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Previous studies examined the linear correlation of reading attitude and reading
motivation but few studies tried to elaborate on the effect of both components on
reading practices. The study aims to identify the impact of reading attitude and
reading motivation on the reading practices of international students enrolled in a
reputable university in the Philippines. Using the Motivation for Reading
Questionnaire constructed and developed by Guthrie and Wigfield, survey
questionnaires adapted and developed from Adult Survey of Reading Attitudes
(1988) and the Attitudes toward Reading in the Adult Learner Population- Short
Form Reading Attitude Survey (1995), the data were gathered from fifty (50)
international students enrolled in a special Philippine history class and those
members of the International Students Association (ISA). Results indicate that
there is indeed a positive correlation among the three variables such as reading
attitude, reading motivation and reading practices.

Keywords: reading, motivation, attitude, practices, international students, foreign



Traditionally, the struggling reader has been viewed as a low achiever. This learner is seen as

lacking cognitive competencies, which may include reading comprehension, study skills, word

recognition and reading fluency. These cognitive characteristics have been the defining attributes of a

struggling reader (Vacca & Vacca, 1999). According to a study made by Guthrie and Davis (2003),

struggling readers tend to be notably unmotivated. Komiyama (2013) stated that understanding the nature

of reading motivation is still essential for preparing researchers to investigate the relationships between

students’ motivational tendencies and reading development with both L1 and L2 learners. Her research

with school-age L1 readers indicates that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation both positively relate to

reading amount (e.g., Guthrie, Wigfield, Metsala, & Cox, 1999), strategy use (Lau & Chan, 2003), and

text comprehension (e.g., Lau & Chan, 2003; Unrau & Schlackman, 2006; Wang & Guthrie, 2004).

Intrinsic motivation, however, appears to be a stronger indicator of the students’ greater amount of

reading (e.g., Wang & Guthrie, 2004; Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997), better text comprehension (e.g., Lau &
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Chan, 2003; Wang & Guthrie, 2004), though this trend may be influenced by students’ ethnic

backgrounds (Unrau & Schlackman, 2006) and perhaps age (e.g., Konheim-Kalkstein & Van den Broek,



Reading, therefore, involves different extrinsic and intrinsic factors, not just cognitive process.

Reading is the process of constructing meaning from written texts. It is a complex skill requiring the

coordination of a number of interrelated sources of information (Anderson et al., 1985). Reading is

described as making meaning out of texts and that meaning is triggered by different factors. Such factors

is an interaction among: (1) the reader’s existing knowledge; (2) the information suggested by the text

being read; and (3) the context of the reading situation. (Wixson, Peters, Weber, & Roeber, 1987 cited in

University of Michigan, 2005) Hence, reading involves the activation of relevant prior knowledge

coupled with the present knowledge the text offers and the context of the situation. Evidence from the

National Adult Literacy Survey (Kirsch, Jungeblut, Jenkins, & Kolstad, 1993) suggests that there is a

strong association between wide reading practices and literacy skills. Smith (1996) found, in an analysis

of the National Adult Literacy Survey data, that adults who report reading a greater amount of text

materials (e.g., books, magazines, newspapers) have significantly higher literacy proficiency scores than

adults who read few materials or do not read at all.

Reading Attitude

Reading practices are influenced by attitude. Attitude may affect the level of ability ultimately

attained by a given student through its influence on such factors as engagement and practice. Second,

even for the fluent reader, poor attitude may occasion a choice not to read when other options exist, a

condition now generally known as aliteracy. (McKenna, Kear and Ellsworth, 1995) Attitudes are

relatively stable evaluations of persons, objects, situations, or issues, along a continuum ranging from
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positive to negative (Wood, Wood, & Boyd, 2007). Most attitudes have three components: 1) a cognitive

component, consisting of thoughts and beliefs about the attitudinal object; 2) an emotional component,

made up of feelings toward the attitudinal object; and 3) a behavioral component, composed of

predispositions concerning actions toward the object (Wood, et al., 2007) Reading attitude pertains to a

person’s predisposition towards what one reads. It also speaks of feelings and emotions towards reading

(Subashini and Balakrishnan, 2012; Sarawit, 2008). It is also described as “a system of feelings related to

reading which causes the learner to approach or avoid a reading situation” (Alexander & Filler, 1976,

cited in Yamashita, 2013, p. 9). Reading Attitude affects how a person tends to react towards reading

materials and how one puts the disposition to read. Matthewson (1994, cited in McKenna, 1995) came up

with a model that shows how a set of factors influencing an individual's intention to read and in which the

results of a given reading encounter are fed back to influence attitude (McKenna, Kear, and Ellsworth,

1995). These factors were mainly described as cognitive, affective, and conative. Hence, this model

became a framework on how reading attitude is described. McKenna, Kear, and Ellsworth (1995) later on

came up with a 20-item scale to see if these factors can be determined to check on one’s attitude towards

reading. This paved way for McKenna, Kear, and Ellsworth (1995) to create another model of reading

attitude, which was known as the reading attitude acquisition model, supplementing and affirming what

Matthewson has previously done.

