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~.K. S~AL, J . ~.B.

AlLFWED
K . VENKAIf1\RAMAN, SANDEEP K. ]ilIWARI
SANGITA MITRA
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

A.K. SANYAL
J .R.B. ALFRED
K. VENKATARAMAN
SANDEEP K. TIWARI*
SANGITA MITRA**
Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata-700053
*Wildlife Trust of India, Noida (U.P.)
**WWF-India, Kolkata (West Bengal)

ZOOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA


KOLKATA
CITATION
B Venkataraman , K. , Tiwari, S.K. and Mitra, Sangeeta, 2012. Status 0/ Biodiversity of
K Alfred , J .R. .,
Sanya,I A..,
West Bengal: 1-969 + 35 Plates (Published by the Director, Zool. Surv. India, Kolkata).

Published - January, 2012

ISBN 978-81-8171-299-8

© Government of India, 2012

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Published at the Publication Division by the Director, Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata-
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PREFACE
The term 'Biodiversity' though known earlier, during the Rio Summit in 1992 it earned the
center stage of attention and today it is one of the foremost areas of concern all over the world
and has become a household nomenclature. The assessment of Biodiversity is an important
component of strategic planning process for any conservation and management of ecosystem.
The process of assessment can be a two dimensional exercise, i.e. identifying areas of maximum
diversity within distinctive ecosystems and to provide data for species diversity and related
information. The starting point for any such venture should be literature search for getting
groupwise information down to the species level.
The State of West Bengal in India has been endowed with rich biodiversity. Data on the state's
biodiveJ;sity have been generated both qualitatively and quantitatively. However this information
is lying in a scattered manner and not readily available to the policy makers and managers of
biodiversity. The present publication is therefore an attempt to compile all available information
on the State's biodiversity. It is expected that information given in this document will provide
not only the benchmark data but also fill up the gaps. Thus, it may serve as an important tool for
planning~ so that future development programmes need not be at the cost of our biological
diversity, but at the same time to identify and use these biological resources on a sustainable basis.
The authors express their grateful thanks to the Department of Environment, Government of
West Bengal for funding this project, to Dr. S. Sanjappa, Director and Scientists of Botanical
Survey of India for their keen interest and sincere help in preparation of the report by providing
and checking the informations relating to the floral diversity in the State. They are also extremely
grateful to Shri Pranabesh Sanyal, Former Additional Principal Chief Conservator of Forests,
Dr. Dhrubajyoti Ghosh and Sri Debal Roy, Senior Environment Officers, Department of
Environment, Government of West Bengal for their sincere help and valuable suggestions during
the preparation of this report.
They gratefully acknowledge the help extended by the Director, Zoological Survey of India.
They are also deeply indebted to the officers and staffs in Zoological Survey of India for assistance
and suggestions throughout the course of this project. Special thanks are due to Dr. J.K. De,
Scientist-D, Zoological Survey of India for his constant help in processing the scientific data.
Sincere thanks are also due to Professor S.C. Santra, University of Kalyani for pro\;ding
informations on flora of wetlands of West Bengal and to Dr. Sandeep Basak for his help in
preparation of a part of floral list in the preparatory stage and photographs provided by him.
Helps received from Dr. Sujit Kumar Chakraborty, former Joint Director, Zoological Suryey
of India in the form of valuable suggestions and inputs towards the improvement of the document
is thankfully acknowledged. They are highly obliged to Dr. Tushar Mukherjee, Reader, Presidency
University, Kolkata for providing valuable information.
Thanks are also due to Dr. S.K. Dutta, Utkal University, Sri Hirak Nandi, Smt. Supriya Nandi,
Sri Joydeep Sarkar, Lt. Col. S.R. Banerjee, Sri Biswajit Roychowdhury, NEWS, Kolkata, Sir V.K.
Yadav, Chief Conservator of Forests, Government of West Bengal and Sri Anjan Roy for extending
sincere help by providing data pertaining to flora and fauna of West Bengal and rele\'ant
photographs.
Authors are also thankful to Dr. A. Chattapadhyay, Assistant Zoologist and Shri Amita\'a Roy,
Sr. Statistical Assistant, Zoological ~urvey of India, for their help in computrization of huge
amount of data.
Thanks are also due to Smt. Bela Sardar, Sr. Stenographer, Shri Shakthivel, Zoological Assistant.
Sri Amitava Chattejree, Zoological Assistant, Sri Z. Ziauddin, Sr. Stenogropher, Smt. Panullita
Basu and Sri Debabrata Bhattacharya for constant help in the final stage of preparation of the
publication.
Kolkata Authors
September, 2011
CONTENTS
PART-I

PREFACE 111

INTRODUCTION 1

METHODOLOGY 4
PROFILE OF WEST BENGAL 5
ECOSYSTEMS OF WEST BENGAL 15
SPECIES DIVERSITY IN WEST BENGAL 28
SPECIES OF SPECIAL SIGNIFICANCE 66
PROTECTED AREAS IN WEST BENGAL 103
LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY AND CAUSES 111
CURRENT CONSERVATION INITIATIVES IN WEST BENGAL 119

DISCUSSION 137
SUMMARY 144
SELECTED REFERENCES 147

PART-II
UST OF FLORAL SPECIES IN WEST BENGAL
1. Bacteria 155
2. Algae 158
3· Fungi 211
4· Lichen 257
5· Bryophyta 278
6. Pteridophyta 281
7· Gymnosperm 304
8. Angiosperm 306
1. Monocotyledon 306
ii. Dicotyledon 341

PART-III
LIST OF FAUNAL SPECIES IN WEST BENGAL
A. PROTISTA 471
1. Freeliving Protozoa 471
2. Symbiotic Protozoa 482
3· Parasitic Protozoa 488
B. ANIMALIA 5 25
1. Porifera 525
2. Cnidaria 5 26
3· Ctenophora 528
4· Platyhelminthes 529
1. Cestoda 529
11. Trematoda (Vertebrate excluding fishes) 534
Ill. Digenetic Trematoda of Fishes 542
5· Rotifera 547
6. Gastrotricha 553
7· Kinorhyncha 555
8. Nemathelminthes 556
I. Nematoda (Vertebrate parasite) 556
II. Nematoda (Plant Parasite) 56 9
9· Acanthocephala 573
10. Sipuncula 574
11. Mollusca 575
1. Freshwater and Land 575
11. Estuarine and Marine 586
12. Echiura 591
13· Annelida 592
14· Crustacea 602
15· Insecta 6 14
I. Thysanura 6 14
lI. Collembola 615
lII. Diplura 616
IV. Odonata 617
v. Plecoptera 6 25
VI. Embioptera 626
VII. Orthoptera 6 27
VIII. Dermaptera 638
IX. Ephemeroptera 642
x. Mantodea 643
Xl. Phasmida 645
xu. Dictyoptera 646
xiii. Isoptera 648
XIV. Psocoptera 651
XV. Hemiptera 653
XVI. Anoplura 685
XVll. Thysanoptera 686
xviii. Neuroptera 692
XIX. Mecoptera 695
xx. Coleoptera 696
XXI. Siphonoptera 749
XXll. Strepsi ptera 750
xxiii. Diptera 751
xxiv. Lepidoptera 767
xxv. Trichoptera 802
XXVI. Hymenoptera 804
16. Xiphosura 819
17· Arachnida 820
1. Araneae (Spider) 820
ii. Scorpiones 835
111. Acarina 836
a. Tick 836
b. Mite 839
18. Diplopoda 865
19· Chilopoda 866
20. Phoronida 867
21. Brachiopoda 867
22. Bryozoa (Freshwater) 868
23· Echinodermata 869
24· Hemichordata 871
25· Chordata 872
I. Pisces 872
II. Amphibia 888
III. Reptilia ... 892
IV. Aves 903
v. Mammalia 956
PART-I
INTRODUCTION
Biological diversity refers to the variability al., 1998; Venkataraman, 2007). Further, in
among living organisms from all sources respect of religion, ethos, culture, socio-
including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and economy, politics and life pattern, one region
other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological of the country differs widely from the other.
complexes of which they are part; this includes As such, challenging issues of biodiversity
diversity within species, between species and conservation and its sustainable utilization
of ecosystems (UNEP, 1992). Biodiversity is become complex and mutltifarious. To attain
not only an essential component of our life the desired goal of conservation, it become
support system but also the raw material for obligatory to set the priorities and identify
meeting human needs. The rapid degradation essential elements for framing the action plan
of major ecosystems and the necessity of at the national as well as regional levels. Each
conservation, and also the sustainable use of state or region within the country has specific
biodiversity has assumed both national and necessary elements concerned with
international importance with the adoption of biodiversity, which need to be integrated into
'Agenda 21' and the 'Convention on Biological the framework of action plan, keeping in view
Diversity (CBD), at the 'Earth Summit' held in the implications arising due to the ratification
Brazil, in 1992. The CBD came into force in of the CBD. It is primary requirement for
1993 (for India in 1994) after being ratified by regional policy makers and managers of
the requisite countries. India's effort, since biodiversity to have a status report dealing \vith
then, has been to review the conservation aspects like 'HOW MANY', 'WHERE',
measures taken so far, and to identify the gaps UNIQUENESS', 'UTILISATION', 'THREATS'.
which require immediate attention at different 'CURRENT PRACTICES', 'GAPS IN
levels. The implication of the CBD for India has KNOWLEDGE', and other related aspects.
been dealt with by Chauhan (1996a, b, 1997a, Further, the overall concern of traditional
b, c). These initiatives are at different stages. practices connected with the conservation of
Developing and establishing adequate biological diversity is another inlportant
conservation measures and mechanisms for element which varies regionally. DOCUlllenta-
sustainable utilization of biological diversity tion of such traditional practices for consen'ing
pose a multidimensional challenge, involving species while being used, and protection of
scientific, socio-economic, administrative, legal habitats through selection, donlestication,
and political issues. cultivation and breeding of useful plants and
India is a vast country and has been richly animals is also another key factor in fonllulating
endowed by Nature in terms of a great diversity the regional Action Plan. It is necessary to
of physical environment. From the Indian integrate and blend the essence of these
ocean to the lofty Himalayas and beyond to the practices in the process of conservation.
cold deserts of Ladakh, the physiognomic So far, West Bengal is concerned. huge
diversity and myriad of climatic situation have amount of biodiversity related data have
given rise to .a countless habitats across the already been accunlulated through surveys,
length and breadth of the country (Alfred et identification and inventorysing activities of the
2 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Botanical, Zoological, Anthropological, Forest zone and Palaearctic region. This also helped
and Fishery Suryey of India, State Forest West Bengal in its great array of natural
Department, and several other institutes from ecosystems embellished with ingress,
the university systems, autonomous bodies as colonization and interspersion of life forms
well as NGOs. Over all data on the species from all the adjoining region. Richness of
composition, distribution, population, and- biodiversity is reflected by the fact that, West
Keystone, Umbrella, Endemic and threatened Bengal though only 2.7 percent of the total area
species particularly of major groups are of the country, but four, viz., the Himalaya
available. Unfortunately, these valuable data (Central Himalaya), Gangetic Plain (Lower
are very much scattered and have limited Gengetic Plain), coast (East Coast) and Decan
academic use, only to specialists. For greater peninsula (Chhotanagpur), out of ten
effectiveness, it is essential that relevant and recognized biogeographic zones of India are
user friendly data bases are prepared and made represented in the state (Map 1). On the other
available through modern information hand, owing to favourable agroclimatic
technologies. Wider access to information condition, West Bengal is always one of the
would facilitate the effective conservation and most populated region of the country and the
sustainable use of the biological resources in a
population is further increasing for one or other
particular community or locality. In the present
reasons. The pressure of such an enlarged and
book, based on published as well as unpublished
impoverished population along with rapid
information, an attempt has been made to
urbanization and industrial development have
compile the biodiversity related data of West
taken a heavy toll of natural area of the s~ate
Bengal and analyse the same with emphasis to
through shrinkage and degradation. Further,
meet up the queries of policy-makers and
market pressure on a host of non-wood forest
managers of biodiversity.
produce has led not just to their depletion, but
West Bengal, the only state in India, which
often their collection practices are destructive
touches the Himalayas in the north and has sea
and damaging to the habitat and productivity
on its south. As-such the physical environment
parameters themselves. In fact, since 19th
of the state varies from Bay of Bengal in the
century, quite a number of floral and faunal
south to the snow-capped Himalayas in the
species have either become extinct from the
north through vast stretches of alluvial plains
state or lost large part of their earlier range and
in the middle, small patches of hills and isolated
mounds in the western part. Soil restricted to certain pockets with small
characteristics, temperature and rainfall also population. It is obvious that the country as
vary widely from one part to other. These have well as the state of West Bengal have taken
resulted rich and diverse vegetative cover several positive measures for conservation and
consisting of almost all forest types, vast management of biodiversity through legal and
expanses of grasslands, different agricultural policy framework, survey and monitoring, in-
crops as well as cropping practices. Each of situ and ex-situ conservation, sustainable
these supports a particular type of biodiversity. utilization including benefit sharing,
Varieties in aquatic ecosystem such as institutional framework and capacity building
freshwater, brackish water, estuary and marine for human and infrastructural resources,
also contributed to the richness of state's research, developmental activities and ot4ers.
biodiversity. Further, West Bengal falls in the However, majority of these efforts are diverted
transition zone between peninsular Indian for conservation and management of few

subregion, Indo-Malayan subregion of Oriental charismatic ecosystem's or species, without
SANYAL et ,ai. : Introduction 3

WEST BENGAL COLOUR PLATE I


- - -

S (Rodger

7 TIC PLA
88 ATe A

Map.. ! : Biogeographic 'zones lof West Bengal.


4 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

total consideration of the entire spectrum of 1998, Nandi et al. 1993, Rao and Misra 1986 ,
biodiversity. It is heartening that the State Ripley 1982, Sanyal 1992, Sarkar 1984, Sarkar
Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan : West et al. 1992, Sharma 1979, Soota 1991, Soota
Bengal (2002) has been finalized. The same has and Ghosh 1977, Southwell 1913, Srivastava
recommended various actions such as 1993, Subba Rao and Barua 1983, Varshney
'Information about biodiversity status to be 1998, Willis 1951.
enriched', 'Biodiversity data base for each Flora:
district should be completed' and others. Anderson 1862, Anonymous 1957, BaneIjee
The present compilation has been made to 1957, Banerjee 1968, Basak 1979, Biswas 1966 ,
meet up some of these recommendations. Chakravarty 1957, Champion and Seth 1968,
Further, it is expected that the report will be Chauhan 1996, Cowan and Cowan 1929,
helpful in the processes of evaluating the Culshow 1952, Director, B.S.1. (ed.) 1997,
essential elements required for conservation Ghosh 1997, 1998, 2001, Ghosh 2002,
and sustainable use of biodiversity in state level. Karthikeyan 2000, Maji land Sikdar -1983,
METHODOLOGY Malick 1966, Molla et al. 1984, Mukherjee
The present report derives information 1988, Mudgal and Hazra (eds.) 1997, Prain
mainly from the published literature, field 1963·
reports and record books of Forest Department General :
officials on the flora and fauna of the state.
Alfred et ale 2004, Anonymous 2000,
Further, management plans of different
Biswas and Trishal 1993, Chaudhuri and
Protected Areas of the state contain numerous
Choudhury 1994, Cowardin et ale 1979, Das
data and as such those have also been consulted.
2001, Dept. of Environ. and R.K.M. 2002,
As it is not within the socpe to provide the
Mitra 2000, Mitra and Pal 2002, State Forest
complete bibligraphy on the biota of the state
only few references are cited below. Dept. and NEWS 1996.
Fauna: The above is only a fraction of the
references consulted for the purpose. For
Agrawal et ale 1992, Agrawal and Ghosh 1995
writing of the different chapters numerous
Ahmed 1992, Ahmed and Dasgupta 1992, Alfred
documents contained in 42 periodicals, 92
1998, Alfred et ale 1998, Alfred and Nandi
books (including district Gazetteers), 17 project
2001, Annandale 1907, Bal and Basu 1995,-
Barman 1993, Basu and Mitra 1995, reports, 14 management plans, 7 theses, 38 tour
Bhattacharyya 1997, Biswas and Biswas 1992, reports, 17 leaflets, 12 unpublished papers have
Biswas and Biswas 1995, Biswas and Ghosh been taken into consideration. All the
1995, Biswas et ale 1995, Choudhuri and documents have been scanned and information
Chattapadhyay 1997, Das et ale 1993a, b, c, d, specially related to the following aspects fed
Ellerman 1963, Ghatak 1995, Ghosh 1995, into the computer.
Ghosh 1996, Hazra 1993, Haldar 1995, Haldar 1. Species name 2. District-wise distribution,
and Choudhury 1995, Maiti and Saha 1993, 3. Significance (endemism, taxonomy,
Majumdar et ale 1992, MandaI and Nandi 1989, zoogeography, economy, evolution), 4 Threats,
Meggilt 1933, Misra 1995, Mukhopadhyay 5. Management and 6. Ecology.
SANYAL et ale : Profile of West Bengal 5

PROFILE OF WEST BENGAL


GEOGRAPHICAL PROFILE Excepting the Darjiling Himalaya and hilly
Following independence of India in 1947, the tracts of Puruliya, major land area of West
state of West Bengal came into existence as the Bengal is almost a flat alluvial plain. Central and
western part of erstwhile Bengal. Situated southern regions of this plain are mainly
within 21°38' -27°19' N. latitudes and 85°50'- derived from silt depositions of the Ganga,
89°50' E. longitudes, the state stretches from while northern part extending from Siliguri
the Himalayas in the north to the Bay of Bengal subdivision of Darjiling and Jalpaiguri to North
in the south covering an area of about 88,752 Dinajpur is formed by the deposition of Teesta,
sq.km. Five states (Sikkim, Assam, Bihar, Mahananda, Torsa, Raidak and other rivers.
Jharkhand and Orissa) and three countries Northern part of the plain is also known Terai
(Bhutan, Nepal and Bangladesh) surround West and Duars plain. The proper Gangetic plain can
Bengal-Sikkim to the north, Bhutan to the be broadly divided under four micro
North-East, Assam and Bangladesh to the east, physiographic zones. These are : (i) The
Nepal, Bihar and Jharkhand to the west, and northern paradelta of the Ganga and the Barind
Jharkhand and Orissa to the south-west tract in Maldah and parts of North and South
(Map 2). Dinajpur, (ii) Rarh plain spreading over East
Till the end of seventies, the state had 16 and West Medinipur, Bankura, Birbhum,
administrative districts. Later, due to increase Puruliya and parts of Barddhaman. This also
in human populations and to facilitate includes Contai coastal strip of land along the
administrative control three more districts seacoast, which is characterized by frequent
have been recognized by dividing erstwhile 24- sand dunes and salt marshes, mingled with each
Parganas, West Dinajpur and Medinipur other. The western part of Rarh plain show
districts. At present 19 districts are placed under undulated rocky terrain of Archaean Gneiss
three Divisions. The districts Bankura, and other metamorphic rocks as well as coal
Birbhum, Barddhaman, Puruliya, Hugli, East belts of Gondowana specially in Bardhman
and West Medinipur come under Barddhaman district. Spurs of Chhotanagpur plateau also
Division; Kolkata, Haora, Nadia, Murshidabad, penetrate in Puruliya and Bankura resulting low
North and South 24-Parganas under hilly areas, (iii) Moribund Delta comprising of
Presidency Division; whereas, Darjiling, Murshidabad and Nadia districts. It is even and
Jalpaiguri, Koch Bihar, Maldah, South and extensive plain having a span of 40-80 km. on
North Dinajpur remain under Jalpaiguri both sides of the river Bhagarathi, (iv) Proper
Division. Industrial development has taken Delta consisting of Kolkata, HugH, Haora,
place at a faster rate in Kolkata, Haora, Hugli, North and South 24-Parganas and parts of
Noth 24-Parganas and parts of Bardahaman Barddhaman. Southern part of this plain
districts, while rest are still basically agro- particularly South 24-Parganas is characterized
based. by large assemblage of deltaic islands anlidst
With direct access to the sea and a network the creeks and rivers, and collectively knO\\l1
of national as well as international air links, the as Sundarban.
state's geographic location makes it the gateway Except the plains of Siliguri subdivisions,
to the North-East India and adjoining countries. entire Darjiling district physiographically
A system of roadways and railways radiate out comes under the Himalayan region. It is mainly
into the state to connect it with all the major formed by the extension of high Singalila range
centers of activity in the country. of the Himalayas from Nepal side. The region
6 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

SIKKIM

,. -.' "·_--'-._.1.
~. -'<L "'. \,
.
)

I
,
,.I ~. " .
' "
BARDDHAMAN!\ NADIA
-\
I • .,
I BANKURA \'1 ,r' -._', .
{ .~ . .j- ./ /
" J .., - ,-". .
, . '" HUGLI ' . .1
". .~. - -"", ' NORTH 24.
,i'" "
"
I'
~
. ,. . "
\.'
, v'"
_. f' , PGS .
- I" ~«\J . Y'HOA 'Ifl ~
~~<J~~~"\ .,,,,--.--,,,l 'f...O~ l.~
'-. SOUTH 24 " ...,.,... .
~ ~ PGS.
1'".1 ~«\J
• ~~Q<:J"~~
(.

