Access the Symbol Editor.

Using the Symbol Editor

The Symbol Editor is a tool that permits you to edit an existing symbol design or create a
new symbol design for use to illustrate sample locations in maps, stereonets, etc.
Symbol designs are stored in a RockWorks "Symbol Table."
The Symbol Editor is accessed from the Select Symbol window. From the main
RockWorks menu, you can display the Select Symbol window by following these steps:
*
1. Choose View / Preferences from the main RockWorks menu.
2. Double-click on the Tables item to expand it.
3. Click on the Symbols item. The program will display the default Symbol Table in
the Select Symbol window.
4. If you wish to edit symbol(s) contained in a different Symbol Table, open that Table
(click the File button and choose Open).
5. Click on the symbol design you wish to edit, scrolling down through the samples as
necessary, so that it is displayed as default in the upper Preview box. Or, if you want
to create a new symbol, click on a blank symbol design.
6. Click the Edit button at the top of the Select Symbol window.
The selected symbol design (or blank symbol) will be displayed in the Symbol Editor.

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(* The Select Symbol window can also be accessed by double-clicking in a symbol


column in the Geological Utilities data sheet or by clicking on the symbol picture in the
Borehole Manager Location tab.)

See Help / Contents / RockWorks Tables and System Libraries / Symbol Tables /
Using the Symbol Editor /How to ...
Create a new symbol.
Import existing symbols.
Edit existing symbols.
Draw symbols.
Exit the Symbol Editor.

Table Editor Tools


Here is a summary of the tools available in the Table Editors, used to edit the ASCII
tables used in RockWorks.
All of these "mini-editors" are accessible from the View / Preferences / Tables option.
File menu
Open: Opens another RockWorks table file into the current Editor. Typically the tables
have a ".tab" file name extension. They are ASCII tab-delimited text in format.

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Save: Saves the current table on disk under its current name, or under the name
you enter if Untitled.

Save As: Saves the current table on disk under a new file name that you enter.
Import LogPlot Keys: This command is only available for the Lithology Tables, and is
used to import a listing of keywords from the LogPlot98 program.

Exit: Exits the current Editor window and closes the current table, returning you to
the previous program menu. If changes have been made to the current file, you will be
prompted whether the save the changes, cancel the changes, or cancel the Exit request.
Edit menu:

Cut: Removes from the Editor window any selected text, storing the block of text
in the computer's Clipboard memory.

Copy: Makes a copy of any selected text in the Editor window, storing the copy in
the computer's Clipboard memory.

Paste: Places the text that is in the computer's Clipboard memory into the Editor
window, starting in the cell at the current cursor position. Any existing text in the
affected cells will be overwritten!

Delete: Deletes the contents of the currently-selected cell or group of cells. The
text is not stored in the computer's Clipboard memory.
Columns: This command delivers a pop-up menu that contains tools that perform
operations on the table's columns. These are the same tools available for the main
RockWorks data sheets.
Math: Performs arithmetic operations on the values in a column, using a constant
or another column in the current table.
Increment: Permits you to fill automatically a column in the Editor with numeric
values, from a declared starting value to an ending value at specified increments.
Merge: Combines the contents of two columns in the editor, storing the results in a
third user-selected column.

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Rows: This command delivers a pop-up menu that contains tools that perform operations
on the table's rows. These are the same tools available for the main RockWorks data
sheets.
Insert: Inserts one or more blank rows into the current table, defaulting to the row
above the current cursor position, but permitting override.
Delete: Deletes one or more rows from the table, defaulting to that in which the
cursor is currently positioned, but offering override.
Go To: Offers options in a pop-up menu to move the cursor to the first row or last
row in the current table, or to a user-specified row.
Sort: Permits you to sort the rows in the Editor window, based on any column of
text or numbers, ascending or descending order. Many users like to sort the
information in the Keyword Table using Ascending order in the Keyword column
(e.g. alphabetically).
Digitize Points: If you have an electronic digitizer and its driver installed, you can
digitize points right into the Polygon Vertices Editor. See Digitizing Data.

Refresh Display: Tells the program to redraw the current screen. This can be
helpful if you need to refresh the display for a new pattern, symbol, color, density, or
percent fill selection.

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Chapter 22 - Reference
Gridding Reference
Gridding is a process in which scattered, spatially-distributed data can be transformed into
a continuous array or grid of numeric values. Data to be gridded can represent anything
from topographic elevations in a county to ratings of local pizza joints, as long as the
original data points have location coordinates (X and Y) and a measured "Z" value of
some kind. The locations coordinates must be in a Cartesian coordinate system.
You might picture a data grid as a grid of imaginary lines that overlays your source data
points.

In the process of gridding, the program assigns a value to the grid line intersections, called
grid nodes.

A grid file is the computer file of numbers that contains the results of the gridding process.
It contains a listing of the X and Y location coordinates of the regularly-spaced grid nodes
and the extrapolated Z value at each node.

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Within RockWorks, you can perform "basic" gridding of generic X,Y,Z data for 2D and
3D maps using the Geological Utilities Map / Grid-Based Map command. You can also
create grid models of stratigraphic surfaces and aquifer surfaces in the Borehole Manager
(Stratigraphy and Hydrology menus).
The program offers several methods to do this interpolation of your data. Each operates
differently, and each has strengths and differences. See "Gridding Methods" below.
Grid files can also result from other RockWorks Grid, Volume, and Solid menu tools.

Gridding Methods

There are several methods offered to interpolate your data. Each operates differently, and
each has strengths and differences.
Triangulation (grid-based): It uses a network of triangles to determine grid node values.
Inverse-Distance: A common method using a weighted average approach to compute
node values.
Multiple Linear Regression: Simple distance weighting is applied to a regression analysis.
Trend Surface Polynomial: It finds regional trends in your data.
Trend Surface Residuals: It determines local differences from regional trends.
Kriging: Its strength is in identifying patterns across the data, including directional trends.
Directional Weighting: Uses Inverse-Distance with a directional weighting bias.
Distance to Point: Each grid node is assigned a value that represents its distance, in your
X,Y map units, to the closest control point.
Closest Point: Each grid node is simply assigned the value of the closest control point.

See Help / Contents / Reference / Gridding Reference / Gridding Methods for


specifics.

General Gridding Options

Polynomial Enhancement: This option works nicely if your data has any regional trend.
If activated the program will fit a polynomial surface to your data and compute the
residuals for each control point (representing the difference between the source z-value
and the polynomial-computed z-value). The program will then grid the residuals using the
selected gridding method (Triangulation, Inverse-Distance, etc.). The residuals grid and
the polynomial grid are then added together.

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If you turn on the polynomial enhancement, you may select Automatic to have the
program compute the best-fitting polynomial for your data. Or, you can select the order of
the polynomial yourself by clicking in one of the remaining radio buttons.
For a summary of how well each polynomial order fits your data, you can run, separately,
a Trend Surface Report (Geological Utilities Grid menu, page 162).
Declustering
The Declustering settings in the Surface Modeling Options window tell the program how
you want to deal with duplicate or clustered points. Here's how the process works:
Prior to modeling, the program will lay an imaginary "pre-grid" over the data points, at a
resolution you declare. If you set the resolution to "250," for example, the pre-grid will be
comprised of 250 cells by 250 cells.
For each pre-grid cell, the program locates any data points within it. If a single data point
lies within the cell, then the cell is assigned that point's z-value. If more than one point lie
within the cell, then the cell is assigned an average of all of the z-values. Any pre-grid
cells with no data points are discarded.
It is the pre-gridded data that is then sent on to the surface modeling routine.
This method works nicely if you have data sampled along lines or in clusters, such as
along seismic lines.

Grid Model Dimensions

The grid Dimensions options are used to establish the number of nodes to be created in
the grid model and the boundary coordinates of the model.
The program offers three options:
Choose the Average Minimum Distance option to set grid dimension defaults based on
one-half the average minimum distance between control points. This will deliver an
average of 2 grid nodes between control points. This works well for densely-spaced data.
This will create very coarse grid models with sparse data. The boundary defaults will
correspond to the outermost control point locations.
Choose the Manual option to grid dimension defaults based on a constant value you enter.
For example, if you enter 50, the grid will have 50 nodes from north to south and 50 nodes
from east to west. The boundary defaults will correspond to the outermost control point
locations.