Reading Motivation and Reading Practices

By increasing reading motivation and reading attitude it can increase reading activity (Guthrie,

Wigfield, Metsala, & Cox, 1999). Reading motivation pertains to the drive set towards reading. It also

encompasses on the interest, dedication, and confidence of a person towards reading. What we mean by

motivation are the values, beliefs, and behaviors surrounding reading for an individual. Some productive

values and beliefs may lead to excitement, yet other values may lead to determined hard work. (Cambria

and Guthrie, 2010). This can be in the form of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. John Guthrie and Allan

Wigfield (1997) cited in Baker and Wigfield, 1999) conceptualized eleven (11) constructs that show the
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different dimensions affecting reading motivation, namely: self-efficacy, reading challenge, work

avoidance, recognition, reading for grades, competition, curiosity, involvement, importance, social

reasons for reading, and compliance. This shows that reading motivation has several factors to consider

that affects how a person‘s motivation is influenced. In a research done by Linda Baker and Allan

Wigfield, they pointed out that in conceptualizing reading motivation, they adapted constructs defined

and developed by researchers in the achievement motivation field. Currently, many motivation theorists

propose that individuals' competence and efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and purposes

for achievement play a crucial role in their decisions about which activities to do, how long to do them,

and how much effort to put into them (Bandura, 1997; Eccles, Wigfield, &Schiefele, 1998; Pintrich &

Schunk, 1996; Wigfield, Eccles & Rodriguez, 1998). Motivated readers thus will engage more in reading

(Guthrie, Van Meter, et al., 1996; Oldfather & Wigfield, 1996) and will have postive attitudes toward

reading (Athey, 1982; Greaney & Hegarty, 1987; Mathewson, 1994; McKenna et al., 1995).

Reading Attitude and Reading Practices

According to a study made by Zeinab, Mihandoost (2011), some attitudes are acquired through

first hand experiences with people, objects, situations, and issues. Others are acquired when children hear

parents, family, friends, and teachers express positive or negative attitudes toward certain issues or people

(Wood, et al., 2007). Students with poor attitude toward reading may not read when other choices such as

video viewing exists (Martin, 1984). The motivational consequences of reading attitudes are that children

with more positive attitudes are more motivated to read. A substantial body of work also exists on reading

interest defined as either a characteristic of the person or text. (Renniger, Hidi, & Krapp, 1992; Schiefele,

1996) Interest relates to text comprehension and other important reading outcomes such as reading

activity and reading practices.

Although there are already various studies made about reading motivation and reading attitude,

there is more to elaborate on reading practices. Despite the results of this collective body of work, Guthrie
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and Greaney (1991) suggested that little is known about what most adults read, how they use reading in

their lives, what social factors motivate them to read, and how reading behaviors contribute to individuals'

social and cognitive development. Also, readers' affective responses to their reading practices are rarely

obtained in survey studies. The purpose of this study is to help understand further the relationship existing

among reading attitude, reading motivation and reading practices. Reading for students can be considered

as a difficult or an unexciting task for them because of typical reasons of laziness, disinterest and lack of

motivation. (Miller & Anderson, 2009). According to a longitudinal investigation made by M. Cecil

Smith, there was continuing decline in positive attitude toward reading throughout school years. Young

adults also possessed the least positive attitudes toward reading among the different age groups examined.

(Smith, 2001) These problems encountered by modern society must be addressed by research. With this

study, we may be able to further contribute to the researches that are unraveling the mystery behind the

declining attitude and motivation in reading, and harnessing the correct reading practices fit, not only for

Filipinos, but also for foreign students in the university. This research will be able to contribute to schools

their aim to provide quality education for the evolving society of learners.

The study intends to answer these following questions:

1. What is the highest predictor amongst the reading attitude, reading motivation, and reading practices of
foreign students?

2. Is there a significant relationship between the reading attitude of foreign students and their reading

3. Do the reading attitude and the reading motivation of foreign students have an impact on their reading
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Theoretical Framework

Mathewson (1994) proposed a model of attitude related to reading that explains how attitude

might affect reading (See Figure 1). Mathewson’s model begins with cornerstone concepts. This model

focuses on the role of attitude as a factor during the act of reading and during the period when one learns

to read. His model has implications for attitude acquisition in its identification of four factors that

influence reading behavior, (two major and two minor factors). The major factors, represented by solid

arrows, are "cornerstone concepts," including personal values, goals, and self-concepts, and "persuasive

communications," which can affect the reader through a central route (as when a teacher taught

reading) or peripherally (as when a book has an attractive cover). The minor factors include cognitive

and affective feedback from reading encounters. In Mathewson's tripartite view, attitude comprises

feelings, action readiness, and beliefs. Two other factors are seen as contributors to the decision to

read (or to continue reading): external motivators and the individual's emotional state. (McKenna,

Kear, & Ellsworth, 2009) Individuals’ attitudes for reading influence their intention to read, and intention

to read then influences reading itself. Reading includes text selection, attention, strategy use, and

comprehension. Reading then contributes to ideas, feelings, and internal emotions. Reading is also

influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. (White, 2011) This model emphasizes on the pivotal

role of attitude and motivation in reading. All these components influence the intention to read and in

which the intention to read affects the reading behavior.

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Figure 1: Mathewson model of attitude influence upon reading and learning to read

Conceptual Framework

Impact of Reading Motivation and Reading Attitude on Reading Practice

Mathewson’s model of reading attitudes features external motivators and internal states as

components that influence one’s intention to read/continue reading. External motivators, comprising

‘incentives, purpose, norms, and settings outside of readers’, form part of the model and, like internal

emotional states, they work on one’s intention to read and/or continue reading, with reading behaviour as

an outcome.

Hence considering the model of Matthewson on reading attitude, the study hypothesized that

there is a significant relationship between reading motivation and reading attitude and that the reading

attitude and reading motivation of the foreign students have an impact on their reading practices.
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Figure 2: The study’s conceptual framework


This study is a descriptive research that used a combination of quantitative and qualitative data

through survey forms and interviews. The goal of the study is to know the impact of reading attitude and

reading motivation of foreign students on their reading practices. This study used surveys, such as a

Reading Attitude Survey, the MRQ survey by Guthrie and Wigfield, and a Reading Practice Survey. The

interview questions were based on the reading practice survey made by the researchers.


