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Properties of Equality

R eflexive Pro perty a=a

S ymmetric Pro perty If a = b, then b = a

If a = b and b = c, then a =

T ransitive Pro perty

c

o (am)(an) = am+n

am

o an = am−n

o (am)n = amn

1 m

o (am)n = a n = n√am

o a−n = 1/an

o (ab )n = anb n

a n an

o (b ) = bn

o a0 = 1

COMPLEX NUMB ERS – it is a set of numbers y = xn

expressed in the form a + b𝑖, where a is called the real logx y = n

part, and b𝑖 is called the imaginary part with 𝑖 = √−1.

Laws on Logarithms

o loga (mn) = loga m + loga n

IMAGINARY NUMB ERS – any number that when m

raised to the second power and simplified will yield a o loga ( n ) = loga m − loga n

negative result. o loga x n = n loga x

log x

R EAL NUMBERS – is a value that represents a o loga x = logb a

b

quantity along a line. o loge x = ln x

R AT IONAL NUMBERS – is any number that can be

expressed as a quotient of two integers.

o (f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x)

IR R ATIONAL NUMB ERS – is a real number than o (f − g)(x) = f (x) − g(x)

cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers. o (fg)(x) = f (x)g(x)

f f( x)

o (g) (x) = g(x)

FR ACTION – a mathematical expression representing

the division of one whole number to another. o (f ∘ g)(x) = f(g(x))

negative, or zero) For a certain polynomial f(x) whose variable is x, the

remainder when divided by a linear polynomial x − a, is

the value of f (a).

B ased on units digit

o Even – units digit of a whole number is either 0,

2, 4, 6, 8 An extension of the remainder theorem upon the

o Odd – units digit of a whole number is either 1, 3,

evaluation of f(a) and resulted to zero, then the linear

5, 7, 9

polynomial x − a is a linear factor of f (x). Also, a is a

B ased on divisors zero/root of the polynomial f (x).

o Prime – is a natural number greater than 1 that

has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself

o Co mposite – is a natural number greater than 1

that has positive divisors other than 1 and itself

𝐧

𝐧

(𝐚 + 𝐛)𝐧 = ∑ ( ) (𝐚 )𝐧−𝐤(𝐛)𝐤

The significant figures of a number are digits that carry 𝐤

𝐤=𝟎

meaning contributing to its measurement resolution.

𝐛)𝐫−𝟏

𝐧 𝐂𝐫−𝟏(𝐚 )

Co mmutative Pro perty

Addition a +b = b+a

Multiplication ab = ba

x

Asso ciative Pro perty

Addition a + (b + c) = (a + b ) + c y

Multiplication a(bc) = (ab )c

Distributive Pro perty o f

Multiplicatio n o ver a(b + c) = ab + ac 𝐀𝐱 𝟐 + 𝐁𝐱 + 𝐂 = 𝟎

Additio n

Identity Pro perty Quadratic Formula:

Addition a+ 0 = a −𝐁 ± √𝐁 𝟐 − 𝟒𝐀𝐂

Multiplication a (1 ) = a 𝐱=

𝟐𝐀

Additive Inverse Property a + (−a) = 0

Multiplicative Identity 1 Discriminant:

a( ) = 1

Pro perty a 𝐃 = 𝐁 𝟐 − 𝟒𝐀𝐂

Nature o f Roots based on the Discriminant:

If D = 0, root is only one and is real and rational Arithmetic Means

(roots obtained are equal) It is the term used to denote the number of terms

If D < 0, roots are imaginary being inserted between two numbers to form an

If D > 0, and D is a perfect square, roots are real, arithmetic sequence. The common difference of the

unequal and rational sequence can be expressed in terms of the two

If D > 0 but D is not a perfect square, roots are real, quantities a and b, and the desired number of

unequal and irrational arithmetic means, m.

𝐛−𝐚

𝐝=

𝐦 +𝟏

Let 𝐱 𝟏 and 𝐱 𝟐 be the roots of a quadratic equation, A type of sequence where the succeeding term is

𝐀𝐱 𝟐 + 𝐁𝐱 + 𝐂 = 𝟎. identified by multiplying (or dividing) a constant

S um o f Roots: value, r known as the common ratio.