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The number of nodes you declare will be modified if the map area is not square. In
trying to keep node spacing as close to equal as possible along both axes, the program
will reduce the number of nodes created along the area's short axis. If you request
dimension confirmation, below, you will have the opportunity to view and confirm
the program-recommended node spacing prior to model generation.
The more nodes you specify, the denser the model. The more computations the
program needs to do, the longer the time required to create the model. Denser is not
always better. You might create less-dense models on trial runs.
Choose the Current option to have grid dimensions set to the same boundary coordinates
and spacing as were used in the last gridding session (the program will not scan the source
data to compute new boundaries and spacings). This can be handy if you are creating
successive grid models and you want them all to have the exact same boundary
coordinates and node spacing.

! This can be dangerous, however, if you switch projects. The program may
recommend grid coordinates that have no relation to the current project.
Be sure the Confirm Dimensions option is checked if you want to view/override the
program-computed dimensions before gridding begins.

If this window is displayed, you can adjust any of the coordinate boundary or spacing
settings.

RockWorks Grid File Format

RockWorks stores grid, stratigraphic, and solid model files in an ASCII (text) format.
Note that all real number coordinate and Z-values are listed in the files in scientific
notation.

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A summary of the contents is listed here:


The first line lists the X-coordinate of the westernmost grid node.
The second line lists the Y-coordinate of the southernmost grid node.
The third line lists the number of nodes that are listed for the X-axis (west to east),
and the fourth lists the number of nodes listed for the Y-axis (south to north).
The fifth and sixth lines list the spacing, in map units, of the grid nodes along the X-
axis and Y-axis, respectively.
Starting in the seventh line, the Z-values for the grid nodes are listed, starting with the
grid node in the southwestern corner of the grid and proceeding to the north. When
the top of that first column of nodes is reached, the listing proceeds with the second
column, starting with the southernmost node and listing upward. A Z-value will be
listed for each node in the GRD file.

See Help / Contents / Reference / Gridding Reference / RockWorks Grid File Format.

Solid Modeling Reference


Solid modeling is a true 3-dimensional gridding process, in which a solid modeling
algorithm is used to extrapolate G values for a fixed X (Easting), Y (Northing), and Z
(elevation) coordinates. The G values can represent geochemical concentrations,
geophysical measurements, or any other downhole or subsurface quantitative value.
The Geological Utilities Solid / Model tool creates solid models from X, Y, Z, and G data
listed in the main datasheet or in an external ASCII file. The Borehole Manager
Lithology, Geochemistry, and Geophysics menu tools (Fence and Model) create solid
models from lithology, geochemistry, or geophysical data in the respective data tabs.
Once it knows the dimensions of your study area, the program divides it into three-
dimensional cells or "voxels," their dimensions automatically or user-determined. Each
voxel is defined by its corner points or node. Each node is assigned the appropriate X, Y,
and Z location coordinates according to its relative placement within the study area. A
fourth variable, "G", which can represent grade of ore, concentration of pollutants, etc., is
estimated based on the G value of the given data points.

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There are several methods offered to do this interpolation of your data. Each operates
differently, and each has strengths and differences. These are discussed under Solid
Modeling Methods below.

! There is a subtle but important difference between what RockWorks calls "solid models"
and "stratigraphic models." The former represents the 3-dimensional distribution of a
specific "G" value. The latter represents a 3-dimensional layering of individual surface
models.

Solid Modeling Methods

There are several methods offered to perform the 3-dimensional interpolation of your data.
Each operates differently, and each has strengths and differences.
Closest Point: The most basic solid modeling method, in which the value of a voxel node
is set to be equal to the value of the nearest data point.
Distance to Point: This method assigns each solid model node a value equal to the
distance to the closest control point. The distance is recorded in your X,Y,Z units
Inverse Distance: Isotropic and Anisotropic. This method assigns a voxel node value
based on the weighted average of neighboring data points, either all points or those
directionally located
Isotropic: If you select this option, the program will use all of the available data
points when computing a voxel node’s value, useful when modeling uniformly
distributed data in non-stratiform environments.
Anisotropic: Instead of using all available control points for the Inverse-Distance
modeling, the program will look for the closest point in each 90-degree sector around
the node, useful for modeling drill-hole based data in stratiform deposits.
Directional Weighting: This functions like the Inverse Distance method except that you
can specify a trend direction and strength, and the program will vary the weighting
exponent so that points along the trend influence the node more than closer points
perpendicular to the trend.

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Horizontal Biasing: This method functions like the Inverse Distance method except that
the user can define a vertical distance from each voxel node beyond which points will no
longer be used in computing the node value
Horizontal Lithoblending. This method should be used for creating lithology solid models
(for Profiles, Fences, and Models) in the Borehole Manager

See Help / Contents / Reference / Solid Modeling Reference for specifics.

Solid Model Declustering

The Declustering option in the Create New Solid Model settings is a solid modeling
model pre-processing option, applicable to all solid modeling methods except for the
Horizontal Lithoblending.
If activated, Declustering reduces the number of control points sent to the solid modeling
algorithm by "snapping" them to the closest node (averaging them with other points close
to the node), and then modeling the new, smaller set of averaged points.
When modeling densely-sampled downhole geophysical or geochemical data, this can
speed up the processing tremendously, with little degradation of data.

Filtering X, Y, Z and/or G Data

The Filter Points option in the Create New Solid Model settings is used to establish data
limits for the X, Y, and Z coordinates (to model a spatial subset), or for the G data to be
modeled. The program will ignore data that lies outside the declared range(s), omitting
that data from the solid modeling process.

See Help / Contents / Reference / Solid Modeling Reference for specifics.

Solid Model Resolution

The Model Resolution options under the Create New Solid Model settings is used to
establish the number of nodes to be created in the solid model.
The more nodes you specify, the denser the model. Remember that a 10-node x 10-node x
10-node model (very low resolution) will contain 1,000 nodes; a 50-node x 50-node x 50-
node model will contain 125,000 nodes; and a 100 x 100 x 100 model will contain 1
million nodes. The more computations the program needs to do, the longer the time
required to create the model. Denser is not always better. You might create less-dense
models on trial runs.

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Use the Horizontal (X/Y) setting to enter the number of nodes to establish in the model
along the X and Y axes. The number of nodes you declare may be modified if the map
area is not square. In trying to keep node spacing as close to equal as possible along both
axes, the program will reduce the number of nodes created along the area's short axis. If
you request dimension confirmation, below, you will have the opportunity to view and
confirm the program-recommended node spacing prior to model generation.
Use the Vertical (Z) setting to enter the number of nodes to be created vertically in the
model, along the Z-axis. The vertical axis may be set to a different density than the X and
Y axes, above. If you request dimension confirmation, below, you will have the
opportunity to view and confirm the program-recommended node spacing prior to model
generation.
Insert a check in the Confirm Dimensions box to request display of program-computed
model dimensions and node spacings prior to modeling. At that time you can view and
override the defaults.

If this window is displayed, you can adjust any of the coordinate boundary or spacing
settings.

Stratigraphic Model Reference


Stratigraphic models are a 3-dimensional way to represent multiple 2-dimensional grid
models of formation tops. These are, essentially, layer models, with a series of 2-
dimensional grids stacked on each other, depositionally, from the bottom up. Stratigraphic
models have three fixed dimensions: X (Easting), Y (Northing), and Z (elevation), with a
variable G-value which represents stratigraphy type as an integer. In RockWorks2002
these formation "G" values are declared in the Stratigraphy Table.

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Like geochemical or geophysical solid models, stratigraphic models are just files that
contain listings of X, Y, Z, and G numbers. Unlike solid models which contain real
number G values, stratigraphic models usually contain integer G values that correspond to
the formations.
You might picture a stratigraphic model as a stack of cubes. In the cartoon below, the 3-
dimensional cells, or voxels, are color-coded based on their G-value or stratigraphy type.
The model is constructed by "inserting" the 2-dimensional grid models of each
stratigraphic layer (top AND base), from the bottom up.

With the introduction of RockPlot3D for visualizing multiple grid models as surfaces in
3D, users may not use stratigraphic models as much as they did in RockWorks99.
However, the Borehole Manager’s Stratigraphy / Model tool does still offer the option of
saving a stratigraphic model on disk, for the purposes of performing filtering / other
manipulations in the Geological utilities Solid menu.
Stratigraphy models have the same file structure as solid models.

