You are on page 1of 100

r-

FOREWORD
Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM),
through the cooperation and
support of various road authorities and engineering
institution, in Muluysia, publishes
a series of official documents on STANDARDS,
sppcu'tcATloNs, cunnuxgs,
MANUAL and TECHNICAL NOTES which are related to road
engineering. The
aim of such publication is to achieve quality and consistency
in road and highway
construction, operation and maintenance.

The cooperating bodies are:-

Public Works Department Malaysia (pWD)


Malaysian Highway Authority (MHA)
Department of Irrigation & Drainage (DID)
The Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM)
The Institution of Highways & Transportation (IHT Malaysian
Branch)

The production of such documents is carried through


several stages. At the Forum on
Technology and Road Management organized u/ewnrnEAM
in Novemb er 1997,
Technical committe-e 6 Drainage was formed
-
Teknik (Jalan) t5/97 - TNTERMEDIATE GUIDE To
with the intention to review Arahan
DRAINAGE DESIGN oF
ROADS' Members of the committee were drawn from various gou"*-"rrt
departments and agencies, and from the private
sector including privatized road
operators, engineering consultants and drainage products
manufacturers and
contactors.

Technical committee 6 was divided into three sub-committees


to review Arahan
Teknik (Jalan) 15/91 and subsequently produced ,GUIDELINES
FoR R.OAD
DRAINAGE DESIGN' consisting of the ioriowing uolumes,

Volume 1 - Hydrological Analysis


Volume 2 - Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Volume 3 - Hydraulic Considerations in Bridge Design
Volume 4 - Surface Drainase
Volume 5 - Subsoil Drainale

The drafts of all documents were presented at workshops


during the Fourth and Fifth
Malaysian Road Conferences held in 2000 and 2002 reipectively.
i
The comments and
suggestions received from the workshop participant,
I

*Jr. reviewed and incorporated


in the finalized documents.
i
I
i
I
I
I

ROAD ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION OF MALAYSIA


46-A, Jalan Bola Tampar r3/r4,section 13,40100
Shah Alam, selangor, Maraysia
Tel:603-5513 6521 Fax:5513 6523 e_mail:
@

I
{-
E
a
i'

TABLE OF CONTENTS i

a.
j

i
VAAP
:

4.1 INTRODUCTION ...,.4-I


4.2 IMPORTANCE OF SURFACE DRAINAGE .... ... 4-T
4.3 COMPONENTS OF SURFACE DRAINAGE ..."..4-2
4.3.1 Crowned Roadways " .. .. 4-3
4,3.2 Shoulder Slopes ....4-3
4.3.3 Toe, Shoulder and Roadside Drain ...4-4
4.3.4 Discharge Drain ....4-4
4.3 .5 Interceptor Drain (Catch Drain) ..... ..4-74
4.3.6 Bench (Cuts) and Berm (Fill) Drains ..... ..... "..4-14
4.3.7 Outfall (Fi11) and Cascading (Cut) Drains ..... ..".4-I5
4.3.8 Median Drain .".....4-I5
4.3.9 Gutter ........4-I5
4.3.10 Kerb Opening Inlets .....4-16
4.3.11 Sumps .........4-26
4.4 SURFACE DRAINAGE IN RURAL AREA .,...,..4-26
(FLAT AND ROLLING AREAS)
SURFACE DRAINAGE IN URBAN AREA .....,. .,4-28
4.5.1 DrainageInlets .....4-28
4.5.7.1 General ...4-28
4.5.I.2 Types of Inlet ........4-34
4.5"I.3 Recommended Use of Inlets ......4-36

SURFACE DRAINAGE IN MOUNTAINOUS AREA ..4-36


4.6.1 Drainage for Cut Section .......4-36
4.6.2 Drainage for Fill Section ...... 4-36
4.6.3 Route Location and Drainage .... .....4-36
4.7 FLOW CAPACITY DESIGN OF SURFACE DRAINS . ........4-37
4.7 .l Hydrologic Analysis ......4-31
4.7 .2 Hydraulic Analysis .. .. ....4-39
4.1 .3 Basic Design Procedures ........4-40
4.7 .4 Calculation Worksheet ...4-42
4.7 .5 Kerb and Gutter ....4-44
4.1.6 Inlet Spacing Calculation ... ....4-50
4.1 .1 Inlet Pits .....4-50
r
I
!

l 4.1.7.1 Types of InlerFits... ........4-51


4.7 .1 .2
Allowance for Blockage. .. . ... ....4_51
4.7.7.3 Type BKSE3OIntet
..4_51
4 7 1 4 Type BKLE3O Inlet
.. .. .. ...4_52
4.7 .1 .5 Hydraulic Design of Kerbs and Gutters
and
Stormwater Inlets. .....4_52

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig.4.1 Typical Road Drainage Layout Cross Section
... .. . .. .4_5
Fig'4'2 Exampleof DrainageLayoutPlanforCutandEmbankment....
_ i .........4-6
Fig. 4.3 Typical Road Drainage Elemenrs ...4_j
Fig. 4.4 Interceptor Drain
.......4_g
Fig. 4.5 Drain
Berm
...4-g
Fig.4.6 Bench Drain
....4_70
Fig. 4.7 Roadside Drain
.......4_1tr
Fig. 4.8 Shoulder Drain
..... "..4_12
Fig.4.9 Toe Drain
Fig. 4.10Median Drain - Urban Road . .......4_I7
Fig. 4.1 1 Median Drain Supereievation Section
- .........4_1g
Fig. 4.12 Outfail Drain . ..4_1g
Fig. 4.13 Concealed Roadside Drain in Rural Roads .......4_20
Fig. 4.14 Concealed Roadside Drain (in Cut) in Major Highways
. "...4_Zl
Fig. 4.15 Concealed Roadside Drain (in Fill) in Major Highways
...4_Zz
Fig. 4.16Swale in Roadside/Median Drain
...4_23
Frg. 4.17 Concealed Drain at Median
...4_24
-i Fig. 4.18 Recommended Type of Kerb Opening Inlet .
I .. ..4_25
I
Fig. 4.19 Typical highway cross Section with Good Drainage
Features . ..4_21
Fig' 4.20 Guide for Locarions of Kerb openings and Inret pits
... .. . .4-30
Fig. 4.2I Typical Drainage Elements in Urban Areas
..,..4_31
Fig. 4.22Types of Storm Drain Inlets
i ..4_32
Fig. 4.23 Depressed Grared Inlet .
.......4_33
Fig. 4.24 Components of the Stormwater System Network considered
for the
Sg. Rokam Catchment Analysis
...4_41
Fig. 4.25 Kerb and Gutter showing Half Road Flow . ......4_4g
Fig. 4.26F1owchart for Calculation of Inlet pit Spacing
..4_53
Fig. 4.27 Calculation of Gutrer Flow and pit Spacing
.....4_54
Fig. 4.28 Standard Inlet pit Types
......4_54
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1 Allowable Roadways for Initial Storm Runoff in terms of
.
Pavement Encroachment .. " '4-29
Table 4.2 Allowable Average Velocity "4-4I
Table 4.3 Suggested Values of Manning's Roughness Coefficient, n '''''"'4-4I
Table 4.4 Example of Rational Method Calculation for Small Catchments ...... ....4-46

Table 4.5 Design Acceptance Criteria for Road Gutter Flow ' ..4-49

Table 4.6 Mannins's 'n' andFlow Correction Factor for Gutter Flow... ...." '4-49

APPENDICES
Appendix 4.A GutterFlow Design Charts """"'4-55
Appendix 4.B Inlet Pit Capacity Design Chart " "'4-56
Appendix 4.C Worked Examples

ATTACHMENT 1

Reprint of. Chapter 24 : Stormwater Inlets, Urban Stormwater Management Manual for

Malaysia

F;
111 5...
-
-i
i

VOLUME 4. SURF'ACE DR.AINAGE

4.1 INTRODUCTION

One of the most important aspects of the location and design


of rural highways
and city streets ir_,h." necessity for providing adequate
clrainage. Ri"quut"
and eccnomical drainage is absolutely essential ior the protection
investment made in a highway structure and for safe-guarding
of the
the lives of the
persons who use it.

Highway drainage m_ay be generally defined as the process


of controliing and
removing excess surface and underground water endountered
within the limits
of the right-of-way and adjacent territory.

The flow of surface water with which the highway engineer


is concerned
generally results from precipitation in the form of rain.
A portion of the
surface water enters or "percolates" into the soil, while the
remiinder stays on
the surface of the ground and must be carried on, beside,
beneath, o. u*uy
from the travelled way. In certain instance the control
(ground water) may be important, as in the case "t "ro"rgr"r; ;;,
of an undertround flow
encountered in a highway cut or in a iocation where
tire water table iies ciose
to the surface of the ground.

Measures taken to control the flow of surface water


are generally termed
"surface drainage", while those dealing with
groundwater in its various forms
are called "subsurface drainage". This volume will
only discuss the former
part ofthe drainage - surface drainage.

The solution of drainage problems should not be regarded as a


separate
element of highway or street design. Rather, consfoerations
relative to
drainage must accompany every step in location and design,
so that the final
design and resulting construction op-ration will provide
for optimum drainage
at reasonable cost.

4.2 IMPORTANCE OF SURFACE DRAINAGE

one of the major causes of pavement failure in highways is water.


It has been
appreciated since roads were first built that iheir stability can
only be
maintained if the surface and foundation remain in a relativety ory
condition.
Water brings about pavement failures within highways by: _

(a) hydraulic forces within pavement surfacings;

(b) softening the road surface when it is constructed of soil


or sand-clay or
gravel or water bound macadam:

(c) washing out unprotected areas of the top surface3dsion


of side slopes
forming gullies, erosion of side drains. etc.:

i
E

,E 4-1
4.2 Irnportance of Surface Drainage - (Cont'd)

(d) generally softening of the ground and embankments can give rise to
slip failures;

(e) softening the subgrade soil and decreasing its bearing capacity.

Preventive measures include changing of watercourses, intercepting and


disposal of water, bank protection and soil treatment. Drainage works
designed to protect the road from these effects may be grouped under the
following headings: -

(a.) Surface Drainage Works - interception and diversion of the surface


water which would otherwise flow across the road or along it and
cause erosion.

(b) o,,L^^:I
JLTUSUrI T\--i.-^ -^
L)r4IIr4tg i-.^,.^^^+i
lnieicepilJn
-- .'^.'j
ano --^-,: ) *^*^"-!
rapid removai oi
-.1' ..
seepage oi
ground water.

(c) Cross Drainage Works - interception and disposal of natural drainage


water under the road surface.

The cost of drainage is quite expensive; hence careful consideration must be


given to determine an economical drainage systems and protection of the road
from floods in all phases of its location and design. This in turn will prove to
be effective in both construction and on soins maintenance costs.

Environmentally, the water quality f}om the surface run-off should also be
considered to minimise any adverse impact. Siitation of watercourses, which
in turn affect the quality and drainage capacity of the river system, should be
discouraged. The concept of using swales (shallow grassed lined drains) to
slow down the discharge and trap silt befbre surface run-off discharges into
natural watercourse should be encouraged. Alternatively, the surface water
can be discharged into a wetland area to enable the water to be filtered prior to
the final discharge into the stream.

4.3 COMPONENTS OF SURFACE DRAINAGE

The function of surface drainage is to remove excess water brought about by


rainfall. Surface drainage systems in built-up areas are generally connected to
other drainage systems such as storm sewers, lakes or rivers while that in rural
areas are connected to natural drainage channels or watercourses.

The main components of surface drainage are: -

(a) crowned roadways l present in all types ofroad


(b) shoulder slopes l present in all types ofroad
(c) roadside drains l present in ali types ofroad
(d) toe drains
(e.) shoulder drains

A'
4.3 Components of Surface Drainage - (Cont'd)
(D interceptor drains most coffrmon in cut/fill areas
(g) bench / berm drains most common in cut/fill areas
(h) outfall / cascadins drains most common in cut/fill areas
(i) median drains most common in high class of road
(t) gutters
most common in urban areas
(k) kerb openings most common in urban areas
(l) sumps

A11 drainage systems must be connected


to a natural watercourse or to a storrrr
sewer in urban areas subject to negotiations
with relevant authorities.
4.3.1 Crowned Roadways

Roadway surfaces are normally crowned or superelevated


to facilitate
the removar of surface water from the wearing
iurface. The amount of.
crown varies with the type of surfaces; -it is generally
10w for
impervious surfaces such -as asphaltic concrete
and increases for
pervious surfaces such as gravel or earth.
For details, please refer to
"A Guide to Geometric Design of Roads (REAM
common crossfarl used for paved roads - GL 2/2002),,. The
carriageway and 2.0vo for a duaicarriageway,
is 2.57o for a' singte
ho*"u.r, up to 3.\va can
be used for coarse surfaces or when trrJ
ro"jltuoinat profite of the road
is flat eg. less than 0.5Vo.

4.3.2 Shoulder Slopes

Road shoulders provide lateral clearances and


emergency stopping
space and are used to facilitate drainage
away from the road surface
into roadside drains' To prevent water ponding
and edge scour, the
shoulders need to be maintiined and graOea,"guiJy.

Shoulder slopes vary; unsealed shouiders


have a greater slope than the
seaied shoulders, a3d. normally
1e srope at 4vo. For more details,
please refer to " A Guide to Geometric Design of Roads
2/2002). erana - GL

The unsealed shoulders can affect the water quality


and surface water
run-off by carrying silts with it and subsequently
cause siltation in the
stream. Road shoulders for major roads are generally
sealed for safety
of the motorist as well as for ease of maintenance
and grassed areas
should be considered to improve the quality
of the run_off.
F

4-3
4.3.3 Toe, Stroulder and trloadside Drains

The function of the toe, shoulder and roadside drains are to coilect
water that has fallen on the carriageway and the batters of cuttings or
embankments to direct to the edge of the formation. Toe drains are
used at the base of embankments wherever the road is in a fiii section
and shoulder drains are used along the shoulders. Roadside drains are
used along the road edge and can also cater for the drainage of the
abutting developed area. Generally, the gradient follows that of road
(see Fig. 4.1 and Ftg. 4.2) and is usually shallow (only for toe and
shoulder drain) since the catchment area is restricted to the roadway
and the cut slope. The most common types of roadside and shoulder
drains are detailed at Fig. 4.1 and Fig. 4.8'

Because toe, shoulder and roadside drains are often built on flat grades
to match the road grade, they must either have a large cross-section
area or have frequeni discharge points. Depending upon the nature of
the material in which they are constructed and their longitudinal grade,
the toe, shoulder and roadside drains may be lined with Stone, concrete,
or a bitumen seal to resist the action of scouring.

The use of brickside or brickwall drains should be discouraged on


major roads due to their lack of structural integrity, drains with vertical
walls should be constructed of reinforced concrete. Along minor roads
where brickwall drains are used, the height of the brickwall should not
exceed 750mm and reinforced concrete stiffeners shall be provided at
3.0m interval.

Concealed roadside drains are preferred to exposed drains, examples of


which are shown in Fig. 4.13,4.I4 and 4.15'

For environmental considerations, the concept of incorporating swale


in roadside and median drainage should be considered and are shown
in Fig. 4.16.

4.3.4 Discharge Drain

Discharge drains are located along the boundary line between the
embankment and the natural ground to collect the discharge from the
toe of shoulder drains that run down the embankment slopes. It can
also collect flow from berm drains in high fills. The comrnon types
used are generally U-shaped precast or trapezoidal in shape (see Fig.
4.e).

4-4
INTERCIPTOR DRAIN
r
I

uTqvl GROUND LEVIL

BENCH DRAIN.J
r
+ ,t- -\

\./
I
Y \ " '/ suBSorL DRArN
ROADSiDE DRAIN _-J

(a) cUt SnCUOt'l

BtRr/ DRA|N--l
i

NATURAL GROUND LTVEL

Lro, ooo,*

-t !
l
t b) Frrr sEcTroN
i
i

I
t
i

I
i

FIG. 4.1 G_
i
I

I
I
I

-I +5
INTTRCEPTOR DRAIN

BENCH DRAIN

SUI./P

TOE DRAIN

PIPE CULVIRT

nn stoPE

FIG. 4.2 EXAMPTE OF DRAINAGE LAYOUT PLAN


FOR CUT AND EMBANKMENT

+6 t
t
t-
.L-
OULDER DRAIN

SUMP

TOE DRAIN

CULVIRT

FII.L STOPE

FIG. 4.2 EXAMPLE OF DRAINAGE TAYOUT PLAN

FOR CUT AND EMBANKMENT

i
I
4-6
;t
_-.L
--
INTERCIPTOR DRAIN INTIRCIPTOR DRAIN

NATURAL GROUND LTVIL


l?
Y
\r1 [/EDIAN

BENCH DRAIN-J
ROADSIDI DRAIN ROADSIDI DRAIN
SUBSOIL DRAIN
SUBSOIL DRAjN

[/EDIAN DRAiN

FIG. 4.3

+7
^ \ T\LL
GREDWS

CONCRETE LINING

SQUARI MTSH A1 42
DIA. 6 AT 2OO BOTHWAYS

CAST IN-SIIU CONCRNTE DRAIN

150mm THICK STONE PITCHING


GROUTEDWITHl:3
.ues.}ry& CEMENT MORTAR
50mm CONCRETE BLINDING

STONE-IIMD DMIN

FIG. 4,4 INTERCEPTOR DRAIN

4-8
SQUART MISH 4142
6 AT 2OO BOTHWAYS
DIA.