𝐁 𝐚 𝐧 = 𝐚 𝟏𝐫 𝐧−𝟏

𝐱𝟏 + 𝐱𝟐 = −

𝐀

Product of Roots: Finite Geometric Series

𝐂 The sum of terms until the nth term of a geometric

𝐱 𝟏𝐱 𝟐 = progression is as follows

𝐀

𝐚 (𝟏 − 𝐫 𝐧)

𝐒𝐧 = 𝟏

𝟏−𝐫

f(x)

For any rational function in the form, where g(x) can Infinite Geometric Series

g(x)

be factored to either a linear factor or irreducible The sum of terms up to infinity of a geometric

f(x) progression whose common ratio is in the set of

quadratic factor, then g(x) can be decomposed into numbers (-1,1) - {0}.

partial fractions. 𝐚𝟏

𝐒𝐧 =

𝟏−𝐫

CAS E I. Linear Factors

𝐟(𝐱) 𝐀 𝐁 Geo metric Mean

= + It is the term between two other quantities when all

(𝐱 − 𝐚 )(𝐱 − 𝐛) 𝐱 − 𝐚 𝐱 − 𝐛

three are in GP. It is also the square root of the

CAS E II. Repeating Linear Factors product of the two terms beside it. Let G be the

𝐟(𝐱) 𝐀 𝐁 𝐂 geometric mean, a be the term before G and b be the

= + + term after G.

(𝐱 − 𝐚 )𝟐(𝐱 − 𝐛) 𝐱 − 𝐚 (𝐱 − 𝐚 )𝟐 𝐱 − 𝐛

𝐆 = √𝐚𝐛

CAS E III. Irreducible Quadratic Factors

𝐟 (𝐱) 𝐀 𝐁𝐱 + 𝐂 Geo metric Means

= + It is the term used to denote the number of terms

(𝐱 𝟐 − 𝐚𝐱 + 𝐛)(𝐱 − 𝐜) 𝐱 − 𝐜 𝐱 𝟐 − 𝐚𝐱 + 𝐛 being inserted between two numbers to form a

geometric sequence. The common ratio of the

CAS E IV. Repeating Irreducible Quadratic Factors sequence can be expressed in terms of the two

𝐟(𝐱) 𝐀 𝐁𝐱 + 𝐂 𝐃𝐱 + 𝐄 quantities a and b, and the desired number of

= + +

(𝐱 𝟐 + 𝐛)𝟐 (𝐱 − 𝐜) 𝐱 − 𝐜 𝐱 𝟐 + 𝐛 (𝐱 𝟐 + 𝐛)𝟐 geometric means, m.

𝟏

𝐛 𝐦+𝟏

𝐫=( )

𝐚

It is a function that “reverses” another function: if a

function f applied an input x gives a result y, then Harmonic Progression

applying its inverse function g to y gives the result x, and Three terms a, b, c, are in harmonic progression if

vice versa. they satisfy the ratio below.

𝐚 𝐚−𝐛

=

𝐜 𝐛−𝐜

A function f(x) is called an even function if f (−x) = f(x). The reciprocals of the quantities of an HP are in AP.

A function f(x) is called an odd function if f(−x) = −f(x). The quantity above is equal to the formula below by

algebraic manipulations, which proves the

proposition.

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏

A sequence is a set of numbers that is arranged in a − = −

certain fashion that follows a certain pattern. The term is 𝐜 𝐛 𝐛 𝐚

synonymous to progression.

A series is the sum of the terms in a sequence until a Harmo nic Mean

given last term. It is the term between two other quantities when all

three are in HP. Let H be the harmonic mean, a be the

Arithmetic Progression term before H and b be the term after H.

A type of sequence where the succeeding term is 𝟐𝐚𝐛

𝐇=

identified by adding (or subtracting) a constant 𝐚+𝐛

value, d known as the common difference.

𝐚 𝐧 = 𝐚 𝟏 + (𝐧 − 𝟏)𝐝 Harmo nic Means

It is the term used to denote the number of terms

Arithmetic Series being inserted between two numbers to form a

The sum of terms until the nth term of an arithmetic harmonic sequence. The common technique involves

progression is as follows turning the HP into AP and solve it like an AP.