The respondents of this study were foreign students enrolled for the first semester of the current

academic year in a Philippine comprehensive university and were selected by means of simple random

sampling. There were four hundred twenty five (425) international students in the university but only fifty

(50) were taken as the respondents of the study (see Figure 1 below). The team based its selection of

participants from the study on Schwab’s (1987) article, “The Problem of the Advanced Student in

American English”. He stated the needs of foreign students who have reached or passed the operational

level (defined by him “as a person who can converse with natives, order food in a restaurant, purchase a
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railroad of simple structural patterns in his writing and listen with comprehension to informal speech”) (p.

1) . Schwab points out, quite rightly, that this level is insufficient for pursuing academic work (Plaister,

1968). Barnett’s (1989) research showed that literate adolescent and adult second and foreign language

learners bring their reading in a certain level of cognitive skill development, more or less well-formed

schemata about the world and about text structure, and some first language reading skills. However this is

not enough for them to succeed in their academic endeavors. There are other factors such as reading

motivation and attitude that influence reading practices. Hence the goal of this study is to determine their

reading motivation and reading attitude and how these two factors affect their reading behavior.

47% Male Students

53% Female Students
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In choosing the participants of the study, the list of the international college students was

requested from the University’s Registrar’s office. Next, the researchers identified the number of

participants to be chosen for the study, through a simple random sampling taken from a special Philippine

History class and the International Student’s Association. The College of Education held a special

Philippine History class for foreign students under one faculty of the History department every Saturday

for the first semester of AY: 2015-2016 while the ISA holds membership for the international students of

the university. The special Philippine History class consists of thirty (30) international students from the

College of Commerce, College of Science, College of Education, Faculty of Arts and Letters, and

Conservatory of Music, while the special International Student’s Association consists of forty (40)

international students from the different colleges and faculties of the university. The researchers were able

to get twenty-four (24) participants from the special Philippine History class and twenty six (26)

participants from the International Students’ Association. The participant’s ages ranged from eighteen to

twenty-three years old (18-23 years old). 46% or 23 students are males while 54% or 27 students are



The Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (MRQ) was used to measure the level of foreign

students’ reading motivation. MRQ was formulated by Dr. Allan Wigfield and Dr. John Guthrie of the

University of Maryland in 1995, later on improved in the year 1997 and further revised in 2003.

Originally, the questionnaire consists of 82 items but was then reduced to 53 items. The questionnaire is

composed of 11 building blocks or constructs that affect reading motivation. These constructs are as

follows: Reading Efficacy, Reading Challenge, Reading Curiosity, Reading Involvement, Importance of

Reading, Reading Work Avoidance, Competition in Reading, Recognition for Reading, Reading for

Grade, Social Reasons for Reading, Compliance. The MRQ is a reliable instrument primarily because of

the multiple research and revision it had undergone through. The MRQ has also been used in various

researches not only by its creators (Dr. Wigfield and Dr. Guthrie), but also by other scholars.
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The second instrument is a reading attitude survey adapted from the Adult Survey of Reading

Attitudes (1988) and the Attitudes toward Reading in the Adult Learner Population- Short Form Reading

Attitude Survey (1995). Both survey forms were based from Mathewson’s Model of Reading Attitude

(1994). While constructing the reading attitude survey, the researchers used the paper on Reading

attitudes in L1 and L2, and their influence on L2 extensive reading by Junko Yamashita (2004) as it

showed a clear division of the building blocks of attitude which are cognitive, affective and conative

aspects of attitude- this research was also based on Mathewson’s Model of Reading Attitude. Most items

from the survey were modified from the ASRA and the Short Form Reading Attitude Survey. The items

of the instruments are divided as follows: Cognitive, Affective, Conative. The instrument has a 4-point

Likert response format to measure on how much the respondents agree or disagree to each statement: (1 =

strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = agree; 4 = strongly agree). This researcher-made instrument was

validated by two (2) language experts and was pilot tested to fifteen (15) foreign students in the

university. The survey yieleded the Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.791. It indicates that the research

instrument developed were stable in maintaining consistent measurement as measured by the Cronbach’s

alpha. Thus, it can be used as a research instrument for this study since the result was acceptable (George

and Mallery,2003) as indicated by the following rules: if α ≥ 0.9 it means excellent; 0.8 ≤ α < 0.9 it

means good; 0.7 ≤ α < 0.8 it means acceptable; 0.6 ≤ α < 0.7 it means questionable; 0.5 ≤ α < 0.6 it means

poor; and α < 0.5 it means unacceptable.

The third instrument is a reading practices survey that was also adapted from Attitudes toward

Reading in the Adult Learner Population- Short Form Reading Attitude Survey (1995) (ASRA). Some

items from the ASRA were modified to fit for a reading practices survey. These modifications were based

on how reading practices were described in the two papers titled, “The Real-World Reading Practices of

Adults” (Smith, 2000) and “Reading-Related Literacy Activities of American Adults: Time Spent, Task

Types, and Cognitive Skills Used” (2010). Some items were adapted from the Adult Survey for Reading

Attitude because these items were also applicable to measure reading practices, not just reading attitude.
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The reading practices survey form divided its items the same way as the reading attitude survey by having

specific types or categories for each reading practice. The categories were based on Smith’s (1990)

research and these categories are Reading Purposes, Reading Strategies, Reading Settings and Sources,

Reading Effort and Enjoyment. These categories were used in the research, not in the form of a likert

scale, it was used to categorize student’s entries in their reading diaries. To properly group the items, the

categories were modified and changed adjective phrases. These categories are: Purposeful Reading,

Strategic Reading, Locational Reading, Exertion Reading and Recreational Reading. The instrument has a

4-point Likert response format to measure on how much the respondents agree or disagree to each

statement: (1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = agree; 4 = strongly agree).