<k

125mm THK CONCRETI

zzffi

tsERM pRAIi.i TYPE I


(EFi)
CAST IN-SNU CONCRETE V DRAIN

225mm HALF ROUND


GLAZTD EARTHENWARE DRAIN

100mm THK. CONCRITI

100mm THK. CONC. SURROU

IIALF ROUND GI,AZED EARTHENTARE

FIG. 4.5 BERM DAAIN

+9
SQUART MESH A1 42
DIA. 6 AT 2OO BOTHWAYS
a
AVY

iy
c Svry

1 25mm THK CONCRETE

CAST IN-SITU CO}TCRETE V DRAIN

r\U
rq.z
5vry
100mm THK" CONCRITE

100mm THK. CONC. SURROUND

HAI,,F ROI'ND GI,AZED EARTHE}ITARE DRAIN

FIG. 4"6 BENCH DRAIN

+10 I

_t-
I
250

FORMATION LtVtL
500

EARTH DRAIN

SUB_BA 250

FORMATION LEVIL
500
125mm THICK C0NCRIIE

SQUART MISH A142


DIA. 6 AT 2OO BOTHWAYS

CAST IN-SITU CONCRETE DRAIN

SUB_BASE 250

FORMATION LEVIL
500

CONCRITE BLINDING
150mm THICK STONE PITCHING
GROUTED WITH 1:SCEMINTMORTAR

STONE-UNED DRAIN

FIG. 4.7 ROADSIDE DRAIN

+11
]275 MINIMUM

)LUTL

R.C. U-DRAIN

SQUARE MTSH DIA. 6


AT 1OO BOTHWAYS

I
f

-,\J 1/
sEonrJER DRArN (Spl)

+12
- -:Er?ryT":trffg:IlYii,i"-t r.3.. I
--:@
EIIBANKT{Er{T ToE pRAIN 1 (TD 1)
EARTE DRAIN

, 1000
r-*;;1
|

125mm THICK CONCRilE

SQUART MESH A142


DIA. 6 AT 2OO BOTHWAYS
fl
ETIBANKMENT ToE DRAIN 2 (Tp 2)
CAST IN-SrrtJ CONCRETE DRAIN

, 1000
7*"
,

fi
I

50mm CONCRilE BLINDING


150mm iHICK STONI PITCHING GROUTED
WITH 1 : 3 CtMtNT MORTAR

STOM-UNED DRAIN

FIG. +.9 TOE DRAIN

+13
4.3.5 Interceptor Drain (Catch Drain)

Interceptor drains are located along the uppermost edge of cut slopes
where the cutting begins, and along the edge of the cut slope
descending towards the lowest point of the natural watercourse. Due
to the position of the interceptor drain, it must be sufficiently large to
account for siltation and debris collection. Water from the cut slope is
collected by bench drains which then discharge into the interceptor
drain which is usually joined to a main cascading or outfall drain (see
Fig. 4.1 to Fig. 4.3). Types of interceptor drains to be used depend
upon the type of soil, geographic features and the design flow volume.
The common types used in Malaysia are trapezoidal in shape (see Fig.
4.4). T\e use of precast block sections for interceptor drains should be
discouraged because of possible seepage problems.

Interceptor drains are cofiImon in rural roads involving deep cuts.


Problems that might occur due to improper bacldilling resulting in
water flowing on either side of the drain instead of within the drain and.
can result in erosion or slope failure. At possible problem location,
backfilling must be well compacted and strips of ground on either or
both sides should be turfed. Interceptor drains should be lined to
reduce seepage and prevent scouring and erosion which eventualiy
could lead to siope failure. '

4.3.6 Bench (Cut) and Berm (Fill) Drains

Bench drains are piaced longitudinally along the bench of a cut section
and berm drains are located on the berm of a fill section to intersect
water running down the slope. Each bench or berm drain should catch
rainwater falling on the slope immediately above. Bench or berm
drains are provided on each bench or berm on the inner edge of the cut
and embankment slopes respectively. Benches and berms are usually
provided at 6m height intervals and are generally shallow with their
gradients following the bench and berm gradients (see Fig. 4.5 and Fig.
4.6).

Similar problems may be encountered as those for the interceptor


drains"

Bench or berm drains should be continuous and preferably be cast in-


situ reinforced concrete to overcome dislocation and seepage problems
that are normally encountered with precast sections. When precast
drains are used, the precast sections should be provided with a concrete
surround from the base to the top of the precast section as shown in
Fig. 4.5 and Fi-e 4.6.

4-14
4.3.7 Outfall (Fill) and Cascading (Cut) Drains

Outfall and cascading drains are between the shoulder drain and bench
/ berm drain and the interceptor drain. Outfail drains are provided at
the iowest point of a sag curve to cater for water flowing along the
roadside and shoulder drains. Cascading / outfall drains also cater for
natural drainage path that is cut off on top of a cut or fill section.
Outfall drains are necessary where culverts under the road are
discharging on to the fill slope.

For a small discharge, the common types of outfall drains are the egg-
shaped precast drains, commonly known as cascade drains (see Fig.
4.12). For a large discharge, it is recommended that the outfall drains
should be reinforced concrete cast in-site U-shaped chutes or steel
pipes.

Cascade drains or outfall drains should be provided with sufficient


depth of side siopes to prevent splashing over of run-off, which can
cause scouring or erosion ofthe grassed slopes.

4.3.8 Median Drain


Median drains normally are required in multiple-lane divided
highways. Median drains are generally a shaiiow depressed area, and
at intervals the water is intercepted by transverse channels that
discharge into a sewer or storm drain. The function of median drain is
to collect surface water'which runs towards the centrai median and are
generally of smali section and gentle gradient.

The common types are egg-shaped precast and haif-round glazed


earthenware (225mm or 300mm diameter)(see Fig. 4.10 and Fig. 4.11).

The use of brickwalls should be discouraged for median drains due to


their poor structural integrity; continuous full reinforced concrete drain
is preferred. The concealed concept for median drains with intermittent
openings should also be considered, please refer to Fig. 4.17 .

. Median drains are particularly used both in urban and rural roads of
high geometric design standards (U5, U6 and R6).

4.3.9 Gutter
Gutters are small channels provided at the edge of the roadways or
shouiders for drainage purposes in urban areas, they are not covered,
and can either be V-shaped or egg-shaped. Whep-used with kerbs,
gutters are located in front of the kerbs and tafil5e precast or cast-in-
situ.

The size and slope of gutter must be carefully designed so as not to


cause sedimentation and erosion within the gutter.

4-r5
4.3.9 Gutter - (Cont'd)

Where precast units are used, the precast units should be provided with
a concrete surround from the base to the top of the precast section, to
ensure continuity of the drain, as well as preventing water seepage and
' dislocation of the precast units.

4.3.10 Kerb Opening Inlets

Kerb opening inlets are openings at kerbs where stofinwater runoff


enters the drainage system. The capacity of kerb opening inlets
depends on how efficiently the water changes its course fromlarallel
to the kerb to flowing towards the kerb opening inlets. This direction
change is primarily due to the crown slope; thus the usage of
depressions prior to the openings can significantly increase the intake
capacity. Fig. 4.18 shows the common types of kerb opening inlets.

practice of forming a round iniet at the end of a pipe is


]he^_common
inefficient because:

the available inlet area is too small;

the head avaiiable to force gutter flow into the inlet


is too low; and

when used on grades, the gutter flow simply bypasses


the inlet altogether.

As a guideline, it will be necessary to have at ieast 1.0m head height


between the road level and the drain invert to ensure the iniets op"*t"
correctly.

Inlets should be designed and rocated to prevent silt and debris being
carried in and become deposited a10ng the watercourse.

In cities or towns where kerbs and kerb opening inlets are placed in
conjunction with upgrading the sidewalk pavement, the designer needs
to investigate on-site the locations of kerb opening inlets to prevent
ponding and localised hazards to road users. In cases where a kerbed
intersection is upgraded, careful consideration should be given to
locate the kerb opening inlets. Fig. 4.20 can be used as a guide for
Iocations of kerb opening iniets.

4-16
CARRIAGTWAY CARR]AGIWAY
) )
z. a-
-E E*
Au) <t,

CARRIAGEWAY

CONC. CHANNEL WITH


R.C. SLAB COVER

PRECAST CONC. KTRB


R.C. SLAB WITH OPENING
COVTR

It100
CONC. BEDDING

BIDDING

HALF ROUND (22s)


GI-AZID EARTHTNWART DRAIN

CONC. BEDDING

MEDIAN CARRIAGEWAY

R.C. SLAB CONC. CHANNEL WITH


COVER R.C. SI-AB COVTR
rsoSS l:oo RRrso
PRECAST CONC. KERB
WITH OPENING

225mm BRICKWALL
50mm CONC.
BEDDING

'100

CONC. BTDDING 300mm P.C. BLOCK DRAIN

FIG. 4.10 MEDIAN DRAIN - IEBd


--XO?TD

+17
75mm THK. CONC:
CLOSE TURTI
225mm HALF ROUND
ZED TARTHiNWARE
DRAIN ^ SUPERELEVATION e<5%

SU
CONC. SURROUND

LOWIR SUBBAST
SUPERELEVATION SECTION

CLOSI TURFING
150mm STONE PITCHING
GROUTED WITH 1:J
CEMENT MORTAR
SUPIRELEVATION e<5%

raOO*
L- LowEtr )JDtrA5L
SUPERETEVATION SECTION

STONE IJNED

MEDIAN
I
I
|t,{ RGINAI_ VARIES 1800 vaprtrq rr^anr\r^l

150mm STONE CLOSE TURFING


PITCHING
GROUTED WITH l:J
CEMTNT MORTAR

SUPERELEVATION SECTION

PRECAST BL0CK DRAIN mfH 150mm GR0UTED STONE PITCHTNG

FIG. 4.11 MEDI,AN DRAIN - SUPERETEVATION SECTION

+18
ry-!.-..:

INTERCTPTOR DRAIN

I-AYIRS OF SQUART
MISH 4142

R.C. 0tnFA[L DRAIN SOmm^,;HK. CONC.


IYPE OD3 SQUARE MESH
A142
SCALE 1 : 75 SQUART MESH
A142

"l
L-'l b,
INTERCEPTOR DRAIN

^i
f-l I

ol I
tl
,^l
iil-l
i
ro<
N' -L ZZJ
|
I

ll li
llti 150
I
ROADSIDE DRAI
LAYERS OF SQUARE TOE DRAIN
MESH A142

-l
I
50mm THK. C0NC.
BLINDING SQUARE MESH
4142
SQUARE MESH
4142 I

1 200 | 1qn

INTERCTPTOR DMIN

P,
=l---i--l
F_=LI
l|".)l.-t
'sl-f
40mm DlA. GALVANISTD
STTTL PIPE HANDRAIL
3Nr I

I
3000

.2251
VARIES

225mm THK. STONE PITCHING

50mm THK. CONC. BENCH DMIN

STONE PNCHING OIITT'AII, DRAIN


trTH EANpRAII (TrPE 0p1)

ROADSIDE DMIN/
TOE DRAIN
suMP (0R rNL$ SUMP
0F cuLVtRT)
FIG. 4.12 OUTFALL DRAIN

+19
F
=
z.
o
o

I
a
J
g
I

KH
z.
I .^
o_^
I >-
dl v):
.{trj
t''1 I :o_ F
E
U
z. l -
3r
E-l
=
ol U
o_
l1 o-

=r
<l
zl
I

I
EI J
ul u
?l 9v
i;f,1
=l
-?l Llv
Qrn
<=
==
<E
b.e
<.

b.e
.<t{
..i

f-.

+20
:.,".-l'il:tlj::::r:,;.::r.,.il:::i,.::.:i,.,:r;,.:::*-:l:,ii.';r:t;..:.:r...i;;;.:,i r-:r:. :-:-'::i

J
z
(5 o-
EF
<=
U > t/)
z.
=
F .z T*
U

F l_ v)l
a o_ >l
<t
F
a
) =l
rtr.l
z.
= v. z.
E = -l
o_ t-=l
<l
>l
zl I

o_
E
F z. -l
4
f, FI
pl
-t
U4
=
F (Jl
irJ
(n
zl
I
E,=
J
t!
z. I

E
o zl I

-<
z. <l
td.
OL! I
EEf l
NI ;;
i
<.+ u)l
I v-
I
<l
OI
I
-l
I z.
= tr]1
z.?
i
I
<i^
E'' <l
'-ll
f=fl
r< (Jl
I

=Fq
t! zl
OI
I iI=
co=
I
-$
z.r
z.
I

I A
zz.
E=
J(J +
T
J t, u/ lai
C)

F
-Ln
Q-<
U
(-) I!
E
U) EE.
L!
t! L!
J

z.
LrJ
==
X
U z
=
E
F
U''
=
U

+21
E
ff
J

z.
F
tJ') &=
L!
=
F
z. P-
o_<
t!
F
U
><
C)U
LrJ t! L!
z,
u
v.
z.=
:)
F 5 Lrl
L!
cn o_
OJj
J
d4=
aa,Y
z.^tn
4 72.-
H;7==
5P4
E z.o fi
o,:5
):
0009 aZ. O
E.
t! z. Et=
<;z:)
o< =- :-u >
U
U
? ,,u3
t- i *F.
z. t!
E.
E z.
o
o
z.
,FJF
!(/)6
r-!J
F za ()
= 4,^
F =
=- co

(i
<{

l=

+22
PAVEMENT

2.52 TA 4%

ROAD IN CUT

CROSS-SECNON OF STATE

SAND AND SorL (80:20)


MINIMUM COVER 0F 300mm
q.

SWALI INVIRT LIVIL


SPOT TURFTNG
I
q
1s-

100mm THICK 20mm SINGLE


SIZE STONE AGGREGATES
WMPPED ROUND WITH
RECTANGULAR OR CIRCULAR GTOTEXTILE FILTER FABRICS
HIGHLY PERFORATED DMINAGE
CLEAN COMPACTTD
CONDUIT WMPPED ROUND WITH
GEOTEXTILI FILTER FABRICS
SAND 0R GRAVEL ( 5mm

100 100

DETAIIS OF STAI,E

FIG. 4.16 SIrAlT IN ROADSIDE/MEDIAN DRAIN

+23
LAMP POST
CLOST TURFING

Y/o

____*_____L-
-----------l

DRAINAGE AT UEDHN
(cRoss sEcn0N AT taMP PoST)

LAMP POST
CLOSI TURFJNG

PRECAST CONC. CHANNTL

L,J /O

R.C. SUMP TO DETAILS

50mm THK LEAN CONC.

DRAINAGE AT UEDIAIT
(cnoss sncnon lr sulp)
FIG. 4,17 CONCEALED DRAIN AT MEDIAN

+a+
NOTt:

THT STANDARD INLTi IS THI BASIC UNIT


FOR USE IN ALL CLASSES OF ROAD.
TXTINDED INLilS PERMIT GREATTR
CAPTURT WHTRE SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCIS
MAKE THIS DESIRABLI.

IONG HTTENDED INI,ET


48OO IJ}.ITE[

MEDII'U MruEI\TDED INIET


3600 ul.IlEt

FIG. 4.18 RECOMMENDED IYPE OF KERB

+25
4.3.1I Sumps

sumps are transition structures used to facilitate changes in level and


direction of flow within a drainage system. They may be used as
temporary storage so as not to inundate the downstream drains. They
are normally rectangular in shape and the invert levels are lower than
the joining drains" For cut or fill sections, sumps are iocated at:-

(i) the intersection of berm / bench drains and the outfall /


cascading drain;

(ii) the intersection of the toe / shoulder drains and the outfall /
cascading drain;

(iii) the intersection of the toe / shoulder drains and the roadside
drain.

For urban areas, sumps are located at:

(i) the intersection point of the median drain and the roadside /
shoulder drain:

(ii) the intersection point of the roadside / shoulder drain and the
discharge drain.

Preferably a sump will always have some water retained in it to


indicate that there is no seepage occurring. Galvanised steel grating
covers hinged to the seating frame are recommended for the sumps, for
both safety and retaining debris.

For sumps of depth less than 1.0m, brickwalls of minimum 225mm


thick may be used. Sumps exceeding 1.0m internal depth, reinforced
concrete should be used.

4.4 SURFACE DRAINAGE IN RTIRAL AREA


(FLAT AND ROLLING AREA)

on rural roads, surface water is mainly disposed off by means of drains and
the type of drains provided depend upon whether the road is in embankment,
cutting or at ground level.

when the roadway is built on a low embankment of less than 3.0m and
grassed, it is common practice to allow the surface water to flow across the
shoulder and down the fiIl slopes to the natural ground level. In cases where
surface water from the road is an even sheet of water, erosion is minimal.
Where slopes are unprotected and sheet flow is not achievable due to localised
pavement or shouider irregularities, slopes can be eroded badly. In these
cases, it is necessary to provide protection for the shoulders and side slopes.
One type of protective measure is to intercept the water at the outer edgi of
the shoulder, as shown in Fig. 4.19(a).

4-26
SLOPI ON LOW FILL
(TURFED)

FILL

fIrl,l,u,'o'HIGH
(a)RoAp rN EMBANKT{EI'II

NATURAL GROUND LIVTL

lsz to +z

SLOPE 1:J 0R FLATTTR

(b)RoAp rN cuT

NATURAL GROUND TEVEL

-t
i

(e)R0AD 0N GR0UND
FIG. 4.Tg

-T
+27
4.4 Surface Drainage in Rural Area - (Cont'd)
In the case of a long and high embankment, for example bridge approaches,
the surface water can be collected by shoulder drains and then discharge down
the slope by means of paved outfall or cascade drains.