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2-Dimensional Map Layers


RockWorks offers the following "layers" for two dimensional maps. A layer is activated
if a check-mark is displayed in its check box. To access the layer's settings, expand its
sub-topics by clicking on its "+" button.
Bitmaps: Displays a bitmap image in the background of the other map layers.
Symbols: Illustrates the sample sites in the main data sheet with map symbols.
Labels: Plots labels for the sample sites, usually used with the symbols layer.
Contours: Plots lines representing the distribution of "z-values" (elevation, geochemistry,
etc.) in the study site.
Color-filled intervals: Plots solid color-filled regions representing the distribution of z-
values in the study site.
Labeled-Cells: (Available only for grid-based maps.) Draws a grid of lines corresponding
to the grid model nodes, and fills the cells with labels for the node values.
Borders: Plots border tick marks and coordinates labels, and axis titles.
Triangulation Network: (Available only for EZ maps, if contours or color filled intervals
are selected.) Displays the network of triangles constructed by the program to build the
map contours.

See Help / Contents / Reference / 2-Dimensional Map Layers for more information.

Other 2D Diagram Settings


Borehole Manager 2D Fonts: These are the settings available for fonts displayed in 2D
maps, 2D logs, and other Borehole Manager diagrams.
Borehole Symbol Properties: These control the appearance of symbols used in Borehole
Location maps.
2D Color Scheme Settings: The Color Options that are available for all of RockWorks
solid model Profile tools are used to define how you want the solid model G value
represented.
2D Lithology Legend Settings: These control the appearance of the legend to the rock
types and colors/patterns as listed in the active Lithology Table.

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2D Stratigraphy Legend Settings: This controls the appearance of the legend to the
stratigraphic formations included in the diagram, which displays names and
colors/patterns as listed in the active Stratigraphy Table. .
2D Geochemistry and Geophysical Legend Settings: These control used the legend to
the G values contained in the model and the colors used to represent them.

See Help / Contents / Reference / Other 2D Diagram Layers for more information.

3-Dimensional Diagram Settings

The 3-dimensional diagrams that RockWorks creates can include some or all of the
following options.
Reference Cage: Labels X, Y, and elevation coordinates, with optional reference lines.
Lithology Legend: Displays lithology keywords and colors, taken directly from the
current Lithology Table.
Stratigraphy Legend: Displays formation names and colors, taken directly from the
current Stratigraphy Table.
Geochemistry Legend: Displays G values contained in the geochemistry or geophysical
solid model and the colors used to represent them.
Each of these items can be turned on/off and modified once the diagram is displayed in the
RockPlot3D window.

See Help / Contents / Reference / 3-Dimensional Diagram Settings for more


information.

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ATD File Structure


The Geological Utilities data files (.ATD) are stored in an ASCII text format. They
contain rows and columns of entries, with columns separate by <Tab> characters. ("ATD"
= "ASCII Tab-Delimited").
Unlike RockWorks99 ATD files, RockWorks2002 ATD files contain a header block at the
top of the file that lists the column heading names and column types. This is why
RockWorks2002 no longer uses TEM files, as RockWorks99 did.
The Geological Utilities datasheet can contain up to 99 columns.
It’s probably easiest to see the ATD file layout by opening an ATD file in a text editor or
word processor. That will show you how the header is laid out, with its "tags", and how
the data block is laid out in tab-separated columns.

See Help / Contents / Reference / ATD file structure for more information.

Borehole Data File Structure


The Borehole Manager data files ([.bh]) are stored in an ASCII text format. Each
borehole’s data is stored in the project folder in a separate [.bh] file, with the borehole’s
name serving as the file name, and the file name extension set to ".bh". The [.bh] files can
contain the following blocks of information. Only the Location block is required.

See Help / Contents / Reference / Borehole Data file structure for more information.

AGL File Structure


AGL files are text files that contain special "ASCII Graphics Language" commands.
These commands can be used to plot labels, symbols, lines, and polygons in a RockPlot2D
window, either alone or on top of an existing map or diagram. They are translated from
text file commands to plottable components using the Import / AGL command in the
RockPlot2D File menu.
AGL files may be created using an ASCII word processor or text editor, such as the
RockWare Editor that you can launch right within the AGL Compiler dialog box.

See Help / Contents / Reference / AGL file structure for more information.

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Exported Borehole Data Structure


The Borehole Manager contains several export tools used to organize the different data
types of all of the boreholes in a manageable and transportable way. The output layout of
the 10 exported files or spreadsheets that result from the File / Export / All Logs ->
ASCII or Binary or Excel functions can be found in the following help topic:

Help / Contents / Reference / Exported Borehole Data structure.

Troubleshooting
Please refer to the RockWorks Help menu for “live links” to our web site where you can
make use of the extensive support pages for answers to your RockWorks questions.
www.rockware.com
email: tech@rockware.com
tel: 303-278-3534

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Glossary
Active borehole

In the Borehole Manager, the check-boxes beside the borehole names are used to
"enable" or "activate" the borehole. The data listed for active boreholes will be included
in gridding and solid modeling processes; the data for inactive boreholes will not.
Active boreholes will be displayed in cross section, profile, and fence diagram panel-
picking windows; inactive boreholes will not.

Abstracts

Abstracts are displayed along the right side of the main RockWorks menu and most of
the program’s dialog boxes. They are used to summarize the function of the currently-
highlighted menu or dialog box item . The programmers call this "in-your-face help".
The abstracts can contain text and/or graphic images. The graphic images are loaded
from the "menupics" folder in the program directory.
Should you wish to disable the display of the abstracts, remove the check-mark from the
View / Preferences / Abstracts option.

ATD Files

RockWorks stores data in the Geological Utilities datasheet in an ASCII (text) tab-
delimited format, with the file name extension [.ATD]. These files contain rows and
columns of data, with tab characters separating the columns.
Since RockWorks2002 no longer uses "templates" ([.TEM] files, used in RockWorks99
and older versions) to lay out the column titles and styles, this information is stored in a
header block within the [.ATD] file.
[.ATD] files used in RockWorks99, RockWorks98, Stratos98 can be opened into
RockWorks2001. Once converted into a RockWorks2002 format, however, they cannot
be re-opened in the older software without manually stripping out the header lines. Be
sure, then, to rename your converted files, and store them in a new project folder.

Borehole Manager

One of two data windows in RockWorks2002, the Borehole Manager is used to enter
subsurface borehole data: stratigraphy, lithology, geochemistry and/or geophysical
measurements, and water levels, for use in generating strip logs, cross sections, solid
models, fence diagrams, and surface models. It supports vertical and deviated boreholes.

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Each borehole is stored in a separate "BH" file in the current project folder.
The Borehole Manager contains its own set of program tools and menus at the top of the
window.
RockWorks99 users can import their ATD and linked files (LIT, HIS, CUR, ZON) into
the Borehole Manager.

Central Meridian

A Central Meridian is used in the translation of coordinates from a longitude/latitude


format to a UTM easting/northing format, which makes use of "zones" to fit its
orthagonal grid onto the spherical Earth. These UTM zones are defined by Central
Meridians. For example, the zone extending from a longitude of -120 to -126 has a
Central Meridian of -123. Central Meridians range from –177 western longitude (UTM
Zone 1) to 177 eastern longitude (UTM Zone 60).
Typically, the chosen Central Meridian should be as close to the center of the longitude
coordinate range as possible. The accuracy of the translation is greatest within a single
UTM zone and decreases the farther each zone is from the zone of the selected Central
Meridian.

Data Template

A data template was used by previous versions of RockWorks to lay out the data in the
main data sheet. At its most basic, the template lists the column headings to be
displayed in the main data sheet. It also established the column types (whether they
displayed text or symbols, and if they linked to other files), and the stratigraphic patterns
for stratigraphy columns. The data template was stored in a [.TEM] file which was
opened and saved along with the main data [.ATD] file. The [.TEM] file was modified
in the Template Editor (File / Data Template).
In RockWorks2002, column headings and column types are now stored in the [.ATD]
file header, and stratigraphy information is stored in a new stratigraphy table used in the
Borehole Manager.
When opening pre-RockWorks2002 datasheets, the program can import the information
contained in the associated [.TEM] file.

Geological Utilities

One of two data windows in RockWorks2002, the Geological Utilities datasheet is used
to enter non-borehole data: simple XYZ or XYZG, hydrochemistry data for Piper and
Stiff plots, drawdown, survey mapping, lineation/planar data, to name a few.

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The Geological Utilities has its own set of program tools and menus at the top of the
window.
The Geological Utilities datasheet saves its row-and-column files in an ATD file format
(ASCII Tab-Delimited). Unlike RockWorks99, the column styles and names are stored
in a header block in the ATD file; TEM files are no longer used.
RockWorks99 files can be opened into the RockWorks2002 datasheet, and any
information in an associated TEM file will be stored in a header block in the file.

Grid Model

A grid model or grid file is the computer file of numbers that contains the results of the
gridding process. It contains a listing of the X and Y location coordinates of the
regularly-spaced grid nodes and the extrapolated Z value at each node. RockWorks grid
models are stored in an ASCII format. Grid models should have a [.grd] file name
extension.