..... .•--~- ,:~.


- -l
, " ~
• 0

Map-2 : Political Map of West Bengal.


SANYAL et ale : .Profile of West Bengal 7

is characterized by changing elevation, hill • Coastal region : 1700 mm.


streams cutting through the rocks and forming Based on rainfall, temperature, humidity, the
longitudinal valleys, preponderance of length state may be divided into four climatic regions
over breadth, steep slope and frequent land (Map 3) as detailed below.
slides. Elevation goes up to 3900 m., where
Region I : Extends over the Himalayan
almost alpine condition prevails.
tract, mean temperature in winter 6°C-10°C at
ECOLOGICALL PROFILE different altitude. Rainfall 3060 mm,
Climate : The state being located at the NOlWesters occur rar~ly.
head of Bay of Bengal on one side with rampart Region II : Higher winter temperature
of the Himalayas only 500 lan. from the sea, (17°C), frequent NOlWesters, more Relative
the climatic condition exhibits a regional
Humidity and higher rainfall (3329 mm).
uniformity. It is stated that major climatic
differences within the state are due to Region III : The °most dominant climatic
precipitation totals. region of the state. Temperature higher than
Region II by an average of 5°C in summer and
The temperature condition, excluding the
3°C in winter. NOlWesters and annual rainfall
Himalay~ region, shows limited variation. The
50 percent less than Region II.
diurnal range between maximum and minimum
temperature in the coldest month of January Region IV Show continental
remains nearly uniform at 13°C in the plains characteristics; summer temperature is higher
(irrespective of latitudes), and mean January by 3°C, while Relative Humidity, winter
maxima, minima and absolute. decrease with temperature, frequency of NOlWesters, annual
increasing latitudes. Temperature reaching rainfall (180 mm) much less than Region III.
between 35°C-45°C in May, while during Soils-The physical and chemical
monsoon which normally starts in the middle characteristics of the soil vary from place to
of June, the temperature ranges from 28°C- place depending on physiography, climate, etc.
32°C. In the northern mountainous region, the The hilly terrain in Darjiling district consists
temperature varies with altitude. The highest mainly of brown forest soil which is acidic and
observatory at DaIjiling (c 2137 m.) records a varies from sandy loam to clayey loam. In the
normal mean temperature of 26°C (summer) sub-Himalayan tract (Jalpaiguri and Koch
and 7°C (winter) absolute below o°C' and Bihar) soil is greatly leached because of high
snowfall occur occasionally. rainfall, and is poor in base and available plant
The state remains under the influence of nutrients. Such soils are highly acidic and
monsoon current from June to September. sandy. Most places in the alluvial tract consists
However, certain precipitation may also derive of fertile soils which support a very intensive
from winter rain, premonsoon rainfall and and prosperous agriculture. The soil reaction
cyclonic disturbances. The amount of rainfall varies from acidic to neutral. In south-western
varies between deltaic plains and traditional part of the state, soil is red laterite with honey-
drought prone area as also between the combed ferruginous concretions at depth of 15
northern mountains and southern landmass, the to 30 cm. Soil is poor in plant nutrients and
highest being always in the Himalayan area subject to drought. Soil pH ranges from 6.5 to
reaching 800 mm in the month of July in a bar- 7.5 with electrical conductivity varying frolll
graph. Annual rainfall of the state is roughly as 3.0 to 18.0 mh/cm mainly due to accunlulation
follows: of Sodium Chloride. The drainage is poor, but
• Northern mountains and the submontane otherwise it is fertile due to continuous silt
region : 2000-6000 mm. deposit. Soil in the coastal areas is characterized
• South-Western region: 900-1400 mm. by high salanity.
8 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

MEAN JANUARY CONDITIONS MEAN JULY CONDITIONS

~ I 6;1m
I
32 64 km
MEAN MAY ISOTHERMS
CLIMATIC REGIONS

Map-3 : Climatic regions in West Bengal.

Rivers and waterbodies-Ganga is the region of the state i,s flanked by the coalesced
only perennial snow fed river in the West fans of seasonal flashy torrent tributaries of
Bengal delta; it divides near Giria of Ajay, Damador, Mayurakshi, Kangsabati,
Murshidabad district. One branch flows Rupnarayan, Anadpur and Haldi, all of which
southeast as Padma and enters Bangladesh, fall to a dead delta zone along the Hooghly river
while the other goes south in West Bengal as bank. The Teesta, Jaldhaka, Mahananda,
Bhaghirathi upto Nabadwip and then known as Nagar, Torsa, Atrai, Punarbhaba are some of
Hooghly to meet Bay of Bengal. The western the notable rivers of North Bengal which drain
SANYAL et ale : Profile of West Bengal 9

out massive water during rainy season from Saheb band, Ballavpur, Santragachhi.
their catchment in the Himalayas causing • Coastal : Gabaria Beel, Atampur,
devastating floods,. Many dry river beds with Dadanpatrasar.
boulders, pebbles and sand is a common feature There has been sharp reduction of natural
in the northern part carrying no or thin flow in wetland areas of the state during last few
dry summer months and come into spate during
decades due to urbanisation, reclamation for
monsoon. Distributaries of the old river system agriculture and developmental initiatives.
occurring in the district of south 24-Parganas
have converted the famous part of Sundarban Forests- Except the Central Alluvial tract,
into an intricate network of tidal water system all agro-ecological zones have important forest
towards the sea. However, the salanity in the resources with distinctive floristic
Hooghly river has been considerably reduced compositions. In North Bengal, total forest area
since Bhagirathi is being fed by freshwater after is about 3050 sq. km. (about 26 percent of the
recorded state forest) and contains the most
constructing a barrage at Farakka.
productive forests. Forest in south-west West
The state is also dotted with numerous Bengal are mostly scattered in relatively small
wetlands in the form of 'Ponds', 'Jheels', 'beels' and widely dispersed blocks of degraded Sal
and the natural/excavated drainage system of interspersed with farm land. The most compact
'Khals' These wetlands enrich the aquatic area is the mangrove forests in the coastal saline
ecosystem of the state. While detail listing will zone which covers 4260 Sq. Km. (approximately
be made later, some important wetlands are 36 percent of recorded state forest land).
mentioned below. However, nearly 40 percent of the forest land
• Himalayan and Sub-Himalayan: in the coastal saline zone is actually made up of
Rasik beel, Malian Dighi, Mirik. numerous rivers and creeks. Distribution and
e' Gangetic plain: Katiganga-Motijheel, classification of forests in different region has
Mathura Beel, Jamuna Beel, East Kolkata, been provided in Table 1.
T~ble-l:
1
Distribution and classification of forests in different zones of West Bengal (Source :
Dept. of Environment & Ramkrishna Mission, Narendrapur, 2002, West Bengal State
r /\

Biodiversity Strategy & Action Plan. Ramkrishna Mission, Narendrapur and Annual
Report, 2008-2009, Forest Dept., West Bengal).
'R.egion Reserve Forest Protected Forest Unclassified State Total
Forests and others (sq.km.)
Area % of Area % of Area %of
sq. km. Total sq. km. Total sq. km. Total
'Hill, 2598 85 259 9 194 6 3051
:Northern
.Circle and
\Fbrest
~~. Corpn
W~$tern 206 5 3399 78 742 17 4347
'"Circle
C~n,tral 4250 95 114 2·5 117 2·5 44 81
Circle and
Sundarban
:Tiger
,Reserve
Total 7054 59 3772 32 1053 9 11879
10 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Further, afforestation outside recorded DEMOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC


forest land has been carried out under social PROFILE
It has already been stated that owing to
favourable agroclimatic condition, West Bengal
has always been one of the most populated
states of the country. Further, the problem of
.population explosion has been aggravated due
to huge immigration from East Pakistan, now
Bangladesh sinc"e 1947. Birth rate is lower than
that of the country as a whole, but that has been
compensated by lower death rate and infant
mortality (Table 2.).
As per census 2011, population of West
Bengal has reached 913.471akh (fourth among
Indian provinces) and population density
standing 1029 per Sq. Km. (second to Kerala).
Since 1971, the population of West Bengal has
AVERAGE ANNUAL
become more than double. Male and female
INCREMENT
population in state have reached 469.27 and
Hills 0.8 Cu.M./ha.
444.20 lakh respectively.
Plains 1.65 Cu. M./ha.
From 1901, there has been change in the
South-West Bengal 3.0 Cu.M./ha.
proportion of rural-urban population but only
Coppice (10 year rotation) of little significance except for the decade 1951-
PLANTATIONS 61 (Table 3, Text-fig. 1). As compar~d to 1971
"Hills (Conifers) 12.5 Cu. M./ha. urban population and rural population has
North Bengal Plains 5.0 Cu. M./ ha. increased by 117 percent and 79.6 percent
South-West Bengal 6.0 Cu. M./ ha. respectively. Percentage of male and female "in
(Eucalyptus) the population remains aimost constant from
Table-2: Birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate in West Bengal as compared to whole
of India (per thousand) in 2009.
India West Bengal
Birth rate 22.22/1000 population 18.6
Death rate 6.4/1000 population 6·3
Infant mortality rate 30.15/1000 live births 38.0
Table-3: Decadal change in the proportional of rural-urban population of West Bengal (Adopted
from Bhatt, S.C. 1998. The Encyclopaedic District Gazetteers of India, Vol. '9. Gyan
Publishing Hou~e, New Delhi).
Census decades 1951-61 1961-71 1971-81 1981-1991 *1991-2001
Total +32.82 +26.87 +23·17 +24·73 +17.84
Rural +31.81 +26·38 +20·36 +23·01 +27·21
Urban +95·97 +28·41 +31.76 +29·49 +21.32
* Figures of mid-year 2002.
SANYAL ,et ,al. : Profile of West Bengal 11

120

100
Total
Rural
80
Urban

60

,40

20

0 ...--
1951-61 1961-71 1971,-81 1981-1'991 991-2001

.Fig. 1 : Percent decadal variation of population from 1951 to 2 '0 01

Table-4: Some important demographic ,c hanges of West Ben,gal as revealed in ast four census.
~ ---

Census year 1971 g,81 199 - 001


Total populationOakb) 443·12 545·81 680·76 802.21
Numb~,r of malesOakh) 234·36 285·61 355·11 414·87
% of males to total population .52.89 I 52·33 52.16 51·72
Number of females Oakh) 208.26 260.20 325·67 I 387·33
96 of fe,males to total population 47. 47.67 47,. 84 1
48.28
1 tion (lakh)
U rban ,'p opua _____ 10 9. 6 7 1 144.47 187·08 *238.00
% of Urban population to total population ,2 4·75 26,· 47 27·48 ' *28·46
Rural population Oakh) ,3 33.45 1- 401.34 4'93,· 70 *599.00
96 of rotal population to total population 75·25 73·53 72·52 *71·54
* Figu~es of mid year 2002
1971. Some important demographic changes as in Puruliya,Medinipur, Bankura, North and
revealed from the last four census have been South Dinajpur; while few others" viz., Bhutia,
provided in Table 4 and Tlest-fig. 2. It has been Lepcha, Mech, Toto, Rava a e residents of the
seen that only 28.00 peroent of people of West hill section of D,a rjiling and plains of Jalpaiguri.
Bengal may be considered as urbanized a,g ainst Tribal population of West Bengal also shows a
the world .avlerage of 45 percent. steady increase from 38.04 lakh in 1991 to
West Bengal has at l,e ast 38 major ~ategories 46.771akh in mid-year 2000. Economy and life
of tribal people. Majority of these tribes, such styles of tribals are Un'k ed With the llutunll
as, Santhal, Oraon, Munda, Kora, Mehali, resources of the areas in which they Ot'cur.
Lodba, Malpaharia have migrated from Santhal They are labour..based and dependent on the
Parganas durin,g 1'9'th century and ,s ettled mainly sustained production from their environnlent.
12 Status of Biodiversity o/West Bengal

900 D TotallPopulation(llakh)
Number of malles(l,akh)
0% of males to total populati<on
800 I:] Number of females (Iakh)
I % offem,ales to tot,al populaUon
700 Urban population (Iakh)
% of Urban popul,ation to total population
600 [J Rural population (ilakh)
% of rural populabon to I population
500

400

300

200

100

o
1971 1'981 1991 ,2001

Fig. 2 : Some important Oemograph'c Changes as revealed in last four Census

70

60 c Rural Persons Rural Male Rural Fema~ e


c Urban IPersons Urban Male e Urban Female
50 lotal Persons Total Male
• Total Famalle

40

30

20

10

0
c c
0 o
ICU ~
~ 2
"5 1;)
0 c
o
()

Fig. 3 : Percentage distribution of working force by m,ain act'vity in WestB,engal.


SANYAL et ale : Profile of West Bengal 13

Traditionally, the tribal's social, cultural and main activity, working people is directly related
religious systems are ecofriendly in nature. Due to agriculture either as cualtivators or
to increased population and for other obvious labourers. In many of the activities such as
reasons, a section of these ecosystem-people agricultural labour, plantation, house hold
have lost right of their own land. This has manufacturing, etc., percentage of female
compelled them to exploit the forest resources working force is significantly higher than male.
in a way out of their traditional ethics. A detailed distribution of working force by
Inspite of gradual increase in the percentage activity in West Bengal is reflected in Table 5
of urban population, still nearly 72 percent of and Text-fig.3.
people of West Bengal reside in rural areas In fact, nearly 95 percent of rural population
spreadi~g over nearly 43,000 villages. are engaged in agricultural activities. Pattern
According census 2001, nearly 61.55 percent of land utilization since 1985-86 also shows a
of the land area is under cultivation (Bartaman, slight increase in net area shown (Table 6).
Nov. 29, 2001). As such economy of West The average per capita income is
Bengal may be described as agrobased. An Rs. 25223.00 (2005-06) in the state (as on
analysis of the working force on the basis of 31.01.2008).

Table-s: Percentage distribution of working force by main activity in West Bengal as per census
1991 (Source : Govt. of West Bengal 2001. Economic Review, Statistical Appendix,
Kolkata).
81. Category Rural Urban Total
No. Persons Male Female Persons Male Female Persons Male Female
1 Cultivation 37·97 40.88 19.87 1.94 2.03 1.02 28·40 30.15 16.23
2 Agricultural
labourers 32.24 30.04 45.89 3·36 3·25 4·39 24·56 22.65 37·88
3 Plantation,
forestry, etc. 3·32 ' 2·71 7·09 1.17 1.22 0·78 2.76 2·30 5.87
4 Mining and
quarrying 0·43 0·47 0.21 1·74 1.83 0.89 0·78 0.84 0·34
5 a. House hold
manufacturing 4·22 3·00 11.84 3·03 2·41 9·19 3·00 2.84 11.33
b. Non-house
hold
manufacturing 6.22 6.11 6·91 28.21 29.69 13·47 12.06 12.62 8.17
6 Construction 1.24 1·41 0.19 3·54 I 3·7~ 1.30 1.85 2.06 0·41
I
7 Trade and
commerce 5.98 6.63 1·92 23.84 25·44 7·95 10·72 11.82 3·08
8 Transport,
stores,
communication 2.15 2.48 0.12 9·92 10.67 2·46 4·22 4·74 0·57
9 Other services 6.23 6.27 5.96 '23·25 19·70 58.55 10·75 9.98 16.12
J
14 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-6: Pattern of land utilization in West Bengal since 1985-86 (Area in thousand ha.)
(Source: Govt. of W.B. 2001. Economic Review. Statistical Appendix, Kolkata).
Classification of land Reporting year
1985-86 1995-96 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2000
Area % Area % Area % Area % Area %
Net area sown 5 2 62 59·5 54 6 2 62.8 54 6 5 62.9 5440 62.9 547 2 63
Current fallows 65 0·7 220 2·5 219 2·5 229 2·7 208 2·4
Forests 1186 13·4 1196 13·8 1192 13·7 1192 13·7 1192 13.7*
Area not available for cultivation 1730 19·6 1642 18.9 1651 19·0 1668 19·2 1659 19·1
Other uncultivated land
excluding fallows 606 6.8 175 2.0 160 1.9 158 1.8 158 1.8
Total reporting area
(excluding Kolkata) 8849 100 8695 100 8687 100 8687 100 8689 100
*Differs slightly from the figure provided by the Directorate of Forests, W.B.(2000)

POLITICAL PROFILE raising the standard of living have directly or


The state Government was run by the indirectly contributed to the conservation of
Communist party of India-Marxist dominated state's biodiversity. The Minimum Needs
Left Front for more than three decades. Programme (MNP) launched in 1974, aimed for
impr~vement of health services, housing, water
Following the West Bengal State Assembly
election in April-May, 2011, the All India supply, energy of various sources, nutrition,
sanitation, production activities, marketing and
Trinamool Congress and Indian National
environment of rural people. The programme
Congress Coalition under the leadership of All
of land reform envisages changes in the agarian
India Trinamool Congress was elected to power.
relation between the land and litter of the soil
The state administration is strengthen through
on one hand, while the litter and the owner of
the functioning of a three tier panchayat
the land on the other. The thrust of the land
system, except in DaIjiling Hill Council areas
reforms is to restructure the agari~n set up as
of DaIjiling district. There are at present 3437
to achieve an egalitarian social structure. Area
Gram Panchayats (at village level)~ 331 oriented Fuel Fodder project in the forest fringe
Panchayat Samities (at block level) and 18 zilla areas of fuel deficit districts aims to supply fuel
parishads (at district level). The administrative and fodder to the local populations so that illicit
structure has a hierarchical pattern with felling in Government forests is reduced and at
independent .department put in charge of the same time local fringe population get some
particular sl:lbjects of governance. The employment to sustain themselves during lean
departments related to biodiversity months. Apart from these many other policies
conservation and sustainable use are forest, and programmes directly or indirectly related
agriculture, animal husbandry, fisheries, to biodiversity have been adopted by the
environment and panchayat. Conservation of Government and those will be discussed in the
biodiversity is als~ the responsibility of general respective chapter. However, the trickle-down
administration and police departments. These effect of them is still very little and
state level administrative units work with achievements are being neutralized by the
Central Government counterparts of the pressure of ever-increasing human population
respective ministries. Various programmes for growth.
SANYAL et ale : Ecosystems of West Bengal 15

ECOSYSTEMS OF WEST BENGAL


Ecosystem is defined as a dynamic complex forest constitutes 59.38 percent, protected
of interactive and interdependent biotic forest 31.75 percent and unclassified forest 8.78
communities and their abiotic, environm'ent, percent.
functioning within a definable boundary. Following Champion and Seth's (1968)
However, as variations and gradations between classification of forests of the country, ten
ecological communities are yet to be adequately different types of forest can be recognized
and properly understood, it is difficult to within the territory of West Bengal (Table 7).
provide full proof and universally accepted From the table 7 it is obvious that the forests
definition and classification of ecosystem. In are mainly concentrated in three large patches
reality, there is unanimity in identifying the of north, south and south-west parts of the
ecosystem boundary and there is no discrete state. Maximum diversity is being exhibited in
discontinuous unit in natural environment. the forests of north. In the north, which
Therefore, an ecosystem may be as large as includes the outer Himalaya, the forest zone
biogeographic region or as small as natural begins with alpine/subalpine meadows and
habitat and its diversity may be considered at rhdodendron with junipers at its highest
three levels - biogeographic region, biotic altitudinal situation. Below this, occurs the
province and biomes. In the present report for Temperate forests of Oaks, Chestnuts, Laureh,
the sake of convenience, ecosystem diversity Magnolia, Alder, Birch, Bucklandia, etc. along
has' been considered at biome level. Biome can with Tsuga in patches. Epiphytic flora is
be equated to Champion and Seth's (1968) exceptionally rich and almost all the trees are
broad forest vegetation types with the addition covered with thick layer of epiphytes. Fern
of non-forest categories such as grassland, dominates over the flowering plants. The
w~tland, etc. lowest slopes, which continues into plains of
'Duars' and 'Terai', supports tropical and
A. I. FORESTS :
subtropical mixed forests ranging from moist
Willis (1951) defined forest as a closed deciduous to semi-evergreen and moist sal
assembledge of trees allowing no break in the forests. Most of these forests are not typical
overhead canopy, homogenous of one species natural deciduous forests but only subcHmax.
or diversified. Depending, on the climatic, Introduced weedy species of the genera
edaphic, altitu4in~I,- anthropogenic and other Mikania, Eupatorium, Lantana, etc., could be
factors, forest type varies widely from one part seen during dry season. Epiphytes and Hanas
of the earth to the other in respect of floristic flora are extremely low. In the flood plains of
and in turn faunistic composition. It has already this zone, riparian forests of Khair, Sisso, etc.
been discussed that West Bengal exhibits great occur along with an alluvial Savannah wood
variations in altitude, climate and edaphic land formation. Further south, lower alluvial
features. This has favoured not only the growth plains of Ganga and Mahananda in the districts
of forest cover but also led to great diversity of of Maldah, North and South Dinajpur,
forest ecosystems in the state. freshwater swamp forests of Barringtonia
The recorded forest of West Bengal is about accutangola could be seen. At the southern
11879 Sq.Km. 'i.e., 1.54 percent of the recorded extremities, the estuarine of Ganga system bear
forest of India and i3.4 percent of the state's the tidal Mangrove forests. South Western part
total geographical' area (Dept. of Environment of the state has dry deciduous forests nlainly
& R.K.M., 2002). Legal status-wise, Reserve of Sal, Mahua, etc.
16 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-7: Forest types of West Bengal (Source: Dept. of Environment and Ramkrishna Mission,
Narendrapur 2002. West Bengal State Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan).
Name Location Area(Km2)
Northern Tropical Wet Ever green North Bengal plains up to 150M. 167
Northern Sub-tropical Semi Ever Green North Bengal Hills from 151-300 M. 25
North Indian Moist Deciduous North Bengal plains up to 150M. 1757
Littoral and Swamp-Mangroves Estuarine South Bengal 4263
Littoral and Swamp-Tropical Maldah and South Dinajpur 20
Seasonal Swamp
Northern Tropical Dry Deciduous South West West Bengal 4527
Northern Sub-Tropical Broad North Bengal Hills from 301-1650M. 800
Leaved Wet Hill
Northern Montane Wet Temperate North Bengal Hills from 1651-3000M. 150
East Himalayan Moist Temperate North Bengal Hills from 1500-1800M. 150
Sub-Alpine North Bengal Hills from 3001-3700M. 20