𝐧 𝐧

𝐒𝐧 = (𝐚 𝟏 + 𝐚 𝐧 ) = [𝟐𝐚 𝟏 + (𝐧 − 𝟏)𝐝] Fibo nacci S equence

𝟐 𝟐

A sequence composed of numbers whose terms after

Arithmetic Mean the first two terms is the sum of the two preceding

It is the term between two other quantities when all ones.

three are in AP. It is also the average of the two terms 𝐅𝐧 = 𝐅𝐧−𝟏 + 𝐅𝐧−𝟐

beside it. Let A be the arithmetic mean, a be the term The nth Fibonacci number can be obtained using the

before A and b be the term after A. Binet’s Formula, named after Jacques Philippe Marie

𝐚+𝐛 Binet, though it was already known by Abraham de

𝐀= Moivre.

𝟐

𝐧 𝐧

𝟏 𝟏 + √𝟓 𝟏 − √𝟓 J o int Variatio n

𝐅𝐧 = [( ) −( ) ] This type of variation involves the relationship of more

√𝟓 𝟐 𝟐 than two variables which is purely direct.

Co mbined Variatio n

A matrix is a rectangular collection of variables or scalars This type of variation involves the relationship of more

contained within a set of square, or round brackets. A than two variables which may be purely direct, purely

matrix has m rows, and n columns, that is m x n. inverse, or a combination of both.

T ypes o f Matrices

S quare Matrix – a matrix that has the same number It is a statement of equality between two ratios.

of rows and columns. 𝐚:𝐛 = 𝐜: 𝐝

Diagonal Matrix – a square matrix that has numerical 𝐚 𝐜

=

entries along the diagonal, while only zeros on every 𝐛 𝐝

other element not along the diagonal.

Identity Matrix – a square matrix that has only 1’s as 𝑏 and 𝑐 are called the means.

entries along the diagonal and every other element 𝑎 and 𝑑 are called the extremes.

not in the diagonal as zeros.

T riangular Matrix – a square matrix with zero

elements on the region either above or below the Age

diagonal. Clock Angle

Digit

Operatio ns o n Matrices Work Done

Addition/Subtraction Motion

Multiplication Mixture

Inverse Coin

Transpose Cost

Determinant

Investment

Problems leading to Diophantine Equations

𝐢 =𝐢 characteristics.

𝐢𝟐 = −𝟏

𝐢𝟑 = −𝐢 Venn Diagram

𝐢𝟒 = 𝟏 A mathematical diagram represented by sets of circles,

with their relationships to each other expressed by

Operatio ns o f Co mplex Numbers overlapping regions, so that all possible relationship

Additio n/S ubtractio n between sets are shown.

(𝐚 + 𝐛𝐢) ± (𝐜 + 𝐝𝐢) = (𝐚 ± 𝐜) + (𝐛 ± 𝐝) 𝐢

Multiplicatio n

(𝐚 + 𝐛𝐢)(𝐜 + 𝐝𝐢) = (𝐚𝐜 − 𝐛𝐝) + (𝐚𝐝 + 𝐛𝐜)𝐢

Co njugate

The conjugate of a complex number is that when it is

multiplied to the complex number will result to a real

number. For a complex number in the form of a + bi,

its conjugate is simply a − bi.

Divisio n

𝐚 + 𝐛𝐢 (𝐚 + 𝐛𝐢)(𝐜 − 𝐝𝐢) (𝐚𝐜 + 𝐛𝐝) + (𝐛𝐜 − 𝐚𝐝)𝐢

= =

𝐜 + 𝐝𝐢 𝐜 𝟐 + 𝐝𝟐 𝐜 𝟐 + 𝐝𝟐

variable to those of the other variables.

Direct Variatio n

This type of variation considers the relationship between

two variables such that one variable increases with an

amount proportional to the increase of the other variable.

The ratio of a variable A to a variable B is constant when

they are in direct proportion.

𝐀∝𝐁

𝐀 = 𝐤𝐁

𝐀

=𝐤

𝐁

Inverse Variatio n

This type of variation considers the relationship between

two variables such that one variable increases with an

amount proportional to the decrease of the other

variable. The product of a variable A and a variable B is

constant when they are in inverse proportion.

𝟏

𝐀∝

𝐁

𝐤

𝐀=

𝐁

𝐀𝐁 = 𝐤

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