A grid model is a numeric representation of a surface, be it elevations in your study area,


formation thickness, or BTU values in a coal seam, to name a few.
Grid models have two fixed coordinates, X (Easting) and Y (Northing), with a computed
Z-value of some kind. In RockWorks the Z-value could be a formation top elevation,
and the grid model would represent the formation's surface. Or, the Z-value could be a
computed formation thickness, with the grid model representing thickness values.
Although the grid models themselves are just listings of X, Y, and Z numbers, you might
picture the grid model as a plane of cells. The cartoon above illustrates the transition
between a real-world surface and the grid model, in which the cells are color-coded
based on their Z-value.
From the Geological Utilities data sheet, use the Map / Grid-Based Map tool to create
and display grid models from XYZ data for display as 2D or 3D images. Grid models
are also created for drawdown surfaces (Hydro / Drawdown Surface), for lineation
densities (Dirstat / Lineation Gridding), and for volume computations (Volume
menu).

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From the Borehole Manager, grid models are created when you display stratigraphic
surfaces, isopachs, profiles, etc. (Stratigraphy menu) and water level surfaces
(Hydrology menu).
Grid models can be summarized and manipulated in a variety of ways using the
Geological Utilities Grid menu tools. Use Grid / Filter to filter grid models, Grid /
Edit to edit model nodes, Grid / Math to perform mathematical operations, and Grid /
Import to import grid models from other sources . Statistical reports, node frequency
diagrams, and observed v. computed XY plots are also available (Grid / Statistics).
You can also extract grid models from solid models (Solid / Convert / Extract Grid).

Gridding

Gridding is a process in which scattered, spatially-distributed data can be transformed


into a continuous array or grid of numeric values. Data to be gridded can represent
anything from topographic elevations to ratings of local pizza joints, as long as the
original data points have location coordinates (X and Y) and a measured "Z" value of
some kind. The locations coordinates must be in a Cartesian coordinate system.
You might picture a data grid as a grid of imaginary lines that overlays your source data
points. In the process of gridding, the program assigns a value to the grid line
intersections, called grid nodes.
The computed grid nodes are stored in a "grid model" or "grid file."
Use the Map / Grid-Based Map tool to create grid models of XYZ data listed in the
Geological Utilities datasheet. In the Borehole Manager, use the Stratigraphy and
Hydrology menu tools to create models and diagrams of stratigraphic and water level
surfaces.
(See also the Map / EZ Map tool for creating simple contour maps of XYZ data in the
Geological Utilities datasheet without gridding.)

Isosurface

RockWorks offers display of solid model values as isosurfaces or using all voxels.
What’s the difference? You might picture it like this:
In an isosurface diagram, the model’s G values are enclosed in a "skin" that’s almost like
a 3-dimensional contour. Within RockPlot3D you can interactively adjust the minimum
value enclosed within the isosurface contour. For example, if you have a geochemistry
solid model of lead values, and you wish to view the distribution of 5.23 ppb and above,
you can set the isosurface contour level at "5.23" and see the skin surrounding voxels
with G values 5.23 and greater.
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By contrast, in an all-voxel diagram, you’ll see color-coded voxels themselves, which


usually look more angular and blocky than isosurfaces. In RockPlot3D you can filter out
both high and low values from the display.
An isosurface diagram is to an all-voxel diagram like a 2D color contour map is to a
color-coded grid map.
Generally, you should display lithology models using All Voxels. You should display
geochemistry and geophysical models using Isosurfaces.

Lithology Table

The Lithology Table is used to match lithology "keywords" in the Borehole Manager's
Lithology tab, such as "sand" or "limestone," to specific patterns and colors for
representation in logs, profiles, fence diagrams, and block models.
It is also used to define rock densities for mass computations, and "G" values for each
rock type for solid modeling.
You should keep a separate Lithology Table in each project folder, with rock types and
other settings specific to each project.
The Borehole Manager's screen contains a "display files" button which enables you
to view the name of the current Lithology Table. You can click on the Lithology Table
name to view its contents, to edit it, or to open a different Table.
You can also access the Lithology Table via View / Preferences / Tables / Lithology
Table.

Longitude/Latitude Coordinates

The Lambert conformal conic longitude/latitude system is a global coordinate system


that divides the Earth into four quadrants with degree, minute, and second sub-divisions:
East longitudes (east of the 0-degree Greenwich mean to 180 degrees), West longitudes
(west of the 0-degree Greenwich mean to 180 degrees), South latitudes (south of the
equator) and North latitudes (north of the equator).
Because RockWorks uses a "Cartesian" coordinate system, in which x-coordinates must
increase to the east and y-coordinates to the north, Western longitudes and Southern
latitudes must be preceded by a negative sign ("-").
The primary advantage to working in longitude/latitude coordinates is that they truly are
universal, with many commercially-available and public domain cartographic databases
using lon/lat, providing the user with graphic overlay capabilities. Another distinct
advantage to longitude/latitude is that it takes into account the curvature of the earth.

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The primary disadvantage to working with longitude/latitude coordinates is that


manually locating points on a map can be somewhat tricky. It can also be awkward
using a computer in conjunction with lon/lat because degrees are expressed on maps in
degree-minute-second notation, and you will need to translate these to decimal degrees
for mapping purposes within RockWorks. (See Coords / Degree-Minute-Second-
>Decimal.)
The Borehole Manager requires that location coordinates be translated from longitude
and latitude to eastings and northings. Use the Map / Adjust Coordinates command.

Pattern Table

A Pattern Table is a RockWorks library of pattern designs, the dots and lines that repeat
to make up rock type patterns. To change the name of the default Pattern Table, to view
the design library, or to access the Pattern Editor, select the View / General Preferences
/ Tables / Patterns option.
The Pattern Table can also be accessed from the Lithology Table and Stratigraphy Table.

Project Folder

A Project Folder is a folder or directory on your computer or network in which your


work files will be read from and stored to. This includes data files that you create, as
well as intermediate files and output plot files.
In the Borehole Manager, all of the individual borehole data files ([.bh]) are read from
the current project folder. We recommend that you keep copies of your Stratigraphy and
Lithology Tables in your project folder as well. Any grid models, solid models, fence
panels, and graphics files will also be stored in the current project folder.
In the Geological Utilities datasheet, the program will read and store [.atd] files in the
current project folder. Grid and solid models, and graphics files will also be stored in
the project folder.

Resolution - Strip Logs

The Striplog Resolution setting allows you to adjust the "resolution" at which the
downhole coordinates are to be computed. This applies to deviated boreholes only.
The downhole survey information read from the Borehole Manager's Orientation tab lists
simply the route of the drill hole in depth, bearing, and inclination. But, RockWorks
does not assume a straight line between your survey points, and will compute the
downhole coordinates at sampling intervals at the resolution you declare as it proceeds
down the hole.

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"Automatic" resolution will divide each boring into a particular NUMBER of segments,
while "Manual" resolution will divide each boring into segments based on a DEPTH
interval.

Solid Model

A solid model is a true 3-dimensional grid, in which a solid modeling algorithm is used
to extrapolate G values for fixed X (Easting), Y (Northing), and Z (elevation)
coordinates. The G values can represent geochemical concentrations, geophysical
measurements, lithology rock types, or any other spatially-related quantitative value.
Although the models themselves are just listings of X, Y, Z, and G numbers, you can
picture the solid model as a stack of cubes. In the cartoon above, the 3-dimensional
cells, or voxels, are color-coded based on their G-value.
RockWorks solid models are stored in an ASCII format. Solid models should have a
[.mod] file name extension.
Use the Geological Utilities Solid / Model tool to create a solid model of XYZG data
listed in the general datasheet or an external ASCII file. The Solid menu also contains a
variety of solid model math, filtering, and editing tools.
If you have downhole data entered into the Borehole Manager, use the Lithology,
Geophysics, or Geochemistry menu tools to create solid models of these data types.

Stratigraphy Table

The Stratigraphy Table is used to match formation names in the Borehole Manager's
Stratigraphy tab, such as "Minnelusa Sandstone" or "Shale-1" to specific patterns and
colors for representation in logs, surfaces, profiles, fence diagrams, and block models.
You should keep a separate Stratigraphy Table in each project folder, with names and
other settings specific to each project. (The Table also contains other settings that
control the pattern fill percent for the formations in strip logs, the "G" value for the
formation for stratigraphic models, and the density converter should you wish to
compute mass.)
The Borehole Manager's screen contains a "display files" button which enables you
to view the name of the current Stratigraphy Table. You can click on the Stratigraphy
Table name to view its contents, to edit it, or to open a different Table.
You can also access the Stratigraphy Table via View / Preferences / Tables /
Stratigraphy Table.