The reading practices survey also underwent pilot-testing and were given to fifteen (15)

international students from the International Student’s Association (ISA), a recognized organization in the

university. After pilot-testing, the survey form’s reliability was further validated using Cronbach’s alpha

which assesses the inter-correlations of test items to determine reliability through internal consistency of

test scores.

The Reading Practice of the students obtained the alpha value of =0.820 which is interpreted

as good. Hence, it is a reliable instrument to be used.

The last instrument used is an interview conducted to thirteen(13) or 25% of the total

respondents. The questions of the interview are items of the questionnaires but were converted to their

interrogative form. The researchers also asked the students their overall rating of their reading practices.
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Prior to conducting a study, the researchers adapted and modified the survey

questionnaires to measure reading attitude and reading practices from other studies. Then they submitted

the two adapted survey forms to two language experts for content validation. Afterwards, a letter to the

Registrar’s was submitted to request the population count of the international students enrolled in the

university. After obtaining the population count, the researchers proceeded to submit a letter of approval

to the History Department to request to conduct their study during the time of the Special Philippine

History scheduled every Saturday, from 9:00 A.M.-12:00 NN. While waiting for the approval and the

validation of the survey forms, the pilot test was conducted with the assistance of the International

Student’s Association (ISA) of the university. Permission to give the forms to fifteen (15) random foreign

students was sought from the organization. With the president’s approval, the researchers proceeded to

give the survey forms on two consecutive days. On the first day, the survey forms were administered to

the first half of the students and then to the other half on the second day. The research team then

followed-up the request for the approval for data gathering during a Special Philippine History class, and

it was approved. With the approved survey forms and the standardized Motivation for Reading

Questionairre (MRQ), the team proceeded in giving out the forms during the SPHIST Class. For the

remaining number of respondents, the researchers requested from the ISA Executive Board for them to

give out the survey forms to some of them. With the approval of the president, the team gave out twenty

six (26) survey forms to the international students with corresponding interviews.
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The result of the study is reported in three (3) sections. The first section shows primarily the

process that the data underwent before being interpreted. The second section shows the three different

variables and the constructs that contribute to them. The third section shows the correlation of the three

variables and the qualitative data that can supplement the correlated data.

I. Process

Reverse Scoring

Before calculating for the data of the respondents from the different questionnaires, a reverse

coding strategic analysis was performed in order to filter the value of negatively worded questions from

the positively worded questions and to standardize the value used from each questionnaire so as to avoid

miscalculations within the results.

II. Data

Table 1. Reading Motivation

Constructs Value Percentage Rank

Reading Efficacy 0 0 8

Reading Challenge 1 2 7

Reading Curiosity 11 22 1

Aesthetic Enjoyment of Reading 10 20 2

Importance of Reading 0 0 8

Reading Work Avoidance 1 2 7

Reading Competition 7 14 3

Reading Recognition 0 0 8
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Reading for Grades 0 0 8

Social Reasons for Reading 4 8 5

Compliance 2 4 6

Reading Curiosity and Aesthetic Enjoyment 5 10 4

of Reading

Reading Curiosity and Social Reasons for 2 4 6


Aesthetic Enjoyment for Reading and 1 2 7

Reading Competition

Reading Curiosity and Compliance 1 2 7

Reading Curiosity, Aesthetic Enjoyment of 2 4 6

Reading and Competition

Reading Curiosity, Reading Competition, 1 2 7

Social Reasons for Reading and Compliance

Reading Challenge and Reading Curiosity 2 4 6

Table 1 shows the different constructs that contribute to a reader’s motivation. In the year 1995,

Dr. Allan Wigfield and Dr. John Guthrie of the University of Maryland composed eleven (11) constructs

namely, reading efficacy, reading challenge, reading curiosity, aesthetic enjoyment of reading, importance

of reading, reading work avoidance, reading competition, reading recognition, reading for grades, social

reasons for reading, and compliance, that constitute the reading motivation of a person. It was later on

improved in the year 1997 and further revised in 2003. This researched used the eleven (11) constructs in

order to determine the construct that highly motivates a reader. However, results show that not only one

construct affects a reader because some readers are affected by more. In this study, seven (7) combined

constructs were manifested. The additional constrcuts were a combination of the original determined

constructs namely, Reading Curiosity and Aesthetic Enjoyment of Reading, Reading Curiosity and Social

Reasons for Reading, Aesthetic Enjoymnet for Reading and Reading Competition, Reading Curiosity and
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Compliance, Reading Curiosity, Aesthetic Enjoyment of Reading, and Competition, Reading Curiosity,

Reading Competition, Social Reasons for Reading, and Compliance, and Reading Challenge and Reading

Curiosity. The study shows that Curiosity ranks first in motivation with 22% amongst all the other

constructs. Aesthetic Enjoymnet, does not go far with 20%. The third rank which holds 14% of the total

average belongs to Competition and fourth rank is a combination of Curiosity and Aesthetic Enjoyment.

Next in line woud be Social Reasons which has 8% of the total average. Two constructs share in the sixth

rank. That would be Compliane and a combination of Reading Curiosity and Social Reasons which both

has 4%. Challenge and Work Avoidance both are in the seventh rank which hold 2% of the total average.