When the road is in cut, water is discharged to the roadside drain, as shown in
Fig. 4.19(b) and (c), which should then slope towards the nearest watercourse.

4.5 SURFACE DRAINAGE IN URBAN AREA

Drainage is usually more difficult and costly in urban areas because of: -

(a) more rapid florv rates and larger volumes of runoff;


(b) costly potential damage to adjacent properties by flooding;
(c) higher overall costs because of more inlets and underground systems;
(d) greater restrictions because of urban and large development
areas;

(e) lack of natural bodies and watercourses to receive floodwater;


(f) higher volumes of traffic including pedestrians:
(g) impervious character of the area which results in very high runoff;
(h) non-availability or high cost of land prohibits the provision of adequate
drain reserve;
(i) undesirability of open drains due to possible risk to road users and
unsightly appearance.

Ftg. 4.27 shows the typical drainage elements for roads in urban areas.

There is a greater need to intercept off road concentrated storm water and to
remove over-the-curb flow, and surface water, without causing a problem for
road users. In urban areas, water from the road surface is usually taken to a
system of underground pipes known as storm drain or sewers, which can run
ovel a considerable distance and then released again as surface runoff.

4.5.1 Drainage Inlets


4.5.1.1 General
A stormwater inlet is an opening in a drainage system for stormwater
runoff. The importance of properly designed, constructed and
maintained inlets cannot be over-emphasized as it is not uncommon to
find cases where ponding is excessive on a roadway, and yet the
drainage system is not operating at its full capacity simply because the
inlets are choked up.

l
4-28 I,
4.5.1.1 General - (Cont'd)
Guidelines the design of inlets are provideci in the ,,r]rban
for
Stormwater Management Manuai For Malayriu guasMA),,
published
by Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Maraysia, volume part _
1 F Runoff
conveyance, chapter 24 - stormwater Inrets is provided
as
ATTACHMENT 1.

within a catchment, a range of surface flow criteria must be appried


to
minimise both nuisance floocling and major hazards
from flooding of
roadways, buildings, and other public areas.
It is intended that the
surface flow criteria has equal *ilght on the contror
of surface flows
during storm events as well as the removal of frows
from urban
pedestrian and vehicular transport networks.

The surface flow criteria comprises of four basic iiinits:


o An overland flow velocity x depth limit, which governs the
stability of vehicles and the ability of pedestrians to ,walk
out, of
flood flows
a A flow width limit
o A ponding depih limir
o Design Average Recurrence Interval (ARI)

Please refer to Tabre 4.1 which expresses the


maximum overfrow
ailowed for a particular road type.

Table 4.1 - Allowarrre Roadways for Initial storm Runoff in Terms of


Pavement Encroachment

Road Classification
Criteria High Volume Road Collector Road Local Road
(Single or Dual
Carriaqewrv)
Locations other than Sas poini
Design ARI
10 year i0 year
Where the kerbside lane is nor a 5 vear
Not applicable w < 25m
through lane (i.e. used for n:rkino\ W < 23m
yyrcrs ule KefDstoe lane ls a through > 70km/h : no spread W < 15m Not applicable
Iane < 70km/h: I{< 1.0m
Where parking lane becomes an > 70km/h : no spread
acceleration, deceleration or turn lane
W < 1.0m Not applicable
< 70km/h; W< 1.0m
Not applicable W < 045m W < 0.45m
rnrersecuon Kerb refurns > 70km/h : no spread w < 1,0m W < 1.0m
< 70km/h : 14 < 1.0m
Sag Points
Design ARI 50 year 10 vear 5 vear
All locations I/',<1.0m w< 25m w < 25m
Major storm check (100 y"* enf; One lane in each One lane open to (not required)
4gggtion open to traffic traffic
suesrnan salety VD <Olmtl"
(1) V.D. <A.4m'ls V.D. <0.4m'/s
Vehicular safety v.D. <0.6rrt'ls V.D. <0.6m"/s V.D. <0.6m2/s
limit.based on , the product of average flow velociry
;l .lif"y
\'/ W = flow width on roadI.?from and gutrer flow depth
gutter invert, y = fiow depth ut gott", i""*,
Note : on major highways and expressways, these standards may not
be appiicable as it is to limit the
flow on the vehicie carriagervay foi safety reasons. Authorities
resionsiuie for these highways
may specify stricter criteria.
SOURCE : Urban Stormlyafer Nlanagement Vlanual
lbr Malavsia
4,29
INL T POSITION TO SUIT INLTT POSITION TO SUIT
MAX. SPACING FROM TOP MAX. SPACING EITWEIN PITS

OF CATCHMENT
INLET SAG POINT

lrArLl
_\

LfI ON TANGTNT
OF KERB RilURN

INLII- ON TANGENT
OF KIRB RilURN

INLilUPSTREAM OF
PEDTSTRIAN CROSSING

MAX. 450mm lN MAX. 1000mm lN


MINOR STORM MINOR STORM

BW SMP
NOAD EOAD

(a) AT BUS ST0P (b) AT KERB RETURN

ITIfi0AGE UllE +
(c) A,T DECELERATION LANE

FIG. 4,20 GUIDE FOR LOCATIONS OF


KERB OPENINGS AND INLET PITS

+34
.1.
J-
<l
=j
HI
al

z.
z
o_

I
F
=
@
cY.

o
6
a
= E
o_
E oI
-2
=-
oa<
Ug(J
:<
c\l
$
CJ
FE{
z.
o
6
o
J
z.
F
o-

u.

i
-l .",.iI
4-31
b GRATED INLET A KERB OPENING INLET

c(i) C0MBrNATrON INLET (a) srorrnn nrnr

ALTERNATIVE:
SINGLE CROSSFALL

rlonurL cnGGrI--]*
t
L
I

TO OPEN DRAIN utom DRAIN oR cRoss-DRATN


(FOR SINGLE CROSSFALL ROAD)
PIPE

FIG. 4.22 TYPES OF STORM DRAIN INLETS

+32
Y

SECNON A - A

FIG. 4.23 DEPRESSED GRATED INLET

I
4-33
4.5.1.2 Types of Inlet

There are four (4) types of inlets: -


(a) kerb opening inlets;
(b) grated inlets;
(c) combination inlets; and
(d) slotted inlets

Fig . 4.22 shows the four (4) types of inlets.

(a,) Kerb Opening Inlets


A kerb opening inlet is a vertical opening in a kerb through
which the gutter flow passes, the gutter may be level or
depressed in the area of the kerb opening.

As with ali types of openlngs, a kerb opening iniei may be


either on a continuous grade or in a trough iocation. The kerb
opening inlet does not clog readily, which is its major
advantage, the large dirnension of the clear opening compared
to that of a grated inlet allows rubbish to pass into the storm
sewer system rather than be trapped at the inlet.

The capacity of a kerb opening inlet is significantly increased


by depressing the opening. A characteristic of the kerLr opening
inlet is its relative inefficiency on streets of steep grade, which
can be improved by the installation of deflector veins in the
gutter adjacent to the opening. The veins create a standing
wave, which causes the water to flow into the kerb opening.

It is recommended that kerb opening inlets be used in the


design of road drainage systems, particularly when trough
conditions exist. Although a kerb opening inlet will not
guarantee against clogging, it is the most efficient type of iniet.

(b) Grated Inlets


The term grated or gutter inlet refers to an opening in the gutter
covered by one or more grates through which the water fal1s.
As with other inlets, grated iniets may be either depressed or
level and may be either located on a continuous grade or in a
trough.

Grated inlets can be laid either longitudinal, transverse or


combination of the two. The term "longitudinal bar grate"
refers to a grate in rvhich the bar are oriented parallel to the
direction of flow while "transverse bar grate" are align at some
angle, usually perpendicular to the direction of flow. Tests have
been conducted to determine various characteristics of grated
inlets, these tests have indicated that longitudinal bar inlets are
far more efficient and less apt to be blocked by rubbish than the
others.

A
T-JA
1/1
v

(b) Arcrcdldels - (Cont'd)


The major disadvantage of the grated inlet is a tendency to plug
with rubbish, reducing efficiency significantly fiom the
theoretical value, and in some cases rendering the inlet
inoperable. Some tests indicate that prop"rly designed
longitudinal bar grated inlets on u .onti"uous grade are
reasonably immune to plugging. The use of a grated inlet in a
trough condition with transverse bars virtualiy assures that
some blocking will occur to significantly decrease the capacity
of the inlet.

Depressing the grated inlet wiil significantly increase its


capacity, but the interference to traffic caused bythe depression
may be unacceptabie.

If depressed grated inlet is requirecl, the width of the galvanised


steel grating should be limited to 250mm as shown in Fisure
4.23.

(c/ Combination Inlets


A cornbination iniet is ccrnposed cf a kerb cpening and a
grated gutter opening inlet acting as a unit. usually,
G gutter
opening is placed directly in front of the kerb opening. As with
other inlets, a combination inlet may be either delressed or
undepressed and iocated in a trough o. o.r a continuous grade.
Laboratory tests have shown that for a combination inlei on a
continuous grade, the kerb opening adds little to the capacity of
the inlet when the grate is not plugged. This is due to the high
efficiency of the grated inlet, which accepts the water before
the kerb opening has a chance to receive water.

In practice, the kerb opening of a combination inlet on a


continuous grade is of benefit because it accepts the flow
diverted by rubbish plugging the grating. However, the length
of kerb opening on a typical combination inlet is usuailv
insufficient to allow acceptance of a large flow.

Under trough conditions, a combination inlet has a high


theoretical capacity, the use of which is questionable, extended
side inlets, using lintel supports, can be used to increase
capacity as shown in Fig. 4.22 c (li).

(d) Slotted Inlets


slotted inlets can be used in areas where it is desirable to
intercept sheet flow, their pincipal advantage is their abiliry to
intercept flow over a wide section. However, slotted inlets are
very susceptible to clogging from sediments and debris, and are
not recommended for use in environments where sienificant
sediment or debris loads may be present. slotted inlets on a
longitudinal grade do have the same hydrauiic capacity as curb
openings when debris is not a factor.

4-3J
Y

4.5.7.3 Recommended Use of Inlets

Extra inlets must be provided near the low point of sag vertical curve
to cater for flow that might have passed the previous inlets to prevent
ponding at the 1ow points. Inlets should be located just upgrade of
pedestrian crossings andjust before the change in crossfalls.

The key principal in location of inlets is at piaces where concentrated


flow and heavy sheet flow is anticipated as shown in Fieure 4.20.

4.6 SURFACE DRAINAGE IN MOUNTAINOUS AREA

For proper maintenance of roads in mountainous regions, an effective drainage


system is very important. In this case, surface water is mainly drained by the
provision of interceptor drains, bench drains, berm drains and toe drains. The
previous Frg. 4.2 shows the typical affangement of surface drainage for roads
in mountainous region.

4.6.L Drainage for Cut Section


Where the surrounding area consists of a higher ground, as in cut, or
where the highway is constructed along the side of a hi1l, consideration
should be given to the possibility of water flowing towards the
roadway either on the surface or at shallow depths through water
bearing strata. To intercept and carry the water away, interceptor
drains are constmcted at the back of the top of the cut and bench drain
on benches in the cut slope usually provided at 6m height intervals.
Drains of this type are also effective in preventing erosion or faiiures
of the slope. In constructing this kind of drain, care should be taken to
prevent the drain from ieading water to the toe of the adjacent fill
which may cause erosion. When the roadway has a steep longitudinal
slope, a sump and an outfall drain may be placed at the downhill end of
the cut to intercept longitudinal flow and carry it safely away from the
hill slopes.

4.6.2 Drainage for Fill Section

For high fills, berm drains are necessary to catch surface water at
regular intervals and these berm drains are again connected to the toe
drains, which take the water safely down the slope to a suitable
discharge point.

4.6.3 Route Location and Drainage

Consideration for surface drainage and erosion control problems must


begin with the location survey. Ideal locations from a drainage
standpoint would 1ie along the divide between large drainage areas.
Then all streams flow away from the right-of-way and the drainage
problem is reduced to the water that fa11s on roadway and back slopes.

+-JO
-v-

4.6.3 Route Location and Dnainage _ (Cont,d)

In contrast' locations paralleling large streams are far less


desirable as
they cross every tributary where it is largest. Again,
ideal locations are
to avoid steep grades and heavy cuts and fi11s, Loth
of which can lead
to difficult problems in erosion control. Admittedly, surface
drainage
is only one' among many considerations in location, but it
warrants
careful attention.

once the location is established, analysis of surface


drainage probiems
tbllows three basic steps: -

(a) hydrology - estimating the peak rates of runoff to


be handled:

(b) hydraulic design - selecring the kinds and sizes of drainage


facilities to most economicallv accommodate the estimated
flows;

(c) making certain the design does not create erosion or


other
environmentally unacceptable conditions.

4.7 FLOW CAFACITY DESIGN OF SURFACE DRAII,{S

The flow capacity design of surface drains can be


divided into two phases: _

(a) hydrologic analysis


(b) hydraulic analysis

4.7.1 HydrologicAnalysis

The main objective of hydrologic analysis is to estimate


the maximum
quantity of water (Q) expected .to reach the
elenient of the drainage
system under consideration. A portion of
the rainfall infiltrates into tte
ground as ground water and a sma1l portion
of water, which flows over
the surface, is termed as surface runoff. various
factors, which affect
the runoff, are intensity of rainfalr, type of soil
urra i,. permeability,
soil natural moisture condition, topography of the area,
type of ground
and type of land use.

The Rational method has probably been the most popular


method for
designing storm systems. It has been applied alr
ovlr the world and
many refinements of the method have been produced.

For small catchment areas, it continues to be a reasonabie method,


provided thatit is used correctly and that results and design conceprs
are assessed for reasonableness. For a detailed discussion
on the
application / limitations of the method, please
refer to urban
Stormwater Management N{anual for Malaysia,
ctrapter t6.

4-37
Y-

4.7.L Hydrologic Analysis - (Cont'd)

This section outlines the Rational method procedure for system design
calculations for catchment areas less than 80 hectares that do not
contain detention or retention storages. This procedure is suitable for
small systems where the establishment of a computer model is not
warranted.

The steps in the R.ational method calculation procedure are


summarised below:

o The drainage area is first subdividedinto sub-areas with


homogeneous land use according to the existing or planned
development.

c For each sub-area, estimate the run-off coefficient C and the


conesponding area A.

. The layout of the drainage system is then drawn according to the


topography, the existing or planned streets and roads and local
design practices.

o Inlet points are then defined according to the detail of design


considerations. For main drains, for example, the outlets of the
earlier mentioned homogeneous sub-areas should serve as the inlet
nodes. On the other hand in very detailed calcuiations, all the inlet
points should be defined according to local design practices.

c After the inlet points have been chosen, the designer must specify
the drainage sub-area for each inlet point A and the corresponding
mean runoff coefficient C. If the sub-area for a given inlet has
non-homogeneous land use, a weighted coefficient may be
estimated.

o The runoff calcuiations are then carried out by means of the


general Rationai method equations for each inlet point, proceeding
from the upper parts of the watershed to the final outlet. The peak
runoff, which is calculated at each point, is then used to determine
the size of the downstream trunk drain using a hydrauiic formula
for open channel / pipes flowing full. Please refer to Equation 4.1.

After the preliminary minor system is designed and checked for its
proximity with the major system, reviews are made of alternatives,
hydrological assumptions are verified, new computations are made,
and final data obtained on street grades and elevations. The engineer
can then proceed with the final hydraulic design of the system.

4-38 t-
Y-

4.7.1 Hydrologic Analysis - (Cont'd)

This section outlines the Rational method procedure for system design
calculations for catchment areas less than 80 hectares that do not
contain detention or retention storages. This procedure is suitable for
small systems where the establishment of a computer model is not
warranted.

The steps in the Rationai method calculation procedure are


summarised below:

. The drainage area is first subdividedinto sub-areas with


homogeneous land use according to the existing or planned
development.

c For each sub-area, estimate the run-off coefficient C and the


corresponding area A.

. The iayout of the drainage system is then drawn according to the


topography, the existing or planned streets and roads and local
design practices.

o Inlet points are then defined according to the detail of design


considerations. For main drains, for example, the outlets of the
earlier mentioned homogeneous sub-areas should serve as the inlet
nodes. On the other hand in very detailed calculations, all the inlet
points should be defined according to local design practices.

c After the inlet points have been chosen, the designer must specify
the drainage sub-area for each inlet point A and the corresponding
mean runoff coefficient C. If the sub-area for a given inlet has
non-homogeneous land use, a weighted coefficient may be
estimated.

o The runoff calculations are then carried out by means of the


general Rational method equations for each inlet point. proceeding
from the upper parts of the watershed to the final outlet. The peak
runoff, which is calculated at each point, is then used to determine
the size of the downstream trunk drain using a hydraulic formula
for open channel / pipes flowing full. Please refer to Equation 4.1.

After the preliminary minor system is designed and checked for its
proximity with the major system, reviews are made of alternatives,
hydrological assumptions are verified, new computations are made,
and final data obtained on street grades and elevations. The engineer
can then proceed with the final hydraulic design of the system.