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Symbol Table

A Symbol Table is a RockWorks library of symbol designs, the dots and lines that make
up map symbols. To change the name of the default Symbol Table, to view the design
library, or to access the Symbol Editor, select the View / General Preferences / Tables /
Symbols option.

Tables

RockWorks uses "tables" for a variety of operations. For example, a Land Grid Table
helps the program spot Range/Township/Section well descriptions, a Contour Table
defines custom contour intervals, and a Pattern Table contains listings of stratigraphy
pattern designs.
To view a listing of the current (default) program tables, use the View / Preferences
command to access the Tables listing. From here you can also select different tables as
default, as well as edit the table contents. You may also access specific tables from
within all of the program tools in which they are used.

TEM files

[.TEM] files were used in previous versions of RockWorks to store the "template" for
the main datasheet. At its most basic, the template listed the column headings to be
displayed in the main data sheet. It also established the column types (whether they
displayed text or symbols, and if they linked to other files), and the stratigraphic patterns
for stratigraphy columns. The [.TEM] file was opened and saved along with the main
data [.ATD] file. The [.TEM] file was modified in the Template Editor (File / Data
Template).
In RockWorks2002, column headings and column types are now stored in the [.ATD]
file header, and stratigraphy information is stored in a new stratigraphy table used in the
Borehole Manager.
When opening pre-RockWorks2002 datasheets, the program can import the information
contained in the associated [.TEM] file.

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RockWorks2002

UTM Coordinates

The Defense Mapping Agency 100-meter Universal Transverse Mercator grid is a global
Cartesian coordinate system that is oriented in an east-west/north-south fashion.
Because the grid is equi-dimensional, a network of "zones" are used to correct for errors
when fitting the grid to the spherical Earth. These zones are defined by Central
Meridians. As a result the regions between the zones are located less accurately than the
areas close to the meridians (e.g. in the middle of a zone).
Every USGS 7.5 minute topographical map depicts the UTM grid either as small blue
tick marks along the borders, or as thin black lines across the map. The UTM x-
coordinates (called eastings) increase to the east, and the y-coordinates (called
northings) increase to the north.
The disadvantages associated with using UTM coordinates include: (1) the problems that
arise when working in areas that overlap two UTM zones, and (2) the fact that the grid is
not exactly aligned along true north in many areas.
These disadvantages are insignificant, however, when compared with the simplicity and
straightforward nature of the UTM system.
Note that UTM coordinates are typically expressed in meters. When converting
coordinates from Lon/lat to UTM within RockWorks, you may choose to have the
coordinates output in feet.

XYZG Data

XYZG data can be used to create a solid model. The X (Easting), Y (Northing) and Z
(elevation) define the point locations in space, and "G" represents a measured value at
each point that is to be represented in the solid model. G typically represents
geochemical measurements (assay values, pollutant concentrations) or geophysical
measurements (gamma, resistivity), but can really represent virtually any measured
value.
RockWorks can read XYZG data directly from rows and columns in the Geological
Utilities datasheet, and create solid models using the Solid / Model tool.
If you have downhole data (geochemistry, geophysics) listed in the Borehole Manager,
RockWorks will extract the XYZG values in the background prior to solid modeling.

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Notes

290
RockWorks2002

bearing
computing from X1Y1X2Y2 data .......... 187
Index computing on screen display .................. 220
converting from quadrant ....................... 194
converting to quadrant ............................ 194
3 in downhole survey................................... 36
in fractures tab .......................................... 44
3D surface maps...........................................107 strike and dip data..................................... 80
3-D View / Multiple Logs............................124 bearing distance data ............................. 71, 199
3-D View / Single Log.................................123 Best Fit command ....................................... 215
3-Point computer..........................................210 beta intersections......................................... 192
3-Point contouring .......................................209 beta pairs ............................................... 83, 192
binary files exporting .................................... 57
A bitmaps
absolute value grid models...........................158 as map backgrounds................................ 276
abstracts..................................................19, 281 as panels.................................... 85, 205, 231
Access a well s data .......................................33 draped over surfaces ....................... 204, 231
active borehole .............................................281 exporting ......................................... 230, 245
AGL commands ...........................................278 floating over surfaces...................... 203, 231
AGL files - importing ..................................213 importing as grid models ........................ 163
anion data ...............................79, 183, 184, 186 in diagram legends.................................. 225
annotating plot files......................................224 in slide show ..................................... 84, 210
appending plot files..............210, 224, 225, 232 block diagrams .... 129, 137, 141, 142, 145, 148
aquifer diagrams...........................................135 BMP images
Arc/Info E00 files - importing .....................213 as map backgrounds................................ 276
area as panels............................................ 85, 205
computing from screen display ...............220 draped over surfaces ............................... 204
grid models ..............................................157 floating over surfaces.............................. 203
arithmetic operations importing as grid models ........................ 163
grid models ..............................................158 in diagram legends.................................. 225
solid models.............................................166 in slide show ..................................... 84, 210
arrow maps...................................................188 translating to JPG.................................... 210
ASCII data Boolean filter
exporting......................................57, 96, 279 grid models ............................................. 159
importing ...................................................96 solid models ............................................ 168
ATD files .......................................61, 278, 281 borders
attribute table ...............................................250 2D maps and diagrams.................... 224, 276
AVI files - exporting....................................245 3D diagrams............................................ 277
axes borehole locations entering ........................... 35
displaying in RockPlot3D........................237 Borehole Manager....................................... 281
labels - N S E W ......................................237 accessing ................................................... 29
ASCII file structure................................. 278
B create new project ..................................... 29
create new well ......................................... 29
bar chart maps ..............................................102 data............................................................ 33
Fractures tab.............................................. 44
Geochemistry tab ...................................... 40
291
RockWorks2002

Geophysics tab ..........................................42 movement analysis ............................83, 191


Lithology tab .............................................37 normalizing data......................................198
Location tab...............................................35 planar intersections......................80, 83, 192
maps ........................................................100 polygon area ............................................220
open project...............................................29 polygon perimeter ...................................220
Orientation tab...........................................36 quadrant to azimuth.................................194
overview....................................................22 random numbers......................................198
Patterns tab................................................48 rotating 3D data.......................................193
Stratigraphy tab ................................. 39, 130 solid model statistics ...............................165
Symbols tab...............................................46 standard deviations..................................198
using ..........................................................29 strike & dip from 3 points .......................209
Water Level tab .........................................46 strike to dip direction.........................80, 193
Borehole Symbol Properties........................276 total dissolved solids .........................79, 183
break-even analysis .....................................209 trigonometry ............................................210
unit converter...........................................210
C univariate statistics ..................................195
water level drawdown ...............78, 181, 182
calibrate digitizer ...........................................97
XYZ coordinates from survey data .........199
cation data.............................. 79, 183, 184, 186
contour maps........................................102, 104
Central Meridian..........................................282
Contour Tables.............................................249
Change the 3D view background color .......235
contours
Changing Column Titles and Styles ..............89
custom color intervals .............................248
clipping RockPlot2D images............... 224, 227
custom intervals.......................................249
Closest Point Gridding ................................268
Delaunay..........................................103, 276
Closest Point solid modeling .......................272
from 3 points ...........................................209
colindex.tab ......................................... 225, 247
in 2D map layers .....................................276
Color Index Tables .............................. 225, 247
Contours.tab.................................................249
colored intervals in 2D map layers..............276
Convert lon/lat coordinates to meters or feet228
Colorfil.tab...................................................248
Convert menu...............................................169
Colorfill Tables............................................248
coordinates
colors
changing in RKW files............224, 226, 228
in datasheet................................................89
converting in Borehole Manager.............112
in diagram legends ..................................225
converting in the Geological Utilities .....114
columns
copy..........................................................49, 95
computations with .....................................49
cross section
names ............................................ 40, 42, 89
laying out.................................................151
types ..........................................................89
profiles.....................128, 135, 144, 147, 149
columns tools........................................... 49, 95
strip logs ..................................115, 118, 120
combining
CUR files - importing ....................................44
RockPlot2D images................. 224, 225, 228
curve files - importing ...................................44
RockPlot3D images.................................232
custom contour intervals......................248, 249
computations
cut ............................................................49, 95
azimuth to quadrant.................................194
formation volume....................................175 D
geometry..................................................209
ion balance ........................................ 79, 184 data - Borehole Manager .................22, 33, 278
lineation bearings ...................... 82, 187, 220 borehole locations .....................................35
lineation lengths ........................ 82, 187, 220 downhole survey .......................................36
lineation midpoints............................ 82, 187 fractures.....................................................44
292
RockWorks2002