All the above forests may be subdivided into vicissitude of orchids is an indicator of
a number of sub-types or biomes, each of which extremely rich biodiversity of this zone. The
supports a particular ecosystem with particular ch~Jacteristic distribution of scrub forest
combination of physiography, climate, soils and communities could be found generally on the
biotic components. While mangroves and sites of abandoned shifting cultivation and in
grasslands will be considered separately, other the areas which are excessively over grazed or
forest ecosyst~ms are discussed below. where trees have been ruthlessly lopped. In .the
A.I.I. Alpine and Temperate Forests of deep valleys where soil is more moist due to
DaIjiling: seepage of water and minerals, for~ation of
mixed and merophyllus communities are met
(i) Altitude (2400-2700 M) : Comprise
with.
a fascinating temperate vegetation
predominated by Ouercus lineata, Q. lamellosa, (ii) Altitude (2700 M and above) : In
Lithocarpus pachyphylla, Castanopsis the highest limit Conifer-Rhododendron forest
purpurella, Magnolia campbelli, M. globosa, is predominant. The dominating element in this
Michelia excelsa, Eurya o~uminata, varieties forest is Arundinaria racemosa which is found
of Rhododendron, Euonymus jrigidus, etc. to grow as a pure crop or as element in the
Temperate conifers mainly restricted to undergrowth of this high forest. Lower zone of
Singalila range include Abeis pindrow, Larix this forest is chiefly represented by different
griffithi, Tsuga brunoniana, Pinus roxburghii; species of Rhododendron with patches of
the latter is found only in dry inner valleys. The conifers and scattered growth of Lithocarpus
other typical plants are: Acer sp., Berberis sp., pachyphylla, Quercus spicata, Acer campbellii
Betula sp., Celatrus stylosus, Landera sp., and Magnolia campbellii. Among the conifers,
Sambucus sp., Vaccinum sp. The region also Taxus baccata is scatteredly distributed at
abounds with fascinating herbaceous higher elevations of the Tonglu Range. But
undergrowth with many temperate and alpine further upwards, towards phaloot Taxus is
species of flowering herbs and handsone ferns replaced to a large extent by Tsuga dumosa and
and numerous species of orchids. The thence higher up merge with Abeis spectabilis.
SANYAL et ale : Ecosystems of West Bengal 17

Ultimately this is replaced by Rhododendron Anthropogenic impact on the forest


of higher distribution and by Betula utilis in the ecosystems of mountains is developing critical
highest limit. Sometimes pasture lands come situations at a faster rate than on most other
across. on the boundary of Nepal and West types of ecosystems. Vast land areas of the
Bengal. Himalayas may be considered environmentally
Faunal species also exhibit some extent of 'derelict land' due to poor land maintenance
altitudinal zonation. While large-sized practice, altered agricultural practices, and
mammalian species are mainly restricted in the over-intensive land use. Landmasses are highly
lower slopes,· the smaller forms like Voles susceptible to soil erosion and landslides. Soil
(Pitimys sp.), Water Shrew (Nectogale sp.), properties are also detoriated owing to
Pika (Ochotona ·sp.), Long-eared Bat (Plecotus monoculture, ruthless destruction of native
sp.), Barbastelle (Barbastella sp.), etc. are plant species and overgrazing. Increased and
mainly concentrated at higher elevations. mostly unplanned tourism resulting noise, huge
Among the mammalian species of Temperate fuel-wood consumption and frequent
forest Tiger (Panthera tigris), Leopard (P. movement through forests. All these are
pardus), clouded Leopar~ (Neofelis nebulosa), disturbing the normal activities of Wildlife as
Leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis), well as their feeding and breeding grounds.
Himalayan Black Bear (Selanarctos Further, the unused material like plastic
containers, glass bottles, etc. are converting
thibetanus), Red Panda (Ailurus julgens),
many areas into slums.
Yellow-throated Marten (Martes flavigula),
Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak), Goral A.I.2. Tropical and Subtropical Forests
(Nemorhedus goral), Serow (Capricornis of North Bengal :
sumatraensis), Flying squirrels (Petaurista sp., Number of rivers like Mahananda, Teesta,
Belomys sp.), etc. are. of conservation Tors a, Jaldhaka, Sankosh and their tributaries
significance. Enchanting plumage display, intersect extensive tracts of lower hills and
chirpy calls of a wide range of avifauna provide plains of North Bengal. This helps in subtending
an unique dimensions to these forests. Many of various kinds of magnificient Tropical, Sub-
the threatened bird species viz., Satyr Tragopan tropical forests and grasslands. Annual rainfall
(7ragopcin satyra), Kaleej Pheasant (Lophura (3100-5400 mm) with range of temperature
leucomelana), Blood Phesant (Ithoginis between 310 C to 400 C provide ideal conditions
cruentus), Hilll Patridge (Abrophilla mandellz) for the development of four main kinds of
find shelter in the hill forest. Only Indian forests, viz., i. Tropical Semievergreen, ii.
Salamander (Tylototriton verrucosus) also Moist Sal, iii. Riverine Acacia catechu
found in the aquatic and semiaquatic habitats Dalbergia sisso, iv. Savannah.
and grasslands of lower hill region. Faunal Under the prevailing warm damp climatic
groups which are often associated with soil, condition though wet evegreen forests are
litter, understone, woods and grasslands such likely to develop yet such forests are located in
as Isoptera, Dermaptera, Orthoptera, restricted patches near rivers and streanlS of
Coleoptera, Dictyoptera, Annelida, Collembola, submontane plains. The common trees of
Acarina are also found in large number. A notable dimensions include : Aphananlixis
mammoth diversity of moths and butterflies semiserrata, A. spectabilis, Actionodaphlle
(Kaiser-I-Hind, Krishna Peacock, Lunar moth, obovata, A. angusti/olia, Cinna111ol1Hl111
Five ring blltterfly, Oak leaf butterfly) spiders, obtusifolium, C. cecicodaphne, Chisocheton
~asps are met with, but detailed inventory and punicularus, Chukrasia tabularis, Cryptoca1ya
taxonomic study are yet far from the complete. sp., Dysoxylum sp., Elaeocarpus robushlS. E.
18 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

varuna, Elaeodendron glaucum, Ehretia nudifera, Adina cordifolia, Bichoffia javanica


acuminata, Kurrimia pulcherrima, Knemal at the top storey is found. Here lower storey is
lorigifolia, Symplcos sp., Tetrameles nudiflora, mainly composed of Alstonia sp., Premna
Vatica lancifolia, Walsura tabulata and others. bengalensis, mnus lancifolia and others.
A number of shrubby species like The moist Sal (Shorea robusta) forests of
Phlogacanthus thyrisiflorus, Marinda North Bengal in general are of plantations by
angustifolia, Coffea bengalensis, Leea sp., the State Forest Department. Common
Ixora sp., etc. and flourishing growth of ferns associates are Sterculia viliosa, Lagerstroemia
are also visible as undergrowth. North-eastern parviflora, Schima wallichii, Chukrassia
parts of J alpaiguri district have rattan brakes tabularis, Morinda angustifolia, Maesa indica,
as a conspicuous vegetation set up specially in Terminalia bellirica, Strobilanthes capitatus
swampy situation. The well-represented species and others. Surubs like Ochna pumila, Coffea
are Calamus inexmis, C. jagellum, C. guruba, bengalensis alongwith climbing 'Asparagus
C. tenvis and Daemonorps jenkinsiamus. racemosus are also found to grow in these
Among the wild bamboo species, forests mixed with grasses, viz., Cantotheca
Dendrocalamus bassifonii, Cephalostachyum lappacea, Microstegium cilia tum, etc.
capitanum and Bambusa sp. are commonly Impressive grassy terrains are found mainly
found. On the submontane gentle slope a special on clear l~nd formed by erosion and washing
type of vegetation dominated by members of away by rivers. It supports grasses like
Convolvulaceae could be found. In this Saccharum spontaneum, S. procerum,
vegetational layout large trees like Michelia Phragmites karka, Erianthus elephantinus,
champaca, Amoora wallichii, Duabanga Themeda villosa and Anthestaria gigantean
grandiflora and magnificient Acrocaupus with scattered trees like Albizia procera,
fraxinifolius grow a part with a number of Bombax ceiba, Butea monosperma and others.
herbaceous or subwoody climbers entangling At places these grasslands are replaced by 'a
beneath. typical mixed deciduous forest of Dillenia
Forests with Acacia catechu and Dalbergia pentagyna, Careya ·arborea, Toona ciliata,
sisso as predominating species are found on Shorea robusta and Dalbergia sisso. Details of
sandy soil and characteristically prevalent on grasslands will be considered under grassland
the beds of perennial and seasonal rivers. Here, ecosystem.
other commonly associated species are Acacia Floral richness of Tropical and Subtropical
concinna, A. stipulata, Albizia procera, forests can be evidenced from a study of
Bombax ceiba, Bridelia stipularis, B. Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary by State Forests
tomentosa, Capparis olacifolia, Cassia tora, Depatment and Nature Environment and
Coffea bengaiensis, Cordia dichotoma, Croton 'Wildlife Society (1996). Within 129.04 Sq.Km.
caudatous, Dalbergia hircinu, D. lanceolaria, area of the Sanctuary as many as 39 species of
D. stipulacea, Erythrina indica, Grewia trees, 56 species of herbs, 54 species of shrubs
laevigata, Milletia auriculata, Premna latifolia, and 22 .species of climbers have been recorded
Toona ciliata, Trewia nudiflora, etc. (Text-fig.4).
Undergrowth is mainly composed of Mimosa The rich foliage cover and presence of an
himalayana, Saccharum spontaneum and wide array of flora invariably offer a host of
Eupatorium odoratum. Further on land, where microclimatic conditions and niches for huge
soil formations have been progressed, a crop diversity of faunal species in these forests.
p,redominantly of Albizia Ie beck and Bombax Mammalian species include at least 4 species
ceiba in association with Erythrina sp., Trewia of shrews, 19 of bats and .11 of rats and mice~
SANYAL et at. : EcosystenlS of West Bengal 19

60 ,
1
.; 50"1
~40
~30 I
0
-ci 20 1
z
10
0
Trees Shr.... bs He~bs Climbers

Fig. 4 : Floristic richness of Mabananda WUdlife Sanctuary.


Scaly mammal Manis sp. is fairly common. in the grassland ,a rea. Among the
Large number of carnivore species like Tiger poikHothermus vle rtebrate species, Tree Fro,g
(Panthera tigris), Leopard (P,. pardus), (Polypedates leucomystax), Balloon Frog
Mongoose (Herpestes sp.), ,Bears (Seianarctos (Uperodon g,l obulosus),Leaping Frog (Rana
,gp., Melursus sp.), Otters (Lutra sp.), Civets ,e rythraea), Python (Python molurus), Cobra
(Viverra sp., Viverricula sp.), Cats (Felis sp., (Naja naja), King Cobr,a (Op ,h iophagus
Pardofelis sp., Neo/elis nebulosa), ox and hannah), Krait (Bungaras sp.,), Indian Tent
Jackal (Vulpes sp , Canis sp.), etc,. play the role turtle (Kachuga tentoria), Leaf Turtle
of predators at vanous levels. A good number (Cyclemys sp.), ornamental flying snake
of un,g ulate speci,es, viz~, Elephant (Eiephus (Chrysopalea ornata), Monitor Lizard (Varanus
m@mus), Sambar (Cervus unicolorl, spotted sp.) and many others abound the forest floor.
Deer (Axis axis), Hog Deer (Axis porcinus), Goral A great diversity of insects, spIders, acarines,
(Ne,norhedus goraO, Gaur (Bos jrontalis),Wild earthworms, molluscs and other invertebrate
Boar (Sus scrota) are fairly comm,o n, whHe ,groups inhabit the sod, ,ground, litter, under
Great one,- horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros stone and decaying woods, grassland and trees.
unicornis) IS confined to two pro~ected areas They play. the most Important role of
of these forests within West Bengal outside decomposers and also the pollinaters in the
Assam. Reports of tbe occurrence of most for,e st ecosystem. Faunal richness is evident
critical species, ~gmy Hog (Sus salvanius) is from the glimpses of species diversity in thr'ee
also available from her'e. La'r g1e number of protected areas, VIZ., J ,a ldapara Wildlife
arboreal species of mamm,als, viz., Monkeys Sanctuary (216·5 Sq.Km.) Mahananda 'Wildlife
(Maoaoa sp.), Langur (Semnopithecus entellus), Sanctuary (129·04 Sq.Km) and Goruma ra
Squirr 'els (Petaurista sp., CaUosciurus sp., 'National Park (79·99 Sq.Km.) (Text Figs·5-7).
Ratufa sp., Dremomys sp.) adorn the canopy.. Entire Tropical and Sub Tropica Forest
'Nearlythrcee hundred species of birds including ecosystem of North Bengal is very muc h
Pea Fowl (Pavo cristatus) , Openhill stork vulnerable mainly owing to tr,emendous human
(Anastomus oscitans), Lesser adjutant population pressure. Encroachment of for,est
(Lept.optilos }avanicus)., Osp ey (Pandian land for setUements, regu ~ ar felling practices
haliaetus), ' Kaleej pheas,a nt (Lophura for a pretty long period, gr,azing, hunting,
leucomelana),Bam Owl (Tyto alba), Great Pied dam'm ing" minIng, developmental acth'ities,
Hornbill (~ockus birostris) contribute random use of pest~ cides in the tea garden
significant biomass to the forest ecosystem of combined with recent terrorist ,actiVlti,es hnve
thIS zone. A very small population of Bengal already deteriorated the ecologic,a situation to
Florican (Eupoditis bengalensis) is still found a great extent. Occasional flash flood is on~ of
20 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

300 '

250 '
(/)
.(1)200 -
o
G>

~150
\t-
o
ci 100
Z
50 '

o ~~------------------~~~~~~~--~~
Fish Amphibia Reptile Mammal

Fig . .5 : Faunal richn ss of Jaldapara Wildlif ' ,anctuary.

300
250
't/)
'Q,)
':(3
1(1)
200
CL
CfJ
~
150
0
0 100
z
50
0

Fig . 6 : Faunal richne of _ ahananda WildHf an tu ry.

1'92

Fish . Amphibia []Reptile IJ Bird Malmmall


'---------
Fig,. 7 : Faunal richness in Gorumara Wildlife Sanctuary.

the most important n.atural threats of this distinct type of flora r,elated to the adjoining
region. drier areas of the two states. Excepting a few
A. .3. Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests beavy showers during the monsoon, the region
of South West West Bengal : is co siderably dry. The hot spe 1 ,o f summer
Due to extension of the floristically rich hilly with high temper.ature has ,a llowed in the
plateau of Bihar and Orissa along the Western development of only one kind of forest under
boundary of West Bengal, vegetation in these Tropical Sub-humid Deciduous type dominated
areas of the boardering districts represents a by Sal. The assoc' ated elements are Acaci,a
SANYAL et al. : Ecosystems o/West Bengal 21

catechu, Ae,g enitla indica, Alangium Lar,ge range of entomological species are
salvi/olium, Albizia lebeck, Apluda mutica, found in the forests, agricultural fields ,as well
Ano,geissus latijolia, Ardisiasol,anacea, as wastelands. Predominant groups are
Azadirachta indica, Bauhinia vahlii, Bombax Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and H,e miptera.
ceiba,Borassus flabellifer, Boswellia serrata, Marbled Toad (Bufo stomaticus), Ornata
Breynia vltisidaea, Butea sp., Cassia fistula, Microhylid (Microhyla ornata), Pain'tedFrog
Celastrus paniculata, Cleistanthus col.l:inus, (Kaloula pulchra), Skipping Fr.og (Rana
Dioscorea sp., Emblic,a ojficinalis, Eu,laliopsis cyanophlyctis), Jerdon's Bull Frog (Rana
binata, Ficus ben,galensis, F. religiosa, F. ,crassa), Tokay (Gekko gecko), Dwarf Rock
virens, Flemingia chappar, Holarrhena Lizard (Psammophilus b.larifordanus) , Yellow
papescens, H olopti.lea integrifolia, Justicia Monitor (Varanus jl,avesc,ens), Rat Snake
a,dhatoda, Lantana camara, Madhuca indica, (Ptyas mucosus), Water Snake (Enhydris
Mlliusa sp,., Mallotus philippensis, ,Naravelia endris), Wolf Snake (Lycodon aulieus), Cobra
plicata, Phoenix sylvestris, Pothas ,scandens, (Naja naja), are some of the poikilotherm us
Sapindus emarginatus, Smilax zeylanlc,a, species of the region F .om the qualitative point
Solanum surattens,e, Syzygium cumini, of view, mammalian and Avian fauna in this
Tamarindus indica, Terminalia arjuna, T. ecosystem is very rich containing Indian
bellirica, T. chebula, Ven,tilago denticulata, Pangolin (Manis c~assicaudata), Wolf (Canis
Viscum album, Xylia xylocarpa, Zizyphus sp. lupus), Fox (Vulpes bengalensisJ, Mongoose
and many others. In addition to the forested (Herpestes sp.)., Leopard (Panthera pardus).
tracts, large number of floral species ,a re Spotted De,e r (Axis ax.is) , Indian Elephan t
associ.ated with the wastelands of this part. (Elephas maximus) ,a nd more than hundred
Notable speci'e s are Aerva lanata, species of birds. However, most of these species
Acanthospermum hispidum, Calotropis are repr,e sented by a very small number of
gigantean, .Datura metel, Ficus hispida, Hyptis individuals ina fragmented manner. QuaJ"tative
suaveolens, Martynia annua, Panicum richness .of faunal species in the Dry deciduous
psilopodium, .scoparia dulcis, Perotis indica, Forest Ecosystem of South West West Bengal
Setaria glauca, etc. Another important aspect is evident from the study of faunal ,composition
of the forest ecosyste'm of south west West in Ajodhya Hills of Puruliya district (Text-Fig.
Be. gal is the large scale p antations of 8).
Eucalyptus sp,., Akashmoni ..Acacia Continuous biotic influences have
auriculiformis and Sal ..Shorea robusta in the considerably changed the natural
degraded sal fo:r est areas since sixties and characteristics of Dry Deciduous For,e sts of
seventies,. South Western region.. The present quality and

120
100
~
·(380
!
-
'00
o
0 40
60

z20 I

O+-~--~~~~~~~~~~~~~----~--~ I

FISh Mam al

Fig.• 8 : Faunal richness in AyodhyahiUs of Puruliya District.