Last are Efficacy, Importance of Reading, and Reading for Grades. All these three have 0% of the total


This shows that most readers are motivated if the reading material interests them and if it brings

them enjoyment. These two constructs which hold 22% and 20% of the total average are categorized by

Komiyama (2013) as instrinsc motivation. Intrinsic motivation drives L2 readers. “It reflects students’

desire to read in the L2 because of the enjoybale experiences it provides. Students with high Intrinsic

Motivation read to fulfill their interests in the topic and are willing to engage in L2 reading, even in the

face of challenge.” (Komiyama, 2013)

Table 2. Reading Attitude

Factors Value Percentage Rank

Cognitive 18 36 1

Affective 15 30 2

Conative 8 16 3

Cognitive-Conative 3 6 5

Cognitive-Affective 2 4 6

Affective-Conative 4 8 4
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Cognitive-Affective-Conative 0 0 7

Table 2 shows the factors that affect a reader’s attitude towards reading. This is patterned after

Matthewson’s reading attitude model. Matthewson’s model is divided into three factors: cognitive,

affective, and conative. However, in this study, it revealed that readers’ attitude are affected not only by

one factor. Some readers are affected by a combination of the other factors. Three more factors were

derived by combining the original factors. These factors are: cognitive-conative, cognitive-affective,

affective-conative, and cognitive-aaffective-conative. A total of seven factors were determined, however,

it resulted that amongst all, cognitive ranked number one with 36%. It is followed by the affective domain

which has a 30% of the total share. The third factor in rank, conative, is far from the first two which holds

only 16% of the total average. The next in rank would be the affective-conative which is only 8% and the

cognitive-conative which is 6%. The cognitive-affective, on the other hand, has but 4%. There is a 0%

result in combining all the three orignal factors.

This result displays that the cognitive domain mainly affects the reader’s attitude towards reading.

The cognitive factor as described by (Reeves, 2002) and cited by (Yamashita, 2004) is the personal and

evaluative beliefs of a reader. A reader is more likely to read if he has positive beliefs about reading.

Positive beliefs lead to a positive attitude. The affective domain also holds high value in a reader’s

attitude towards reading. Again, as defined by (Reeves, 2002) and cited by (Yamashita, 2004), the

affective factor is the feelings and emotions that a reader has for reading. If a reader feels like reading, he

will. His emotions dictates his action. The miniscule percentage that the conative factor holds is explained

in a study conducted by (Yamashita, 2004) wherein he said, “The conative component pertains to actions

and behaviors which may promote or hinder reading. For example, ‘going to a library frequently’, which

is one of the possible statements representing the conative component, would represent the L1 conative

component, but it would not represent the L2 component.” In the Philippines, most books are in the

English language, most especially the textbooks, thus, most foreign students would not have positive
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attitude towards reading. A handful of the foreign students interviewed mentioned that they dislike

reading especially in English because they have a hard time deciphering the words. They still have to

convert the words from English to their native language before they can really unedrstand the text. It takes

a long process and they easily get frustrated resulting to them not reading at all. This is why the results

lead to the high percentage for the cognitive factor wherein a reader’s belief affects his attitude towards


Table 3. Reading Practice

Category Value Percentage Rank

Purposeful Reading 29 58 1

Strategic Reading 0 0 4

Locational Reading 15 30 2

Exertion Reading 0 0 4

Recreational Reading 0 0 4

Purposeful-Locational Reading 6 12 3

Table 3 displays the results of the reading practice survey. Smith, (2000) categorized the reading

practices of adults into five parts and this study added another category which is a result of the answers

given by the foreign students. The six categories are as follows: purposeful reading, strategic reading,

locational reading, exertion reading, recreational reading, and purposeful-recreational reading. (Smith,

2000) defined the five categories in his study titled, “The Real-World Reading Practices of Adults”.

According to him, purposeful reading refers to the purpose why readers engage in reading. Some factors

include reading for leisure, reading to study for exams, reading to obtain new information, and reading to

learn about new skills. Strategic reading deals with the approach a readers does with reading. Example of

strategies would be using schema, taking down notes and outlining, memorizing, using physical
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reminders, organizing informatuions, comparing informations, rereading texts, and discussing texts with

others. Locational reading pertains to the place where a reader prefers to read-whether at home, in a cafe,

the library and so on. Exertion reading is the effort and time put into reading. Recreational reading is “the

extent to which readers report that they enjoy different reading tasks”. Lastly would be purposeful-

recreational reading. This is a combination of the purpose why readers read and the enjoyment they find

in it.

Table 3 shows that puroseful reading ranks first with more than half of the total sum, which is

58%. It is followed by locational reading which holds 30%. Then next in rank would be purposeful-

locational reading which is 12%. The last in rank is shared by strategic, exertion, and recreational reading

wherein all three is 0%.

The study indicates that most of the international readers practice reading for their purpose-

whether it be for leisure or for academic purposes. Some would read based form their location. One

student from our interviwees said that he reads anywhere-as long as he has his book with him. Others said

their reading purpose depends upon their location. If they will read academic books, they will go to the

library. However, if they will read for pleasure, they will either choose to stay at home or go to a cafe or


III. Correlation

Table 4. Correlation of Reading Motivation, Reading Attitude, and Reading Practices

Variables Value Relationship Rank

RM and RP 0.523 moderate 3

RA and RP 0.548 moderate 2

RM and RA 0.769 strong 1

Note: n=50. All corellations are significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
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Table 4 shows the correlation among three different variables, namely reading motivation,

reading attitude, and reading practice. Using the Pearson r correlation, it can be seen that each variable

shows a positive relationship with the other variables. However, it is evident that among the three, reading

motivation and reading attitude obtained the highest coefficient value (r= 0.769). According to (Evans,

1996), it has a strong positive relationship. Reading attitude and reading practice show moderate postive

correlation with a (r=0.548). The last pair, reading motivation and reading practice also exhibit a

moderate positive relationship (r=0.523).

Reading Motivation and Reading Attitude

Reading motivation and reading attitude definitely go hand-in-hand. If a reader has positive

attitude toward reading, he then is more motivated to engage in reading activities. As Renniger, Hidi, and

Krapp, (1992) and Schiefele, (1996) mentioned, “The motivational consequences of reading attitudes are

that children with more positive attitudes are more motivated to read (p. 1).” However, it would also mean

that if the reader has poor attitude, his motivation also decreases.