4-38
4.7.2 ltrydraulicAnalysis
when lhe value of design discharge (o is obtained,
the next step is the
hydraulic design of drains. surfice diains are designed
based^on the
open channel flow theory.

open channer has advantages in terms of cost, maintenance


and
capacity, however, disadvantages need to be considered
in respect of
right-of-way needs, maintenance costs and, hazNds
pedestrians. Careful planning and design
to traffic and
- are needed to minimise,
where possible the disadvantages and to increase the benefits.

Natural channels are normally ideatr because the velocities


are usually
iow, resulting in longer concentration times and lower
down stream
peaks; channel storage usually exists which reduces
peaks and
maintenance is low because the channels are somewhat
stable.
An artificial channel that can be constructed with the characteristics
of
the natural channel will be the next best performing
channel. (when
right-of-way and /or velocity considerations dictate,
a lined channel is
normally the choice)

If (o is the quantity of surface runoff (cumec) to be removed by


a
roadside drain and (v) is the alrowable velocity
of flow (m/sec) rn itre
roadside drain, the area of cross-section (A)
of the channer lsqm; can
be computed from the relation: _

a = AV Equation(4.0)
The velocity of flow in any channel should be high
enough to prevent
silting and it should not be too high as to cause erlsion.
The allowable
veiocity of flow depends on the soil type (see Table 4.2).

By adjusting the value of srope (s) in Equation 4.r, it is possibre


to
limit the velocity of flow (v) within peimissible rimits. 'Assuming
uniform cross-section and srope, Manning's formula
can be used for
determining the velocity of flow, which is
liven Uy :'
n
Yrl'' -!r - 1/n R2/3 S1/2 Equation (4.1) ii'",.,
ir;
where V :d - average velocity (m/sec)
n- Manning's roughness coefficient
R= hydraulic radius (m) cross-section area
of flow divided by wetted perimeter
longitudinal slope of channel

values of recommended Manning's roughness coefficient (n) are


shown in Table 4.3

The longitudinal slope (S) of a drain of a known


or an assumed cross_
section and depth of flow may be determined using
Manning,s formula
(Equation 4.1) for the design values of velocity
of'flow (v), roughness
coefficient (n) and hydraulic radius (R).

4-39
Y

4.7.3 Basic Design Frocedures

Basic steps for the design of longitudinal drains of a road to drain


surface water are summarized as follows:-

(a) the total catchment area (A) is usually in units of 10,000 sq.m.

(b) the values of coefficients of runoff C1 Cz, Ct, etc., from


drainage areas Ai, Az, At, etc., are read out from the standard
table and the weighted value of C is computed.

(c) from topo maps inlet time for the flow of stormwater from the
furthest point in the drainage area to the drain inlet along the
steepest path of flow is estimated from the distance, slope of
the ground and type of the cover.

(d) time of flow along ihe longitudinal cirain is determined fbr the
estimated distance up to the nearest cross drainage or a
watercourse, and for the allowable speed of flow in the drain.

(e) the sum of the time for inlet flow and the time for flow along
the drain is taken as the time of concentration or the desisn
value of rainfall duration.

(0 the frequency of return period is decided based on finances


available and desired margin of safety, for the design of the
drainage system. Usua11y, T = 5 years is used. For more
details, please refer to Volume 1 - Hydrology.

(g) from the rainfall intensity duration frequency curves, the


rainfall intensity (I) is found in mm/hr.

(h) the runoff quantity (O is then computed from Q = CIA. For


urban area, additional storage coefficient (C,) has been added to
account for channel storage. Thus, Q = C, x CIA.

(l) the required depth of flow in the drain is calculated for a


convenient bottom width and side slope of the drain. The
. actual depth of the open channel drain may be increased
slightly to give a freeboard (usual1y 150mm). The hydraulic
means radius of flow (R) is determined.

0) the required longitudinal slope (S) of the drain is calculated


from Manning's formula adopting suitable value of roughness
coefficient (n).

Note : A11 tables are obtained from Urban Drainage Design Standards
and Procedures for Peninsular Malaysia, 1975.

An example of design steps is shown in Section 4.7.4.

1-40
-v

Table 4.2 - Altowable Average Velocity

Well established grass on any good soil

Meadow type of grass with st o.t, pturrt UtuO.s,


heavy stand.

Bunch grasses, exposed roit U"twen ptarrts.

Grains, stiff-stemmed grasses tt ut Oo not O"na olr",


under shallow flow.

Earth without vegetation:

(a) Fine sand of silt, little or no clay


0.3 - 0.6
(b) Ordinary firm loam
0.6 - 0.9
(c) Stiff clay, highly colloidal
1.2
(d) Clay and gravel
t.2
(e) Coarse gravel
1.2
(0 Soft shale
1.5

Table 4.3 - Suggested Values of Manning's Roughness


Coefficient. z

Surface Cover z values


Minimum IVIaximum
-Suggested
urassecl Jwales
r_
i,arln ctraln
Jnon grass cover
_ 0.025 0.030
_
r all grass cover
0.030 0.03s
0.035 0.050
Ltned Upen l)rains
LOncrete
Trowelled fini 0.011 0.015
Offform 0.013 0.018
Stone Pitchiog-
- Dress"A st
0.015 0.017
-_ It?noom srones m mo4ar or rubble qerqnry 0.020 0.035
Rock Riprao
0.025 0.030
bncKwork
i-

o.012 0.018
- Pt"rurt Muro-y
0.0r2 0.015

4-41
-v

4,7.4 Calculation Worksheet


A worksheet for the hand calculation procedure is given rnTable 4.4.
This worksheet can be use for open drains or, with minor alterations,
for piped systems. The procedure can also be set up on a computer
spreadsheet. In this example the network is analysed for the upper
catchment only (until Node 6FI/6 of Figure 4.2Q) to make sure that the
total catchment area is less than 80 hectares.

The procedure is for the average situation, variations may be necessary


to fit actual field conditions.

(1) Column 1 - determine design point location and list. This


design point should correspond to the sub-catchment illustrated
on the preliminary layout map. List sub-catchments
contributing runoff to this point that have not previously been
analysed. The sub-catchment at downstream point will only be
noted at drainage junction points. The sub-catchment nodes are
numbered as discussed in MASMA Volume 6 (Network
System and Computation) Section 16.4.

(2) Column 2 - The drainage system to be numbered as discussed


in MASMA Volume 6 (Network System and Computation)
Section 16.4.

r3) Column 3 - Enter length of flow path between previous design


point and design point under consideration.

(4) Column 4 - The area, A in hectare of the sub-catchments listed


column 1 is tabulated here. Subtract ponding areas, which do
not contribute to direct runoff.

r5) Column 5 - Runoff Coefficient, "C", for post development


conditions for the sub-catchments listed in Column 1, should be
determined and listed. The C vaiue should be weighted if the
sub-catchments contain areas with different C values.

(6) Column 6 - The equivalent area, C x A of each sub-catchment

(1) Column 7 - Determine the inlet time for the particular design
point. For the first design point of a system, the inlet time wiil
be equal to the time of concentration (t"). Remember that t" is
the wave travel time, and includes both overland flow time and
travel time in a discrete channel. For subsequent design points,
inlet time should also be tabulated to determine if it may be of
greater magnitude than the accumulated time of concentration
from upstream sub-catchments, if the inlet time exceeds the
time of concentration from upstream catchment, and the area
tributary to the inlet is of sufficient magnitude, the inlet time
should be substituted for time of concentration and used for this
and subsequent sub-catchments.

/1 A')
a'1L
Y

4.7"4 Calculation of Worksheet _ (Cont,d)

In other words, at each design point in the system, the


engineer
should ascertain whether the total drainage area with
a
composite t" or the given indiyiduzl upstream catchment
(with a
different t. ) produces the higher discharge.

(8) column g-- Enter the appropriate flow time (wave travel
time)
between the previous design point and the
design point under
consideration.

(9) column 9 - The sub-area time of concentration, t"


is found by
adding columns 7 and g.

(10) Column 10- The appropriate design return period


for the drain,
depend on the type of rand use within the sut-catchment.

(11) column 1i - The total Equivalent Area is the summation


x A of the previous design point
of c

(12) column 12 - The critical time of concentration, t" is


the longer
t" summation of the previous design point time
of concentration
and the intervening flow time.

(13) Column 13 - The torar time in drain is found by


adding the
previous time in drain to the time in drain in current
section.

(14) column 14 - The intensity to be applied to the sub-catchments


under consideration, is oitained, ^fio- the intensity_duration_
frequency curve developed for the specific ur"u
depth-duralion-frequency information. The intensity
UurJ;O;
is
determined from the time of concentration and
the return
frequency for this particular design point.

(15) column 15 - Direct runoff from the tributary sub_catchments


listed in coiumn 1 is carculated and talurated
t uy
multiplying coiumns 11 and 14 together. "r"
(16) column 16 - List the proposed channel/pipe gradient

(r7) column 17 - List the required channel/pipe size to convey


the
quantity of flow. For standard open drains or pipes,
,ound up
to the next commercially available size.

(18) column 18 - List the capacity of the channel/pipe flowing


furl
(with the slope expressed in column 16).

4-43
4.7,4 Calculation Worksheet - (Cont'd)
(19) Column 19 -Tabulate the actual velocity of flow in the
proposed channeVpipe for the design Section.

(20) Column 20 - By dividing the length of the channel/pipe by its


velocity, the time of flow in the drain can be determined.

(21) Column 21 - Proposed drain invert level.

(22) Column 22 -Calculate the discharge for the 100 year ARI to
check capacity of the drainage system for major storms.

(23) Additional Column - This column is optional to include any


remarks or comments that may affect or explain the design.
The allowable quantity of carry-over across street intersections,
if any, should be listed for the minor design storm. When
routing the major storm through the system, required elevations
for adjacent construction can be listed in this coiumn.

For turther details, please refer to lviASN4A Volume 6


(Network System and computation).
l

4.7.5 Kerb and Gutter l

All roads in urban areas shall generally be provided with an integral


kerb and gutter (refer Figure 4.25).

However, where the volume of gutter flow is negligible as in carparks


and on the high side of single-crossfall roads, a kerb only is required.

GABION

SC = LONGITUDINAL SLOPE

Figure 4.25 Kerb and Gutter Showing Half Road Flow

4-44
4.7.5 Kerb and Gutter - (Cont'd)
The location and spacing of inlet pits is governed
provide safe, economical road drainage bi
by the need to
rimiting the amount of
gutter flow. The design criteria are shown
in Tabre 4.5.
Gutter flow may be calcuiated by rzzard'sequation
(Equation 4.2):

66i

' +[[ Afur


= -dz-, F(})tn;*, - d2 667ilr,,
EQ (4.2)

where subscripts g.and p refer to the gutter and


pavement respectively,
F is a flow correction factor. Desigricharts
for gutter
in Appendix 4.A. Recommendei values or "tvtanning,, no*, are given
.oughn"ss
coefficient and the Flow correction Factor
F for gutter fi'o* u." given
in Table 4.6.

This form of the equation arlows for the pavement


and channer to have
different roughness and, / or different crossfails.
For the definition of
terms in the equation, refer to Figure 4.25.
The face of the kerb is
approximated as being vertical.

using either Equation 4.2 or the chart in Appendix


4.A, suitable
limits
for gutter flow can be determined. the averag" pii
,pu"ing is then
determined to ensure that this .rimit is
not exceeded. A worked
example of this calculation is provided
in Append ix i.c (based on
AR&R - 1937).

Note that the inlet capacity of an iniet increases


with increasing
flow, therefore, provided the flow width rimits are, satisfied, gutter
advantage to allow
it is an
bypass gutter flow on sloping roads, to
_some
maximise the use of the pit capacity (Sutherla_nd SC, 199)).

4-45
Q m
CI IUV r?o.{ 00I roJ CA
a: a? cl cl tr-
a-l
rSreqcsrC IOeqJ g $ f- cl c.i
cl
U
! O
(\l Ie^o-I ua^uI
(n
,l $co cl n € € Ir.
o \o
n- st <- s .+

el
uorlces
ur,^c,olg elurl
.F \ o?
N
cl o\
a] A
cl

.:f F- t-- $ T
,(1rco1en trr c- 09 C-{

tr E .i c\l .i N
o q
-ao: .. , o tr- €
al ?() 00 ,(1rcude3 c1 cl s a-
-f
€ €
<'.

3l r-.,t (h
F I +
zl
14l
lal z N
al A O o
UI ezls
Fl t-- 'o c] 01
<l edld ro Ieuu"qJ cl c.i
ul
,.il
o] c.I
?l N N (\l

>l
ql
gl iuerpsrc Ieuu?qJ q oat c{ oi
;
o{

ct
Frl F-
if) F(vxc)K=O \o e
Ir-
t-- @
7l aBrzqcsrq ci N € ^i ri
ra
til F
\ a.l
€ $ N
{l Fi
lf (D
,$rsuerul IIeJuleU E
v1
N
N
r;
s oi ci
N N
dl

pl <'. c.)

ql
tsl
a
a
ursJ( Y t-- a:l
<l
lrl
Li
2
trl
t)
ur erurJ IEIoI -i o + oi

cl ,.q Z o\ s t-- N
A n
I
Al )+i N
vl tr ^l
vl uorlerluecuoJ +
Et v col
c.l I
a
IO EUII T I?CNII1
N N N d dl -i
ol
t--
>t :
i-r I
-l |
I
Z (VXJ)K eerv o
<- € t-- cn N
-l
6)l
jllrl luele^rnba I?loJ .; \o c'l s'
ej
oo
rl ili -l
6 <-
-l
<l
zl 9l
ol 1gy u8rseq
G

cl Q
Fl
slE x
Fil
'l
ol
rl
uoqeI]uocuoJ
Fl LJ
Jo eurrJ ?eJe-qns
Z
RI rTl
F-'r

vl B vl
U
()II o
I
.-r ii ('t) eutl urc.tq
cn
\f
'.il a 00
ril
I-I
vN
AI
zl
E ca C':l + c.l

2tA
-I *l
^l z
<t
xl F
-z FI 3 Fr
("r)
eurrJ pu?Fe^o E a] cl
E4l !.) |

rl t(,
-l .$

*l'.1 a
ql

eery
(VXJ) -q @
.;
fr-
\c] =q
6
1ue1z.r,rnbg f; 'if

rl ll
a tsl

\ r-\
li ci
tril ,!l la)
JJound € a- (-- f-
Ir-
F-
rYl i--_l A
ml|F
-t -l
el Jo luercJJeoJ
<l
-tH
FI
'a ()I
$ N v t'-
(4 s EeJV
€ t--
oo
+ t--
6
al
ql
c- 6
ri !
r )l
7 trl Z qfuel E N e.]
N
v c]
C) !Yl
(A il
F,. wl
A t/. I
a.l + I
N 'oNuorlces ul?r(l 2
*, .l
cl
ql
501 c.]

3 t-- tr-
j-.,; Z ,
a
i lr.
ll
z*
H
3 Jeqr.unN

U epoN eerE-qns @ al t-- ?


.F al z
^(nFr |r
U rl IT
c-l
li.
2
!

4-46
v

u
:>
'M <<
<1
r,r )_ O
<>:=L,l
=q=P<
>LJQQM
-zs)zZ
.J r-.,",...........- |
zol-t-t-
<6==7
NUUU
7ir->>> ! i 7-,
o'"
E
O
O
a.r!I
o
Y>trtr=
.^ d f \ / \ . \
.-c N
=-r<<<
i:oS;HHH
\
\s\*
r \.. -^"
><<-==
L_J()AA(n
\'.. ;+ Q
olrr Y'-*'..\\.7€.,
+ f< S \i
N\'=

i *';--1',
.6" ll o
Elll -\\
'./*\
1
r:N,,''bx \"/
\t/'--! -2
I/.!t
tl--.--]-.r-t
-7R
/F
/S-L
L?-'-,'
5
;
'\.-
@6

[{
i 'v./'
\\

'1
+\ E
>j O
O
bi 6

II

5
o\
N

<s
lt
.+
nl
-+
i'-."-iJ
5I
OI
_;t
J
u
@
L
o
CO

447
:!r-

FLOW SPREAD w

LONGITUDINAL SLOPI

FIG. 4.25 KERB AND GUTTER.


SHOWING HAIF ROAD FLOTT

448
4.7.5 Kerb and Gutter - (Cont,d)

Table 4"5 Design Acceptance criteria For Road


Gutter Flow
Road Classification
Criteria High Volume R.oad Collector Road Local Road
(Single or Dual
\

l5r 10 year
YY utrrc Lle Kerosloe lane rs not a
l0 year 5 vear
Not applicable W < 2.5m
through lane (i.e. rrsed fnr nerrrina\ W < 25m
ry usrtr LrlE KerDsloe lane ls a through
> 70km/tr: no spread W < l"5m Not applicable
lane <T0kmlh'Wz1A'-
Where parking lane becomes an > /uKfivn : no spread
acceleration, deceleration or tum lane
I/ < 1.0m Not applicable
< 70km/h: I7< 1.0m
At pedestrian crossings or bus stous Not applicable W < 0.45m w< 0.45m
eIurns > 70km/h : no spread I7 < 1.0m W < 1.0m
< 70im/h: iV< l.0m
Sag Points
BIl At(l 50 year 10 year 5
W < 2.5m W < 2.5m
Major storm ctr"ct ltObJea. ezu; une lane m each One lane open to (not required)
direction open to traffic traffic
reoestnan salety'.,
V.D. <0.4m"/s V.D. <0.4m"/s
!q D49Ly
V.D. <0.4m'ls
V.D. <0.6m2/s V.D. <0.6m"/s V.D. <0.6m'ls
limit.based on v-D', the producr of average flow
)i]::tr'lflow width
\'/W verocity and guuer flow depth
= on road from gutt", inu"rt, y iio* depth at gutter
= invert
Note: on major highways and expressways, these standards may
not be applicable as it is to limit the
flow on the vehicle carriageway for safety reasons. Authorities
responsiule for these highways
may specify stricter criteria.