22 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

density of forests are very different than what A.2.3. Temperate-Alpine type :
these were in the past. Continuity of forests in This type of grassland could be seen 'above
this stretch has been broken by topographical 1,500 M and further up to the highest point of
features and finally by human interference. Singalila range in Darjiling district. Slopes and
Forests are generally in patches and flats are mainly covered with Aconitum
considerably degraded due to massive palmatum, Agrostis sp., Ajuba lobata,
industrialization, mining, settlements and Anaplialis sp., Begonia sp., Campannula
felling. Faunal resources have also been colora-ta,. Cardamine sp., Carex sp., Edgaria
depleted due to continuous hunting pressure darjeelingensis, Fragariaversa sp., Gynura
particularly from tribals. angulosa, Hypoxis aurea, Mazus dentatus,
A.2. GRASSLANDS : Lysimachiajaponica, Origanum vulgare, Pilea
Grassland means a landscape in which the sp., Poa sp., Senecio alatus, Phleum aipinum,
grasses are the dominant plants. It is one of a Stipa sp. and many other species of flowring
number of seral phases of vegetation. The herbs and handsome ferns.
vegetation structure is dynamic, one ecological Grasslands primarily support a large number
association follows another in an orderly of herbivore species from minute insects to
sequence, known as the 'Sere' Dabadghao and largest land animal-the elephant (Elephas
Shankaranarayan (1973) have recognized five maximus). This in turn makes grasslands happy
main/broad grass cover types of India, of which hup.ting grounds of a large range of carnivorous
following three are found within the territory species of different groups and sizes. Most of
of West Bengal. the grass lands have some common vertebrate
A.2.1. Phragmites-Saccharum-Imperata species, such as, Tiger (Panthera tigris),
type : Elephant (Elephas maxim us), Deer (Asix sp.,
Cervus sp.), Hare (Lepus sp.), Rats and Mice
Found mainly in the alluvial plains. The
(Rattus sp., Mus sp., Bandicota sp.), Grass
predominant. grasses are Saccharum procerum,
Warbter (Prinia sp.), Patridge (Francolinus sp.),
S. spontaneum, Arundo donax, Phragmites
Munia (Lonchura sp.), Baya (Ploceus sp.) and·
karka, Imperata cylindrica, Bothriochloa
many others. However, depending upon the
pertusa, Apluda mutica, Vetiveria zizanioides,
geographical locations, ecological set up and
Setaria intermedia, Erianthus arundinacea,
management practices, many grassland possess
Pennisetum glaucum and others.
.some characteristic faunal elements. One willI
A.2.2. Themeda-Arundinella type : find Gaur (Bos frontali~), Hog De~r (Axis
This grass cover extends to humid montane porcinus), Great One-horned Rhinoceros
region and moist sub-humid areas of DaIjiling (Rhinoceros unicornis), Ferret Badger
hills around 350 M to 2,100 M. The tract (Melogale sp.), Bengal Florican (Eupodotis
between 1,800 M and 3100 M may also be bengalensis), etc. in the plains of North Bengal.
considered as transition zone. The dominant While in the upper zones, Pika (Ochotono sp.),
perennial grasses are Arundinella bengalensis, Vole (Pitimys sp.), Goral (Nemorhedus goral),
A. nepalensis, Themeda sp., Bothriochloa Red Panda (Ailurus julgens), Sikkim Blood
intermedia, B. pertusa, Chrysopogonjulvus, C. pheasant (Ithaginis cruentus), Kaleej Pheasant
gryllus, Erianthus longisetosus, Cynodon (Lophurus leucomelana) and wide variety of
dactylon, Cymbopogon sp., etc. Areas where butterflies are met with. In the grassland of
the grassland is subjected to light disturbances Sundarban, Wild boar (Sus scrofa), Spotted
as cutting or grazing, have luxurient growth of Deer (Axis axis) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) are
Themeda sp. the most eminent species.
SANYAL et ale : Ecosystems of West Bengal 23

Natural calamities like forest fires, floods, Ceriops, Excoecaria, Heritiera, Rhizophora,
changes in the course of rivers, etc., along with Sonneratia and Xylocarpus. The mixed forest
overgrazing and various socio-economic of Heritiera is quite dense and extends over a
development activities are the major factors fairly large areas in saline water. The highest
threatening grass lands of West Bengal. canopy is occupied by Heritiera fomes,
A.a. MANGROVE : Excoecaria agallocha, Ceriops decandra,
Mangrove is a part of the forest ecosystem, Xylocarpus granatum and others. However, at
but discussed separately as it represents a present density of Heritierafomes is very much
characteristic littoral forest dominated by some depleted due to extraction. Typical mangroves
specially adapted salt tolerant plant community of moderate heights include Avicennia alba,
that grow at land-sea interphase and border Ceriops tagal, Xylocarpus moluccensis; some
sheltered sea coasts and estuaries of tropical of the bushy shrubs like Acanthus ilicifolius,
and subtropical regions. The mangrove forests Dalbergia spinosa, Derris scandens are found
comprise a diverse composition of trees and to form dense patches along the muddy flat
shrubs exhibiting unique adaptation to an lands. Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa are
environment which is periodically inundated by the two common palms in mangroves and both
salt water from one side and freshwater from are much depleted due to long exploitation. Few
the other. The mangrove ecosystem is highly of the important grasses exclusive of the
productive and exchanges matter and energy mangroves are Myriostachya wightiana,
with adjacent ~arine and terrestrial Paspalum disticum, Zoysia matrella, etc. In
ecosystems. addition to the true mangrove fairly rich
mesophytic flora containing species like
The southern most part of the state is
Abutilon graveolens, Acacia intsia, Bergia
indented by numerous river openings, viz.,
ammonoides, Calotropis gigantea, Capparis
Harinbhanga, Gosaba, Matla, Thakuran,
sep ia ria, Cyperus sp., Merremia sp., Sapium
Saptamukhi, Muriganga and HugH. All these
indicum, Tribuius sp, Vicoa vgestita, Wedelia
rivers ultimately end up at the Bay of Bengal,
biflora are also met with. Various marsh
but on the way have encompassed about 108
grasses, sand binders and macroalgae are also
islands crisscrossed and intersected by various
associated with the mangroves. The role played
creeks and delta distributaries. This deltaic
by Porteratia coaretata in the event of
complex at the apex of Bay of Bengal is the
ecological succession in deltaic Sundarban can
Indian Sundarban. With a total land and water
not be ignored. This salt marsh grass acts as
area of about 1,000,000 ha., the Sundarban
the pioneer species as represented here in the
support the largest mangrove block (nearly
flow chart (Mitra and Pal, 2002).
2,123 sq.km. according to 1998 FSI Data) of
the .country. Porteratia coaretata
J.
The floral community of mangrove
Aegiceras comiculatum, Avicennia alba,
ecosystem is well adapted to encounter higher
A. C?fficinalis, Sonneratia apeteia
salinity, oppressive heat, tidal extremes as well
J.
as water logging. In Indian Sundarban a total
Bruguiera sPo
of 69 floral species belonging to 20 families and
J.
50 genera have been recognized, out of which
Heritiera jomes, Rhizophora sPo,
34 species are true mangrove type (Mitra
Xylocarpus sPo
2000). The typical'woody genera represented
J.
in the mangrove forests of Sundarban are : ~

Ceriops decandra, ExoecanOa agallocha


Aegiceras, Avicennia, Amoora, Bruguiera,
24 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Mangrove ecosystem is highly dynamic with Chaudhuri (1994) number of vertebrate species
constant phenomena like erosion and accretion in Sundarban is much more being 654. While
taking place due to waves, tides and currents. Das and Nandi (1999) estimated total number
The erosion of soil and dune formation are of faunal species (Protista + Animalia) as 1586
largely controlled by pomoea pescapre, a and Das (2001) provided the number of
common sand binder. macrofaunal species as 1434. The Tiger
Invertebrates exist both as planktonic form (Panthera tigris) is the Key Stone species of
in the aquatic subsystem and also as benthic Sundarban. Interestingly, besides Sundarban
form in and on the substratum, which may be (including its Bangladesh counterpart) no other
the intertidal zone or the mangrove forest floor. mangrove areas of the world harbour tiger
Among planktonic forms, the zooplankton population. Apart from tiger, number of other
community comprises a heterogenous threatened species like fishing Cat (Prionailurus
assembledge of copepods, mysids, lucifers, bengalensis), Snub-nosed Dolphin (Orcaella
gammarid, amphipods, cladocera, ctenophores brevirostris), Little Porpoise (Neophocaena
under the haloplankton cat~gory; and phocaenoides), Giant heron (Ardea "goliath),
polychaete, mollusca, echinoderm, crustacean Lesser Adjutant (Lep top tilos javanicus), Osprey
larva, fish eggs under the meroplankton (Pandion haliaetus), Estuarine Crocodile
category. Almost all the major invertebrate (Crocodylus porosus), Olive Ridley Turtle
phyla are represented in the mangroves with (Lepidochelys olivacea) and many others find
considerable species richness; .this includes at shelter in Sundarban. At least five vertebrate
least 41 species of Platyhelminthes, 78 species species have become extinct from this
of Annelida, 476 species of Arthropoda, 142 ecosystem during last 200 years (Table 8).
species of Molluscs, 20 species of Mangrove area of West Bengal have" been
Echinodermata (Mitra and Pal, 2002). The area reduced to more than 50 percent, during the
also invites two important fascinating marine last few decades (4,200 sq.km 1987 to 2,123
creatures, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and sq.km. in 1998), revealing clearly the mangrove
Tachypleus gigas during their breeding in ecosystem is under considerable threat. Natural
premonsoon months. The Sundarban mangrove threats generally include cyclone, soil erosion
ecosystem is also a unique reservoir of and soil sedimentation due to natural cause.
vertebrate fauna. About 141 species of Fishes, Anthropogenic threats mainly include tree
8 species of Amphibians, 57 species of reptiles, felling primarily for fuel and timber, hunting,
161 species of birds and 40 species of mammals conversion of mangrove areas for agriculture
have been reported from the mangrove and aquaculture, human settlement,
ecosystem of Sundarban (MandaI and Nandi cultivation, fragmentation, digging of salt pans,
1989) .. However, according to Chaudhuri and lime generation, introduction of exotic species,

Table-8: Species disappeared from Sundarban mangrove ecosystem since last 200 years
(Source: Chaudhuri and Chaudhuri 1994).
Scientific name of extinct species Common" name
Cairina scutulata White Winged Wood Duck
Muntiacus muntjak Barking Deer
Cervus duvaucelii Swamp Deer
Bubalu bubalis Wild Buffalo
Rhinoceros unicornis Javan Rhinoceros
SANYAL et ale : Ecosystems of West Bengal 25

and over exploitation for various purposes. In cooling ponds in Murshidabad and Medinipur.
Sundarban, unregulated use of shooting nets of Coastal wetlands mostly fall in two districts,
small mesh-size for the collection of Tiger viz., South 24 parganas and East Medinipur.
Prawn (Pinaeus monodon) seeds for trade From the Biodiversity point of view each and
results in tremendous loss of faunal aiversity. every type of wetland is significant and as
Developmental activities like opening of port complete listing of them is not possible some
and harbour, erection of dykes and important ones are mentioned below:
embankment, discharge of oil, industrial A. Sub Himalayan Region-Extends from
effluent, domestic sewage and pesticides are hills of Darjiling to Maldah :
also posing considerable threats to the
1.Rasik Beel, 2. Malian Dighi, Altai Dighi,
mangrove ecosystems of Sundarban.
Gour Dighi Complex, 3. Teesta Reservoir, 4.
A.4. WETlAND : Mirik Lake and 5. Kulik.
The wetlands are lands transitional between B. Gangetic Region-Includes the entire
terrestrial and aquatic systems where water south and south west West Bengal
table is usually at or near the surface or the excluding the active delta and coastal
land is covered by shallow water (Cowardin et region:
ale 1979). The wetlands are highly productive
1. Kaliganga-Motijheel Complex, 2. Barity
ecosystem, and perform essential functions
Beel, 3. Chupichar, 4. Mathura Beel, 5. Jamuna
including flood control, natural sewage
Beel, 6. Kajla Dighi, 7. Sahebandh, 8. Alipore
treatment, stabilization of shorelines against
Zoo, 9. Mudiali, 10. Tilpara Barrage, 11.
wave erosion, recharging of aquifers and
Durgapur Barrage, 12. East Kolkata, 13. Nalban,
supporting rich biodiversity.
14. Santragachi and 15. Palta.
In West Bengal, there are about 54 natural
C. Coastal Region-covering parts of
and nine man made wetlands which are more
North and South 24 Parganas and East
than 100 ha. (Biswas and Trisal, 1993) and in
Medinipur:
addition to these there are numerous small
water bodies including ponds, puddles, etc. The 1.Gabaria Beel, 2. Alampur and 3.
two categories combine to cover an area of Dadanpatrabar.
about 3,44,527 ha. which is about 8.5 percent Diversity of wetland plants of West Bengal
of the total wetland area in India. A compilation is richest in India and is represented by more
from the satellite imagery data has shown that than 380 species belonging to 170 genera and
spatial distribution of wetlands varies from one 81 families (Ghosh 1996). Wetlands of West
district to other both in number as well as in Bengal covering only about 8.596 of the
area (Dept. of Environ. and R.K.M. 2002). Wetland areas (considering water bodies 100
Among the natural wetlands, seasonal ha) of India, provide shelter for more than 60%
waterlogged type of wetland (WSL) in diversity of aquatic and wetland flora (Ghosh
Medinipur and Maldah; cutoff meander (COM) op.cit.). Wetlands of West Bengal are honle of
in Koch Bihar; marsh and swamp in South and 8 species of aquatic fern and fern allies
North Dinajpore and Oxbow type lakes (OL) in belonging to 6 genera and 6 families; strictly
!Nadia and Murshidabad are significant. In case aquatic dicot and monocot are represented by
of Inland man-made wetlands (IMMW), 12 species (8 genera) and 36 species (19 genera)
tnaximum number of reservoirs are observed respectively. Large number of terrestrial
in.Banku~a; tanks in Puruliya; man-made water flowering plant families have also
logged (MMWL) in Birbhum; abandoned representatives in wetland habitat of West
quarries (AQ) in Barddhaman and ash pondsj Bengal (Table 9).
26 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-9: Flowering plant families having representatives in Wetland habitat of West Bengal
(Source: Ghosh, 2002).
Family No. of No. of
Genera Species
Acanthaceae 2 5
Aizoaceae 1 1
Amaranthaceae 2 4
Amaryllidaceae 1 1
Apiaceae 3 3
Araceae 5 6
Asclepiadaceae 1 1
Asteraceae 7 9
Balsaminaceae 1 1
Boraginaceae 2 4
Brassicaceae 1 1
Burmanniaceae 1 2
Campanulaceae 1 2
Cannaceae 1 1
Commelinaceae 3 5
Convolvulaceae 1 3
Cyperaceae 11 68
Droseraceae 1 3
Elatinaceae 1 2
Eriocaulaceae 1 9
Fabaceae 6 9
Gentianceae 1 1
Haloragaceae 1 2
Hydrophyllaceae 1 1
Lamiaceae 1 1
Lentibulariaceae 1 15
Lythraceae 3 11
Onagraceae 1 4
Orchidaceae J 1
Pandanaceae 1 1
Poaceae 24 45
Polygonaceae 1 5
Ranunculaceae 1 1
Rubiaceae 2 4
Scorphulariacea 6 27
Solanaceae 1 1
Sphenocleaceae 1 1
Verbenaceae 2 2
Xyridaceae 1 2
Total 103 265
~ANYAL et al_ ; Ecosystems of West Bengal 27

A major portion of the open water interlace representative of Indian Salamander-


of the unmanaged water bodies are now Tylototrito.n verrucosus is confined to the wet
occupied by a number of exotic weeds of which lands of DaIjiling. Wetlands of West Bengal
Eichhornia sp., Altemanthera sp. are fairly provide an ideal habitat for a large range of
common. Many of the aquatic floral species of resident and migratory species of birds. More
West Bengal, such as, Aldrovandra vesiculosa, than 113 species of birds including Great
Caldesia oligococca, Drosera burmannii, Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus), Cormorant
Euryale najas marina, etc. are now threatened. (Phalacrocorax carbo.), Darter (Anhinga rufa),
Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea), Openbill Stork
It is obvious that wetlands of West Bengal
(Anastomas o.scitans), White Ibis (Threskio.rnis
supports a huge diversity of invertebrate
aethiopica), Lesser and Large Whistling Teal
species including Protozoa, Annelida,
(Dendrocygna javanica, D. bicolor), Ruddy
Arthropoda, Mollusca and others but no exact
Shelduck (Tadornaferruginea), Pin Tail (Anus
estimate.is available. However, it is interesting acuta), Red-crested Pochard (Wetta rufina) and
to note that the single relict species of Dragon others have been recorded from the water
Fly, Epiophlebia laidlawi is asso~iated with the bodies of West Bengal.
hill streams of DaIjiling.
Each and every wetland of the state is facing
Fresh water fish of West Bengal is problet:ns peculior to it as a result of
represented by 172 species distributed in 36 geographical location, cultural practices and
families and 12 Orders (Dept. of Environment developmental activities. But most of the
and R.K.M. 2002). Wilderness fish~s like Wetlands of the state are facing with a common
Chanda, Ghute, etc. are now rare due to set of problems which may vary in intensities
indiscriminate use of pesticides. In t~e aquatic from one location to other. These are :
and semi~quatic condition of West Bengal 1. Siltation, 2. Eutrophication, 3. Shrinkage,
various species of Toads and Frogs, Turtles, 4. Encroachment and Reclamation and
Common Indian Monitor, Cobra, Checkered 5. Pollution. Major threats to frewhwater
Keel Back, Smooth Water Snake, Russel Viper, wetlands of India and the threatened species
Bandicoot Rat, Otter, Fishing Cat and Mongoos therein have been listed by Alfred and Nandi
are found in fairly good number. Only (2001).
28 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

SPECIES DIVERSITY IN WEST BENGAL


Since the living world is most widely taxonomic studies particularly in respect of
considered in terms of species, Biodiversity is minor groups. Again many of the floral and
very commonly used as a synonym of species faunal species are represented by a large
diversity, in particular of species richness which number of subspecies, varieties and races,
is the number of species in a site or habitat. resulting enormous richness in respect of
The present account of species diversity in genetic diversity. The account has certain
West Bengal has been compiled mainly on the shortcomings in respect of the coverage of
basis of State Fauna Series : 3, Parts ·1-12 some groups due to non-availability of data. The
(1992-2000), Flora of West Bengal (Director, number of the species shown under different
B.S.I.,1997), Paschimbanglar Udvid groups in the present report may vary slightly
(Ghosh,1997, 1998, 2001) published by the from that shown for that group in other
Zoological Survey of India and the Botanical literature. Mostly such discrepancies are owing
Survey of India. In addition, numerous other to the differences in opinion in the taxonomic
publications as mentioned under Methodology treatment. In recent time district Medinipur and
have also been taken into consideration. It has West Dinajpur has been divided into two
been felt that vast areas of the state particularly districts each. However, in the analysis of
districts like Maldah, East and West Dinajpur, district-wise richness, undivided Medinipur and
Murshidabad, Nadia, North 24 Parganas, West Dinajpur have been taken into
Puruliya, Birbhum and Bankura have not yet consideration.
been properly explored in respect of many of
the groups. Detailed lists of plant and animal I. Floral Diversity
species occurring in West Bengal alongwith Floral diversity of the state Is equally
their distrct-wise distribution have been impressive as the fauna and exhibits distinct
provided in Parts II and III. However, for some zonation in respect of species composition
of the groups list is incomplete due to non- which has already been discussed in connection
availibility of species name. It is sure that there with ecosystem diversity. So far, over 7000
will be manifold increase in the existing number plant species excluding viruses have been
of species with the systematic survey and described from the state as against nearly

Table-14 : Recorded number of species in some major plant groups in India and West Bengal
(Adopted from Mudgal and Hazra 1997 and Dept. of Environment & Ramkrishna
Mission 2002).
Groups No. of Species Percent in West Bengal
India West Bengal
Bacteria 850 96 11.29
Algae 6500 865 13·30
Fungi 14500 860 5·93
Lichens 2051 600 29·69
Bryophyta 2850 550 19·29
Pteridophyta 1200 450 37·50
Gymnosperms 64 21 35·00
Angiosperms 17500 3580 20·45
SANYAL et ale : Species Diversity in West Bengal 29

46000 species in India. Group-wise break up Most of the genera are known by single species
of number of species in some major plant in the state. However, the genera Pseudomonas,
groups in the state as compared to that of
Staphylococcus and Staptomyces have 5, 8, 4
country has been provided in Table 14. Due to
species respectively. Detail account of the
nonavailability of all the literature, particularly
for Bryophyta, only the list of major plant bacterial species from the different regions of
species of West Bengal are appended in this West Bengal has not yet been worked out,
book. however, a list of few specific lytic bacteria
1.1. Bacteria : Over 85 species under 57 recorded from Indian Sunderbans is given in
genera have been recorded from West Bengal. Table 15.
Table-15 : List of a few specific lytic bacteria in Indian Sundarban (Source : Dept.of Marine
Science, Univ.of Kolkata. 1987. Multidisciplinary Research Approach and Report on
Mangrove Ecosystem of Sundarban).
\
Chili Pee- Pro- ~ NOa N03
Name of bacterium Cellulolytic nolytic tino- teo- For- For- For-
~ ~ lytic lytic mation mation mation
~ N02
Bacillus alvei - - ++ ++ + ++++ + +
Bacillus cereus - X - X X X X X
Brevibacterium sp. (St.1) + - + ++ +++ ++++ +++ ++
Bravibacterium sp. (St.2) + - + X ++ +++ X X
Bravibacterium sp. - - - - +++ ++ ++ ++
Bravibacterium sp. - X X X X X X X
Marinopiscosum sp. - - - ++ X ++ ++ ++
Bravibacterium sp. (St.4) X - X X X X X X
Bravibacterium sp. (St.S) + + ++ - X ++ ++ ++
Bravibacterium sp. (St.6) - + - X X ++ ++ ++
Bravibacterium sp. (St.7) ++ X X X X X X X
Bravibacterium sp. (St.8) + - +++ - X ++ ++ ++
Bravibacterium sp. (8t.9) X X X X X X X X
. Bravibacterium sp. (St.10) X X X X X X X X
Bravibacterium sp. (8t.11) X X X X X X X X
Bravibacterium sp. (8t.12) X X X X X X X X
Bravibacterium sp. (8t.13) X X X X X X X X
Butyribacterium sp. (St.1) + X - - X ++ ++ ++
Butyribacterium sp. (St.2) X X X X X X X X
Clostridium werneri + X - - X ++ ++ ++
Clostridium sp. (St. 1) - - - ++ X ++ ++ ++
.Clostridium sp. X X X X X X X X
Corynebacterium sp. ++ - + X ++ ++ ++ X
30 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-15 : Cont'd.
Chiti Pee- Pro- NIIa N02 N03
Name of bacterium Cellulolytic nolytic tino- teo- For- For- For-
~ 4 lytic lytic mation mation mation
NIIa N02
Kurtbia bessonii (St.l) ++ - - - ++ ++ ++ X
Kurtbia bessonii (St.2) - X - ++ X X X X
Kurtbia Bessonii (St.) - Xx + - X X X X
Kurtbia Bessonii (St.3) ++ X X X X X X X
Kurtbia sp. (St.b) - - X - X X X X
Kurtbia sp. (St.c) - X ++ X X X X X
Kurtbia sp. (St.d) ++ - ++ += X X X X
Kurtbia sp.(St.e) - - - ++ X ++ ++ ++
Kurtbia sp. (St.t) X X X X X X X X
Lactobacillus sp. (St.l) + + - - +++ ++++ ++ ++
Lactobacillus derbrueckii - X - X X X X X
Lactobacillus sp. (St.2) X X X X X X X X
Lactobacillus sp. (St.3) X X X X X X X X
Lactobacillus sp. (St.4) I 'x. X X X X X X X
Lactobacillus sp. (St.S) X X X X X X X X
Listeria sp. (St.l) - - + X + ++ X X
Listeria monocytogenes - X - X X X X X
Macrococcus agilis - - +++ X ++ ++ ++ X
Macrococcus sp. (St.l) - - X ++ ++ ++ - X
Microccoccus candidus - X - X ++ ++ - X
Macrococcus sp. (St.2) - X + X X X X X
Pseudomonas sp. (St.l) ++ X X X ++ ++ ++ +
Pseudomonas sp. (St.2) X X X X X X X X
Pseudomonas sp. (St.3) X X X X X X X X
Pseudomonas sp. (St.4) X X X X X X X X
Pseudomonas sp. (St.S) X X X X X X X X
+ : Positive, - : Negative, X : Not experimented yet.

