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# MODULE#01 – COLLEGE and ADVANCED ALGEBRA

 Properties of Equality
R eflexive Pro perty a=a
S ymmetric Pro perty If a = b, then b = a
If a = b and b = c, then a =
T ransitive Pro perty
c

##  Laws on Exponents and Radicals

o (am)(an) = am+n
am
o an = am−n
o (am)n = amn
1 m
o (am)n = a n = n√am
o a−n = 1/an
o (ab )n = anb n
a n an
o (b ) = bn
o a0 = 1

##  Exponential Form to Logarithmic Form

 COMPLEX NUMB ERS – it is a set of numbers y = xn
expressed in the form a + b𝑖, where a is called the real logx y = n
part, and b𝑖 is called the imaginary part with 𝑖 = √−1.
 Laws on Logarithms
o loga (mn) = loga m + loga n
 IMAGINARY NUMB ERS – any number that when m
raised to the second power and simplified will yield a o loga ( n ) = loga m − loga n
negative result. o loga x n = n loga x
log x
 R EAL NUMBERS – is a value that represents a o loga x = logb a
b
quantity along a line. o loge x = ln x
 R AT IONAL NUMBERS – is any number that can be
expressed as a quotient of two integers.
o (f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x)
 IR R ATIONAL NUMB ERS – is a real number than o (f − g)(x) = f (x) − g(x)
cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers. o (fg)(x) = f (x)g(x)
f f( x)
o (g) (x) = g(x)
 FR ACTION – a mathematical expression representing
the division of one whole number to another. o (f ∘ g)(x) = f(g(x))

##  INT EGER – all natural numbers (either positive,

negative, or zero) For a certain polynomial f(x) whose variable is x, the
remainder when divided by a linear polynomial x − a, is
the value of f (a).
 B ased on units digit
o Even – units digit of a whole number is either 0,
2, 4, 6, 8 An extension of the remainder theorem upon the
o Odd – units digit of a whole number is either 1, 3,
evaluation of f(a) and resulted to zero, then the linear
5, 7, 9
polynomial x − a is a linear factor of f (x). Also, a is a
 B ased on divisors zero/root of the polynomial f (x).
o Prime – is a natural number greater than 1 that
has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself
o Co mposite – is a natural number greater than 1
that has positive divisors other than 1 and itself
𝐧
𝐧
(𝐚 + 𝐛)𝐧 = ∑ ( ) (𝐚 )𝐧−𝐤(𝐛)𝐤
The significant figures of a number are digits that carry 𝐤
𝐤=𝟎
meaning contributing to its measurement resolution.

##  Properties of Real Numbers 𝐫 𝐭𝐡 𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐦 = 𝐧−𝐫+𝟏(

𝐛)𝐫−𝟏
𝐧 𝐂𝐫−𝟏(𝐚 )
Co mmutative Pro perty
 Addition a +b = b+a
 Multiplication ab = ba
x
Asso ciative Pro perty
 Addition a + (b + c) = (a + b ) + c y
 Multiplication a(bc) = (ab )c
Distributive Pro perty o f
Multiplicatio n o ver a(b + c) = ab + ac 𝐀𝐱 𝟐 + 𝐁𝐱 + 𝐂 = 𝟎
 Addition a+ 0 = a −𝐁 ± √𝐁 𝟐 − 𝟒𝐀𝐂
 Multiplication a (1 ) = a 𝐱=
𝟐𝐀
Additive Inverse Property a + (−a) = 0
Multiplicative Identity 1 Discriminant:
a( ) = 1
Pro perty a 𝐃 = 𝐁 𝟐 − 𝟒𝐀𝐂
Nature o f Roots based on the Discriminant:
 If D = 0, root is only one and is real and rational  Arithmetic Means
(roots obtained are equal) It is the term used to denote the number of terms
 If D < 0, roots are imaginary being inserted between two numbers to form an
 If D > 0, and D is a perfect square, roots are real, arithmetic sequence. The common difference of the
unequal and rational sequence can be expressed in terms of the two
 If D > 0 but D is not a perfect square, roots are real, quantities a and b, and the desired number of
unequal and irrational arithmetic means, m.
𝐛−𝐚
𝐝=
𝐦 +𝟏