Reading Attitude and Reading Practice

Results also show there is a moderate positive relationship between reading attitude and reading

practice. Reading attitude is described as “a system of feelings related to reading which causes the learner

to approach or avoid a reading situation” (Alexander & Filler, 1976, cited in Yamashita, 2013, p. 9).

Therefore, if a reader has high positive attitude towards reading, he would be more engaged in reading.

On the contrary, if his attiude is negative, he would more likely not read. As what Martin (1984),

“Students with poor attitude toward reading may not read when other choices such as video viewing

exists.” (p. 6) Seven (7) out of the fifteen (15) interviewees said that they prefer to read more when their

grades are at stake, but they find difficulty in enjoying the time they spent on reading. Four of them said

the following answers about their purpose for reading practices and three proved Martin’s statement.
Page 21 of 34

“No man, I don’t read for leisure. I don’t like it.I only read when I need to study or get high grades but I

don’t enjoy it that much.”

“Yes, right now the only reason I read is to study for exams; I often read only for school. I don’t like

reading that much because I’m more of a visual person, that’s why I’d watch videos if I have a chance.”

“I do read for exams but I don’t really like reading for exams. I look at videos for lessons most of the


“I learn better when I watch videos than I read my lessons. I prefer to watch than to read.”

Fourteen out of fifteen students prefer to read at home because they feel more comfortable to read in their

private quarters than in a public place like the library or at school. They also feel more focused because

there are less distractions at home than in public places.

“Home, because it’s my comfort zone. I don’t like the library because although it’s quiet, it’s boring and I

feel lazy.”

“More on home because I can rest and relax better; I don’t like the library because it’s too quiet and I

can’t concentrate cause of the people.”

“I prefer to read at home but I can also read at the café. I don’t like reading in the library because the

silence doesn’t help. I get sleepy and lazy.”

Reading Motivation and Reading Practice

The results also indicate a moderate positive relationship between reading motivation and reading

practices of readers. When a reader is highly motivated to read, he defiitely would read, whereas if his

motivation is low. Similar findings were gathered in Zeinab’s (2011) study as he found that students

without dyslexia read more because they are more motivated. Eight (8) out of the fifteen (15)

international students like reading novels, short stories and/or graphic novels. All eight of them said

reading is something they look forward to. One even mentioned that reading is something he does

everyday for him to fall asleep. These are some of the answers from the interviews:
Page 22 of 34

“I read the Harry Potter series up to the 5th and last book because the story’s really something I look

forward to.”

“Hell yeah. I read everyday, both in novels and in studies, but more for novels. Reading makes me feel

relaxed. Reading is fundamental for me, I can read everyday. I don’t need to have my studies at stake just

for me to read. I read to fall asleep that’s why I find reading relaxing.”

“Sometimes I think of it [reading] as a hobby. I used to read a lot but then college happened.Although

I’m busy, when I have the time, I look forward to it. [reading]”

Correlation of Reading Motivation, Reading Attitude, and Reading Practice

The correlation between reading motivation-reading practice and reading attitude-reading practice

weigh almost exactly the same with only a small difference in their value (0.523 and 0.548). This

indicates that the reading attitude and reading motivation both have the same weigh in effecting a reader’s

engagement in reading. They both affect each other, meaning if the reader has a positive attitude toward

reading, he will morel likely be motivated to read, thus influencing the reader’s reading behavior.


The study provides evidence that there is a certain correlation among reading motivation, reading

attitude and reading practices. The data supports previous researches done by Zeinab (2011), Komiyama

(2013), Guthrie and Wigfield (1997) which all stated, suggested and implicated that there is a certain

correlation among the three variables. As also proven by previous researches, there is a strong correlation

between Reading Attitude and Reading Motivation. There is a close inclination between the two

components which is also evident at how the qualitative interviews were answered by the students. Some

of their answers have this clear overlapping statements between motivation and attitude towards reading.

The data presented shows a strong relationship between the two variable proving that the two components

go hand-in-hand in the reading process. (Zeinab, 2011) Reading practices are also affected by the two
Page 23 of 34

variables. The more motivated they are to read, the more they read- may it be for academics or for leisure

as proved by the qualitative data presented. Reading attitude and reading practices also have a

relationship. The qualitative data shows that the more inclination one holds for reading, the more they

practice reading and the more they enjoy reading. With these findings, academic institutions should

consider not only the cognitive processes of reading, but also take into consideration harnessing the

student’s inclination and motivation towards reading to be able to maximize the process of reading.

The following recommendations are offered as possible ways to improve the study further: An

increase in respondents can be done for follow-up researches. More accurate results can be achieved if

there is an increase in the sample size of the international students. Improvement in the sampling method

can also be done for further precision. Further research should also be done conerning reading practices to

be able to have a more concise measurement of one’s reading practices.


Al-Jarf, R. S. (2006). Cross-cultural communication: Saudi, Ukrainian, and Russian students online.

Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 8(2), 7-32. Retrieved from


Baker, L., & Wigfield, A. (1999). Dimensions of Children’s Motivation for Reading and Their Relations

to Reading Activity and Reading Achievement. Retrieved from


Cambria, J., & Guthrie, J. (2010). Motivating and engaging students in reading. The NERA Journal,

46(1). Retrieved August 16, 2015, from

Motivating-and-engaging-students-in-reading-Cambria-Guthrie.pdf .

Gambrell, L., & Marinak, B. (2009). Reading Motivation: What the Research Says. Retrieved August 16,

2015 from

Graves, M., Juel, C., Graves, B., & Dewitz, P. (2011). Teaching reading in the 21st century: Motivating
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all learners. (5th ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson.