11.2. Thallophyta: Represents the oldest and Fungi on the other hand never possess
the most primitive type of plants characterised chlorophyll.
by the simplicity of structure of their vegetative II.2.A. Algae : As many as 6500 species
bodies and of reproductive method. Two main under 666 genera are known from India. In the
groups, viz., Algae and Fungi stand out state nearly 86S species, Le. 13.30 percent of
prominently wjthin the Thallophytes. Algae Indian species, under 189 genera and 15
possess green colouring matter or chlorophyll, families have been recorded. Some of the
SANYAL et ai. : Species Diversity in West Bengal 31

gener.a such as Cosmarium, Oscillatoria and exhibited by the families MODi iac,a e (28 ) ,
Euastrum exhibit great diversity in the number Polyporaceae (15) and Dothideaceae (10), while
of species, contalning 86, 41 and 30 species many of the famihes like Onygenacea ,
each respectively. However, fairly good number Olpidioceae, Erysiphaceae, Laboulbeniaceae,
of genera viz,., Noctiluca, ,Pithophora, Synedra, etc., ,are represented by single genus and
'Wollea, etc. are represented by single species species. Great sp'e,e ies diversity could be
in the state. District-wise distribution of algae observed in the gen era Cer,e ospora (49),
in West Bengal is shown in fig.9. Polyporus (33) and Aspergillus (28) of families
I . 2 B,. Fungi : Only a small percentage Dematiaceae, Polyporaceae and Monilia(!eae
(5.9396) of Indian fungal species has so far been respectively. Highest number of species (240)
recorded nom .West Bengal. About 860 species is known from Darjiling district followed by
under 291 genera and 93 families are known Kolkata (190) District-wise distribution of fungi
from the state. Rich generic diversity is in West Bengal is shown in fig,. 10.

300

250

200 I

150

100

50

0
'l!
~
~ "'l III
I:
C
!::
'2 '5 E 01
o ..
di ~ &
,Z
::I
:E

ig. 9: i trich"i di trib Ition of Llga in V\ e t ng' l.

300
250
200
150
100
50

::J
'-
(1)
.c
:;
a.
:s
Q.
0> ro
'0. :.0 C :::> iir
.c ~ i5 ~ Cl.. c
(ij (,)
'9 0
III (1)
0
~ Cl.. Q.
tiS,
.c
0
S
0
(/)

Fig. 10 : Districtwise distribution of fungi in West Bengal.


32 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

II. 2.C. Lic;hens : Lichens represent a the districts of the state are supporting a large
symbiotic association between two different number of species. Many of them are being
group of plants, viz., Fungi and Algae. From cultivated since the dawn of civilization and
India 2051 species under 248 genera have been became a part of our Agriculture system.
recorded, out of which nearly 600 species 1I.6.A. Monocotyledons: Contain only one
spreading over more than 93 genera and 39 cotyledon in their embryos. Nearly 5000
families are known from West Bengal. Family species under 702 genera and 44 families have
Permeliaceae contains the highest number of been recorded from India. From West Bengal
genera (11), while the genus Opergrapha of the only about 500 species i.e. nearly 10 percent
family Opergraphaceae holds the highest of country's total are known. These are
number of species (11). Maximum number of distributed over about 250 genera and 35
species is known from South 24 Parganas (169) families. Great generic diversity is exhibited by
followed by Darjiling (166). the families Gramineae and Orchidaceae
1I.3. Bryophyta : Comprise a small group of containing 76 and 39 genera respectively. Genus
terrestrial plants containing liverworts and Cyperus of the family Cyperaceae holds the
mosses; growing mostly in moist situations. highest number (36) of species.
Representatives of all the three classes, viz., Monocotyledons are well distributed through
Hepaticae, Anthocerotae and Musci are found out the state but best represnted in Darjiling
in the country as well as in the state. A total of district with over 250 species. As many as 240
nearly 2850 species under 490 genera have species have also been r~corded from Haora
been reported from the country, and about district, but great majority of them are found
19.29 percent of them, i.e. 550 species in the Indian Botanic Garden, Shibpur. District-
belonging over 33 genera are known from the wise distribution of monocot plants in West
state. Bengal is shown in fig. 11.
1I.4. Pteridophyta : Include plants like ferns, 1I.6.B. Dicotyledons : These plants have two
horse tails, club-mosses and their allies. About cotyledons in their embryos. India supports
1200 species under 204 genera are known from great diversity of dicotyledonous plants having
the country, and nearly 37.5 percent of them, nearly 12000 species under nearly 2282 genera
i.e. 450 species have been recorded from West and 203 families. In West Bengal there are
Bengal. about 3080 species distributed in over 1000
11.5. Gymnosperms : Regarded as an genera and 170 families. Family Leguminosae
intermediate group between Pteridophytes and contains as ~any as 76 genera, followed by
Angiosperms. There are about 64 species under family Asteraceae with 71 genera. Family
more than 20 genera and 8 families in lridia. Balsaminaceae is represented in the state with
West Bengal shares 21 species spreading over only two genera, viz., Impaticus and
17 genera and three families. Except for few Hydrocera, but the former exhibits greatest
genera like Pinus, Cycas, etc., others are species diversity (34) among the different
represented by single species in the state. Many dicotyledonous genera of the state. Darjiling
of these species are usually cultivated in. garden harbours the highest number of species (ca.
as ornamental plants. However, very few 1214) followed by Jalpaiguri (ca.591). District-
species occur naturally in plains and almost all wise distribution of dicot plants in West Bengal
t~e species are recorded from Darjiling is shown in fig. 12.
district. II. Faunal Diversity :
1I.6. Angiosperms: These are 'close-seeded', The state of West Bengal is adorned with
very complex seed-bearing plants. Huge remarka-ble richness of faunal species mainly
diversity could be marked in this group and all due to diverse ecosystems as well as flow of
SANYAL ,e t al. ! Species DiversIty in West Bengal ,33

300

250 - ~
r--

200 - ~ ~ - ~

150 ~

~
~

100
~ W- I'
~
~
- - -
I)
I I'
50 Il
o
·1

f!
. fl
E
I

c: c:o
In
0> E ·c ~
ro c:o
. en ,en
:;
('0 ~ .5: 0> :J lro
~
"0
ro ~ ro 'ro !2
::I :J =.J 0 ::I :J::. ~ c.. c: :5
.::.c:: .s=. E V ('0 OJ ro .0 ('0 C Cl.
c: -e ('0 J.2 V J: 'a. :0
;c :E (t;I
,2 C ro (Q
:5 r0-
('0
CD
s::;, ('0
()
.~
ro
-,
,(,)
"0
E
'6 OJ
ro
0'1
co
CL e
CD
""(ij ro
0 ~ ~
:J
~
Cl,)
CL
~
a..
~
0
iii
CO ~
~
04 '0 4
.s= ;C
1::
0
:;
0
Z (fJ

Fig. 11 : Districtwise distribution of mono cot in West Bengal.

1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
a +-~~-=--~~~~~~~~~~--~--~~~~~--~~--~~~~~~~
c: ro ·c ro ro en
E
ro
('0
~
:;, .~
CP
0)
::;
ro
en
::I
:c
;:,
Ol
m
.s=.
:.0
"0
ro
"0
ro
.0 i5
ro
::J
Cl.
(f)
ro
e
III
c:
~
:5
~
Cl.
.. ~

ro ,2 :c 'a. ..c. ~
ro Z C ro co :;J (ij"
..c.
"0 ()
ro
ro
Cl,)
'e- ro
-, u
"0
E
-0
V
Ol
ro
0'1
ro
CL
0
c:
"0 0
'0
~ ~ a.. Il..
m
co
:J
~
~ ~ iii
~
("II N
;c
0
:5
0
2 (/)

Fig. 12 : Distdctwise dist ribution of dicot in West Bengal.


palaearctic, Indo ... M,a layan and Afro...tropical of the world's fauna. The lists of majoraninlul
elements. The known faunal diversity of the species of Wle stB'e ng,al are appended in Part
state consists of at least 11,042 species out of III of this report. The nunlber of famil) g('nU's 1

91,771 spe'cies present in our country and and species of faunal groups in the stat(.
12,39,166 in the world. Species diversity in distribution of aninlaJ species in the distric:ts
faunal ,groups of West Bengal ,as compared to and distribution of ,c hordate species in d istricts
India and world has been provided in Table 16. ar'e shown in Table 17, 18 and 19 res p,e tt iVt"ly.
It appears that the state is represented by 12 03 The diversity of sonle major faunal groups arl~
percent of our country's fauna ,a nd 0.89 percent discussed below.
34 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-16 : Faunal diversity of West Bengal compared to world and India (No. of species).
SI. No. of Species
Taxonomic Group
No. World India West Bengal
1. PROTISTA (Protozoa) 31250 2577 1136
2. ANIMALIA 1207916 90240 9906
Mesozoa 71 10 -
3· Porifera 4562 500 16
4· Cnidaria 9916 956 23
5· Ctenophora 100 12 2
6. Platyhelminthes 17504 1626 248
7· Nemertinea 600 - -
7· Rotifera 2500 330 147
8. Gastrotricha 3000 100 24
9· Kinorhyncha 100 10 5
10. Nematoda 30022 2872 306
12. Nematophora 250 - -
11. Acathocephala 800 229 15
12. Sipuncula 145 35 3
13· Mollusca 66535 5152 274
14· Echiura 127 43 3
15· Annelida 12700 841 194
16. Onychophora 100 1 -
Arthropoda 998920 70293 6785
17· Crustacea 35536 2941 251
Insecta 867381 61238 5407
Arachnida 73440 5829 1094
46. Araneae (Spider) 30000 1443 409
47· Scorpiones 1400 104 14
48. Acari 40000+ 2270 671
49· Pycnogonida 600 17 -
51. Pauropoda 360 - -
50. Chilopod 3000 100 9
51. Diplopoda 7500 162 22
52. Symphyla 120 4 -
53· Merostomata (Xyphosura) 4 2 2
54· Phoronida 11 3 1
55· Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) 4000 200 9
56. Entoprocta 60 10 -
57· Brachiopoda 300 3 1
Pogonophora 80 - -
Priapulida 8 - -
SANYAL et ale : Species Diversity in West Bengal 35
·Table-t6 : Cont'd.
SI. No. of Species
Taxonomic Group
No. World India West Bengal
Pentastomida 70 - -
58. Chaetognatha 111 30 -
59· Tardigrada 514 30 -
60. Echinodermata 6223 765 22
61. Hemichordata 120 12 1
Chordata 48467 5131 1827
62. Proto chordata 2106 119 -
63. Pisces 21 727 2634 610
64· Amphibia 5162 289 39
65. Reptilia 5817 460 148
66. Aves 9026 1232 846
67. Mammalia 46 29 397 188
Grand Total (Protista + AnimaIia) 1239166 91771 11042
Source : National Biodiversity Action Plan, MoEF, Govt. of India, 2008 & Animal Discovery-
2010, Zoological Survey of India.

Table-t7 : Number of family, genus and species under different faunal groups in West Bengal.
S1. No. Taxonomic Groups Family Genus Species
1. Protista :,. Protozoa 80 131 267
(Freeliving Protozoa)
·2. Protista : Protozoa 8 23 126
(Symbiotic Protozoa)
3· Protista : Protozoa 67 144 743
(Parasitic Protozoa)
4· Porifera 1 9 16
5· Cnidaria 16 20 23
6. Ctenophora 2 2 2
7· Platyhelminthes : Cestoda 17 43 93
8. Trematoda (Vertebrate exclu- 30 68 97
ding fishes)
9· Digenetic Trematodes of Fishes 21 35 58
10. Rotifera 18 30 147
11. Gastrotricha 8 15 24
12. Kinorhyncha 3 3 5
13· Nematode Parasites of Vertebrate 38 113 236
14· Plant Parasitic Nematodes 10 25 70
15· Acanthocephala 6 8 15
16. Sipuncula 1 3 3
17· Freshwater & Land Mollusca 35 70 180
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-17 : Cont'd.
Sl. No. Taxonomic Groups Family Genus Species
18. 'Estuarine & Marine Mollusca 42 65 94
19· Echiura 1 1 3
20. Annelida 40 93 194
21. Crustacea 45 135 251
22. Insecta : Thysanura 2 7 9
23· Insecta : Collembola 2 10 ~5

24· Insecta: Diplura 1 1 1


25· Insecta : Odonata 15 93 180
26. Insecta : Plecoptera 4 10 21
27· Insecta: Embioptera 1 2 8
28. Insecta : Orthoptera 12 126 210
29· Insecta: Dermaptera 7 36 79
30. Insecta : Ephem'eroptera 5 10 17
31. Insecta : Mantodea 7 24 35
32. Insecta : Phasmida 4 15 28
33· Insecta : Dictyoptera 8 17 23
34· Insecta : Isoptera 4 23 52
35· Insecta : Psocoptera 15 24 39
36. Insecta: Hemiptera 44 505 966
37· Insecta : Anoplura 6 7 20
38. Insecta : Thysonoptera 4 75 124
39· Insecta : Neuroptera 12 49 73
40. Insecta : Mecoptera 2 2 3
41. Insecta : Coleoptera 25 524 1570
42. Insecta : Siphonoptera 3 8 13
43· Insecta: Strepsiptera 2 7 14
44· Insecta: Diptera 21 143 413
45· Insecta : Lepidoptera 33 532 1020
46. Insecta : Trichoptera 10 26 44
47·· Insecta : Hymenoptera 12 180 430
48. Palaeotracha-Xiphisura 1 2 2
49· Arachnida: Arannene (Spider) 37 169 409
50. Arachnida : Scorpines 4 8 14
51. Acari : Ticks (Metogtigmata) 1 9 ~r' 32
52. Acari: Mite: Astigmata 8 19 33
53· Acari: Mite: Prostigmata 29 121 258
54· Acari: Mite: Cryptostigmata 61 142 282
55· Acari : Mite : Mesostigmata 7 15 66
56. Diplopoda 5 9 22
SANYAL et al. : Species Diversity in West Bengal 37
Table-t7 : Cont'd.
SI. No. Taxonomic Groups Family Genus Species
57· Chilopoda 1 5 9
58. Phoronida 1 1 1
59· Brachiopoda 1 1 1
60. Freshwater 3 5 9
61. Echinodermata 14 18 22
62. Hemichordata 1 1 1
63. Chordata : Pisces (Freshwater) 39 113 207
64· Chordata: Pisces (Marine) 96 250 403
65. Chordata : Amphibia 8 24 39
66. Chordata Reptilia 19 76 148
67· Chordata : Aves 57 271 846
68. Chordata : Mammalia 32 110 188

Table-tS : Distribution of animal species in the districts of West Bengal.


Taxanomic Groups Districts of West Bengal
; f;
~ ~
'i-; :9=

Protozoa (free living)


i= = 1=
28
~
~
m
.,..
20 18
~
-5'
.~

10
i
= =
26
i
61 15
~
= ~.., ~ :s
~
';

20 20
Protozoa (symbiotic) - - - 03 - - 06 10 06
Protozoa (parasitic) 61 34 40 103 42 94 42 39 41
Porifera 04 02 02 - 03 04 02 02 03
Cnidaria - - - - - - - - -
Ctenophora - - - - - - - - -
Cestoda 05 10 15 10 05 05 07 05 08
Trematoda (excluding Fish) 09 05 11 19 10 12 08 01 03
Trematoda (Fish) - - - - - - - - -
Rotifera 25 - 29 33 28 27 17 69 32
Gastrotri - - - 04 - 03 - - -
Kinorhyncha - - - - - - - - -
Nematode (vertebrate) 01 05 06 24 10 02 09 03 04
Nematode (plant) 02 13 20 18 08 17 13 01 09
Acanthocephala - - - - - - - - -
Sipuncula - - - - - - - -
Fresh water and land Moll~sca 10 12 21 94 19 37 30 16 26
Esturine and Marine Mollusca - - - - 01 03 - - -
Echiura - - - - - - - -
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-t8 : Cont'd.
Taxanomic Groups Districts of West Bengal

; ~
= e= i ....== ~
°i :9
i=
~

~ := .... .; i"C
i= ~
'f
....
= =
~
.~
Q
==
f
i 1 f
== ~ ~
";
~
Annelida 25 12 23 54 29 17 25 18 16
Crustacea 04 32 06 11 48
33- 02 04 04
Insecta 293 203 254 3062 248 207 951 128 314
Xiphosura - - - - - - - - -
Araneae 04 14 23 . 103 20 31 208 14 20
Scorpion , - - 02 02 01 - - - -
Acari 41 88 43 228 32 60 116 26 44
Diplopoda - - - 18 01 01 - - -
Chilopoda 01 01 02 06 01 01 01 01 01
Phoronida - - - - - - - - -
Brachiopoda - - - - - - - - -
Freshwater Bryozoa 04 03 03 01 03 03 02 01 04
Echinodermata - - - - - - - - -
Hemichordata - - - - - - - - -
Chordata 115 77 52 584 114 89 461 77 83

Table-t8 : Cont'd.
Taxanomic Groups Districts of West Bengal
"C
. .
i"C= ~
! !
~ ~

:a ;a.&== ....= .;'l


;;=
~ ~

;a= i ~0 ] ....
fI.)
~
a.>
~= ~ ~ 0
Z rIJ tf Q== ~
Protozoa (free living) 13 20 31 48 58 17 28 128
Protozoa (symbiotic) 07 03 - 03 17 - - 107
Protozoa (parasitic) 48 56 162 109 118 38 31 258
Porifera - 03 01 . 04 02 01 01 05
Cnidaria - 13 - - 15 01 - 01
Ctenophora - 02 - - - - - -
Cestoda 18 11 06 13 14 08 05 58
Trematoda (excluding fish) 01 25 02 22 24 17 05 59
Trematode (fish) - 30 - - 26 - - 10
SANYAL et ale : Species Diversity in West Bengal 39

Table-18 : Cont'd.
Taxanomic Groups Districts of West Bengal
.
1
i l
: :;1"
~

~ ~ as
:a ~ as
~
Q.
;a= i ~
Rotifera
!
-
~
::;
28
~ ~
19
iQ
rIJ

102
1-
·ti
.$
Q

-
~
58
43
Gastrotricha - 14 - 04 12 - - -
Kinorhyncha - 02 - 02 02 - - -
Nematode (vertebrate) 12 04 - 19 18 02 05 174
Nematode (plant) 09 05 05 11 11 - 04 01
Acanthocephala - - - 01 01 - - 13
Sipuncula - 02 - - 01 - - -
Fresh water and land Mollusca 09 18 24 33 41 19 25 67
Esturine and Marine Mollusca - 51 - 03 73 01 - 10
Echiura - 03 - - 03 - - -
Annelida 16 39 18 11 80 18 18 45
Crusteacea 04 35 05 19 177 01 04 35
Insecta 289 275 216 286 352 285 79 1189
Xiphosura - 02 - - 02 - -
Araneae 16 24 29 80 73 05 11 98
Scorpion - 03 - 02 01 01 08
Acari 44 101 74 55 118 29 21 96
'Diplopoda - - - - - - - -
Chilopoda 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 02
Phoronida - 01 - - - - - -
Brachiopoda - 01 - - - - -
Freshwater Bryozoa 02 06 03 - - 03 02 04
Echinodermata - 14 - - 17 -
Hemichordata - - - 01 -
Chordata 74 154 146 257 364 99 48 129
40 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-19 : Distribution of species of Chordata in different districts of West Bengal.