SOURCE; Urban Stormwater Management Manual


for Malavsia
-

Table 4.6 Manning's 'n' and Flow Correction


Factor
For Gutter FIow

Surface Type n
Concrete
0.013
Hot mix asphaltic concrete
0.015
Sprayed seal
0.018

Kerb and Gutter tvDe


F
Semi-mountable type
0.9
Barrier type
0.9

SOURCE: Urban Stormwater Management For Malaysia

4-49
Y

4.7.6 Inlet Spacing Calculation

The average inlet pit spacing is calculated so that allowable gutter flow
is not exceeded, as shown in Figure 4.26 andFtgute 4.27 "

The calculation method uses the Rational Method to estimate discharge


in the design storm. For simplicity, each pit catchment is assumed to
be approximately rectangular as shown in Figure 4.27. If the sub-
catchments are not rectangular, they should be replaced by equivalent
rectangular sub-catchments.

A worked example for the calculation of inlet pit spacing is given in


Appendix 4.C.

4.7.7 Inlet Pits


4.7.7.LTypes of Inlet Pits

Three types of inlet pit may be utilised:-

grate only
o side inlet only
o combination grates and side inlet

Grates are effective in intercepting gutter flows, and they also


provide an access opening for maintenance, in some situations,
they are prone to blockage. Side inlets are less affected by
blockage and extended side inlets, using lintel supports, can be
used to increase capacity"

The Combination Grate and Side Inlet pit (Figure 4.28) is the
most efficient, and it should be used wherever possible.

Details of the recommended standard inlet pits are shown in


Standard Drawing No. SD F-2 given in the Urban Stormwater
Management Manual For Malaysia.

The Local Authority may determine which types of inlet pits


are appropriate for its area. Standardisation of pits is
encouraged in the interests of economic efficiency, but if a
1oca1 Authority decides to adopt a different standard design, the
design curves given in this volume will need to be adjusted
accordinslv

Illustrations showing the typical location of inlet pits are given


in Fisure 4.20.

4-50
4.7.7.1Types of Inlet Fits - (Conr,d)

Inlet pits shall not be rocated on the curve at an intersection


because of the risk they present to vehicles and the structural
design of a side inlet pii oir u .uru", is much more complex.

Considerarion should arso be given to the position


of inret pits
relative to property boundaries, pits shourd be rocated
clear of
existing or known proposed driveways.

(i) Inlet Pits on Grade


Designers should be aware that the inret capacity
of pits
on grade is controlred by the l0ngitudinal grade andlhe
road crossfail. Inlet pit capacity charts forstandard pits
are given in Appendix 4.8 of this volume.

Bypass gutter flow from an upstream inret pit must


be
accounted for in the design of the downstream pit,
which in turn receives the flow. There is no limit to
ihe
amount of gutter flow that may be bypassecl, providecl
that the gutter flow restrictions in Section 4.7.5 are
adhered to.

(ii) Intet pits in Sags


Inlet pits in sags must have sufficient capacity to accept
the total gutter flow reaching the inlei, including ail
bypass flo_*, from upstream. ponding of water at sags
must be limited to the limits set in section 4.7:5,
particularly at intersections where turning traffic is
likely to encounter ponded water.

4.7.7.2 Allowance For Blockage

The design blockage alrowance sharl normalry be


30vo for a prt
on grade and 50To for a sag pit or field inret, unless
otherwise
directed.

4.7.7.3 Type BKSE3O Inlet

This is a combination inlet with a 2.4m extended lintel (refer


Standard Drawing SD F-2).

A Type BKSE3O inlet may be used:

t at changes in direction where entry of water is not


essential (i.e. side entry may be sealed).

o in tight radius kerb returns where the length of a type


BKLE3O inlet is inappropriare.
o as a field inlet

4-51
Y

4.7.7.3 Type BKSE3OInlet - (Cont'd)

Inlet capacity curves for Type BKSE3O pits are shown in


Appendix 4.B. These empirical curves show the combined
capacity of the side entry inlet and grate. Allowance must be
made for blockase as described in Section 4.7 .l .2.

4.7.7.4 Type BKLE3O Inlet

This is a combination inlet with a 4.8m long extended lintel


(refer Standard Drawing SD F-2), all kerbside inlets at low
points and on-grade sha1l generally be Type BKLE3O inlets.

Side entry inlet capacity curves for Type BKLE3O pits are
shown in Appendix 4.B. These empirical curves show the
combined capacity of the side entry inlet and grate. Allowance
must be made for biockase as described in Section 4.1 .7 .2.

4.7.7 ,5 Hydraulic Design of Kerbs and Gutters


and Stormwater Inlets

Design examples for gutter capacity and design of kerb opening


inlets are given in the "lJrban Stormwater Management Manual
For Malaysia" Chapter 24 - Stormwater Inlets, enclosed as
Attachment 1 at the end of the volume.

/1 <a
Y

CALCULATI ALTOWABLE
LIMIT OF GUTTER FLOW

CALCULATT ACUAL TLOW


FROM CATCHMTNT
OF THE INLET

ADD BY-PASSED FLOW


FROM UPSTREAM, IF ANY

TOTAL FLOW WITHIN


ALLOWABLE LIMIT?

CALCULATE PIT CAPTURE


AND AMOUNT OF FLOW BY-
PASSED TO DOWNSTREAM

LAST LOCATION?

PROVIDE FULL REQUIRED


CAPACITY AT SAG PIT

URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT


MANUAL TOR MAIjYSIA

FIG. 4,26
OF INTET PIT SPACING

+53
xr

SUBCATCHMINT 1

SUBCATCHMENT 2

FIG. 4.27 CALCULATIO

NOTT:

THE STANDARD INLE]- IS THE BASIC UNIT


FOR USt IN ALL CLASSES OF ROAD.
EXTENDED INLilS PTRMIT GRTATIR
CAPTURT WHTRT SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCIS
MAKE THIS DESIRABLT.

FIG. 4,28 STANDARD INTET PIT TYPES


SOURCT : URBAN STORMWATTR MANAGTMENT MANUAL FOR MATAYSIA

4-54
Gutter Flow as a function of road slope S
200

180

160 VxD>0.4
Flow exceeds crown

1+O

120
E
-c Generol width limit
100
c)
o
80

60
limit of intersection
40

20
0.01 0.10 1 .00

Holf rood ftow (m 7r)

DESIGN CHART 4A,I


USING IZZARD'S EQUATION

BASED ON J% ROAD CROSSFALL,


BARRIER KERB ryPt 1 (a50mm),
n p= 0.015
ne = 0.013

APPENDIX 4.A GUTTER FLOW DESIGN CHARTS


SOURCI : URBAN STORMWATER MANAGTMTNT MANUAL FOR MAHYSIA

+55
-qr

O
z.
U
a

n
E
1so

-J
U
E.
1nn
=
o_

t--a

z. cu

100 200 300

ROADWAY APPR0ACH FLOW LTTRES / SECOND

FIGURE 48.1 INIfiT CAPACITY - TYPE BIGE 30

O
z.
o 200
U

n
E.
150

=
u
E.
1nn
=

l--
J
z. JU

ROADWAY APPROACH FLoW LTTRES / SEC0ND

FIGURE 48.2 INI,ET CAPACITT - TI?E BKSE 30

APPENDX 4.8 INI.TT PIT CAPACITY DESIGN CHART


SOURCE : URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMTNT MANUAL FOR MALAYSIA

4-56
3.C.1 SPACING OF INIJT PITS

Problem: The figure shows on ideolised cotchment


in lpoh, droining to o gutier with o uniform longitudinol slope
Determine the moximum permissibre iniet pit spocing
of 2%
given thoi w = 45 meires.

Solution: The minor storm is token to be 5 yeor


ARl. Eoch subcotchment is opproximotely rectongulor so
Assuming o time of concentrotion oi 15 minutes A =wx L.
ond lumped runoff coefficient c = 0.g5,
1) l= 175 mm/hr from lpoh rDF doto for 5 yeor ARr, 15 minuie
duroiion giving

Q = C.t.A / J60 = 0.85 x 175 x (+5 x Lo x 10-4)/J60


Q = 0001859 Lo where Lo is the length of gutter flow in the upstreom
subcotchmnet

2) Colculote the ollowoble limit of gutter flow.

Use the Design Chort in Appendix 4.A for n p


= 0.015 (hot_mix ospholt povement),
ng = 0.01J (concrete kerb ond gutter).

The limiting gutter (horf-rood) frow bosed on


frow not exceeding the rood crown is :

Qc = 170 litres per second = 0.17 mJ/sec.

V = 1.15m/sec.

d x V is within the ollowobte iimit of 0.4 m/sec.

Therefore Lo = 0.17 / 0.001959 = 91 metres.

APPENDIX 4.C ITORKED EXAMPLES


SOURCE : URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMINT MANUAL FoR
MAHYSIA

4-57
T

ATTACHMENT 1

CHAPTER 24

Stormwater Inlets

Acknowledgement

The permission granted by Jabatan pengairan dan saliran


to
SEAM to publish rhe whore of rhi' chapter of urban
stormwater Management lv{anual for Malaysia is gratefully
acknowledged.

REAM

E
24 STGR.E?WAT€R. SNLETE

24.1 GENEML.....
................24-1
24.L.t pavement Inlets
.......... .......24_t
Z4.LZ inlets
Other
....24_t
24.2 PAVEMENT DRAINAGE
.....................24_3
24.2.t Hydroptaning
...24_3
24.2.2 Longitudinal S1ope..........
....24_4
24.2.3 Cross (Transverse) Slope...
.....................244
24.2.4 Kerb and Gutter..........
........244
24.2.5 Design Frequency and Spread...
..............24_5
24.3 LOCATING INLETS........ ...................24-7
24.3.t General Requirements
.........24-7
24.3.2 Gutter Flow..
...24_7
24.3.3 Setection of Inlet Type ...........
."..............24_7
24.3.4 Inlet Spacing C-alculation
.....24_B
24.3.5 Location of Inlets.......
.........24_8
24.4 INLET CApACrry CALCUTATTON ................
..........24-12
24.4.L Allowance for Blockage
.......24_t2
24.4.2 Combination Kerb Inlet
.......24_12
24.4.3 Fietd Intet
.......24-L3
24.4.4 Surcharge In1ets..........
.......24_13
24.5 HYDMUUC CONSIDEMTIONS ............
...............24_14
24.6 CONSTRUC[ON.............. ................:..
................24_t4
24.6.7 Structural Adequacy.....
.......24_L4
24.6.2 Materiats......
...24_74
24.6.3 Access Covers
.24_t4
24.6.4. Cover Levels
...24_14
24.7 MAINTENANCE................. ...............24_15
APPENDIX 24.A DESIGN CHARTS.......
..:................ ..24-17
APPENDIX 24.8 WORKED ESMPLE..... ...,....,24-23
24.8.L Spacing of Intets (Hatf Road Width).........
...................24_23
24.8.2 Spacing of Inlets (Combined Catchment and Road)
.....24_23
24.8.3 Inlet Gpacity Calculation
....24_25

Urban Stotmwater Management Manual

t
Stormwater Inlets

24.I GFNTRAL
from water-logging and damages. A typical arrangement
Stormwater runoff presents numerous safety
of road drainage and stormwater inleG is shown in
hazards in Figure 24.1.
urban areas. On-road ponding, reduced visibility
and
hydroplaning of vehicles are some of the hazards.
In an The location of inlets on roads is governed by the
safe flow
urban setting these hazards are substantially
magnified limits in gutters. When selecting and locating inlets,
due to the increased traffic and pedestrian
density. consideration shall be given to hydraulic efficienry, vehicle,
birycle and pedestrian safety, debris collection potential,
Stormwater inlets, also known as gully inlets,
are mainly and maintenance problems. Care is needed to ensure
provided to collect this stormwater from the paved property access is not impeded. These principles
that
surfaces, parks, landscaped and open space are
areas, and explained in greater detail in subsequent sections.
transfer it to underground pipe drains. Even
where an
open drain system is used, the inlets connect
to the open Three types of inlets may be utilised for pavement
drains by means of pipes. The provisions apply
to both drainage:
types of drainage system.
. grate intet (Figure 24.2a)
inlets will not function properly if the downstream pipe
or . kerb inlet (Figure Z4.Zb)
open drain system has insufficient capacrty, causing . combined inlet, grate and kerb (Figure 24.2c)
backwater. The designer of these systems should refer
to
Chapters 25 and 26 respectively. As a guideline it is Kerb inlets are less affected by blockage. Extended kerb
desirable to have at least 1.0 m height diffeience between inlets, using lintel supports, can be used
the road level and the drain invert in order for the inlets to increase
operate correctly.
to capacity. The combined grate and kerb inlet
(Figure 24.2c) is the most efficient, and it should
be used
on urban roads wherever possible. Details of the
Installing of inlets is encouraged in more highly
a recommended standard kerb inlets are shcurn in
urbanised areas, for draining more runoff from StandarC
streets, Drawing No. SD F-1.
parking lots and airport facilities although
more developed
countries are now beginning to shift from hard
engineering Grates are effective in intercepting gutter flows, and
to soft engineering using roadside swale. This Chaptei also provide an access opening for maintenance. In some
they
does not apply to roads where the runoff should
discharge situaUons they are prone to blockage. All grates on road
directly to a roadside swale (Chapter 2G and 31).
should be an approved, birycle-friendly design. FHWA
(1978) have investigated several grates for inlets and
The materials used in this Chapter were adapted mainly
developed bicycle-safe grate configurations. Typical
from FHWA (1996) and eUDM (1992).
schematic of bicycle-friendly grates are shown in
Figure 24.3.
24.1.L Pavement Inlets
24.t.2 Other Inlets
The most common type of inlet is that from a road
pavement. Inlets also provide access to pipes for
Inlets are not normally required for drainage from private
maintenance. Standard sizes and shapes should be property, because in Malaysian practice this drainage
used
to achieve economy in construction and maintenance. usually discharged into an open drain along the property
is
Adequate road drainage helps to protect the road
subgrade boundary.

Access Correr
Kerb Inlet
Walkway Altemative: Single Cross-fall
Grating

Median Drain or Cross{rain


(for Single Cross-fall Road)
To Drain

Figure 24.1 Road Drainage System and Stormwater Inlets

Urban Stormwater Management Manual


ZA'I
PERSPECTTVE

SECNON

(a) Grate Inlet (b) Kerb Inlet (c) CombinaUon Inlet (Kerb and Grate)

Figure 24.2 Pavement Inlets

(a) Rectangular (b) Rhombus (c) Honey Comb

Figure 24.3 Bicycle-friendly Grates (based on Screen Opening)

Other stormwater inlets are required to collect surface (Figure 24.5). A surcharge inlet is similar to a field inlet
stormwater runoff in open space, reserves or swales where except that it is intentionally designed to permit surcharge
the flow is to be introduced to an underground pipe for pressure relief in a pipe system.
system. These grate inlets are known as 'field inlets'. A
field inlet (Figure 24.4) is used in open space reserves, Details of standard field inlets and surcharge inlets are
depressed medians and other locations away from shown in Standard Drawings SD F-2 and 5D F-3,
pavement kerbs. Grated inlets can also be used in middle respectively.
of the parking lots where kerbs are not required

24-2 tJrtan Stomwater Management Manual


Stormwdter Inle&

However this Manual is not intended to


adaption of other designs by a Local Authority.
preclude the 24.? PAWfrM€N? SRASTAGE
The Local
Authority may determine which standard or.
oih"r. types of When rain falls on a sioped pavement surface,
inlets are appropriate for its area. Standardisation
of inlet
it forms a
thin film of water that increases in thickness
designs within a local area is recommended in as it flows to
the intereda the edge of the pavement. Factors which influence
of economic efficiency. If another design is adapted the
by a depth of water on the pavement are the length
Local Authority, that Authority wiil need to
obtain or derive of flow
path, surface texture, surface slope, and
inlet capacity Design Charts in piace of those given rainfall intensity.
in A discussion of hydroplaning and design guidance
Appendix 24.A. for the
following drainage elernents are presented:
. Longitudinal pavement slopes
. Cross or transveise pavement slope
. Kerb and gutter design

Additional technical iniormation on the mechanics of


suface drainage can be found in Anderson et (1995).
al

24.2.t Ftydroptanimg

As the depth of water flowing over a roadway


surface
increases, the potential for hydroplaning increases.
When
a rolling tyre encounters a film of water on the roadway,
the water is channelled through the tyre tread pattern
and
through the surface roughness of the pavement.
Figure 24.4 Grated Sump Field Inlet HydrcplaninE o€cuis yrhen
the drainaEe capacit/ of the
tyre tread pattern and the pavement ,rrfu.u
is exceeded
and the water begins to build up in front
of the tyre. As
the water builds up, a water wedge is created and
this
wedge produces a hydrodynamic force which
can lift the
tyre off the pavement surface. This is considered
as furl
dynamic hydroplaning and, since water offers
rittre shear
resistance, the tyre loses its tractive ability and
the driver
has a loss of control of the vehicle

Hydroplaning is a function of the water depth, roadway


geometries, vehicle speed, tread depth,
tyre inflation
pressures, and conditions of the pavement
surface. It has
been shown that hydroplaning can occur at
speeds of
89 km/hr with a water depth of 2 mm. The
hydroplaning
(a) Perspective potential of a roadway surface can
be reduced by the
following:
. Design the roadway geometries to reduce the
drainage path lengths of the water flowing over
the
pavement. This will prevent flow build-up.
. Increase the pavement surface texture depth by such
methods as grooving of cement concrete. An increase
of pavement surface texture will increase the drainaqe
capacity at the tyre pavement interface.
The use of open graded asphaltic pavements has oeen
shown to greatly reduce the hydroplaning potential of
the roadway surface" This reduction iidue to the
ability of the water to be forced through the pavement
under the tyre. This releases any hydrodynamic
pressures that are created and reduces
the Dotential
(b) Section for the iyre to hyoroplane.
The use of drainage structures along the roadway to
Figure 24.5 Grated parking Lot Inlet capture the flow of water over the pavement will

Uban Stormwater Nanagement Manual


z.+-3
Stormwater Inleb

reduce the thickness of the film of water and reduce Additional guidelines related to cross slope are:
the hydroplaning potential of the roadway surface.
l. Although not widely encouraged, inside lanes can be
sloped toward the median if conditions warrant.
The Design Acceptance Criteria for surface flow on roads
(see Table 4.3 of Chapter 4) have been set to limit the 2. Median areas should not be drained across travel
potential for hydroplaning at high speeds, as well as the lanes.
potential for vehicles to float or be washed off roads at 3. The number and length of flat pavement sections in
lower speeds. cross slope transition areas should be minimised.
Consideration should be given 1o increasing cross
24.2.2 Longitudinal Slope slope in sag vertical curvesr crest vertical curves, and
in sections of flat longitudinal grades.
Experience has shown that the recommended minimum 4. Shoulders should be sloped to drain away from the
values of roadway longitudinal slope given in the MSHTO pavement, except with raised, narrow medians and
(1990) Policy on Geometric Design will provide safe, superelevations
acceptable pavement drainage. In addition, the following
general guidelines are presented.