geochemistry..............................................40 solid model ............................................. 168


geophysics .................................................42 Density Factors Table ................................. 249
importing from RockWorks99 ..................23 Density.tab .................................................. 249
lithology.....................................................37 diagrams
log patterns ................................................48 drawdown surface................................... 182
log symbols................................................46 frequency histograms.............................. 196
stratigraphy ........................................39, 130 hydrographs ...................................... 78, 183
water level .................................................46 Piper.................................................. 79, 184
data - Geological Utilities ....59, 60, 61, 67, 278 plotting.................................................... 211
beta pairs data ............................................83 rose.............................................. 80, 82, 190
data layout .................................................67 stereonet............................................ 80, 191
digitizing....................................................97 Stiff ................................................... 79, 186
drawdown data...........................................78 ternary plots ............................................ 197
editing the data ..........................................89 water level drawdown....................... 78, 181
exporting....................................................96 XY scattergrams ..................................... 197
global points and polylines..................75, 77 Digital Line Graph attributes ...................... 250
hydrochemistry ion data ............................79 Digital Line Graph files
importing ...................................................96 importing ................................................ 213
land grid lease descriptions .......................74 digitizer driver............................................... 97
land grid well descriptions.........................73 digitizing
lineation endpoint data ..............................82 on screen ................................................. 220
OpenGL horizontal panel image lists ........85 using an electronic digitizer................ 49, 97
OpenGL horizontal tanks ..........................87 dimensions
OpenGL oriented objects...........................87 gridding................................................... 269
OpenGL tubes............................................86 RockPlot3D view.................................... 235
OpenGL vertical panel image lists ............85 solid modeling ........................................ 273
OpenGL vertical tanks...............................88 directional maps .......................................... 161
PicShow image lists...................................84 directional weighting gridding .................... 268
shotpoint data.............................................73 directional weighting solid modeling.......... 272
survey data...........................................71, 72 Dirstat menu ................................................ 187
XYZ data ...................................................67 distance computing on screen display......... 220
XYZG data ................................................69 distance filter solid models ......................... 166
data items in RockPlot3D ............................238 distance to point gridding............................ 268
data templage ...............................................282 Distance to Point solid modeling ................ 272
data window in RockPlot2D ........................221 DLG Attributes Table ................................. 250
DBF files DLG files importing.................................... 213
exporting....................................................96 DLG_atrb.tab .............................................. 250
importing ...................................................96 downgradient vector map............................ 161
declustering ..........................................268, 273 downhole survey data............................ 36, 201
degrees to UTM - RockPlot2D ............224, 228 Draw menu - RockPlot2D........................... 220
Delaunay contouring....................................103 drawdown...................................... 78, 181, 182
deleting boreholes ..........................................29 drill hole survey .......................................... 201
DEM files importing ....................................163 drilled thickness calculator.......................... 210
density DXF files
patterns ....................................................254 exporting ................................................. 230
rock ..........................................................249 exporting grid models to......................... 163
density conversion importing .................................. 96, 194, 213
grid models ..............................................158

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filter
E grid models..............................................159
solid models.............................................166
E00 files importing ......................................213
XYZG data for solid models ...................273
easting............................................................35
Finance utilities............................................209
editing
formation name..............................................39
Geological Utilities datasheet ...................89
formation volume.........................................175
grid models..............................................160
formations missing.........................................53
patterns ....................................................256
Fractures tab.............................................33, 44
solid models ............................................171
frequency histograms...................................196
Editing the Datasheet - Overview..................89
grid node values ......................................157
elevation of borehole .....................................35
solid model node values ..........................165
elog data.........................................................42
EMF files exporting.....................................230 G
entering data ..................................................21
Entering Data - Overview..............................59 geochemistry diagrams ................................145
ENZ files exporting grid models to .............163 fences.......................................................146
ESRI grid models profiles.............................................147, 276
exporting .................................................163 solid models.............................................145
importing.................................................163 geochemistry legend ....................................277
Excel files Geochemistry tab .........................33, 40, 41, 97
exporting ............................................. 57, 96 geological time chart....................................209
importing...................................................96 Geological Utilities datasheet59, 61, 67, 89, 96,
export 97, 278, 282
ASCII .................................. 57, 96, 133, 279 geometry calculator .....................................209
binary ........................................................57 geophysical diagrams...................................148
Borehole Manager..................... 57, 279, 284 fences.......................................................149
DBF...........................................................96 profiles.............................................149, 276
Excel files............................................ 57, 96 solid models.............................................148
Geological Utilities datasheet ...................96 geophysics legend........................................277
plot files........................................... 230, 245 Geophysics tab.............................33, 42, 44, 97
R3D files .................................................245 Geosoft files
RKW files ...............................................230 exporting grid models to .........................163
solid models ............................................172 importing .................................................163
stratigraphy as XYZ data ........................133 global maps......................................75, 77, 112
XLS files ...................................................96 Grid & Constant Math .................................158
Extract Grid from Model .............................169 Grid & Grid Math ........................................158
extracting solid models................................177 Grid menu ....................................................157
EZ Maps ......................................................276 grid model....................................................283
EZ Volume ..................................................175 grid models
EZ-Map................................................ 101, 104 arithmetic operations ...............................158
creating ............................................182, 189
F density conversion...................................158
dimensions...............................................269
fence diagrams
editing......................................................160
creating.................... 128, 137, 143, 146, 149
exporting..................................................163
drawing panels ................................ 151, 155
extracting from solid models...................169
legends ....................................................277
filtering ....................................................159
reference cage .........................................277
filtering solid models with.......................166
viewing.................... 231, 235, 238, 244, 245
294
RockWorks2002

format ......................................................270
importing .................................................163 I
node values posted on a 2D map .............276
igneous rock identification.......................... 210
observed v computed scattergram ...........157
import
slope aspect analysis................................160
AGL files ................................................ 213
statistics ...................................................157
ASCII data ................................................ 96
tools .........................................................157
DBF data................................................... 96
grid statistics ................................................157
DLG files ................................................ 213
Grid-Based Map...................................104, 107
DXF files .................................. 96, 194, 213
grid-based maps ...........................................276
E00 files .................................................. 213
gridding ................................................103, 267
excel files .................................................. 96
declustering..............................................269
grid models ............................................. 163
dimensions...............................................269
plot files .................................................. 213
general gridding options ..........................268
RockBase data .......................................... 96
polyenhancement.....................................268
SEG-P1 data ............................................. 96
gridding methods .........................103, 267, 268
solid models ............................................ 172
Closest Point............................................268
XLS data ................................................... 96
directional weighting ...............................268
Import LogPlot data ...................................... 19
distance to point.......................................268
inclination
inverse distance .......................................268
in dowhole survey..................................... 36
kriging......................................................268
in fractures tab .......................................... 44
multiple linear regression ........................268
initialize solid model ................................... 173
trend surface ............................................268
Insert Grid into Model................................. 169
trend surface residuals .............................268
installing RockWorks...................................... 2
triangulation.............................................268
interpolate points along a line ..................... 200
gridding options ...........................................268
inverse distance gridding ............................ 268
gridding overview ................................103, 267
inverse distance solid modeling .................. 272
group settings - RockPlot3D........................245
ion balance .................................................. 184
GXF files
Ion data.................................. 79, 183, 184, 186
exporting grid model to ...........................163
isopach thickness maps ............... 106, 109, 136
importing .................................................163
isosurfaces ................................................... 284
H creating ................................... 141, 145, 148
displaying........................................ 231, 241
hanging cross sections..................................120 slicing.............................................. 241, 243
Hardware Acceleration ................................246
height estimator............................................210 J
Help / Tutorial................................................19
Jeffersonian points to XY ................... 113, 250
HIS files - importing ......................................41
Jeffersonian polygons to XY............... 113, 250
histogram files - importing.............................41
JPG images
histogram plot ..............................................196
as map backgrounds................................ 276
hoizontal lithoblending solid modeling .......273
as panels............................................ 85, 205
hole to hole cross section .............118, 151, 152
draped over surfaces ............................... 204
horizontal biasing solid modeling................273
exporting ......................................... 230, 245
horizontal bitmap panels ................................85
floating over surfaces.............................. 203
Hydro menu .................................................181
importing as grid models ........................ 163
hydrochemistry ion data.........79, 183, 184, 186
in diagram legends.................................. 225
hydrographs............................................78, 183
in slide show ..................................... 84, 210
Hydrology menu ..........................................135
295
RockWorks2002