Districts of West Bengal Chordate Groups

Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia

Bankura 09 14 65 27

Birbhurn 09 10 30 28

Barddharnan 04 08 130 30

DaIjiling 24 73 365 122

Haora 06 24 58 2·6

HugH 06 05 45 33

Jalpaiguri 12 42 323 84

Koch Bihar 10 03 36 28

Maldah 07 05 49 22

Murshidabad 08 08 34 24

Medinipur 11 19 79 45

Nadia 07 12 99 28

North 24 Pgs. 10 21 19 2. 34

South 24 Pgs. 09 56 260 39

Puruliya 08 07 48 36

Dinajpur 08 04 15 21

Kolkata 01 34 48 46
SANYAL et al. : Species Diversity in 'West B,engal 41

1.'1. Protozoa : Protozoa are single-celled number of species recorded from' 'K olkata
eukaryotic organisms, which are, with some (493)·
ex,c eptions visible only with the aid of a 1.2. Porifera : Commonly known ,a s
microscope. Found in each and every habitat 'Sponges', includes a group of sedentary.
of all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems as free- diploblastic, filter feeding, porous bodied
living, 'p arasitic or symbIotic. A total of 1136 anImals; mostly marine, but few occur in
species belonging to 53 orders, 155 families and freshwater. From tbe state only the freshwater
298 genera have so far been recorded fr'om the sponges belonging to the family Spongillidae
state Free living ,a nd parasit ic forms are have so far been recorded. A total of 16 species
represented by 131 and 144 genera distributed over '9 gener.a are known. Genus
respectively, while ' symbiotic species are Eunapius contains the maximum number (4)
distributed over 23 genera. Greatest species of species. Highest number of species recorded
div,e rsity is exhibited by the parasitic forms from Kolkata (5), while some of the districts
(743), followed by free -living (267) and' like Darjiling and Murshidabad so far have nQ
representatives.
symbiotic (126) (Text. fig. 13). However, the
free-living forms ' are distributed over highest 1.3. Cnidaria : Body wall two layered-
ectoderm and endoderm with an intvervening
number of orders (30) and families (74).
acellulor to rather cellulor jelly-like mesoglea.
Most of the fa~ilies like Noctiluidae,
Some ,e ctodennal cells modified . nto specialized
Cryptorconadidae, Chromulinidae, Bionyxidae,
element called cnidoblasts or nematoc) sts.
Monocercomonadidae, Bedonidae and Predominantly m,a rine. A total of 23 species
Ade eidae ,a re represented by single gener,a and belonging to 20 genera, 16 fami ies and 7 orders
single species, while some families exhibit gr~at are recorded from coastal waters .of West
number of genera and species such as Bengal. Except the family H,aliactiidae which is
Act inocephalidae (16 gen., 400 spp.), represented by 4 genera, except the fam ily
Ophryoscolecidae (9 gen., 94 spp,. ),Eim,e riidae Edwardsiidae and Catostylidae which contain 2
(9 gen., 124 spp.),Difflugiidae(6 gen., 36 spp,.)., genera ,each, rest 13 ,c ontain one genus each in
etc,. Among the genera highest species divers'ty the state. All the species ave been recorded
is represented In the genu~ Eimeria (71), from maritime distrIcts viz., Medinipur and
followed by Trypanosama (44). H ighest South 24 Par,ganas.

8100 743

7100

600

500
Paril~ltl
40()
mblotl(

300

200

100

0
Fam ily Genus Spec ~

Fig. 13 : Protozoa dive rsi~y in West Bengal.


42 Status of Biodiversity of West BeT:lgal

1.4. Ctenophora : Distinguished from recorded from the country. Among the Indian
Cnidarians by having eight meridional rows of states, West Bengal apparently harbours the
ciliary plates or combplates. So far only two highest number of species. Water bodies
species belonging to two genera and two families infested with different assemblages of aquatic
are known from the state. Both the species are macrophytes and ricefields exhibit richest
recorded only from the coastal waters of species composition. Overall diversity of 72
Medinipur and South 24 Parganas. species was recorded from these habitats of
1.5. Platyhelminthes : Body dorso-ventrally West Bengal (Sharma 1991). Highest number
flattened having an excretory or of species (102) is known from South 24
osmoregulatory system composed of Flame Parganas, followed by Kolkata (58).
cells. From pathogenic point of view this is one 1.8. Gastrotricha : Minute, unsegmented and
of the most important group of animals. A total free-living worms occurring in marine, brackish
of 248 species have been reported from the and freshwater habitats. Play an important role
state, i.e. about 15.25 percent of species known in trophic cycle by contributing remarkably to
from India. Out of four classes, two· viz., the regeneration of nutrients. Out of nine
Cestoda and Trematoda are fairly well families in the country, eight are represented
represented. Former contains 93 species under in the state by 15 genera and 24 species, i.e. 24
43 genera, while latter is represented by 155 percent of the total species of India. Family
species under 103 genera. Maximum diversity Chaetonotidae contains the highest number of
of species (127) is seen in Kolkata. genera (5) and species (11). Further, it is the
1.6. Nematoda: Nematodes or round worms only family whose members are represented
occur in every possible habitats as free-living, both in marine and freshwater, while others are
predaceous or parasitic in plants and animals. confined in the marine environ. Though most
Economically very important both in negative of the genera are represented in the state by
and positive aspects. About 306 species single species, but the genera Acanthodasys and
representing 10.65 percent of species known Polymerurus are truely monotypic. Maximum
from India is found in the state. Out of 306 number of species diversity (7) is exhibited by
species, 236 belonging to 113 genera have been the genus Chaetonotus. Medinipur and South
recorded from vertebrate hosts, while 70 24 Parganas contain 14 and 12 species
species under 25 genera from plants. Though respectively, while four species is known from
highest number of species (175) have been DaIjiling.
recorded from different vertebrate hosts in 1.9. Kinorhyncha : Microscopic, spiny,
Kolkata, but o~ly a single species of plant segmented worm like creatures living
nematode is known from the district. Plant exclusively in marine and estuarine sediments.
nematodes are best representd (18) in Darjiling Five species, i.e. 50 percent of Indian species,
district. under three fami~ies and three genera are met
1.7. Rotifera Pseudocoelomate in the state. Of the five species three belong to
microorganisms with disc-like anterior end. the genus Echinoderes, while the other two
Encountered in a wide range of aquatic and genera, viz., Sphenoderes and Pychophyes
semiaquatic environs particularly of contain one species each. Species of
freshwater. Rotifera contribute .significantly to Kinnorhyncha have been recorded from
overall biological productivity in fresh water Medinipur, South and North 24 Parganas
by. rapid turn over rate. So far, 147 species districts.
belonging to 30 genera are known from West 1.10. Sipuncula: Comprised of unsegmented
Bengal. i.e. about 44.54 percent of the species spiny, coelomate creatures inhabiting coral,
SANYAL et ale : Species Diversity 'in West Bengal 43

rocky, or muddy habitats of marine and species diversity could be observed in the genus
estuarine environments. Out of six families of Perionyx (18 spp.). Quite a number of species
the country, o~ly Sipunculidae is found in the like Plutllus ghumensis, Perionyx sikkimensis,
state and' rerepresented by three genera each Perionyx himalayanus and P. jorpolcriensis are
with single species. Known from Medinipur and restricted within the territory of West Bengal.
South 24 Parganas. Highest number of species is known from South
1.11. Echiura : Unsegmented, coelomate 24 Parganas (76), followed by Darjiling (53).
worms inhabiting intertidal to the abyssal .1.15. Arthropoda : One of the largest and
region. Out of four families of Indian waters, most successful group of animals in existence
only one, viz., Thalassematidae with 3 species today is the Arthropod group. Characterised by
under one genus is recorded from Kolkata and segmented bodies, paired segmented (or jointed
South 24 Parganas. appendages), and usually hard exoskeleton.
1.12. Phoronida : Includes slender, worm Occur in land, air and water; include animals
like, free-living, solitary and sedentary commonly known as lobsters, crabs, shrimps,
creatures housed in a self secreted tube. Of the centipeds, spiders, insects, etc. Diversity in
two genera of the world, only the genus some major classes is discussed below.
Phoronis is found in India ,with three species.
1. IS.A.Crustacea : Head bearing two pairs
West Bengal contains only one species, viz.,
of antennae and nearly every body segment
.Phoronis bhaduraii. The species is so far
with one pair of legs. Majority are aquatic living
recorded only from sandy beach of Digha coast
in marine, brackish or freshwater, but land
in Medinipur.
forms are also found. Represented in the state
1.13. Bryozoa : Sessile, lophophorate,
by S orders, 4S families, 13S genera and 2S1
colonial, coelomate animals with recurved species, the last one being over 8.S3 percent of
digestive tract, living in marine, estuarine and that in India. Maximum number of species (177)
freshwater. Only the freshwater Bryozoans recorded from South 24 Parganas., followed by
belonging to three families, five genera and nine Haora (48) while it is poorly represented in
species have been recorded from West Bengal. Puruliya (1).
Family Plumatellidae is represented by three
.genera, while other two contain one genus each. 1.1S.B. Insecta : Largest group among
Highest species diversity is exhibited by the animals and plants. Body divided into three
genus Plumatella having four species. Though segments, pair of antennae at the top of head,
only 9 species have been recorded, but it is three pairs of segmented legs. As per current
represented in the freshwater environs of all estimate there are 61238 species of insects in
the districts, while maximum number of species India spreading over 619 families and 25-30
(6) is known from Medinipur. orders (number varying with different
authorities). Distribution of insect species in
1.14. Annelida: True worms with a linear
different districts of West Bengal is shown in
series of similar body segments. Marked
Table 20 and Fig.14. Species diversity in some
externally by intersegmented grooves.
major insect orders of the state is considered
Distributed over all the ecosystems. A total of
194 species, i.e. 23.09 percent of the Indian below:
species are known to occur in the state and Thysanura : Popularly known as 'Silver fish',
distributed over three classes, viz., Polychaeta, soft bodied, wingless, scaled insects. Found on
Oligochaeta and Hirudinea. Many of the the forest floor; under bark, rock; nests of
families like Lumbricidae, Naididae, termites and ants; decomposing litter; books
Megascolecidae exhibit great generic diversity and other house hold goods. Out of five Indian
holding 6,7 and 7 genera repectively. Rich families, two, viz., Lepismatidae and Ateluridae
44 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-2o : Distribution of species of insects in the districts of West Bengal.


Taxanomic Groups Districts of West Bengal
; {;
('d
§ €~ ~ °i :9=
i= '5 ~~
eJ1114
,.d
~
:= f eJ1114 e;

'f ~
e;
i 1 ~ ~
= =
eJ1114
Q ~ ~
== ==
Thysanura 04 01 02 03 - - - - -
Collembola - - - 03 02 - - - -
~iplura - - - - - - - - -
Odonata 26 19 11 96 28 09 53 11 21

Plecoptera - - - 21 - - - - -
Embioptera Locality not known
Orthoptera 34 31 29 137 24 12 66 29 35

Dermoptera 05 03 - 67 02 01 06 - 04

Ephemeroptera 05 03 03 07 - - 15 - 05

Mantida 01 02 02 15 01 02 02 01 02

Phasmida - - - 17 - - 02 - -
Dictyoptera 09 06 03 17 03 01 . 09 02 09

Isoptera 04 03 04 20 01 04 10 06 02

Psocoptera 01 - 01 17 04 03 02 - -
Hemiptera 45 17 24 474 35 22 178 23 32

Anoplura - - 04 - - - - - -
Thysanoptera 17 23 - 40 27 04 02 22 -
Neuroptera 04 01 08 39 02 02 01 - 01

Mecoptera Locality not known


Coleoptera 56 38 34 1100 53 82 335 26 78
Siphonoptera Locality not known
Strepsiptera - - 12 - - 01 - - 04
Diptera 25 11 78 187 15 21 20 02 27
Lepidoptera 48 40 26 518 32 34 213 06 92
Trichoptera 02 02 01 34 - - 01 - 01

Hymenoptera 07 03 12 250 19 09 36 - 01
SANYAL et al. : Species Diversity in West Bengal 45

.Table-2o : Cont'd.
Taxanomic Groups Districts of west Bengal
• •
1 ! !
i'tS ~
: •
~
~
:a
i~
N
• i ~ ~
j
1~
fIJ e;a
~
~ ~ ~ =
r/.) ~
Thysanura 03 1 - 02 01 03 - 06
Collembola - - 04 02 03 - - 11
Diplura - - - - - 01 - -
Odonata 14 26 02 07 26 08 17 41
Plecoptera - - - - - - - -
Embioptera Locality not known
Orthoptera 26 39 27 08 30 31 11 34
Dermoptera - .04 01 01 03 04 - 08

Ephemeroptera 01 04 03 08 07 04 03 08

Mantida 02 05 06 03 06 02 01 06

Phasmida - - - - 01 - - 08

Dictyoptera 04 03 03 02 01 - 08 07
Isoptera.
--'
07 15 10 08 08 01 - 15
Psocoptera - 01 - 04 01 - - 08

Hemiptera 34 40 38 46 56 26 16 205
Anoplura - 04 - - 02 07 - 02

. Thysanoptera 19 04 06 02 32 08 02 33
Neuroptera - 04 05 10 10 - - 11

Mecoptera Locality not known


Coleoptera 110 68 53 64 95 28 12 355
Siphonoptera Locality not known
Strepsiptera - - 02 01 - - - 01

Diptera 15 15 24 36 16 16 - 55
.Lepidoptera 47 35 17 51 35 14 07 314

Trichoptera 01 - - - - 01 01 03

Hymenoptera 06 07 15 31 19 07 01 58
Status of .Btodiversity of West .Bengal

Kolk t
ch _,.r-. .......

2 POS (

Fig. 14 : Species div'ersity 'of insect fauna in differe. t distdcts of West Bengal.
are known from West Bengal. The former is· Plecoptera : Found in ,a nd around high
represented by 7 species under five genera, altitude hil streams. Out of 113 Indian species,
,a tter by two species and two ge er.a. 21 species Leo 18.58 percent belong'ng to 10
CoUembola : Wingless, having spring lOke g'e nera and 4 families are represented in West
forked jumping organ underneath the fourth BengaL Fa'm ilies Nemouridae andPerlidae
abdominal segment. Found in huge number ,c ontain four g'e neraeach, while the g,e nus
specially in soil rich with organic metter Amphinemoura of the former fam 'ly holds the
,content. Though as many as 210 species have hig est number of species (5). All the species
been recorded from India but only 15 (7.14 are confined to Darjiling district.
per,cent) species found in West Bengal. All the Orthop,te~a : 'C ontains grass oppers, locusts,
I

15 splecies belong to two families and 10 genera. crickets, etc., in which forewings f~nn more or
Recorded only from 11 districts of the state and less thickened tegmina with submarginal costal
highest number of species (10) known from vein. Found m,a in_y in grasslands, forests., crop
Kolkata. fields, sandy tracts and also in snow-c ad
Odonata : Odonata or 'Dragon flies' are mountains. One of larg,e st orders of insects,
amphibiotic, spending major part of life cycle holdin,g over 17250 species in the world and
in water and adults are flying. In India, total of 1750 spp. in India. Nearly 11.88 percent of
499 species belonging to 17 families are found. Indian species, i.e., 210 species spreading over
West Bengal has the r,e presentatives of 15 126 genera and 12 families are met with in the
families with 93 genera and 180 species, Le., state. Fami yAcrid dae is repres'e nted with
0

3 ,. 21 percent of the country's fauna. Family highest number of genera (46) as well as species
Libellulidae has the highest number of genera (61). However, ,g reatest species diversity (7) is
(32), while the genera Agriocnemis and displayed by genus Bollivaritellix of the family
Pseudagrion of tbe fami y Coenagrionidae Tetrigidae and Pt,e ronemobius of the family
contain the highest number of species (7). Gryllidae. Darjiling possesses highest
Maximum species diversity (96) is observed in number of species (137) followed by Jalpaiguri
Darjiling, fo lowed by Jalpaiguri (53). (66).
SANYAL ,et al. : Species Diuersity in West Bengal 47

Dermapte.ra: Commonly known as "Earwigs' species (12).. D,a rjilin,g shows the gr,e at,e st
and distingu~ shed by the presen~e ~f a pair of species diversity (67), while there is no re,c ord
unsegmented, chitino~ forceps at hind end of of this group ,' 0 many of the districts, obviously
the body.. Found mainly nearw,a terbodies, due to lack of explorations.
under stones, leaf-litter, decaying books and Mantodea : Known as 'Prayin.g Mantis' as
other similar p aces. All the 7 families recorded ,adults ho d their grasping for,elegs in Namaste'
4

from India are represented in t!1e state. Out of posture while w~tin,g for prey. Occur in gr,e en
320 Indian species, 79 species (24.68 percent) vegetable and different plant parts. Out o.f 8
under 36g,e nera ,a re known from the state. families:, 68 genera and 162 species occurring
Highest generic diversity (8) is exhibited by the in India, state has the share of 7 families, 24
family Forficulidae, and the genus Forficula of genera and 35 species (Text-fig. IS). Darjiling
the same family ,contains highest number of ,contains the maximum number of species (1,5).
Ind ia _ W st B ngal

,8 0
1 ,6 0
,4 0
120
10 0
80
60
40
20
o
G nus Sp I S

Fig. 15 : Diversity .n Mantodea of West Bengal as compared to India.


Dictyoptera . (Blattariae) : Includes and 12 families occur, of which 23 species under
'Cockroaches, in which bead mostly or 17 gener;aand 8 families are represented in the
completely covered above by a large shield- state (Text-fig. 16). Highest generic diversity
(5) as well ,a s species diversity (7) is exhibited
pronotum .. Found under stones, e,a f litter,
in the family Blattidae. Maximum number of
drains; domestic dark areas, food corners, etc. species is known from Darjiling (17), follov.red
In India, 186 species spreadin.g over 58 genera by Jalpaiguri and Maldah with 9 species each.

2010 8
1,8 0
1 60
1 40
1 20
In
10 0
'W f IS n .:II
80
60
40
20 12 8
0
F mily. G flU

Fig.. 16 : Diversity in Dictyoptera of West Bengal as comp,a red to India.


Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Isoptera : Inc udes ~Termites', recognized by respect of number of genera (15) and species
broad and grinding~bitting type of mandible. (34), while the family Stylotermitidae is
monotyp· c, co tahiing single genus
Favoured habitats are logs; mud mounds; under
Stylotermes,. Highest species divers·ty' (9) is
stones; wood-work, etc. In West Bengal, 52
observed in the g,e nus Odontotermes of the
species belonging to 23 genera and 4 families fami y Termitidae. 'T hese cre,a turesare well
occur ,as ,against 253 under 54 genera and 7 represented in the forested tracts of DaIjiling
families of India (Text-fig,.17).. Family as 'well as urban areas of Kolkata, which support
Termitidae is est represented in the state in 29 and 5 species respectively.
300
253
250

,2 00

ISO
India
• West Ben,g,a l
100

SO
7 4

Genus Spec ies

Fig_ 17 ': Diversity in Isoptera of West Bengal as compar,ed to India.