. A minimum longitudinal gradient is more impoftant for Table 24.1 Normal Pavement Cross Slopes (FHWA, 1996)
a kerbed pavement than for an unkerbed pavement
since the water is constrained by the kerb. However,
flat gradients on unkerbed pavements can lead to a Sudace Type Range in Rate of
spread problem if vegetation is allowed to build up Suface Slooe
along the pavement edge.
High-Type Surface
. Desirable gutter grades should not be less than 0.5 2 lanes 0.015 - 0.020
percent forkerbed pavements with an absolute 3 or more lanes, eaeh 0.015 minimum; increase
minimum of 0.3 percent. Minimum grades can be direction 0.005 to 0.010 per lane;
maintained in very flat terrain by use of a rolling 0.040 maximum
profile, or by warping the cross slope to achieve rolling
lntermediate Surface 0.015 - 0.030
gutter profiles.
. To provide adequate drainage in sag veftical curves, a Low-Type Surface 0.020 - 0.060
minimum slope of 0.3 percent should be maintained Shoulders
within 15 metres of the low point of the curve.
Bituminous or Concrete 0.020 - 0.060

24.2.3 Cross (Tmnsverce) Slope With Kerbs > 0.040

Table 24.1 indicates an acceptable range of cross slopes as 24.2.4 Kerb and Gutter
in MSHTO's poliry on geometric design of
specified
highways and streets. These cross slopes are a All roads in urban areas shall generally be provided with an
compromise between the need for reasonabiy steep cross integral kerb and gutter. The current practice of providing
slopes for drainage and relatively flat cross slope for driver a kerb orily on roads is generally not acceptable as there is
comfort and safety. These cross slopes represent standard no defined gutter to carry stormwater flows, and the road
practice. MSHTO (1990) should be consulted before pavement will suffer damage from frequent inundation.
deviating from these values.
However, where the volume of gutter flow is negligible as
Cross slopes of 2 percent have little effect on driver effott in car parks and on the high side of single-crossfall roads,
in steering or on friction demand for vehicle stability, Use a kerb only is acceptable.
of a cross slope steeper than 2 percent on pavement with
a central crown line is not desirable. In areas of intense Kerbs are normally used at the outside edge of pavement
rainfall, a somewhat steeper cross slope (2.5 percent) may for low-speed, and in some instances adjacent to shoulders
be used to facilitate drainage (Gallaway et al, 1979). on moderate to high-speed roads. They serve the
following purposes:
Where three (3) lanes or more are sloped in the same
direction, it is desirable to counter the resulting increase in . contain the surface runoff within the roadway and
flow depth by increasing the cross slope of the outermost away from adjacent properties,
lanes. The Wvo (2) lanes adjacent to the crown line should o pr€v€ot erosion on fill slopes,
be pitched at the normal slope, and successive lane pairs'
or portions thereof outward, should be increased by about
. provide pavement delineation, and

0.5 to 1 percent. The maximum pavement cross slope . enable the orderly development of propefi adjacent
should be limited to 4 percent (refer to Table 24.1). to the roadway.

244 lJrban Stormwater Management Manuar


Stornwater Inle?

Gutters formed in combination with kerbs


are available in The kerb and gutter shail be a standard size
0.3 through 1.0 metre width. Gutter cross
slopes may be
to faciritate
economical construction. Recommended
same as that of the pavement or may standard details
be designed with a for road kerbs and gutters are shown in Standard
steeper cross slope, usually g0 mm per Drawing
metre steeper than No. SD F4. The standard kerb height of 150
the shoulder or parking lane (if used). mm is basej
MSHTO geometric upon access considerations for pedestrians, vehicle
guidelines state that an go/o srope safety
is a common maximum including the opening of car doors, and
cross slope. drainage
requirements.

A kerb and gutter combination forms a triangular


that can convey runoff equal to or less tfra-n
channel If a local Authority decides to adapt a different standard,
tne design the design curves given in this Chapter wilt need
flow without interruption of the traffic. When
a design to be
adjusted accordingly.
flow occurs, there is a spread or widening
of the conveyed
water surface. The water spreads to
include not only the 24.2.5 Design Frequencry and Spread
gutter width, but also parking lanes
or shoulders, and
portions of the travelled surface.
Spread is what concerns Two of the more significant variables considered
the hydraulic engineer in kerb and gutter flow. in the
The design of pavement drainage are the frequency
distance of the spread is measured perpendicular of the
to the design event and the allowable spread of water
kerb face to the extent of the water on the on the
roadway and is pavement. A related consideration is the use
shown in Figure 24.6. of an event
of lesser frequenry to check the drainage design.

Spread and design frequenqy are not independent.


The
implications of the use of criteria for spread of
one_half of
a traffic lane is considerably different for one design
freguency than for a lesser frequency. It also
has different
implications for a low-traffic, iow_speed roads
than for a
higher classification roads. These subjects are
central to
the issue of pavement drainage and important to traffic
safety.

(a) Selectbn of Design Frequenq and Design Spread


(a) Uniturm
The objective of pavement storm drainage design is to
provide for safe passage of vehicles during the design
storm event. The design of a drainaEe system for a
kerbed pavement section is to collect runsff in the gutter
and convey it to pavement inlets in a manner that provides
reasonable safety for traffic and pedestrians at e
reasonable cost. As spread from the kerb increase,
the
risks of traffic accidents and delays, and the nuisance
and
possible hazard to pedestrian traffic increase.

The process of selecting the ARI and spread for desion


(b) Composibe involves decisions regarding acceptable risks of acciderits
and traffic delays and acceptable costs for the drainage
system. Risks associated with water on traffic lanes are
greater with high traffic volumes, high speeds, and higher
road classifications.

A summary of the major considerations that enter into the


selection of design frequency and design spread follows:

1. The classification of the road is a good point in the


selection process since it defines the public,s
expectations regarding water on the pavement
(c) Curved
surface. Ponding on traffic lanes of high_speed, high_
volume roadways is contrary to the public,s
expectations and thus the risks of accidents and the
costs of traffic delays are hioh,
Figure 24.6 Gutter Sections

Urban Stormwa ter lrlanagement Man ual


z.+-J
Stormwater lnle&

2. Design speed is impoftant to the selection of design various design spreads may be helpful in selectino
criteria. At speeds greater than 70 km/hr, it has been appropriate design criteria. Table 24.2 provides suggeste;
shown that water on the pavement can cause minimum design frequencies and spread based on the
hydroplaning. types of road and traffic speed. Similar design criteria are
3. The intensity of rainfall events may significantly affect also given in Chapter 4, Table 4.3.
the selection of design frequency and spread. Risks
associated with the spread of water on pavement is The recommended design frequency for depressed
high in Malaysian conditions. sections and underpasses where ponded water can be
removed only through the storm drainage system is a 50
Other considerations include inconvenience, hazards and year ARL A 100 year ARI storm is used to assess hazards
nuisances to pedestrian traffic. These considerations at critical locations where water can pond to appreciable
should not be minimised and in some locations such as in depths.
commercial areas/ may assume major importance.
(b) Seledion of Major storm and Spread
The relative elevation of the road and surrounding terrain
is an additional consideration where water can be drained A major storm should be used any time runoff could cause
only through a storm drainage system, as in underpasses unacceptable flooding during less frequent events. Also,
and depressed sections. The potential for ponding to inlets should always be evaiuated for a major storm when
hazardous depths should be considered in selecting the a series of inlets terminates at a sag vertical curve where
frequency and spread ci'iieria and in checking the design ponding to hazardous depths could oeeur"
against storm events of lesser frequency than the design
event. The frequency selected for the major storm should be
based on the same considerations used to select the
Spread on traffic lanes can be tolerated to greater widths design storm, i.e., the consequences of spread exceeding
where traffic volumes and speeds are low. Spreads of that chosen for design and the potential for ponding.
one-half of a traffic lane or more are usually considered a Where no significant ponding can occur, major storm are
minimum type design for low-volume local roads. normally unnecessary.

The selection of design criteria for intermediate types of Criteria for spread during the check event are :

facilities may be the most difficult. For example, some 1. one lane open to traffic during the major storm event
arterials with relatively high traffic volumes and speeds
may not have shoulders which will convey the design
2. one lane free of water during the major storm event

runoff without encroaching on the traffic lanes. In these


These critena differ substantively, but each sets a standard
instances, an assessment of the relative risks and costs of
by which the design can be evaluated.

Table24.2 Suggested Minimum Design Frequency and Spread (Adapted from FHWA, 1996)

Road Classification Design Frequency Design Spread

High Volume or < 70 km/hr 10 year 1m


Divided or > 70 km/hr 10 year No Spread

Bi-directional Sag Point 50 year 1m


< 70 km/hr 10 year Vz Lane

Collector > 70 km/hr 10 year No Spread

Sag Point 10 year 7z Lane

Low Traffic 5 year 7z Lane

Local Streets High Traffic 10 year 7z Lane

Sag Point 10 year 7z Lane

24-6 lJrban Stormwater Managemeft Manual


Stormwater Inleb

24.3 LSEATING Iru!-F"TS

24.3.1 General Requinements

The location and spacing of inlets on roads


is governed in
part by the need to provide safe, economical
road drainage
by limiting the amount of gutter flow. The
design
acceptance criteria for road flow is provided
in Chapter-4, 5= Longitudinal Slooe
Table 4.3.

These criteria are based on pedestrian


safety and vehicle
Figure 24.7 Kerb and Gutter, Showing Half Road Flow
stabirity. They assume that traffic wiil srow
to a safe speed
in the major flood when the road is
flooded. They do not
appry to expressways because ponding
on expressways Table 24.3 Manning,s 'n' and Fiow Correction
would cause a risk of vehicle aquaplaning. Factor, F,,for Gutter Flow (eUDM, 1992)
The design of
expressway drainage is outside the scope
of this Manuar.

24.3,2 Gutter Flow Suface Type


Concrete 0.013
Many pavement dralnage problerns occur
in Malaysia
llot nix asphaltic conc:ete
because of a failure to give due attention to gutter flow c.015
and inlets. In many cases gutters are poorly formed or Sprayed seal 0.018
absent, inlets are too widely spaced, and
the design of the
inlets is inadequate to capture gutter flow Kerb and Gutter type Ff
and convey it to
the drainage system.
Senn I - m o u nta b e -r y*pe
I
rJ.>
In particular, the common practice of forming
a round or Barrier type 0.9
half round inlet at the entrance of a pipe
is unacceptaOte
because:

r the available inlet area is too small to be


effective, This form of the equation allows for the pavement
and
. the design is hydraulically inefficient, channel to have different roughnesses and/or different
o water must pond on the road to produce sufficient
crossfalls. For the definition of terms in the equation
refer
head available to force gutter flow into
to Figure 24.7. The face of the kerb is approximated as
the inlet, being vertical.
. it is prone to blockage, and
r when used on grades, gutter flow simply
bypasses the Using either Equation 24.1 or the Design Chart in
inlet altogether. Appendix24.A, suitable limits for gutter flow can be
determined. The average inlet spacing is then determined
It is vital that proper hydraulic design principles
to ensure that this limit is not exceeded. A worked
Oe applied
to the design of stormwater inlets. These principles
are example of this calculation is provided in Appenctix 24.8
discussed in this Chapter. (based on AR&R, 1997).

Parameters required to calculate gutter


flow from the Note that the inlet capacity of an inlet increases with
pavements are shown in Figure
24.7. Knowing those increasing gutter flow. Therefore, provided the
flow width
parameters, gutter flow capacity may
be calculated by limits are satisfied, it is an advantage to allow some bypass
Izzard's equation given below (lzzard, 1946): gutter flow on sloping roads to maximise the use
of the
inlet capacity (Sutherland, 1992).

24.3,3 Selection of trnlet Type


(24.1)
Kerb inlets on gracle shall normally be type .S, with
a Z.4m
where, subscripts g , p and c refer to the gutter, pavement long lintel as shown on Standard Drawing SD F_1.
The
and road crown, respectively. F,.is a flow capacity of these inlets is shown in Design Chart24.2.
iorrection factor,
Zis the cross slope, 5is the longitudinal slope and Type 'M'or 'L' lintels may be used at sag points to provide
dis the additional capacity if space and kerb geometry permits.
runoff depth over the pavement. A Design
Chart for gutter
flow calculation is given in Appendix Z+.n. Recommended
values of Manning,s roughness coefficient n and A Type'S'inlet may also be used:
the Flow
Correction Fador F1 for gutter flow are given
in Table o Bt changes in direction where entry of water is not
24.3. essentiai (i.e. side entry may be sealed)

Utban Stormwater f,fanagement Manual


24-7
Stormwater Inlets

. in tight radius kerb returns where the length of a type o on grades, with average spacing calculated in
M or L iniet is inappropriate accordance with Section 24.3;
I as a field inlet o Bt the tangent point of intersection kerb returns such
that the width of gutter flow around the kerb return in
24.3.4 lnlet Spacing Calculation the Minor Design Storm Coes not exceed 1.0m;

" immediateiy upstream of pedestrian crossings, access


Inlet spacing calculation uses the Rational Method to ramps, taxi or bus stops;
estimate discharge in the design storm. For simplicify each
" imrnediately upstream of any reverse crossfall road
inlet subcatchment is assumed to be approximately pavement, where flow would be directed across the
rectangular as shown in Figure 24.8. If the subcatchments
pavement;
are not rectangular they should be replaced by equivalent
rectangular su bcatchments. " along the high side of islands or medians so as to
meet the gutter flow width limitations in Section 24.3.
The average inlet spacing on grade is caiculated so that and at the downstream end of the island or median to
allowable gutter flow is not exceeded, using the procedure prevent gutter florry continuing onto the road
pavement.
shown in Figure 24"9.
inlers shail nor be iocateci on the curve at an iniersection
A worked example for the calculation of inlet spacing on
because of the risk they present to vehicles. Also, the
grade is given in Appendix 24.83.
structural design of a side inlet on a curye is much more
complex.
24.3.5 Location of Inlets
Kerb inlets vrithin an island or median strip should, where
Illustrations showing the typical location of inlets for roads possible, be a normal inlet. However if the space available
are given in Figure 24.10.
v;ithl:l a ::'ledien st'ip is insufficient, a median drain design
similar to Figure 3.10 of JKR "Guide to Drainage Design of
(a) General
Roads" can be used. Because this alternative is less
hydraulically efficient, appropriate modifications shall be
Kerb inlets for all roadways shail be spaced such that
made to the inlet spacing. If the depth and velocity of
gutter flow widths do not exceed the previously discussed
gutter flow are within acceptable limits, a median opening
limits. Inlets should also be located such that the quantity
may alternatively be used to allow runoff to flow to the
of gutter flow entering an intersection kerb return is downhill kerb drain.
minimised.
Where sufficient width is available, grated inlets can be
Inlets shall be provided:
recessed into the kerb or island so that the grate does not
. in the low points of all sags; project onto the road pavement. However this also
reduces their effectiveness,