##  Geo metric Progression

Let 𝐱 𝟏 and 𝐱 𝟐 be the roots of a quadratic equation, A type of sequence where the succeeding term is
𝐀𝐱 𝟐 + 𝐁𝐱 + 𝐂 = 𝟎. identified by multiplying (or dividing) a constant
S um o f Roots: value, r known as the common ratio.
𝐁 𝐚 𝐧 = 𝐚 𝟏𝐫 𝐧−𝟏
𝐱𝟏 + 𝐱𝟐 = −
𝐀
Product of Roots:  Finite Geometric Series
𝐂 The sum of terms until the nth term of a geometric
𝐱 𝟏𝐱 𝟐 = progression is as follows
𝐀
𝐚 (𝟏 − 𝐫 𝐧)
𝐒𝐧 = 𝟏
𝟏−𝐫
f(x)
For any rational function in the form, where g(x) can  Infinite Geometric Series
g(x)
be factored to either a linear factor or irreducible The sum of terms up to infinity of a geometric
f(x) progression whose common ratio is in the set of
quadratic factor, then g(x) can be decomposed into numbers (-1,1) - {0}.
partial fractions. 𝐚𝟏
𝐒𝐧 =
𝟏−𝐫
CAS E I. Linear Factors
𝐟(𝐱) 𝐀 𝐁  Geo metric Mean
= + It is the term between two other quantities when all
(𝐱 − 𝐚 )(𝐱 − 𝐛) 𝐱 − 𝐚 𝐱 − 𝐛
three are in GP. It is also the square root of the
CAS E II. Repeating Linear Factors product of the two terms beside it. Let G be the
𝐟(𝐱) 𝐀 𝐁 𝐂 geometric mean, a be the term before G and b be the
= + + term after G.
(𝐱 − 𝐚 )𝟐(𝐱 − 𝐛) 𝐱 − 𝐚 (𝐱 − 𝐚 )𝟐 𝐱 − 𝐛
𝐆 = √𝐚𝐛
CAS E III. Irreducible Quadratic Factors
𝐟 (𝐱) 𝐀 𝐁𝐱 + 𝐂  Geo metric Means
= + It is the term used to denote the number of terms
(𝐱 𝟐 − 𝐚𝐱 + 𝐛)(𝐱 − 𝐜) 𝐱 − 𝐜 𝐱 𝟐 − 𝐚𝐱 + 𝐛 being inserted between two numbers to form a
geometric sequence. The common ratio of the
CAS E IV. Repeating Irreducible Quadratic Factors sequence can be expressed in terms of the two
𝐟(𝐱) 𝐀 𝐁𝐱 + 𝐂 𝐃𝐱 + 𝐄 quantities a and b, and the desired number of
= + +
(𝐱 𝟐 + 𝐛)𝟐 (𝐱 − 𝐜) 𝐱 − 𝐜 𝐱 𝟐 + 𝐛 (𝐱 𝟐 + 𝐛)𝟐 geometric means, m.
𝟏
𝐛 𝐦+𝟏
𝐫=( )
𝐚
It is a function that “reverses” another function: if a
function f applied an input x gives a result y, then  Harmonic Progression
applying its inverse function g to y gives the result x, and Three terms a, b, c, are in harmonic progression if
vice versa. they satisfy the ratio below.
𝐚 𝐚−𝐛
=
𝐜 𝐛−𝐜
A function f(x) is called an even function if f (−x) = f(x). The reciprocals of the quantities of an HP are in AP.
A function f(x) is called an odd function if f(−x) = −f(x). The quantity above is equal to the formula below by
algebraic manipulations, which proves the
proposition.
𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
A sequence is a set of numbers that is arranged in a − = −
certain fashion that follows a certain pattern. The term is 𝐜 𝐛 𝐛 𝐚
synonymous to progression.
A series is the sum of the terms in a sequence until a  Harmo nic Mean
given last term. It is the term between two other quantities when all
three are in HP. Let H be the harmonic mean, a be the
 Arithmetic Progression term before H and b be the term after H.
A type of sequence where the succeeding term is 𝟐𝐚𝐛
𝐇=
identified by adding (or subtracting) a constant 𝐚+𝐛
value, d known as the common difference.
𝐚 𝐧 = 𝐚 𝟏 + (𝐧 − 𝟏)𝐝  Harmo nic Means
It is the term used to denote the number of terms
 Arithmetic Series being inserted between two numbers to form a
The sum of terms until the nth term of an arithmetic harmonic sequence. The common technique involves
progression is as follows turning the HP into AP and solve it like an AP.
𝐧 𝐧
𝐒𝐧 = (𝐚 𝟏 + 𝐚 𝐧 ) = [𝟐𝐚 𝟏 + (𝐧 − 𝟏)𝐝]  Fibo nacci S equence
𝟐 𝟐
A sequence composed of numbers whose terms after
 Arithmetic Mean the first two terms is the sum of the two preceding
It is the term between two other quantities when all ones.
three are in AP. It is also the average of the two terms 𝐅𝐧 = 𝐅𝐧−𝟏 + 𝐅𝐧−𝟐
beside it. Let A be the arithmetic mean, a be the term The nth Fibonacci number can be obtained using the
before A and b be the term after A. Binet’s Formula, named after Jacques Philippe Marie
𝐚+𝐛 Binet, though it was already known by Abraham de
𝐀= Moivre.
𝟐
𝐧 𝐧
𝟏 𝟏 + √𝟓 𝟏 − √𝟓 J o int Variatio n
𝐅𝐧 = [( ) −( ) ] This type of variation involves the relationship of more
√𝟓 𝟐 𝟐 than two variables which is purely direct.