Psocoptera : Psocids or 'Booklice' ,a re small, ,aquatic, semiaquatic and terrest~ial habitats.
soft-bodied, subglobular insects found amidst One of the largest exopterygote insect groups,
old stalk of papers/books, and among foliage . and there are about 6500 spec' es in India
Out of 16 families occulTing in the country, as distr 'buted over '77 families. From the state,
many as 15 are found in the state harbouring 966 species (14.87 percent of countIy's total)
24 gener.a ,a nd 39 species, i.e., 43.33 percent of under 50S genera have been reported. Species
the species reported from India. Ten out of 15 of the families Aphididae:, Membracidae,
families of the .state have representative of one Cercopidae, Fulgoridae, Cicadellidae,
genus each, whi e fami y Pseudocaeci iidae Belostomatidae, N,ep· dae, G~rridae, Velidae,
contains ,a s many as four genera. Genus etc. are well distributed throughout testate.
Peripsocus of the family Perip~ocidae and genus A good number of species are known from
,Cae,cecilius of the family 'Caeciliidae coantain almost all the districts; but Dmjiling surpasses
five species each, Many of the districts, viz., all others by 0 ding 4'74 species followed by
Birbhum, Murshidabad, Nadia, Dinajpur, Koch- Kolkata (205).
Bihar, Maldah, Puruliya do not have any record Trichoptera : Hairy-w·nged insects,
of Psocopteran insects, and Darjiling holds the popularly known as 'Caddis flies', Though as
highest numberofspec'es (17). Species richness many as 812 species under 112 genera and 19
in D,arjiling d' strict indlcates that absence of fam' les ave been reported from India, only
these creatures in neighbouring districts is only 44 spe,cies (5.41 of country's total) spreading
due to lack of proper taxonomic ,explor.ation, over 26 genera and 10 families (Text-fig.l,s) are
Hemiptera : Known as "Bugs', have pier,cing known from the state. Majority of the species
and sucking type of mouth parts. Found in (34) are known from Darjiling, whi e no record
SANYAL et ,al. : Species Diversity in 'West Bengal 49

900
81 2
800
7100
600

500
India
400
W Sl B n al
300 '
200
1 12
100
1'9 0
o
amily Genus Sp , j, s

Fig. 18 : Diversity in Trichoptera of West Beng.al as compared to India.

of thes,e insects could be found from total of 14 species belonging to 7 g'e nera and 2
Murshidabad, Nadia, Medinipur, North-24 families have been recorded from the state.
Parganas and others. Highest species diversity (5) is expressed by the
Thy,s anoptera : One of th,e smallest ,genus Tridactylophagus of the family
Pterygote insects having fringe-wings; mainly Halictophagidae,. There is no record of these
assoc· ated with plants. Out of fiv,e families insects from many of the districts, \"hile
occurring in India, four viz., Aeolothripidae, Barddhaman has the highest number of speci1es
Merothripidae, Thripidae and Phlaeothripidae (12).
occur in the state and represented by 124
D.iptera : Comprises of mosquitoes" midges.
species (17.89 percent of Indian species) under
flies; exhibits a great diversity of habits,
75 genera. Highest number of species is found
habitats ,a nd species composition. India holds
in Darjilin,g (40).
nearly 6093 species under 1075 genera ,and 87
Neuroptera : &ecognised by the fine network
families of which West Bengal sharing 413
of veins of generally transparent wings. Adults
species (6.8 percent of country's total)
mainly occupy grasslands, . folia,g e and cr,o p
spr'e ading over 143 ,g enera and 21 families.
fields. India harbours 335 species belonging to
Maximum species diversity (187) is obser\'~d
125 genera ,a nd 13 families. Out of 13 families,
in Darjiling distr"ct.
12 are represented in the state" harbouring 73
species (22.08 percent of Indian species) Lepidoptera; Scale-winged insects; includes
beloD,g ing to 49 genera. Highest number of butterflies andmotbs which mainly occur on
spec·es (39) are met in Darjiling district. green ve,getation. About IS00'O species under
Coleopte~a : Coleopteran insects or beetles 84 families hav'e been reported from Indi.a~ of
represent the largest groups of organism at the which West Bengal bas the representath't's of
order level a:n d are recognized by much De,arly 1020 species (6.80 percent of the tota1
thi'c kened, veinless front wings. India holds Indian species) distributed under 532 gene.",
about 1.5,500 species and West Bengal shares and 33 families. In the state, highest gent.'ril'
1.570 species under 524 genera and 25
families. diversity (110) is exhibited by the fa nd ly
Highest number of speci1es (1100) are recorded Pyralidae" followed by Sphlngidae (72). (rer us
fromD,atjiling. Dasychira of tbe family Sphingidae, and ]Vcptis
Strepsiptera : These ar'e entomopha,gus of the family Nymphalidae contain the hi~h\~st
parasitoids, commonly known as 'Stylops'. A number of species (14). Greatest nunlber of
50 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

speci'es (5 18) is known from Darjiling, followed of tbeworld, two belonging to tw'o different
by Kolkata (314). gener.a are found in India ,a nd both of them have
Hymenoptera : The Hymenopteran insects been recorded from Medinipur and South 24
Parganas districts of West Bengal.
include bees, wasps, ants, etc., and occur in
diverse habitats, such as, plants, soils, domestic I. S.D. Arachnida: Scorpions, spiders, ti,cks,
I

areas and also as parasites of other insects. 'O f mites,etc., are included under this class and
charact~rized by absence of antennae, and body
nearly 10000 Indian species, 430 (4.30
percent) species under 180 genera and 12 of two parts, viz., cephalathorax and abdomen.
As 'm any ,a s 5818 specie,s of Arachnids
families have been reported from West Bengal.
belonging to 7 orders are known from India.
DaIjiling contains the highest number of species
Frpm the state though near y 1094 species have
(250).
been recorded, but majority of them belong to
I.IS.C. Xiphosura : Composed almost two orders, viz., Araneae and Acari, while othe
entirely of extinct forms and commonly known orders are yet to be explored properly..
as "King Crabs' or ' Horse shoe 'Crabs' ~ Occur in Diversity in some arachnid groups .n the state
marine, estuarine and occasionally in is shown In figs. 19 and 20. The' r distribution
fr,eshwaters. Out of four lOving known species in the districts is shown in Table 21.
Fa lm ily G enus Species

200

1 10 00

800

400

2QO

A(:~ri I( Mites & Ti k s ) S orpion

, ngal.

pid Scorpion Acari


230

150

100

SO

.-..
0
; Ii ; .f ;
.'i
~
."
!3
i ~ rn
~


.c
:f! :5 ."

CD
~
t
0 II :J:!
·11
Q
eQ
...., -50
::s -
-c :z :5 ~
Po. ~
~

Fig. 20 : Diversity in some Arachnida in different districts of West B'eogal.


SANYAL et al. : Species Diversity in West Bengal 51

Table-21 : Distribution of species of arachnida in the districts of West Bengal.

Number of Species
Districts Acarina Other
Arachnida
Meta- Asti- Prosti- Meso-· Cryp- Total Ara- Scorp-
stig- . gmata gmata stig- tostig- Acari neae iones
mata mata mata

Bankura 3 x 22 9 7 41 4 x

Birbhum 2 x 9 4 73 88 14 x

Barddhaman 3 4 13 3 20 43 23 2

Kolkata 10 28 27 2 29 96 98 8

Dmjiling 17 2 52 39 118 228 103 2

Haora 3 4 10 4 11 32 20 1
.
Hugli 4 14 30 4 8 60 31 x

Jalpaiguri 15 x 25 16 60 116 208 x

Koch Bihar 3 1 8 7 7 26 14 x

Maldah 4 1 19 14 6 44 20 x

Murshidabad 3 x 14 15 12 44 16 x

Medinipur 6 6 51 17 21 101 24 3

. Nadia 3 4 42 3 22 74 29 x

North 24 Pgs. 6 1 12 7 29 55 80 2

South 24 Pgs. 4 x 52 16 46 118 73 1

Purulia 5 x 8 7 9 29 5 1

W. Dinajpur 3 x 5 4 9 21 11 x
52 Status of ,Biodiversity oj West Bengal

Araneae: Spiders are grouped under this Suborder Astigmata is best represented in
order. Out of 46 families., 240 ge ,e ra and 1035 Kolkata having ,28 species., while Datji ing oids
species of India ,3'7 families, 169 gener,a and 409 the maximum number of species for all other
(39.5 percent of Indian spe,cies) spec'es are suborders.
represented in the state,. Family Ar,a neidae 1.16. Mollusca: Soft-bodied. animals, but
includes the maximum number of genera (18), majority of the species covered by one or more
while the genus Oxyopes under t e family bard calcareO'us shel '. Adapted to diverse
Oxyopidae bolds the highest number of species habitats frO'm deep sea to' high bills. Overall
(15). District J alpaiguri exhibits richest sp'ecles species dive sity of Indian marine molluscs is
diversity (208), followed by Kol ata (98), much higher than that of the ,c ombined
A,cari : Comprising ticks and mites in which freshwater and terrestrial ecosystem. M,a rine
somatic segmentation is inconspicuous or Ecosystem in India contains ,3 440 species
absent. There are ,a bout 2186 Indian species under 521 genera and 247 fam·lies as against
spreading over 5 subO'rders, 207 familIes and 1712 species under 193 genera and 48 families
64,3 gen,e ra. All the suborders are fairly of freshwatet: and terrestrial ecosystems.
represented in the state and species diversity However, in the context of West Bengal,
under e,ach suborder .s provided in Table 22. reverse is true (Text. fig. 21). Fresbwater and
Tab e-22 : Species diversity of different terrestrial ec:osystems su port 180 species
suborders of Acari in West Bengal. ' under 70 genera and 35 fam' ieswhilethere are
94 spec'es belO'nging to ,65 genera, 42 families
Suborders No. of No. of No. of
F am
' •• in marine and estuarine ecO'systems. Family
_le~ Genera Species
Ariophantidae and Cyclophoridae show higbest
Astigmata ...
8 19 33 generic divesity (7) in land a d freshwater, and
MesO'stigmata 7 15 66 familyN'eritidae has highest numbe of genera
Metasti,gma a 'I 9 ,32 (5) in marine water. MO'st of the marine genera
CryptO'stigmata 61 are represented by single species, but Nactica
42 282
(F.amily Nact'cidae) and Stenothyr,a (Family
Prostigmata 29 121 2sB
StenO'thyridae), contain four speci,e s each.
i Total I
106 306 6'71 Among the freshwater and land molluscs, genus

120 r-~----------------~~~~------------~~~~

100

CII
q)
80
u
~ 60
(f)
..

40
20

c:
(U ::l (U ~ :;I
E 0) ~ 9- c.
«) (5 ro (ij c If)
en
(/I ro
£.
:x:: «l C. .c ~ -0 CL
0)
0..
:;I c
~ 0 (ij (,) £.
<f)
ell a.. c5
'E
(U
J 0
:x:: :; ~ '<:t
N
oq'
N
CD ~

Freshwater & Land Marine

F· g. 21 : Faunal Diversity of Mollusca in West Bengal.


· SANYAL et ai. : Species Diversity in West Bengal 53

Macrochalamys (Family Ariophantidae) holds 1.18. Remichordata : A so-called notochord


as many as 18 species, followed by the genus present in the middle of the body. Occur from
Parreysia (Family Amblemidae) containin,g 13 intertidal zone to deep sea. Out of 12 Indian
species. Highest number of land and fres water species, only one under the genus Saccoglossus
mo us'c an species (94) reported from DaIjiling, has been recorded from saline marshy areas of
,and district South 24 Pgs. is richest (73) in Sundarban.
respect of marine mollusca.
1.19. Vertebrate : Vertebrat,e fauna of the
1.17. Echinodermata: Characterised by state comprises 36.75% of all known
water vascular system of coelomic origin, with
vertebrates in the country ~ext. fig,. 22).
radiating canals and pentamerous arrangement
of body organs. Occur in sandy, muddy, rocky Pisces : PoikiIothermus, have gills for
,and coral environments from intertidal zone to respiration and one of the most important
deep sea. 'O nly a very small percentag'e of components of aquaticecos~st,ems . .A total of
Indian species (2.74 percent) is known from the 2634 species belonging to 969 ,g'e nera, 254
,s tate. There are 22 species spreading over 18 families have been estimated from Indian
.genera, 14 families and 4 orders.reported from waters. West Bengal represents 403 m,a rine
Medin·pur, Sout 24Parganas and Hug i species under 25 0 genera, and 207 freshwater
1

districts. species under 113 gene a.


Familv GeniUS Species

900 846
800
700 610
600
500
400
300
200
100
o
Mammall R ptl"" A mphlbl.) Ish

'g. 22: V rt brat dh er it ' in We"t Bengal.

11

10
- Baa Birb UR)
Haora Hu~i
lidabad Nadia
Pundiy DPur

Fig. 23 : Amphibian Diversity in differ~nt districts of West Bengal.


54 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

. Amphibia : Poikilothermus, with smoot Reptili,a : Poiklltothermus, having body


skin. Lead a imodallife', water as well as on covering of scales,. Found both in aquatic and
land. From the country 289 species belong' g terrestrial environment. Nearly, 456 species
to 38 genera, 3 families ,a nd 3 orders areimown, under 19 families and three orders are known
from India, out of which 148 species spreading
out of which 39 species under 24 genera, 8
over 76 genera, 9 families and three orders
fa iliesand 3 orders recorded from the state.
are found in West Bengal. A family of snakes,
Family DicrQglossidae i~ r,epresented by highest
viz., Colubridae under order Squam,a ta exhibits
number of gener,a (7) and species (14) .. Darjiling the highest generic (30) ,as well as species (62)
not only contain~ highest number of species diversity. Maximum number ofspecies (62)
(24), but also all the .three orders, viz., Anura:, reoorded from South 24 Parganas. Diversity in
caudata and Gymnophiona, while in the rest of reptilian spec·es in different districts of West
the state only the order Anura has been Bengal is shown in fig. 24.
recorded. Diversity in amphib' an in differ,e It Av,es : BoOdy covered with feathers.
districts of West Bengalis shown in fig. 23. Distributed over almoOst all the ecosystems.

73

ig. 24 : Reptile dh ersity in diEt r nt distri t of W t B ngal

36..

Otl ih
2 PO (N)
Puru . Din ~p

Fig. 25 : Avian diversity in d'fferent districts of West Bengal.


SANYAL et a.l. : Species Diversity in West Bengal 55
While India' has 12,3 2 species and subspecies belonging to 1.07 genera, 47 families and 13
under 405 genera, 78 families and 20 orders, orders are known. West Bengal shares 188
West Bengal can boast of supporting 846 species and subspecies under 110 g,e nera and
sp,ecies and subspecies under 271 genera, 57 32 families, and 12 orders. Order Chiroptera,
families and 16 orders. However, many of the containing the fiying mammals, ,exhibits ,greatest
species are only seasonal visitors of the state. species diversity (60) under 7 families, followed
Greatest diversity could be observed in the by the order 'R odentia with 40 species ,a nd ,3
orders P,a sseriformes, containing 26 fam 'lies families. The order Carnivora holds the highest
104 gener,a ,a nd 276 species and subspe,eies. number of families (8). District-wise
District..;wise avi.an sp,e c'es d'versity is shown mammalian species diversity is shown in Text.
in Te.xt. fig. 25. Darjiling holds the bi,g hest fig. ,2 6. District Darjiling repres'e nts the
number of species (424). 'maximum number of species (122), followed by
Mammalia: Body covered with hairs at least Jalpaiguri (84). For the sake of conservation,
during some period of life ,cycle. Found in all at least 65 mammalian species of West Bengal
types of habitats exhibitingg eatest adaptive found place in ,the Schedules of Indian Wildlife
radiation. From the country ,3 97 species (Protection) Act, 1972.

- B. UDl
Hu_ I
Nadia r
• Din ~p

Fig. 26 : M,a mmalian Diversity in different districts of West Beng,a t

II. Domestic biodive'r sity : Yei ding Varieties, many .of tbese breeds IHlYt,
been wiped out..
Since the earliest stage of human civilization,
a large number of plant and anim,al species are IILl. Fauna: So far, only .a fe\v species of
animals have been dOlnesticated by the Inunan
being domesticated or brought under
bein,g s. In the state lnost .of th'e dOnlt'~l it-
cu tivation. During domestication, a large
species have a fairly good nUlnber of hrt\~'d~
number of breeds or varieties for each of the and many of thenl were brought fronl ot hl'r
species have been produced for getting better parts of the country, Sonle of the hnportan l
yeild. However, after the introduction of Hi,gh breeds are mentioned belo\\.
56 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

i. Cattle: native to -the state. According to Dr. A.


Milk breeds: a. Sahiwal, b. Sindhi, c. Gir, Chatterjee, Ex-Director, State Veterinary
d. Deoni Dual purpose breed (Haryana, Ongole, Department, following breeds inay be
Thar Parkar, Kankrej). considered original to the state.
Draught breeds : a. Amrit Mahal, b. Malvi, Cattle : Siri-fum DaIjiling-Almost extinct.
C. Kangayam, d. Siri, e. Halli Kar. Goat : a. Black Bengal Goat-South and
ii. Buffaloes : North 24 parganas and Hugli, b. Brown Bengal
a. Murrah, b. Jaffarabad, c.. Nili, d. Ravi, e. Goat-Maldah, c. White Bengal Goat-North and
Bhadawari, f. Surti. South Dinajpur.
Sheep : Goral-South 24 Parganas.
iii. Goat:
Poultry : Assel-Bankura, Birbhum,
a. Kashmiri, b. Gaddi, c. J amunapuri, d.
Puruliya.
Barbari, e. Beetal, f. Berari, g. Surti, h. Bengal
Goat. Apart from these, various breeds of dogs
(Canis sp.), native or exotic species of fish
iv. Sheep:
(Salmotrutta ferio, Trouts-Salmo gairdneni,
a. Gaddi, b. Bhakarwal, c. Gurej, d. Chokla,
Cyprinus carpio, Grass carp-
e. Magra, f. Nali, g. Marwari, i. Sonadi, j.
Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Silver carp-
Kathiwari, k. Deccani, 1. Nellore, m. Bellary, n.
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Tilapia-
Mandya, o. Goral, p. Shahabadi.
Oreochromis mosambicus, Nile Tilapia-O.
v. Pigs: niloticus, Gambusia-Labestes reticulatus, Thai
a. Deshitype, b. Exotic types (Large white, Magur-Clarias ganepenis), Prawns (Penaeus sp.
Middle white, Yorkshire, Landrace, Tamworth, Palaemon sp.), crabs (Portunus sp., Potamon
Saddleback, Hampshire). sp.), Silk moths (Bombyx mori, B. fortunatus,
vi. Poultry : B. nistry) , Lac insect (Tachardia lacca) and
At least 16 breeds are found of which Rhode Honey bees (Apis mellifera, A. indica, A. florea)
Island Red, Leghorn, Sussex, Minorea and have been brought under total or part
Deshi are worth mentioning. domestication.
Though a large number of breeds of all the III.2. Flora : Diverse and favourable
above are maintained in the firms, poultry and agroclimatic condition; special interest and
individual houses, but only few breeds are encouragement of Zamindars, Nawabs and

Fruit Crops Varieties


xvi. Mango Fajli, Langra, Himsagar, Bombai, Golapkhas, Lakshmanbhog,
(Mangifera indica) Champa, Chandankosa, Anaras, Gopalbhog, Safdar Pasand, Rani
Pasand, Shorikhas, Surjapuri, Ashwina, Kohitoor, Kalapahar,
Dilshad, GauIjit, Nawab Pasand, Sutan Pasand, Sinduria, Amrapali,
Mallika, Madhu Kulkuli, etc. and number is above 150.
ii. Banana Champa, Chini Champa, Manik Champa, Kanthali, Mulbhog,
(Musa sapientum) Dudha, Kalibow, Martaman, Sabri, Kabuli, Giant Governor,
Robusta, Amritasagar, Baise, Agnishwar, Kanaibashi, Anupam,
Duds agar, Beecha, Chini Beecha, Mandira, Beula, etc.
iii. Pineapple Giant Kew, Queen, Baruipur Local, Singapore, Ceylon, Jaldhup,
Mauritious.
SANYAL et ale : Species Diversity in West Bengal 57

iv. Litchi (Nephelium litchi) Bombai, Muzaffarpur, China, Elachi, Kashba, Purbi, etc.
v. Guava (Psidium guyava) Khaja, Kashi, L-49, Kafri, Apple, Safeda, Red Fleshed, Seedless.
vi. Papaya Washington, Honey Dew, Ranchi, Solo, CO 1 to CO 5.
vii. Sapota (A'chras sapota) Cricket Ball, Bahara, Gandevi Baroda, Dhakai, Small Oval, Badami.
viii. Citrus Fruits (Citrus sp.) Limes, Lemons (Gandharaj, Seedless, Kadamba), Pummelo
(Stalkart, Krishnagar 1, Krishnagar 3), Sweet Lime, Mandarin
Orange, Sweep Orange and many others.
ix. Coconut (Cocos EC Tall, WCT, Local, Hazari, Hybrid, TXD, DXT, Malayan Dwarf.
nucifera)
X. Cashew (Anacardium Depali, and few others.
accidentale)
B. Vegetables
i. Cauli flower Jawahor Moti, Early Kuanri, Early Patna, Kalimpong. Dania,
Snowball, Daina, Synthetic, Kalimpong Snowball, Pusa Dipali,
Benaras, Jaspanese.
ii. Cabbage Golden Acre, Pride of India, Kalimpong English Ball, Kalimpongl;
Eclipse Drumhead.
iii. Garden peas Early Giant, Meteor, Arkel Alderman, New Line Perfection,
(Psidium sativum) Bonneville, Jawahar Matar, Krishnagar Dwarf.
iv. Tomato (Lycopersicum Sioux, Pusa Ruby, S-12, Punjab Topic, Roma Super, Marglobe,
esculentum) Krishnagar S 20.
v. Raddish Kalpin Red, Kalimpong Red, Krishnagar Red Bombai, Contai, Long.
vi. Beet Crimson Globe, Detroit Dark Red.
vii. Carrot Pusa Kesar, Nantes.
viii. Turnip Purple Top, White Globe, Snowball.
xi. Onion (Allium cepa) Pusa Ratnar, Nasik Red, Pusa Red, Red Globe.
x. Lady's Finger Pusa Sawani, Parwani Kranti.
(Hibiscus esculentus)
xi. Chilli Suryamukhi, G-3, NP 46 A, Patnai, Pusa Jwala, Bullet, Sali, Siti
Sagar, Sundari.
xii. Pumpkin Chaitali, Barsati.
(Cucurbita pepo)
xiii. Cucumber Japanese Long green, Poinseti, Krishnagar Selection.
(Cucumis sativus)
xiv. Brinjal Pusa Kranti,Pusa Purple, Makra, Cluster, Pusa Purple Long,
(Solanum melongena) Muktakeshi, Noorki, Paiva Tuni, Rajpur Selection, Rajkrishna,
.Purple Round, Green Long.
xv. Bottle Gourd Pusa Summar, Desi Long, Bajoral Selection.
(Lagenaria vulgaris)
xvi. Sweet Potato Pusa sunheri, Pusa Safed, Pusa Lal.
(Ipomoea batalus)
58 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

wealthy pearsons; success of commercial particularly in areas where modern agricultural


horticulture and crop research centers; and facilities have not yet been reached.
several other factors make West Bengal, not In case of cereals, different kinds such as
only very rich in species of cereals, vegetables indigenous, improved indigenous variety (IIV),
and fruits but also varieties in each of them. A High yeilding variety (HYV), and Hybrids are
glimpse of this richness in respect of variety is met with. Each of these kinds are represented
provided below in a tabular form. by a number of varieties. However, depending
Above description of varieties within the on the agroclimatic condition and irrigation
different species of fruits and vegetable is far facilities some amount of geographical variation
from the complete. Numerous unnamed could be found in respect of number and
varieties of each of them are being cultivated prevalent varieties under cultivation in the
and maintained mainly by the tribals different districts as detailed below.