Fall

\
Subcatchment

LEGEND
Pipe, Inlet -....o-
Gutter Flow ----->
Flow \-v

Figure 24.8 Calculation of Gutter Flow and Inlet Spacing on Grade

24-B tJrba n 5 torm wa ter Ma naaemeil Man u al


Stormwater In/ets

CALCUTATT ALL*WAEIE
ut4IT *F 6rlTTr* rL&W
ii,*
:;::.qi
:):::':i,i

]fi

CATCL{FISF*T *F THg i iLTT

AOD SY'PA55CD FLOIV Fn0t'l


UP5'iRf,,\i"i " iF Ai{"1

T*TAL FLOW WiTl'{:f,{

CALCi.ILAYE iFILg-N CAF"I1J&€ A}J*


AMOtJf iT 0F rLQW SY-PASgfp
To **wil$TnrAr4

pROVIDE FUil_ &EQUIR.c*


CAPAC:TY AT 5A$ IIiLTT

Figure 24.9 Flowchart for Calculation of Iniet Spacing

Urban S torm wa ter Manag em en t plan ua/ 74-9


Stormwater Inlets

Inlet posfion to
suit maximum
spacing from top
of catchment

,I
r/

*"/
"paOng Inlet on
tangent of
kerb return

Inlet on tang€nt
I/ /
;to*r*'^ I I
Inlet upstream of
pedestrian crossing

Max. 450 mm in

Max. 1000 mm
in Minor Storm
ROAD

(a) at Bus Stop (b) at Kerb Return

Max.1000 mm
in Minor Storm

Through Lane --D

(c) at Deceleration Lane

Figure 24.10 Typicai Location of Inlets for Roads

24-L0 ltrba n Storm wa ter f,lana ge men t Man ua /


Stormwater InteE

Locations are also influenced by


{AR.&R, 199g): If the longitudinal grades of the kerbs approaching an
. the positions of other utility services; intersection are steep, it may be necessary to check for
the
. the posiiions of driveways; effect of flow super-elevation on the gutter flow spread
around the kerb return.
. superelevations and other changes to road cross_
sections, which cause flow to cross roads; (c) Inleb in Sags
. maintenance requirements, such as clear access; and
Inlets in sags must have sufficient capacity to accept the
" the need to limit flow depths on the low side of roads
total gutrer flow reaching the inle! including ail bypass
below crest levels of driveways serving properties
below road level. flows frorn upstrearn. ponding of water at sags must be
lirnited to the limlts set in Section 24.3, particularly at
(b) InleE on Grade intersections where tuming trafflc is likely to encounter
ponded water.
Designers should be aware that the inlet capacity of pits
on
grade is controlled by the longitudinai grade
and the road
(d) Inleb for Parking Lot
crossfall. Inlet Capacity charts for standard inlets are given
in Appendix 24.A of this Chapter. Parking lot inlets should be lccated outside of heavily
traveled pedestrian areas (e.g. crosswalk, kerb ramps, and
Bypass gutter fiow from an upstream inlet must lead walks to the building and between parked vehicles).
be
acccunted rfcr in the Cesigit of ihe downsti-earn inlet which Inlets should be placed in areas where people can access
receives the flow. A design procedure which satisfies this their vehicles without stepping around the inlet.
requirement is given in Chapter 16. There is no limit to Figure 24.11 shows recommended placement of inlets in
the amount of gutter flow that may be bypassed, provided parking areas.
that the gutter flow restrictions in Section 24.3 are adhered

Kerb Inlet
Prefuned
l-ocaUon Kerb Inlet
Locauon
Not Recommended

Drop Inlet GIN


Accepbble
Location
.*ow

Figure 24.11 Typical Location of Inieis for Parkinq Lots

Urban Stormwater Management Manuat


24-rr
__lr_

Stormwater lnlets

24.4 INLETCAPACTTY CALCIJLATICII'{ 24.4.2 Combination Kerb Inlet

24,4.1 Allowance for Blockage Combination kerb inlets can have 2.4 m, 3.6 m or 4.g m
long lintels (refer Standard Drawing SD F-1 types .S,, 'M,
Inlet interception capacity has been investigated by several and'L', respectively).
agencies and manufacturer of grates. Hydraulic tests on
grate inlets and slotted inlets were conducted by Bureau of The inlet capacity of combination kerb inlets can be taken
Reclamation for the U.S. Federal Highway Administration. to be approximately equal to the sum of the kerb openino
Normally the longitudinal bars are veftical and the and grate capacities.
transverse bars (vanes) are fixed in different angle and
orientation to get
maximum hydraulic efficiency with fhe kerb apening capacity depends on the inlet throat
minimum blockage from litters. Few typical arrangement
geometry (see Figure 24.13). The inlet throat acts as an
of vanes in the grates are shown in Figure 24.12. orifice and the orifice flow equation applies (FHWA, 1gg4).

The design blockage allowance shall normally be 30yo for Qt =o.67hLtl2gd, (24.2)
an inlet on grade and 500/o for a sag inlet or field inlet,
unless otherwise directed. where,
Or = flow through the inlet throat,
to be handled by the inleG shall
The gutter flow required
be determined from network design calculations as l. = length of kerb opening,
described in Chaoter 16. do = effective head at centre of the orifice throat, and
11 = orifice throat width

For inlets on grade, this theoretical capacity is reduced


because of the tendency of fast-flowing water to bypass
Flow Direct'on the inlet opening. The efficiency f of a kerb opening on
grade is given as:

r =Q, (24.3)
(a) Parallel Bar a

where,
O = total incoming flow through the gutter side
O = flow captured by the inlet
Tranwerse Bar (Vane)
Flow Drcction The efficiency of an inlet on grade depends on the length
of the opening, longitudinal slope, cross-fall, and whether
there are any deflector bars to divert flow into the grate.

(b) Curved Bar The grate capacity depends on pavement geometry, the
direction and depth of flow and the grate configuration
including the spacing and size of bars. For shallow depths,
up to approximately 200 mm, the weir equation can be
Flow Direction
applied.

2
Qe -- F, x !.66 x luh3t (24.4)

where,
(c) 45'Tilt Bar
Le = effective length of grate opening in the direction of
flow,
Fa = blockage factor,
Figure24.L2 Typical Arrangement of Vanes for Grates pn = grate capacity

11'L Z lltban Stormwater Management Manual


Stormwater lnleb

In practice, it is not worthwhile or practical to perform


these calculations for each inlet. Instead
the capacity is
estimated from empidcar curves which shourd
be based on
prototype testing. Empirical iniet capacity
design curves
for combination kerb inlets are shown in Appendix
24.A.
These curvd:s based on eUDM (1992), show
ihe comOined
capacity of the kerb and grate inlet. Allowance
must be
made for blockage as described in Section
24.4.1.

(a) Horizontal 24.4.3 Fietd InNet

The inflow capacity of a field inlet depends


on the depth of
water over the inlet. For shallow depths. up to
approximately 200 mm, the flow will behave
as a sharp_
crested weir. For greater depths the inlet will become
submerged and will behave as an orifice. The
discharge/head characteristics of the two flow
types are
different (see Equations 24.5 and 24.6).

The capacity of the inlet should be checked using


both
formulae and the lesser inlet capacity adapted.

(i) under weir flow eonditions


(b) Indined
Qe = Fe xL.66 x Lh3t2 (24.s)

(ii) under orifice flow conditions

Qo=Fa x0.60,46 (24.6)


"Jegh)
where
246 is the area of the grate opening.

24.4.4 Surcharge Inlets

Surcharge inlet structures shall be provided:


. where branch pipelines connect to low flow pipelines
(c) Verticat in floodways
. where there are shallow points in the system
to form
an emergency overflow relief path in times of acute
Figure 24.13 Throat Configuration of Kerb Opening Inlets hydraulic overload or blockage of the pipe system
(FHWA,1996)
The need for a surcharge inlet on pipelines shall be
The effective length of the grate opening will deterrnined by Hydraulic Grade Line Analysis, as described
depend on its
width, the width of the grate bars and on the in Chapter 25. If the HGL analysis indicates the tiketihood
approach
direction of flow. On grade, Lu (W_W6) and of surcharge but the location does not permit surcharge
= in sags,
water to flow away safely, a sealed manhole lid with
L"= 2(W-Wt), where, Wis the overall width of the grJte a
and W6 is the total width of the longitudinal bars. lock-down cover shall be provided.

At dipths greater than 200 mm, grate inlets in To minimisethe risk that the surcharge opening will
sags can
function under orifice flow concJitions as discussed becorne partially or fr:lly blocked by debris and
in the titter in the
following section. surcharged flow, the surcharge capacity of the inlet
structure should be twice the total design inflow from
all
pipes connected to the structure. Details of the

Urban Stormwater Management Manual


24-t3
Stormwater Inle&

recommended standard surcharge iniet are shown in 24,6,3 Aceess Cowess


Standard Drawing SD F-3.
The type sf inlet cover shall be selected according to the
following criteria:
24.5 HYDRAIJLIC COfqSIEER.ATTSNS
o sealed solid top for structures in engineered
The calculations given in this Chapter assurne that there is waterurays and other locations subject to hydraulic
no downstream constraint to inlet flows. This means that loads, for
the capacity, level and grade of the pipe drain or ' inlet structures, or
downstream open channel is sufficient to convey the flow
from the inlet(s).
" surcharge structures (bolt-down locking shall be
provided with stainless steel bolts to secure the
cover and the seating ring tc the structure)
In order to achieve this condition, the downstream system
must be properly designed and have sufficient freeboard . grated cover, for
above the HGL. A number of older existing drainage " inlets subject to traffic loadings, or
systems do not meet this criterion. The designer of these o inlets in paved pedestrian areas
systems is referred to Chapters 25 and 26, respectively.
As a guideline it will be necessary tc have at least 1.0 nr (a) Concrete cover
height difference between the road level and the drain
inveft in order for the inlets to operate correctiy. An ungrated inlet not subject to traffic loads or hydraulic
surcharce shall be orovided with a standard reinforeed
in practice, the stormwater inlets and pipe drains must be concrete seating ring and lid in accordance with Standard
designed together because the two systems interact: Drawing SD F-7.

. if there is insufficient lnlet capacity the pipes wil! not The minimum size opening for access is 600x600 mm.
flow full, and
. backwater effects from the pipe drainage system rnay (b) MetalGrates
reduce the effectiveness of the inlets, or cause them
to surcharge instead of acting as inlets. An inlet grate which will be subjected to vehicle loadings
shall be designed to support those loads in accordance
The complexity of these interactions is such that in all but with the relevant Malaysian or British Standard.
the simplest situations, the design task is best handled by
computer models. Some suitable computer models are Ductile iron covers shall be :GATIC:, or other proprietary
described in Chapter 17. design as approved in writing by the Local Authority.

24.6 CONSTRUCTION
24.6.4 Cover Levels

Stormwater inlet grates and access covers (if used) shall


24.6.L Structural Adequacy
be set at the finished cover levels given in Table 24.4.

Stormwater inlets shall be constructed so that they are


structurally sound and do not permit ingress of water
Table 24.4 Grating Cover Levels

through the walls or joints. Materials shall be resistant to


erosion and corrosion. Where necessary, corrosion Location Grate/ Cover Level
resistant cement shall be utilised. Roads, other paved Flush with finished surface
areas
24.6.2 Materials
Footpaths and Flush with finished surface
Stormwater inlets may be constructed from: street verges

r in-situ concrete, Landscaped areas, Flush with finished surface


parks
r precast concrete,
. cement rendered brickwork, or Elsewhere 100 mm above surface to allow
. for topsoiling and grassing
mortared blockwork
(see Note)

The lintels for type S, M and L Bits shall be preeast, to Ncte: Stormwater inlet tops shall be protected bY
comply with appropriate Malaysian or British standards. placing fill against the top. The fill shall be
graded down ta natural suface at a maximum
slope of 1 in 10.

24-14 Utban Stormwater Management f"lanual


Stormwater InleE

Where finished surfaces are steeper than 1(V):10(H),


the an accumulation of litter and debris, which may cause
access cover shall be level. An adjacent flat area shall be blockage. Sag locations are particularly susceptible to
provided with sufficient space on which
to place a removed blockage.
cover.

Chapter 25 provides more detail maintenance required for


24.V MAINTENANCE maintenance required for drainage qystem, which involves
inlets.
Inlets shall be checked and cleaned regularly, to prevent

Urban Stormwater Management Manual


24-t5
--;+_--.*+: - :I

Stormwater Inlets

APPENDIX 24.A DESIGN CHARTS

Design
Description
Chart Page

24.L Gutter Flow


24-18
24.2 Combination Kerb Inlet Gpacity _ Type
S
24-19
24.3 Combination Kerb Inlet Capacity _ Type M
24-L9
24.4 CombinaUon Kerb Inlet Capacity
- Type L
24-20
24.5 Sag Inlet Capacity
24-21

Urban Stormwater Management Manual


24-17
Stormwater Inlets

Longitudinal Road Slope, 5(%)

200
0.5 t 2 461015 )./5

ti
180

4.73

160

140 3.73

xQ

OJ 120
ly it: E
\
ff
= T ''-i'1- 7.73

'ft/z1ffi: ; 'tl' i :tiit (


;
100 T:';114,= 3

oo)
//4 tr

7l i'." ,,i:
ts :

80 t.73
d= i' ,i'
1- ydhiLI
50 i;:-;;'; 'i'r'';'l'i.'
n7?

40 *"i-,*---*--l*,* i:..i.-

20
ri. i"tl
i ,' ,r, -u.l/
0.01 0.10 1.00 10.00

Gutter Flow, Q (m 3/s)

Design Chart 24.1 Gutter Flow using lzzard's Equation (QUDM, 1992)

Based on Znand Zo= lo/o (Road Crossfall),

aartiei kerb type 81 (450mm),


flo = 0'015,
ne = 0.013

Note:

A number of similar set of curves can be prepared using different combination of variables in lzzard's Equation.

24-18 Urban Stormwater Managemen t Man ual


Stormwater ln/eE

E
c
vt
s-'
o
h
'-1

I
CL

(u
E

Roadway' Approaeh Flow (l_lbes/Seeond)

Design Chart 24.2 Combination Kerb Intet Capacity: Type (QUDM,


S 1992)

E
c
8
E
E

E
:t

I
CL

o,
E

.w) 3Ut] 400


Roadway Approadr Flow (LitreslSecond)

Design chart 24.3 Combination Kerb Inret capacity


- Type M (QUDM, 1992)

Urban Stormwater Managemen t fulan ual


24-t9
Stormwater InleE

E
c
o
(J
E
6
g
J

E
:t
CL
I
n

100 200 300 400

Roadway Approadt Flow (Litres/Second)

Design Chaft 24.4 Combination Kerb Inlet Capacity - Type L (QUDM, 1992)

74-20 Urban Stormwater Management Manuat


Starmwater InleE

E
E
150
o
cc
|E
6
o
J
100
iE
s
E
zo
tg
g
CL
dl
50

Inlet Capture (Litres/Secondl

Inlet Capture vs Wdth of Fonding


1:30 Crossfall
1:zl0 Cros#all
Inlet Capture Litres/Second
inlet Capture l_itres/Second
Flow 600 800 800 800 800 2@ Flow 6S0 800 800 800
WidUl L?00 x300 x500 800 2@
x500 x5@ 8CIo WdEl v30O x30C x500 lc500 x500 800
m OE OE 5tr ME LE x500 rn OE OE SE Itr
2.0 ME xs00
103 118 13s 144 159 165 2.0 91 104 120
2.5 126 134 139
118 136 155 168 191 198 2.s 102 It7
3.0 134 143 157 163
135 155 175 193 226 234 3.0 113 130 148
3.5 160 181 188
152 174 196 219 262 ?E
27l 125 1.14 163
4.0 159 179 206 214
194 217 245 300 310 4.0 138 158 t79 197 232
4.5 r87 215 247
240 273 339 351 4.5 150 173 194 717 259 259
5.0 206 237 263 302 380 ?qd 5.0 164 188 210 237 288
5.5 298
226 259 287 332 48 438 5.5 t77 203 227 258 377 328
6.0 2# 282 312 363 467 483 6.0 191 219 244 279 34V 359
5.5 266 306 337 395 s12 s30 6.5 205 235 267 300 37V 391
7.0 287 330 353 42V qqa
579 7.A 220 252 279 323 409 424
7.5 309 355 389 450 607 629 7.5 234
8.0 331 381 416
269 298 345 42 457
495 657 680 8.0 250 287 316 369 475 492
Inlet casures shown Above^are Independant
of capture by the Grated Area. The 2
configuration Requires Two sbndardini"E;;n;ed @ g00x500
by 2.4 rn Lengr'of pipe.

Design Chart 24.5 Sag Inlet Capacity

Urban Stomwater Management l4anua/


24-21
Stormwater !n/e6

APPErutr3X 24.S ltrSR.KgP FX.AS€PLtrS

24.8.1 Spaeimg of gclgets {ffialf R.oad WEdte!}

Problem:To determine inlet spacing


to cater runoff frorn half rcaei catchment in lpoh, perak.
Following data are given:

{f = 5 rninutes
Rainfall intensity, 5/5 = 300 mm/hr
Half road widih = 9m
Longitudinal slope
= 0.5 7o
Cross slope
= ?o/^

The minor system design


= 5 year ARI
The outer lane is a through lane, !,/< 1.5m \/T*Li^ 4 r\
| i:utc t,J,

Solution:

1) From Design Chart L4.3, C 0.91


= [Category (t)],
From Equation I4.7;

Qnna = (Cx5lrxe;7360
= 0.91 x 300 x (9 x /7x 10-4)/360
= 0.000693 /.1
where {, is the length of gutter flow in the upstream
subcatchmeni.
2) Calculate the allowable limit of gutter flow.