translate to BMP......................................210 lines


digitizing....................................................97
K digitizing on screen .................................220
in datasheet................................................89
keyword .........................................................37
in diagram legends ..................................225
Keyword Tables...........................................253
measuring bearing on screen ...................220
keywords.tab................................................253
measuring length on screen .....................220
kriging..........................................................268
Linindex.tab .........................................225, 247
L LIT files - importing ......................................38
lithology diagrams ...............................115, 141
labeled cell maps .........................................276 fence ........................................................143
labels............................................................276 profile ......................................................144
contour ....................................................276 solid model ..............................................142
in 2D map layers .....................................276 lithology files - importing..............................38
in Borehole Manager 2D diagrams .........276 lithology legend ...................................276, 277
strip logs..................................................276 Lithology menu............................................141
land grid lease descriptions ........... 74, 111, 113 Lithology tab......................................33, 37, 38
land grid maps ..................................... 110, 111 Lithology Table .............................37, 253, 285
Land Grid Tables.........................................250 lithology versus stratigraphy..........................51
land grid well descriptions............. 73, 112, 113 lithology volume..........................................178
Laser Atlanta survey data ..............................96 loan analysis.................................................209
lease analysis ...............................................209 Location tab .............................................33, 35
lease maps....................................................111 log patterns.....................................................48
leases...................................................... 74, 113 log symbols....................................................46
legends.........................................................277 logos in diagram legends .............................225
adding to a RockPlot2D image ....... 224, 225 LogPlot keywords........................................253
color index tables ............................ 225, 247 LogPlot to RockWorks Importer ...................19
geochemistry ...........................................277 logs.......................115, 117, 118, 120, 123, 124
Line Style Index Tables .................. 225, 247 plotting ............................................211, 231
lithology .......................................... 276, 277 longitude latitude ...........................35, 112, 114
Pattern Index Tables........................ 225, 248 Longitude Latitude Coordinates ..................285
stratigraphy..............................................277
Symbol Index Tables ...................... 225, 248 M
lighting - RockPlot3D view.........................214
map thickness calculator..............................210
Line Style Index Tables....................... 225, 247
maps...............................................................99
lineations
2D map layers..........................................276
arrow maps..............................................188
3-point contour ........................................209
computing bearing length midpoint from
bar chart...................................................102
data......................................................187
borehole maps .........................................100
densities...................................................189
contour.....................................104, 105, 106
importing from DXF ...............................194
contour maps ...........................................102
intersections ............................................189
cylindrical world .....................................112
lengths ............................................. 187, 189
EZ maps...................................................276
line endpoint data ......................................82
flow..........................................................161
lineation maps .........................................189
grid-based maps.......................................276
rose diagrams ..........................................190
lease.........................................................111
rotating ....................................................193
lineations .........................................188, 189
stereonet diagrams...................................191
pie chart ...................................................102
strike and dip data .....................................80
296
RockWorks2002

plotting.............................................211, 231 OpenGL oriented objects ...................... 87, 206


section......................................................110 OpenGL tubes ....................................... 86, 206
shotpoint ..................................................111 OpenGL vertical panel image lists........ 85, 205
slope.........................................................161 OpenGL vertical tanks .......................... 88, 207
spherical...................................................112 opening
starburst ...................................................102 Borehole Manager projects....................... 29
stratigraphic surface.........................108, 240 Geological Utilities datasheet ................... 61
stratigraphic thickness .............................240 plot files .................................. 211, 212, 232
strike and dip ...................................161, 188 R3D files......................................... 232, 245
surface......................................................107 RKW files ....................................... 211, 212
survey ......................................................199 Ore Thickness -> Grid................................. 169
symbols maps ..........................................101 orientation marker ....................................... 237
water level surface...........................136, 240 Orientation tab......................................... 33, 36
mathematical operations oriented objects ..................................... 87, 206
grid models ..............................................158 Overburden Thickness -> Grid ................... 169
solid models.............................................166
maximum total waste thickness ...................168 P
Measure menu - RockPlot2D.......................220
paste ........................................................ 49, 95
measurements on screen ..............................220
Patindex.tab......................................... 225, 248
minimum ore zone thickness .......................168
Pattern Editor .............................................. 256
minimum total ore thickness........................168
Pattern Index Tables............................ 225, 248
missing formations.........................................53
Pattern Tables.............................. 254, 256, 286
model resolution...........................................273
patterns
montage................................................224, 228
in datasheet ............................................... 89
movement analysis.................................83, 191
in diagram legends.................................. 225
Movement Data..............................................83
Patterns tab .............................................. 33, 48
multiple linear regression gridding ..............268
Pennsylvania coordinate offsets.................. 114
N perimeter -measuring on screen .................. 220
periodic table............................................... 210
navigation rose .............................................214 PicShow ................................................ 84, 210
network of triangles in EZ map ...................276 pie chart maps ............................................. 102
network-user mode...........................................5 Piper diagrams............................................. 184
new planar data ............................. 83, 191, 192, 193
borehole .....................................................29 plan-view maps - water levels..................... 136
Borehole Manager project .........................29 plot files
Geological Utilities datasheet....................61 adjusting reference & data items ............ 237
NOeSYS.......................................................172 annotating ....................................... 224, 225
normalize filter clipping ........................................... 224, 227
datasheet ..................................................198 combining ....................... 224, 225, 228, 232
grid models ..............................................159 converting coordinates............................ 228
northing ..........................................................35 exporting ......................................... 230, 245
importing ................................................ 213
O opening ................................... 211, 212, 232
printing.................................................... 229
OpenGL........................................................246
rescaling.......................................... 224, 226
OpenGL horizontal panel image lists ............85
saving.............................................. 213, 233
OpenGL horizontal tanks.......................87, 207
point maps ................................................... 276
OpenGL menu..............................................203
points
297
RockWorks2002

digitizing ...................................................97 Range Tables ...............................................258


digitizing on screen .................................220 Range Township Section conversion....73, 113,
polar coordinates .........................................114 250
Polyclip.tab..................................................258 Range Township Section coordinates..........112
polygon clipping.......................... 159, 166, 258 Rangetab.tab ................................................258
Polygon Vertices Tables..............................258 reference cage settings .................................277
polygons reference grid in RockPlot3D ......................237
drawing on the screen display .................220 report
measuring area on screen ........................220 grid statistics............................................157
measuring perimeter on screen ...............220 solid model statistics ...............................165
polylines digitizing on screen ......................220 rescaling
polynomial enhancement.............................268 datasheet coordinates...............................114
precipitation versus water level ............. 78, 183 RockPlot2D images.........................224, 226
Print Setup command ..................................229 residuals ...............................................162, 268
printing resolution – strip logs...................................286
from RockPlot2D ....................................229 RKW files
Geological Utilities datasheet ...................61 annotating ........................................224, 225
profile clipping............................................224, 227
geochemistry ................................... 147, 276 combining................................224, 225, 228
geophysics...............................................276 converting coordinates ............................228
laying out......................................... 151, 154 exporting..................................................230
lithology ..................................................144 opening ............................................211, 212
stratigraphy..............................................128 printing ....................................................229
water level ...............................................135 rescaling ..........................................224, 226
project folder ...............................................286 screen scaling ..........................................214
create new .................................................29 viewing ....................................................214
projected cross section................. 115, 118, 151 RockBase data ...............................................96
RockPlot2D
Q adding borders .........................................224
adding legends.................................224, 225
quadrant
clipping images ...............................224, 227
converting from azimuth bearing ............194
combining images ...................224, 225, 228
converting to azimuth bearing.................194
converting coordinates ............................228
R data window ............................................221
digitizing on screen .................................220
R3D files drawing items ..........................................220
adjusting reference & data items.............237 exporting files..........................................230
combining................................................232 image scaling in window.........................214
opening............................................ 232, 245 importing files .........................................213
rotating ....................................................235 introduction .............................................211
saving ......................................................233 measurements ..........................................220
screen scaling ..........................................235 navigation rose ........................................214
spinning...................................................235 opening files ....................................211, 212
viewing....................................................235 printing files ............................................229
rake data.......................................................191 rescaling image coordinates ............224, 226
random numbers ..........................................198 resizing the window ................................214
range filter saving files...............................................213
grid models..............................................159 viewing plot files.....................................214
solid models ............................................166 zoom in and out of screen display...........214
298
RockWorks2002