Guthrie, J. (2001, March 1). Reading Online - Articles: Contexts for Engagement and Motivation in

Reading. Retrieved August 16, 2015, from


Guthrie, J. (2008). Reading motivation and engagement in middle and high school: Appraisal and

intervention. Retrieved August 16, 2015, from

Huang, Q. (2012, August 1). Action Research on Motivation in English Reading. Retrieved August 16,

2015, from

Lenters, K. (2006). Resistance, struggle, and the adolescent reader. Journal of Adolescent &

Adult Literacy, 50(2), 136-146. Retrieved from


McClure, C. (2008). Motivation and Reading. Retrieved August 16, 2015.

McKenna, M. C., Kear, D. J., & Ellsworth, R. A. (2009, May 26). Children's Attitudes toward Reading: A
National Survey. Ding Research Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 934-956.

McRae, A., & Guthrie, J. (n.d.). Teacher Practices that Impact Reading Motivation. Retrieved August 16,

2015, from

Miller, D., & Anderson, J. (2009). The book whisperer: Awakening the inner reader in every child.

San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass.

Parault, S., & Williams, H. (2009, November 29). Jnl. of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education. Retrieved

August 16, 2015.

Protacio, M. “Reading Motivation: A Focus on English Learners” The Reading Teacher

66.1 (Jan. 2013), pp. 69-77. Retrieved from

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2015, from

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Self Efficacy for Reading, and Reading Ability in a Non-Supportive ESL Setting.

Retrieved August 16, 2015, from


Schema Theory. (n.d.). Retrieved August 16, 2015, from

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Sprenger, M. (2013). Wiring the brain for reading: Brain-based strategies for teaching literacy.

San Francisco, California: Wiley Imprint.

Starrett, E. (2000). Teaching phonics for balanced reading. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California:

SkyLight Training and Publishing.

White, Kathy Jane, (2011) "Describing the Reading Motivation of F our Second-Grade Students with
Varying Abilities." All Theses and Dissertations. Paper 2958

Zeinab, M. (2011). A Comparison of the Reading Motivation and Reading Attitude of Students with

Dyslexia and Students without Dyslexia in the Elementary Schools in Ilam, Iran.

International Journal of Psychological Studies, 3(1), 17-27. Retrieved November 25, 2015,

Page 26 of 34


AY: 2015-2016

NAME: __________________________________________AGE: _______YEAR LEVEL: _______

COLLEGE/FACULTY: ______________________________

Adapted from: Adult Survey of Reading Attitudes (1988) & Attitudes toward Reading in the Adult Learner
Population- Short Form Reading Attitude Survey (1995)
Based from: Mathewson’s Model of Reading Attitude (1994), Paper on Reading attitudes in L1 and L2, and
their influence on L2 extensive reading by Junko Yamashita (2004)

I. This is a survey to measure the reading attitude of international college students.

Read each number and put a cross mark (x) on the number that tells how you feel
about the statement.

1- Strongly Disagree 2- Disagree 3- Agree 4- Strongly Agree

1 2 3 4
Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly
Disagree Agree
1. Reading is an important part of my life.

2. Reading makes me feel good.

3. Reading is enjoyable.

4. I get upset when I think about having to read.

5. I get nervous if I have to read a lot of information for

some social activity.
6. I feel tired when I am presented with a long text.

7. I worry a lot about my reading.

8. Reading is one of the most interesting things.

9. I feel happy when I finish a novel.

10. Reading is boring.

11. I enjoy receiving books as gifts.

12. I try to avoid reading because it makes me feel

13. I don’t like to read during class hours.
Page 27 of 34

1 2 3 4
Strongly Disagree Undecided Agree

14. I feel like I should find time to read books.

15. I enjoy it when someone asks me to explain

unfamiliar words or ideas to.
16. I feel good when I go to the library frequently.

17. I don’t feel comfortable when I have to read out

loud in a class.
18. I feel happy when my friends tell me about books.

19. I don’t enjoy talking to my friends about books.

20. I like short stories better than novels.

21. I like stories that are written with my mother tongue

than stories written in English.
22. I like it when I learn new words from my native
23. I feel bad whenever I have to use a dictionary to
translate an unfamiliar word.
24. I am a good reader.

25. I try very hard, but I just can’t read very well.

26. Most books in the public library are too difficult for

27. Reading is one of the best ways for me to learn


28. There are better ways to learn new things than by

reading a book.

29. I think reading books is advantageous to the study

of my major.
30. Encountering unfamiliar words is the hardest part of
Page 28 of 34

NAME: ______________________________ DATE: _____________________


Motivations for Reading Questionnaire

We are interested in your reading.

The sentences tell how some students feel about reading. Listen to each sentence
and decide whether it talks about a person who is like you or different from you.
There are no right or wrong answers. We only want to know how you feel about

For many of the statements, you should think about the kinds of things you read in
your class.

Here are some examples to try before you start on the questionnaire:

I like ice cream.

Very Different A Little Different A Little A Lot Like

From Me From Me Like Me Me
1 2 3 4

If the statement is very different from you, circle 1.

If the statement is a little different from you, circle 2.

If the statement is a little like you, circle 3.

If the statement is a lot like you, circle 4.

Copyright© 2004 by John T. Guthrie. Not for use other than research purposes
Page 29 of 34

I like spinach.
Very Different A Little Different A Little A Lot Like
From Me From Me Like Me Me
1 2 3 4

If the statement is very different from you, what should you circle?

If the statement is a little different from you, what should you circle?

If the statement is a little like you, what should you circle?

If the statement is a lot like you, what should you circle?

Okay, we are ready to start on the items about reading. Remember, when you give
your answers you should think about the things you are reading in your class.
There are no right or wrong answers; we just are interested in YOUR ideas about
reading. To give your answer, circle ONE number on each line. The answer lines
are right under each statement.