Co mbined Variatio n
A matrix is a rectangular collection of variables or scalars This type of variation involves the relationship of more
contained within a set of square, or round brackets. A than two variables which may be purely direct, purely
matrix has m rows, and n columns, that is m x n. inverse, or a combination of both.

T ypes o f Matrices
 S quare Matrix – a matrix that has the same number It is a statement of equality between two ratios.
of rows and columns. 𝐚:𝐛 = 𝐜: 𝐝
 Diagonal Matrix – a square matrix that has numerical 𝐚 𝐜
=
entries along the diagonal, while only zeros on every 𝐛 𝐝
other element not along the diagonal.
 Identity Matrix – a square matrix that has only 1’s as 𝑏 and 𝑐 are called the means.
entries along the diagonal and every other element 𝑎 and 𝑑 are called the extremes.
not in the diagonal as zeros.
 T riangular Matrix – a square matrix with zero
elements on the region either above or below the  Age
diagonal.  Clock Angle
 Digit
Operatio ns o n Matrices  Work Done
 Multiplication  Mixture
 Inverse  Coin
 Transpose  Cost
 Determinant
 Investment
 Problems leading to Diophantine Equations

## First Fo ur Po wers o f 𝒊 A set is a collection of objects with common

𝐢 =𝐢 characteristics.
𝐢𝟐 = −𝟏
𝐢𝟑 = −𝐢 Venn Diagram
𝐢𝟒 = 𝟏 A mathematical diagram represented by sets of circles,
with their relationships to each other expressed by
Operatio ns o f Co mplex Numbers overlapping regions, so that all possible relationship
 Additio n/S ubtractio n between sets are shown.
(𝐚 + 𝐛𝐢) ± (𝐜 + 𝐝𝐢) = (𝐚 ± 𝐜) + (𝐛 ± 𝐝) 𝐢

 Multiplicatio n
(𝐚 + 𝐛𝐢)(𝐜 + 𝐝𝐢) = (𝐚𝐜 − 𝐛𝐝) + (𝐚𝐝 + 𝐛𝐜)𝐢

 Co njugate
The conjugate of a complex number is that when it is
multiplied to the complex number will result to a real
number. For a complex number in the form of a + bi,
its conjugate is simply a − bi.

 Divisio n
𝐚 + 𝐛𝐢 (𝐚 + 𝐛𝐢)(𝐜 − 𝐝𝐢) (𝐚𝐜 + 𝐛𝐝) + (𝐛𝐜 − 𝐚𝐝)𝐢
= =
𝐜 + 𝐝𝐢 𝐜 𝟐 + 𝐝𝟐 𝐜 𝟐 + 𝐝𝟐

## A mathematical expression that relates the value of one

variable to those of the other variables.

Direct Variatio n
This type of variation considers the relationship between
two variables such that one variable increases with an
amount proportional to the increase of the other variable.
The ratio of a variable A to a variable B is constant when
they are in direct proportion.
𝐀∝𝐁
𝐀 = 𝐤𝐁
𝐀
=𝐤
𝐁

Inverse Variatio n
This type of variation considers the relationship between
two variables such that one variable increases with an
amount proportional to the decrease of the other
variable. The product of a variable A and a variable B is
constant when they are in inverse proportion.
𝟏
𝐀∝
𝐁
𝐤
𝐀=
𝐁
𝐀𝐁 = 𝐤