Using the Design Chart 24,1 and W= 1.5 m;


Q= 0.018 m3/s

= 1g Vs and Vx Dis less than 0.4 m/s.


Therefore, spacing for the first inlet is,
l; =0.018/0.000683
=26.3m-26m
3) Use a Type's'inlet as recommended in
section 24.4.3. Refer to Design chart 24.2 for a Type.s, inlet
with a gutter approach flow of 18 l'/s, the inlet capture (BKSE3o).
is 18 gs is giving a capture efficiency of 100 o/o.

Therefore, bypass gutter flow is zero and ihe inlet spacing


to be adapted is 26 m.

24.8.2 Spacing of Inlets (Combined Catchnnent and Road)

Problem: Figure 24'81 shows an idealised catchment and


minor road system in lpoh. In this case the surface catchmenr
drains to a gutter with a unifcrm longitudinal slope
of 2o/o, Determine the maximum permissible inlet spacing
from residential/road catchrnent combined wldth
of 45 nr (half road width is g m). Time of concentration is 15
minutes and lumped runoff coefficient for the combined
caichment is 0.g5. Manning n for paveme nt, no = e.g15
(hot-mix asphalt pavement), and for gutter,
ns = 0.013 (.on.r"t" fur6lj'nJ il;;|.'=Road
cros. stope is 3%.
solution: The minor storm is taken to be 5 year ARI (Table 4.1). Each subcatchment
A = l. -rr'-'
'- approximateiy rectangutar so area,
---- is
Wx Time of concentration is assumed as 15 minutes.

Urban Stormwater Managenent Manual


24-23
Stormwater Inlets

Subcatchment I

Subcatdlment 2

Subcatchment 3
J

LEGEND
Gutter Flow ----|
Eypass Flow \-t
Pipe, Inlet
--r-

Figure 24.81 Example for Catchment and Road Drainage

1\ Adapt /= 175 mm/hr from Ipoh IDF data for 5 year ARI, 15 minute duration storm,
Qconb,nd= C.I.A. I 360

= 0.85 x I75 x (45 x L1x 10-4)/360

= 0.001859 l; where l1 is the length of gutter flow in the first upstream subcatchment

2) Calculate the allowable limit of gutter flow.

For a minor road the allowable flow width is 2.5 m (Table 4.3). Note that the cross-fall is 3olo and the runoff depth at
gutter, dn is given by 0.03 x 2.5 0.075 m. So, the flow will not overtop the kerb. Using Design Chart24.l in
=
Appendix 24.Afor S = 2o/o, n, = 0.015 (hot-mix asphalt pavement), spread of 2.5 m width, and ,c = 0'013 (concrete
kerb and gutter). The limiting gutter (half-road) flow based on flow not exceeding the road crown is:

O = 170 litres per second


= 0.17 m37sec with /xD is within the allowable limit of 0.4 m/sec.

or 0.001859 Lt= 0.17

Therefore, Lt = 0.t7 / 0.001859

=91 m

As in the previous example, adapt type'S'inlet. Determine the capture efficiency on a 2olo slope.

3) Capture efficiency of a Type S inlet.

Use the Design Chart 24.2. With a gutter approach flow of 170 Lls, the inlet capture is 125 Us giving a capture
efficiency of about 73%.

Therefore, bypass gutter flow = 170 - 725

=4\l/c
- n n4q m3/s_

24-24 lJrban Stormwater Management Manual


Stormwater Inlets

4) This bypass gutter flow reduces the capacity of the


next and subsequent inlets to accept inflow from their
subcatchments. The spacing reguired between subsequent own
inrets is given by:

L1= (0.170 - 0.045) / 0.001859

=67m
5) For design purposes, adapt a maximum inlet spacing
of 70 m. The adapted design is shown in figure below.
Note: This example ignores the fact that roof drainage would
normally be connected directly to the piped drainage
therefore the result is likely to be conseryative. system,

24.8.3 Inlet Capacity Catculation

Problem: Determine the inret capacity and anaryse the


hydraurics of Line 38, part of an open drainage system
idearised catchment in Ipoh (Figure 24.Bz). Inret for a similar
numbers 3A/5p, 3A/10P,38//1P and 3Bl2p are Type-S. Inlets
3A/7P and 3Al8p are Type-M or L (depends on capacity
required). The road has a uniform longitudinal slope of
2o/o.

I
E
tc}
r)

LEGEND
GutterFlow ----->
BypassFlow \_t
inlet E
Open Drain

Figure 24.82 Example for Road and

Solution:

1) The required calculations are tedious to perform by hand.


As such, RatHGL software is used for the analysis. The
RatHGL network layout is shown in Figure 24.83:

Urban Stormwater Management Manual


24-25
Storrnwater Inlets

:igure 24.83 Example for Road and Catchrnent Drainage to an Open Drain

2) The preliminary design shown above was preoared based on calculations sirnilar to Appendix 24.8.2, taking care to
account for the catchment areas draining to each section ci drain. The analysis is perforrned with Ipoh rainfall IDF
data.

a Runoff coefficients 0.90 (impervious), 0.60 (pervious)


o inlet rating curve used for Type S, M and L inlets on grade as mentioned in the problem. For nodes on the
open drain, the capacity is set to a large value (5 m3/s) so that there is no constraint on inflow.

3) Hydrology input data and results for the network in the 5 year and 100 year ARi storms are shown in Table 24.81.

4\ Hydraulic input data and hydraulic grade line resulis for the network in the 5 year and 100 year ARI storms are shown
in Table 24.82.

z.+-ztl U&an Stcnqwater Nanagement Manual


Stormwater Inle6

3 v3uv snor u3dr^JrOJ 6


N A @ h
E
o a ; N
:
d d 6
; o
;
6
o a @ N
)
U
A.LIsN:IlNI E N
q N
N
A
N
.i Y d! u) q N
o
ts
a,i
o
.;
N

a o o
I ]1 \riuv-tvJllrttl
di \
@ @
si
N
.i N N N
@ N
@
N
Y

N
q
@
E
6
@
d ui
E o x o
iAo'lJ E I 6 :5 e o I; c;
6
z
NOIIVNI!S3O
? e
q
F r o N
B it\o1l E q
o o a o o a o o
9 o o o

d. NOLTVNUSIO
a' b' * @
a ? a a a ? a N
? a
L
=
J r @
OJ /v10tJ ottrudv3
E ; ^
d /'AOIJ U3.!m9 tv10_t ,b
o I
^ e
- NounSrdrnof, -u,l3wHft\o Fln @
ci
^ I A c; o
+
L
9l;
N
; ^ o
N
ct
o
: o
^ /r^O'lJ 3dld
r o N N @ r @
U)
q ci i o I
N
o
d ct
o
- I

ln
I rr^o'tj-tv101 E
: :
N
6 N

;
@
@ N

L
tt
IO
o
d.} c_l
A A ;
N
@
N N
o

3
! ld
SflOhU:ldl"ll
;E ^
@
o
t<
IF
z. t< '1vl.01 3 3
L lo
G
E
ci ;
@

ci
t^ Iq 4 o
I e
P
- E 6 ui
@ N
rta
6
tl

r
-l
>I
sslNH9nOU
: N

(I' I
ldo'ts s o
-- I g
N

I Hr9Nl'l
.9 lz
^ t<
IF oolU.3N c
lz o E
E IU
IU
ta
to
I 0
5? I ca

6
le
lb E ni
N I N N
6
t lu N
^i
IE ^i
c!

=|!
F
l'
I
q
5S:lNH9nOU

:ldo'ts s
a c;

5 6
o

o
N N
I

= l{19N3'l o
I
N
I

I
0OHJ-3t^l ts
o E
Io I I I
v
ooat3d Nuruitu

u3gwnN rxtr.|Hf,I\rJ
l-
I
Nolrdrufslo ScoN

l!,lVN IOON L
b. >.
? t a a

Urban Stomwater Management Manual


24-27
Stormwater Inlets

300f JJNn

CUVOg]3UJ E
\ Ft
N
o
; N 6
N
6
A a
N
@
q
^.
N @
'l:l^l'1 lf,vJbns ulrvM
6 o ; @ €
N
€ 6 6

]1^f,1 U3AOf 3]OHNVkl N N r


!

LIHn 13A3'1 9NrCr,tod E N


N N N N

a
6

)F
tr
MO-IJNI lJ]Nl E
; ci ; N
o

tn U
s 3drt l_:t'lNI !4 a
d.
o
ro s N
I
N
N
I \ \ ! +
o) N d N
^i
s o
N I
t\
u
.i (' ; 6
ui
n o o
-- z o
g
^i
N
ag
E I a 8.
I a
3d,U- t_Id d 8. L
F
o N a o N
.9 ,t"tl]olSA q N N a N
N N
a N

r o
MOll E
; o
3 @

x o o s
3 yt
rcvdg Noutrul
o
N
N
N
N
: ^
5
z SSO] lVCON U3.INI

d @
I
€ N N @
tgH I4V:U15NMOA E ts
=f ts o .; .; 6 6
o a
OJ

OJ
r ]9H t^t\EU.LSdn E
di
t @
N
t
N N
N
N
N
.: g;
n
@

=q) F lcwgIInoNof N
N o
(o
F
I .l.UlANI Il3E]-SN/y\OC 6 g
.9 o ts
z
= N
LUfANI t^l\riu&ln E
N
I
I
ss\.lf ldid
N o N
urrflirufd crr r?^A dl 6

^i

.9 \EUV lnnvuo,\H E
N
;
N N
T
;
.!
${9ItH 80 U3ttNVIfl E o
N
I
I SSSNH9nOU E
E
3 3 6
N
co
!- lll9Nl'l'lvr_oI
N
N
O
! coRl]d NUfl]=lu
F
ItnaNol Jo ul8utnN

g o
1dvH5 l.InoNotr
U U
6
lttvN lld a
w\allLLsNMoc
t k
c@
3r,.rvN .Ltd H\adlsdn ;' b d
a t - ?

21-28 Urban Stormwater Management Manual


Standard Dnwngs

STAI{DARD DRAWINGS

Title Drawilro No,


Kerb Inlets
SD F.1

Field Inlets
SD F-2

Surcharge Inlets
SD F-3

Kerbs and Gutters


SD F.4

Structures - Miscellaneous Details SD F.7

Urfun Stormyyats Management Manuat


o,lr
@
-t
-1,
_-{ o
$l d ? N UJ

ll s
o
E
s
= J
6
(/l
ltll x o
o
o P
F
9 lol
ll6 o
z
1l* c
h
o
r o
N
o
N

tllld A
2
E
__{
o/[ u F
I o
N
@l
:v F
E
lI s
F
z g e
s Uo
E € I
o
E
I o I

6
o l! J
2 =
d
r
A I

=
o
j
E
H z
H gH
E
i'i-l

*. -=z-s {'1,3
E H=f:E
=HaE;*

-EEEEE

9{

=
o 3
E =
= 5
z
o
= E
E / =
f,

3
s Iu
\U ..:
\<
' e/
F e=
ZJ -L
Hd
t! =p
ZY
;H
z E6
JPZ50a3/trWLt/SBr2

t' t P te rR

I
=E
F9 *FEFfii3EFFF'
rf -{ '* o2gl fr:
3s i€E#ca g I
m
- T
r{
P= =
E F3f
ru5u T?g+f;= s 3
I
i=e F
H-
_F z. HRf E:SE"F E
E
{ rrl
-6u
!4s= Itxp
g;Ei
F

f,s
5'o F H

I
E" E
3
-:f EEF
o=m r'-=6
F ?
3
r-
8r* E
il

EHE T
Egs
I
( nr) -.{ <
z 3F
6 I o
a
xb II
d
n mz
=g
?-n z.
c)
53
il@
(r>
3g Fd {r 'I-i
r>
u
II
,,$ E €F=
f,d I HFE In
'F g "F at
o
dB
Fg i
g rn
I

t
I

thf,

geE
CHH c
Q(f=
Y1 T
Pf 4gn
z ffE
o
-f,
5
eFE*$gfi P
F

r-.
, ?50.
r

I,t
3
x
;
9p
itl
tti
?
rj
:ld3
til
12mi
E;'55 l*1 i
I

-rxa Il.{._]
*f
Ji itl
d Hi
J a I I
lilpill
li lc
I

(nr il
(.) T tiit
l?+.
.w
rrn F
z
lJ
EOq<O
HgsS !9*
Vic HH$E
gEd4p tre €F
HX*
r!r€ >H HACF
EaE frt N
a> .'Ed -:J:ta
=F
ir3p
6){P
gEE =d
Efr
lpi =r
rrt
o=6
6Pp
rD
indt m
I

l@
,q
"=
tm
lz. -*t- v1

t: EHEEE l- I

I
g3
,,'' -\r
;f; mo

t
f,t .{ l-- n;
E3
2,ge _orB
I

I H*8
l-
10
io EE
??- h
a
I

{
nl
E FF
('
f

15x
ZF
6F
I
vo
E 5x
m6
o aP
8.
m
F FH
v€
13*
J-
(*)
1- s<
EE* iE
=<
2J xH oN
a.3o
o-lN Ed n=
+8 I
-=
Il=
ZA EE
p E8
4fi
u, dd sx
m IN
z FE=E B iz l
I EisH= E3tE o sfi
rl 6 i-
I a x a
o *sYe rqgil
I

EE emz
8e {
6-:: x
--
a
It FgiF
p:lq >
v
- -**-[
q
i
a
>zm S-8 !o
I
lg
tr
=eFH
,F
It4
).. 58 3l ot
m =El 3i ,3
2. t> Y
lr
a
e -oH I
sr I

m
3 n
m i>)
{
2 z
d
F F
?
i
I
?fl
z
x
m
4
,4
EN
!!o -,*
^-=!
EEES *{-
5ra
c a n Y 3f, itro
N m
! {:
c
4 rB
m
E=
:s r#*
noq
>=o
:a
ax
-^
l

IP =EEHgg
ca EL
:lQ i€
,il F= d{
. e Pt-i
2
QP
3= CiHEE 9n
- a
o
2
o
m
-z b{
6E
Rr
=
m
1
m
EEiEE-EEHEE'
F

z
o
F
F

{ 6 o o € N e
o N m
r4

d m
ut
s ggaagagga
rn
l-
IP
N N
€ @
a
a a I
l' a Q o

EE;HElE
e i fi u$r
I
255 -, lo 275 ia )aE
l-
_J_
r* -__: __l
-- s---f
,f
16 I
J r_ll'
HIV rF
;6 la .t

, 275

o
m

=
=
g
1
>
F
m
<
x

-l;
- 'l'5'l'
--t ls

,150.
sxtf---lI ---T
ffl I
I

!d 1., f- 6
ie
1l lil
ElHFF=d >t
m rl-T-
3 -->1 l<
I vil,

I
p
lo
l-l
tlls
l3 |
l lt
,
F--z 3?5

EF H*fi
lt, +
=
HEfiHH
nF T $sd
-tt] I

*g q d
$
|<
\) llm
I-
I?soaDFlqlls/

(lY
(-)
Y I

I
I

I =
d
ffi5 l. F
t8 z
t-
2 H= (") ls IF
o

to FH
lF =
z
t8
m
*

to
im
Itr
IE
to
\=
lo
t2 t;
]F
io
z

t?ql l-
IE
I
IJ
to
?(l
l=

z
E
\
l
!4=
E=
Eo
?n
m>
^E F SEEE
Eh HggEF =HE
- HFE
E]E EdHH Efi
6F

lslE
E15 =-d

IHIE

I e 5 P !.'F 16 =
=
FlE
'. lz
;lo
H]E
trla
z

z. EEEEEgEEEE
o 80+l
|_.-'=l
d E=E'E i 1
I
l[1
I *-l
lsl

\f,
I E 5 E+ =H
EH
l-t-L
A

rrr *
H E EE EE E ls ld ,,:
vr-
lvl
l8
aE a$ E$ 6
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 6 - DRAINAGE


Main Committee Members

Nafisah Hj. Abdul Aziz Chairman

Ahmad Fuad Emby Deputy Chairman

Wan Suraya Mustaffa Secretary

Normala Hassan Alternate Secretary

Teh Ming Hu Committee member

Lim Kim Oum Committee member

Alias Hashim Committee member

Low Kom Sing Committee member

Nor Asiah Othman Committee member

Johan Les Hare Abdullah Editor

Teh Ming Hu Chairman

Wan Suraya Mustaffa Secretary

Ahmad Fuad Emby Committee member

Lam Kok Hong Committee member

Yap Lee Chor Committee member

Letchumanan Aliagappan Committee member


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Volume 4 is a review of the Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 15197 - INTERMEDIATE


GUIDE TO DRAINAGE DESIGN OF ROADS, the chapter was authored originally
by Soon Ho Sin and Muhamad Amin Mahmud of Public Works Department
Malaysia.

Volume 4 now provides guidelines to the practical design of surface drainage, with
worked examples provided in Appendix 4-C, which is reproduced from Jabatan
Pengairan dan Saliran publication - Urban Stormwater Management Manual for
Malaysia (MASMA 2000).

Thanks are due to:

- Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran for permission to reprint Urban Stormwater


Management Manual for Malaysia - Chapter 24, Stormwater Inlets.

- REAM Standing Committee on Technology and Road Management for the


guidance and encouragement given in the preparation of Volume 4.

- Members of the Technical Committee 6 - Drainage and Sub-Committee for


Surface Drainage for their untiring efforts to ensure timely completion of
Volume 4.