Let’s turn the page and start. Please follow along with me while I read each of the
statements, and then circle your answer.
Page 30 of 34

Copyright© 2004 by John T. Guthrie. Not for use other than research purposes.

Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (MRQ)

Wigfield & Guthrie, 2004

Very A Little A Little A Lot

Different Different Like Me Like
From Me From Me Me

1. I don’t know that I will do well in reading next year 1 2 3 4

2. I learn more from reading than most students in the class 1 2 3 4

3. I like hard, challenging books 1 2 3 4

4. If the project is interesting, I can read difficult material 1 2 3 4

5. I like it when the questions in books make me think 1 2 3 4

6. I usually learn difficult things by reading 1 2 3 4

7. If a book is interesting I don’t care how hard it is to read 1 2 3 4

8. If the teacher discusses something interesting I might read more about it 1 2 3 4

9. I have favorite subjects that I like to read about 1 2 3 4

10. I read to learn new information about topics that interest me 1 2 3 4

11. I read about my hobbies to learn more about them 1 2 3 4

12. I like to read about new things 1 2 3 4

13. I enjoy reading books about living things 1 2 3 4

14. I read stories about fantasy and make believe 1 2 3 4

15. I like mysteries 1 2 3 4

16. I make pictures in my mind when I read 1 2 3 4

17. I feel like I make friends with people in good books 1 2 3 4

18. I read a lot of adventure stories 1 2 3 4

19. I enjoy a long, involved story or fiction book 1 2 3 4

Page 31 of 34

20. It is very important to me to be a good reader 1 2 3 4

21. In comparison to other activities I do, it is very important 1 2 3 4

to me to be a good reader
1 2 3 4
22. I don’t like vocabulary questions

23. Complicated stories are no fun to read 1 2 3 4

24. I don’t like reading something when the words are too difficult 1 2 3 4

25. I don’t like it when there are too many people in the story 1 2 3 4

26. I try to get more answers right than my friends 1 2 3 4

27. I like being the best at reading 1 2 3 4

28. I like to finish my reading before other students 1 2 3 4
29. I like being the only one who knows an answer in something we read 1 2 3 4
30. It is important for me to see my name on a list of good readers 1 2 3 4
31. I am willing to work hard to read better than my friends
1 2 3 4
32. I like having the teacher say I read well 1 2 3 4
33. My friends sometimes tell me I am a good reader 1 2 3 4
34. I like to get compliments for my reading 1 2 3 4
35. I am happy when someone recognizes my reading 1 2 3 4
36. My parents often tell me what a good job I am doing in reading 1 2 3 4
37. Grades are a good way to see how well you are doing in reading 1 2 3 4
38. I look forward to finding out my reading grades 1 2 3 4
39. I read to improve my grades
1 2 3 4
40. My parents ask me about my reading grade
1 2 3 4
41. I visit the library often with my family
1 2 3 4
42. I often read to my brother or my sister 1 2 3 4

43. My friends and I like to trade things to read 1 2 3 4

44. I sometimes read to my parents 1 2 3 4

Page 32 of 34

45. I talk to my friends about what I am reading 1 2 3 4

46. I like to help my friends with their schoolwork in reading 1 2 3 4
47. I like to tell my family about what I am reading 1 2 3 4
48. I do as little schoolwork as possible in reading 1 2 3 4
49. I read because I have to 1 2 3 4
50. I always do my reading work exactly as the teacher wants it 1 2 3 4
51. Finishing every reading assignment is very important to me 1 2 3 4
52. I always try to finish my reading on time 1 2 3 4
Page 33 of 34


AY: 2015-2016

NAME: _______________________________________________AGE: _________YEAR LEVEL: __________

COLLEGE/FACULTY: _____________________________________________

Adapted: Attitudes toward Reading in the Adult Learner Population- Short Form Reading Attitude Survey
Based on The Real-World Reading Practices of Adults (Smith, 2000) & Reading-Related Literacy Activities of
American Adults: Time Spent, Task Types, and Cognitive Skills Used (2010)

I. This is a survey to measure the reading practices of international college students. Read
each number and put a cross mark (x) on the number that tells how you feel about the

1- Strongly Disagree 2- Disagree 3- Agree 4- Strongly Agree

1 2 3 4
Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly
Disagree Agree
1. I read for leisure.

2. I only read to study for exams.

3. I read to know about the current events and

places to be.
4. I read to get information on how to improve my
5. I read to relax.

6. I read to accomplish home works or projects.

7. I read to learn new skills I find interesting.

8. I read to memorize information.

9. I read to take note of additional information

about my studies.
10. I can read materials easier when I have prior
knowledge of the subject.
11. I can discuss a topic well with others if I’ve
read it before.
12. I read to compare information from past
material’s I’ve encountered.
Page 34 of 34

1 2 3 4
Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly
Disagree Agree
13. It’s more comfortable for me when I read at
14. I read better in the library.

15. I can read even if there’s noise around me.

16. I read poetry often.

17. I read novels all the time.

18. I read inspirational books when I feel down.

19. I go to the library to read journals and

20. Whenever I want to eat at a new restaurant, I
diligently read the menu.
21. I give more effort in reading for my academics.

22. I don’t give that much effort whenever I read

for leisure.
23. I read instructions carefully during exams.

24. I read harder when grades are at stake.

25. I don’t give that much effort in reading when

the material is irrelevant to my interest.
26. I still give effort in reading even if I’m relaxing
while reading.
27. I read to feel happy and carefree.

28. Going to the library to read is one of my

favourite things to do.
29. Reading in a coffee shop is one of the best
things in life.
30. I read books first before I watch its movie