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Magnitude (mathematics) - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/Magnitude_(mathematics)

Absolute value may be thought of as the number's distance from zero on the real number line. For example, the
absolute value of both 70 and −70 is 70.

Complex numbers
A complex number z may be viewed as the position of a point P in a 2-dimensional space, called the complex plane.
The absolute value or modulus of z may be thought of as the distance of P from the origin of that space. The formula for
the absolute value of z = a + bi is similar to that for the Euclidean norm of a vector in a 2-dimensional Euclidean
space:[4]

where the real numbers a and b are the real part and the imaginary part of z, respectively. For instance, the modulus of
−3 + 4i is . Alternatively, the magnitude of a complex number z may be defined as the square root of
the product of itself and its complex conjugate, z∗, where for any complex number z = a + bi, its complex conjugate is
z∗ = a − bi.

( recall )

Vector spaces

Euclidean vector space


A Euclidean vector represents the position of a point P in a Euclidean space. Geometrically, it can be described as an
arrow from the origin of the space (vector tail) to that point (vector tip). Mathematically, a vector x in an
n-dimensional Euclidean space can be defined as an ordered list of n real numbers (the Cartesian coordinates of P): x =
[x1, x2, ..., xn]. Its magnitude or length is most commonly defined as its Euclidean norm (or Euclidean length):[5]

For instance, in a 3-dimensional space, the magnitude of [3, 4, 12] is 13 because This
is equivalent to the square root of the dot product of the vector by itself:

The Euclidean norm of a vector is just a special case of Euclidean distance: the distance between its tail and its tip. Two
similar notations are used for the Euclidean norm of a vector x:

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