RockPlot3D zip files ................................................... 234


accessing..................................................231 scaling
adjusting lighting .....................................214 changing in RWK files ................... 224, 226
combining files ........................................232 printing RockPlot2D images .................. 229
data items.................................................238 screen display in RockPlot2D................. 214
exporting files..........................................245 screen display in RockPlot3D................. 235
fence panel settings..................................244 scattergram
group settings...........................................245 datasheet values ...................................... 197
image scaling in window .........................235 grid node values...................................... 157
introduction..............................................231 screened intervals .......................................... 48
isosurface settings....................................241 section maps ................................................ 110
manipulating images................................237 SEG-P1 data ............................................ 73, 96
opening files ....................................232, 245 seismic shotpoint maps ............................... 111
reference items.........................................237 select pattern window.................................. 254
resizing the window.................................235 select symbol window ................................. 261
rotating the view ......................................235 setup XY stations ........................................ 200
saving files...............................................233 shift datasheet coordinates .......................... 114
solid model settings .................................242 Shotpoint Data....................................... 73, 200
spinning the view.....................................235 shotpoint maps ............................................ 111
surface settings ........................................240 single-user mode ............................................. 7
troubleshooting ................................245, 246 Slicer Dicer ................................................. 172
zoom in and out of screen display ...........235 slicing solid models..................... 241, 242, 243
RockWorks/7 slide show.............................................. 84, 210
exporting grid model to ...........................163 slope aspect analysis ........................... 160, 161
importing grid models .............................163 smooth filter
RockWorks2002 grid models ............................................. 159
installation ...................................................2 solid models ............................................ 166
starting up ....................................................5 Software Acceleration................................. 246
system requirements ....................................2 Solid menu .................................................. 165
uninstalling ................................................11 solid modeling
RockWorks99 users ...12, 18, 23, 38, 41, 44, 61 declustering............................................. 273
rose diagrams ...............................................190 dimensions .............................................. 273
rotate filtering input data .................................. 273
RockPlot3D view.....................................235 overview ......................................... 139, 271
strike and dip data....................................193 solid modeling methods .............................. 272
X Y data...................................................114 closest point ............................................ 272
round filter - grid models .............................159 directional weighting .............................. 272
rows arranging ...............................................49 distance to point...................................... 272
RW_pat.pat ..................................................254 horizontal biasing ................................... 273
RW_sym.tab.................................................260 horizontal lithoblending.......................... 273
inverse distance....................................... 272
S solid models ................................................ 287
arithmetic operations ...................... 165, 166
saving
computing statistics ................................ 165
Borehole Manager data..............................29
creating ................................................... 141
Geological Utilities datasheet....................61
displaying................................ 231, 241, 242
plot files ...........................................213, 233
editing ..................................................... 171
R3D files..................................................233
exporting ......................................... 165, 172
RKW files................................................213
299
RockWorks2002

extracting grid models from....................169 stratigraphy volume .............................132, 179


fence diagrams ................ 143, 146, 149, 238 Stretch command .........................................215
filtering.................................... 165, 166, 168 strike -> dip direction ..................................193
importing......................................... 165, 172 strike and dip
initialize new ...........................................173 computing from 3 points .........................209
legends ....................................................277 strike and dip data..........................................80
modeling methods ...................................272 strike and dip map........................................188
overview.......................................... 139, 271 strip logs.......115, 117, 118, 120, 123, 124, 277
pit extraction ...........................................177 Striplogs menu .............................................115
plotting ............................................ 231, 238 stripping ration filter ....................................168
profiles .................................... 144, 147, 149 Structural Elevations / 2-Dimensional.........105
reference cage .........................................277 Structural Elevations / 3-Dimensional.........108
slicing ...................................... 241, 242, 243 surface maps
smoothing................................................166 creating ............................108, 127, 135, 136
statistics...................................................165 legends.....................................................277
viewing............................................ 231, 238 reference cage..........................................277
volume.....................................................180 viewing ............................................231, 240
sphere maps ..................................... 75, 77, 112 Surfer grid models
spin RockPlot3D view.................................235 exporting..................................................163
standard deviations importing .................................................163
datasheet..................................................198 survey data .................................71, 72, 96, 199
grid models..............................................159 survey downhole....................................36, 201
starburst maps..............................................102 survey maps .................................................199
starting up RockWorks ....................................5 Survey menu ................................................199
statistics Survey Table................................................260
grid models..............................................157 Symbol Editor..............................................262
solid models ............................................165 symbol for borehole.......................................35
univariate.................................................195 Symbol Index Tables ...........................225, 248
Stats menu ...................................................195 symbol maps ................................................101
stereonet diagrams .......................................191 Symbol Table...............................................288
Stiff diagrams ..............................................186 Symbol Tables .............................260, 261, 262
storage tanks .................................... 87, 88, 207 symbols
stratigraphic models in 2D map layers .....................................276
creating....................................................129 in Borehole Manager.................................35
reference..................................................274 in datasheet................................................89
Stratigraphic Thickness / 2-Dimensional ....106 in diagram legends ..................................225
Stratigraphic Thickness / 3-Dimensional ....109 log..............................................................46
stratigraphy data - exporting........................133 variable size.............................................258
stratigraphy diagrams .................. 115, 127, 277 Symbols tab .............................................33, 46
fence ........................................................128 Symindex.tab .......................................225, 248
isopach maps ................................... 106, 109 system requirements ........................................2
profile ......................................................128
solid model..............................................129 T
surfaces....................................................105
tables ............................................................288
stratigraphy legend ......................................277
Color Index..............................................247
Stratigraphy menu .......................................127
Colorfill ...................................................248
Stratigraphy tab ................. 33, 39, 53, 130, 133
Contour....................................................249
Stratigraphy Table ......................... 39, 259, 287
DLG Attributes........................................250
stratigraphy versus lithology .........................51
300
RockWorks2002

Keyword ..................................................253 V
Land Grid.................................................250
Line Style Index ......................................247 vertical bitmap panels ........................... 85, 205
Pattern..............................................254, 256 vertical exaggeration ........................... 214, 235
Pattern Index............................................248 vertical exaggeration calculator .................. 210
Polygon Vertices .....................................258 Vertical Projection / Multiple Logs .... 115, 118
Range.......................................................258 Vertical Projection / Single Log.................. 117
stratigraphy ..............................................259 View Columns............................................... 89
survey ......................................................260 Viewing a well data summary....................... 48
Symbol.....................................260, 261, 262 viewing plot files................................. 214, 235
Symbol Index...........................................248 Viewing RockPlot3D Files ......................... 235
tanks .........................................87, 88, 207, 231 VistaPro - exporting grid models to ............ 163
TEM files .............................................282, 288 volume
ternary diagrams.....................................70, 197 computing ............................... 132, 175, 177
thickness maps .............................106, 109, 136 displaying in RockPlot3D............... 241, 242
total depth for borehole..................................35 formation ................................................ 179
total dissolved solids ....................................183 lithology zones........................................ 178
Township Range Section conversion....73, 113, solid models ............................................ 180
250
Township Range Section coordinates..........112 W
translating map coordinates .........................112 water level diagrams ................... 135, 136, 137
transparency .........................................237, 238 water level drawdown ................... 78, 181, 182
trend surface analysis...................................162 Water Level tab ....................................... 33, 46
trend surface gridding ..................................268 water level versus precipitation............. 78, 183
trend surface residuals gridding ...................268 wintab32.dll................................................... 97
trialware mode .................................................5 WMF files
triangulation gridding...................................268 exporting ................................................. 230
triangulation network ...................................276 world outlines.............................................. 237
triangulation survey ...............................72, 199
trigonometry calculator................................210 X
trilinear diagrams .........................................197
troubleshooting ............................................245 X1Y1X2Y2 data ........................................... 82
true dip calculator ........................................210 XLS files
tubes .......................................................86, 206 exporting ............................................. 57, 96
tutorials ..........................................................19 importing .................................................. 96
XY scattergram
U datasheet values ...................................... 197
grid node values...................................... 157
unit converter ...............................................210 XY stations.................................................. 200
univariate statistics.......................................195 XYZ data................................. 67, 97, 133, 199
unnstalling RockWorks..................................11 XYZ location of boreholes............................ 35
upgradient vector map..................................161 XYZG data ............................................ 69, 289
Util menu - Geological Utilities...................209
Utilities menu - RockPlot2D........................224 Z
UTM coordinates ...................35, 112, 114, 289
UTM to degrees - RockPlot2D ............224, 228 zip files - saving .......................................... 234
zoom in/out of screen display ............. 214, 235

301
RockWorks2002

302