Crops Varieties Number


DARJILING: KHARIF
Paddy Indigenous 1

IIV 3
HYV 2

Maize Indigenous 1

Hybrids 2

Finger Millet Indigenous Several


Buck Wheat . Indigenous 1

Mashiam Kalai Indigenous 1

Soyabean IIV 2

RABI
Wheat HYV 1

Mustard IIV 2

Rai Sag Indigenous 1

JALPAIGURI : KHARIF
Paddy (Aus) Indigenous 1
Paddy (Arnan) Indigenous 10

HYV 10

RABI
Italian Indigenous 1
Sesame Indigenous 1

HYV 1
Mustard Indigenous 1

IIV 2

Wheat HYV 2
SANYAL et· ale : Species Diversity in West Bengal 59

Crops Varieties Number


NORTH DINAJPUR : KHARlF
Paddy (Aus) 11V 1
HYV 10
Paddy (Arnan) Indigenous 6
IIV 2

HYV 28

Kulthi Kalai Indigenous 1


Arahar Indigenous 1
IIV 1
Kalai Indigenous 1
IIV 1
Maize Hybrid 3
Bajra Indigenous 1
RABI
Paddy (Boro) HYV 14
Wheat HYV 8

Lentis IIV 2

Gram Indigenous 1
Khesari IIV 1
Mustard IIV 3
.Groundnut IIV 3
Sesame Indigenous 1
IIV 1
KOCHBIHAR :
KHARIF
Paddy Indigenous 2

IIV 1
HYV 8

Bajra Indigenous 1
Jower Indigenous 1
RABI
Indian Millet Indigenous 2

Mustard IIV 2

Sesame Indigenous 1
IIV 1
Khesari Indigenous 1
60 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Crops Varieties Number


MURSHIDABAD :
KHARIF
Paddy (Aus) HYV 5
Paddy (Arnan) Indigenous 5
Kalai Indigenous 1

IIV 2

RABI
Wheat IIV 1

HYV 3
Gram Indigenous 1

IIV 3
Lentil Indigenous 1

IIV 2

HYV 5
Mustard Indigenous 1

Arhar IIV 1

SOUTH DINAJPUR : KHARIF


Paddy (Aus) Indigenous 1

IIV 1

Paddy (Arnan) HYV 8


RABI
Wheat HYV 2 2

Mustard IIV 3
Lentel Indigenous 1

IIV 1

Gram IIV 2

Khesari Indigenous 1

MALDAH :
KHARIF
Paddy (Aus) Indigenous 3
HYV 2
Paddy(Aman) HYV 8
Kalai Indigenous 2

IIV 2

Maize Indigenous 1
Hybrid 2
SANYAL et ale : Species Diversity in West Bengal 61

Crops Varieties Number


Arhar Indigenous 1

IIV 1

RABI
Gram Indigenous 1

IIV 2

Lentil Indigenous 1

IIV 2

Mustard IIV 5
BIRBHUM :
KHARIF
Paddy (Arnan) HYV 12

Arhar Indigenous 1

IIV 2

Kalai Indigenous 1

Sesame Indigenous 1

IIV 3
RABI
Wheat HYV 2

Gram Indigenous 1

IIV 4
Lentil Indigenous 1

IIV 2

Mustard IIV 2

BANKURA :
KHARIF
Paddy (Aus) IIV 2

HYV Many
Paddy(Arnan) Indigenous 2

IIV 2

HYV 9+
Sesame Indigenous 1

Kalai Indigenous 1

RABI
Wheat HYV 1

Mustard IIV 1
62 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Crops Varieties Number


HUGLI:
KHARIF
Paddy Indigenous 3
HYV 4
IIV 2

Kalai Indigenous 1

RABI
Paddy(Boro) HYV 5
Mustard IIV 3
Wheat Indigenous 1

HYV 1

EAST MEDINIPUR :
KHARIF
Paddy Indigenous Not Available
HYV 3
Kalai Indigenous 1

IIV 1

RABI
Mung Indigenous 1

IIV 1

Paddy )Boro) HYV 5


Khesari Indigenous 1

IIV 1
BARDDHAMAN :
KHARIF
Paddy (Aus) HYV 3+
Paddy (Arnan) IIV 2
HYV 9+
Kalai Indigenous 2

IIV 2

RABI
Wheat HYV 3
Mustard Indigenous 1
IIV V
Paddy (Boro) Indigenous 1
HYV 3
SANYAL· et ale : Species Diversity in West Bengal

Crops Varieties Number


WEST MEDINIPUR :
KHARIF
Paddy (Aus) HYV 8
Paddy (Arnan) Indigenous 2+
HYV 19
Arhar Indigenous 1

IIV 1
Mung IIV 3
Sesame Indigenous 1
Kalai Indigenous 1

IIV 3
RABI
Wheat HYV 4
Khesari IIV 2
Lentil Indigenous 1

IIV 3
Mustard IIV 1

NORTH 24 PARGANAS :
KHARIF
Paddy (Aus) Indigenous 1

HYV 3
Paddy (Arnan) Indigenous 7
HYV 11

Kalai Indigenous 1

IIV 1

RABI
Wheat HYV 2

Mustard IIV 3
Gram Indigenous 1

Lentil Indigenous 1

Khesari Indigenous 1

Paddy (Boro) HYV 5


SOUTH 24 PARGANAS :
KfIARIF
Paddy (Aus) Indigenous 1

HYV 1
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Crops Varieties Number


Paddy (Arnan) Indigenous 1

HYV 14
RABI
Wheat HYV 3
Mustard IIV 3
Mung Indigenous 1

IIV 1

Kalai Indigenous 1

PURULIYA:
KHARIF
Paddy (Aus) HYV 10
Paddy (Arnan) HYV 24
Maize Hybrid 2
Sesame Indigenous 1

IIV 2
Kalai Indigenous 1

. IIV 2
Arhar Indigenous 1
IIV 2
Mung Indigenous 1
IIV 2
RABI
Mustard IIV 3
Wheat HYV 3
Lentil Indigenous 1
IIV 1
Keshri Indigenous 1
IIV 1
Gram Indigenous 1
IIV 1
NADIA :
KHARIF
Paddy (Aus) IIV 1
HYV 5
Paddy (Arnan) HYV 13
Kalai Indigenous 1
SANYAL et ale : Species Diversity in West Bengal 65

Crops Varieties Number


IIV 2

RABI
Paddy (Boro) Indigenous 1

HYV 4
Wheat Indigenous 1

HYV 3
Gram Indigenous 1

IIV 3
Lentil Indigenous 1

IIV 2

Sesame Indigenous 2

IIV 2

Mustard IIV 6
Khesari Indigenous 1

IIV 1

HAORA:
I<HA.KIF
Paddy Indigenous 3
HYV 14

IIV 2

Sesame • Indigenous 1

IIV 1

RABI
Mustard IIV 1

Mung IIV
Wheat HYV 5
Khesari Indigenous 1

IIV 1
66 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

SPECIES OF SPECIAL SIGNIFICANCE


The world stands today on the threshold of Deer - Moschus moschiferus, Swamp Deer -
major changes brought about by revolutionary Cervus duvauceli (recently introduced in
developments in the field of biotechnology. Jaldapara), Snow Leopard - Uncia uncia,
Under the Convention on BIological Diversity Indian Pilot Whale Globicephala
(CBD) regime, genetic resources are the macrorhynchus, Black Finless Porpoise -
sovereign property of a country. As such value Neophocaena phocaenoides.
has been added to each and every component
Aves : Monal pheasant - Lophophorus
of biodiversity. However, there are many
impejanus, Mountain Quail - Ophrysia
species which deserve special mention and
superaliosa, Pink - headed Duck - Rhodonessa
stand very much significant in respect of their
taxonomic, zoogeographic, economic, medical, caryophyllacea.
evolutionary, endemism, conservation and Plants : Aldrovanda vesiculosa, an aquatic
various other aspects. Biodiversity of West plant belonging to Family Droseraceae was last
Bengal contains numerous such species and collected during 1957 (Now probably ,extinct
some of them are discussed below. from West Bengal-Dept. of Environment &
It has already been mentioned that Ramkrishna Mission, 2002), Makhana -
biodiversity in all the ecosystems is under Euryale ferox (An aquatic dicot belonging to
severe pressure resulting from commercial Family Nympheaceae. Commercially cultivated
clear felling and selective clear felling; but there is no wild distribution - Dept. of
conversion for agriculture, settlements, roads, Environment & Ramkrishna Mission, 2002).
mining, river valley projects; conversion to There are number of faunal species which
monocultures; grazing; hunting and trade; fire; could not sighted within the territory of the
pollution; introduction of exotics and high state for a long period. Surveys by specialists
yielding varieties and many others. As a result,
in the probable areas of their occurrence are
large number of species succumbed to the
urgently needed to determine the exact status
changes of biotopes. Many of the species have
of these species in the state. This category
been wiped out from the state during last
hundred years or so. Quite a substantial number includes a large number of arthopods and other
of species have lost vast areas of their earlier invertebrates which are known mainly by the
range and now restricted to certain pockets type specimens only, and subsequent to the
with very small populations. Survival of them original description no further material could
depends totally on the species specific be obtained. Among the vertebrates following
conservation progrmme. Populations of several species have not been recorded from the state
others are dwindling at a very fast rate and for last few decades.
surviving mainly in certain protected areas. Mammals Marbled Cat-Pardofelis
The population status of major endangered marmorata, Golden Cat-Catopuma temmincki,
animals in West Bengal is shown in Table 23. Three-banded palm Civet-Arctogalidia
Among the species extinct or probably trivirgata.
extinct from the state following are worth Reptiles: Zaocys nigromarginatus, Mock
mentioning. Viper - Psammodynastes pulverulentus (within
Mammals : J avan Rhinoceros - Rhinoceros Indian limit recorded only from North Bengal),
sondaicus, Asiatic two - horned Rhiniceros - Gore's Bronze Back- Dendrelaphis gorei,
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, Wild Buffalo - Ahaetulla prosina, Muggar-Crocodylus
Bubalus bubalis, Nilgai - Boselaphus palustris (Occurrence in Damodar river
tragocamelus, Black Buck - Anti/ope reported, but requires confirmation-
cervicapra introduced in Ballavpur), Musk Chowdhary and Choudhury, 1994), Gharial-
SANYAL et ale : Species of Special Significance

Table-23 : Major endangererd animals and their population status in West Bengal.
Year Gom- Buxa Jalda- Maha- Sundar- Other Total
mara para nanda bans areas
1979 7 27 12 10 205 35 296
1983 16 " 15 9 1 264 47 352
1989 8 33 7 8 269 36 361
1992 - 29 5 13 - - -
1993 - 29 9 12 251 34 335
1997 - 32 13 12 263 41 361

1999 - 33 12 13 284 23 365


2002 - 31 9 15 271 23 349
2004 - 27 6 16 274 21 344
2010 Data analysis being done using modern techniques

Leopard : (Schedule 1)

1984 14 8 7 12 - 41 82

1989 14 50 5 10 - 29 108

1992 - 63 - - - - -
1993 2 - 9 2 - 31 107

2002 47 149 33 18 - 84 331

2004 40-45 145-150 25-30 25-30 - 65-75 300-330

Gaur : (Schedule 1)

Year Total Number

1989 240

1993 425

1997 550
.
1998 530-560

2002 1180-1284

209-10 Not less than 901 (Gorumara NP & Chapramari WLS only)
68 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

.
Table-23 · Cont'd .
Elephant : (Schedule 1)

Year Total Number

1989 175

1993 186

1991 230-250

1998 230- 250

1999-2000 327

2000 3 27
2002 328*

2005 N.B. 300-350 + S.B. 96

2007 N .B. 300-350 + S.B. 25 (Excluding migratory population)

2010 S.B. 123 (Preliminary report)


Rhinoceros : (Schedule 1)
Year Jaldapara Gorumara Total

1969 75 12 87

1974 21 6 27

1978 19 8 27
1986 14 8 22

1989 27 12 39
1993 33 12 45
1996 42 14 56
-1997 44 14 58
1999 55 19 74
2000 54 19 73
2002 74 22 96
2004 96 25 121
2006 108 27 135
2008-09 12 5 31 156
200 9-10 125 (Figures 35 (32 in Gorumara + 1 in
from 2008-09 Chapramari + 2 in Buffer areas of
adopted) Gorumara NP & Chapramari WLS)
Source : Annual Report (2009-2010), Wildlife Wing, Directorate of Forests, Govt. of West Bengal.
SANYAL et ale : Species of Special Significance

Gavialis gangeticus (Occurrence reported in Three Banded Palm Civet - Arctogalidia


Maldah, but requires confirmation-Chowdhary trivirgata, Hog Badger - Arctonyx collaris,
and Choudhary, 1994). Burmese Ferret Badger - Melogale personata,
Amphibians_: Bufo abatus, Megophrys Ratel - Mellivora capensis belong to this
robusta, Philautus jerdonii, Occidozyga tima category. Among birds, Bengal Florican-
Some of the invertebrate species of this Eupoditis bengalensis is only sporadically
category are : r~ported from the state. It is worthwhile to
mention that all the above species are found in
Odonota Epiophlebia laidlawi,
Indoscelimena jlavopicta, Ergatettix colossus the forests of North Bengal.
.Thysa!lura : Tricholepisma gravelyi Apart from the above, natural range and
populations of a large number of floral and
Dermaptera : Haplodiplatys lobatus, H.
faunal species of the state have dwindled to a
bidentatus, Paralabella julleri, Chaetospania
great extent. Some of them have already drawn
kurseongae
the attention of appropriate authorities and
Mollusca : Alycaeus lectus various measures are being taken for
There are some species which are surviving conservation of them and their habitats.
by a very small population in limited areas and However, vast majority of such threatened
only occasionally sighted or reported. A number species are yet to be covered by any specific
of mammalian species such as Himalayan Tahr- programme of conservation. A list of some such
Hemitragus jemlahicus, Pygmy Hog-Sus threatened species of the state along with region
salvanius, Hispid Hare - Caprolagus hispidus, of their main occurrence has been provided in
Asiatic Black Bear-Selenarctos thibetanus, Table 24.
Table-24 : Some of the threatened species of West Bengal along with the region of their main
occurrence. EWB = Entire West Bengal; SWB = Southern West Bengal; NWB =
Northern West Bengal; SWWB = South West Bengal.
Group SI. No. Name of the threatened Region of
species and IUCN status nBain occurrence
Flora 1 Anogeissus latifolicus SWB
2. Acanthus volubilis SWB
3· Avicennia alba SWB
4· Aeginlitis rotundifolia SWB
5· Antistrophe oxyantha NWB
6. Aristolochia tagala NWB
7· Arundinaria falconeri NWB
8. A. hookeriana NWB
9· Acer hookeri- Endangered NWB
10. A. osmastonii- Endangered NWB
11. Bambusa nutans NWB
12. Bauhinia macrostachya NWB
13· Boehmeria rugulosa NWB
14· Buchanania latifolia SWB
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal
70

Table-24 : Contd.
Group SI. No. N arne of the threatened Region of
species and IUCN status main occurrence
15· Butea superba SWB
16. Bulleyia yunnanensis- Rare NWB

17· Begonia sa trap is- Rare NWB


18. B. scutata- Rare NWB

19· Caldesia oligococca -

20. C. pamassifolia -

21. Caesalpinia Crista NWB


22. Calamus erectus NWB

23· C. latifolius NWB

24· Canarium sikkimense NWB

25· Carissa spinarum NWB


26. Chisoheton paniculatus NWB

27· Cinnamomum cecidodaphe NWB


28. C. zeylanicum NWB
29· Crataeva religiosa SWB
30 . Cycas pectinata NWB
31. Ceriops tagal -

32. C. decandra -

33· Cleome monophylla SWB

34· Casearia graveolens SWB


35· Codonopsis affinis- Rare NWB
36. Christtella clarkei-Vulnerable NWB
37· Cissus spectabilis-Endangered NWB
38. Dalbergia latifolia NWB, SWB
39· Daphne cannabina NWB
40. Daphniphyllum himalayanse NWB
41. Dendrobium lituijlorum NWB
4 2. D. sulcatrum NWB
43· Desmodium gyrans V
44· Dioscorea bulbifera NWB, SWB
45· D. pentaphylla NWB
46. D.prazeri NWB
47· D.puber NWB
48. Dodonea viscosa NWB
SANYAL et ale : Species of Special Significance 71

Table-24 : Contd.
Group Sl. No. Name of the threatened Region of
species and IUCN status nnain occurrence
49· Drosera burmannii SWB
50. D. peltata NWB
51. D. indica
52. Drypetes subsessilis NWB
53· Diplomeris hirsuta-Vulnerable NWB
54· Excoecaria agallocha SWB
55· Elaeocarpus aristatus NWB
56. E. ganitrus NWB
57· Elaeodendron glaucum NWB
58. Engelhardtia aolebrookiana NWB
59· Eriobotrya dubiq NWB
60. Eulophia bicallosa NWB
61. Feronia elephantina SWB
62. Firmiana pallens NWB
63· Flacourtia cataphracta NWB, SWB
64· Geodorum densiflora NWB
65. Gloriosa superba NWB
66. Gnetum scandens NWB
67. Grewia microcos NWB
68. Habenaria marginata NWB
69· H.oleosa NWB
70. Helicteres isora SWB
71. Homalium zeylanicum NWB
72 . Hova lanceolata NWB
73· H. globulosa NWB
74· Hymenodictyon flaccidum NWB
75· Heydyotis brunonis NWB
76. H. scabra NWB
77· Heritiera fomes SWB
78. Isoetes coromandelina
79· Ichnocarpus frutescens NWB, SWB
80. Juniperus pseudo-sabina NWB
81. Knema erratica NWB
82. Kandelin candal SWB
72 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-24 : Contd.
Group SI. No. Name of the threatened Region of
species and IUCN status nmain occurrence
83· Leycesteria belliana NWB

84· L. glaucophylla NWB

85· Livistonia jenldnsiana NWB


86. Luculia gratissima NWB

87· Lumnitzera recemosa SWB


88. Machilus clarkeana NWB

89· M. 9 laucescens NWB .

90. M. parviflora NWB


91. Mallotus philippinensis NWB, SWB
92. Medinilla rubicunda NWB

93· Michelia Montana NWB

94· Micromeles thomsoni NWB

95· Musa balbisiana NWB


96. Miliusa velutina SWB

97· Metathelypteris decipiens NWB


98. Neohouzeana dullooa NWB
99· Nervilia falcata NWB
100. "Nypa fruticans SWB
101. Najas marina
102. Oberonia ensiformis NWB
103· O. rufilabris NWB
104· Odina wodier NWB, SWB
105· Olea dioica NWB
106. Ormosia glauca NWB
107· Ougeinia oojenensis SWB
108. Ophiorrhiza lurida- Rare NWB
109· Podocarpus neriifolia NWB
110. Populus glauca NWB
111. Pseudo-gardneria angustifolia NWB
112. Pygmaeopremna herbacea NWB
113· Polygala arillata NWB
114· P. eroptera SWB
115· Pimpinella tongloensis-
Endangered NWB •
SANYAL et ale : Species of Special Significance 73

Table-24 : Contd.
Group Sl. No. Name of the threatened Region of
species and IUCN status nmain occurrence
116. Polyalthia serasoides SWB
117· Rauvolfia serpentina NWB, SWB
118. R. tetraphylla SWB
119· Reevesia pubescens SWB
120. Rhododendron smithi NWB
121. Rhynchostylis retusa NWB
122. Saccopetalum longij1orum NWB
123· Salix daltoniana
124· Santalum album SWB
125· Semecarpus anacardium NWB, SWB
126. Siphonodon celastrineus NWB
127· Sorbus ursina NWB
128. Soymida febrifuga SWB
129· Spiranthus sinensis NWB
130. S. australis
131. Strychnos nux-vomica SWB
132. Styrax serrulatum NWB
133· Symplocos racemosa NWB, SWB
134· Solomonia ciliata SWB
135· S. polygala SWB
136. Sonneratia alba SWB
137· S. casaeolaris SWB
138. Scyphiphora hydrophylacea SWB
139· Ternstroemia japonica NWB
140. Tetracera sarmentosa NWB
141. Tiliacora acuminata SWB
142. Tylophora indica SWB
143· Utricularia bifida NWB
144· U. caerulea NWB
145· U. scandens NWB
146. U. stellaris
147· U. striatula
148. Vatica lancaefolia NWB
149· Vitex peduncularis NWB
74 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-24 : Contd.
Group Sl. No. Name of the threatened Region of
species and IUCN status nmain occurrence
150. Xylia xylocarpa SWB
151. Xylocarpus granalum SWB
152. Zeuxine nervosa NWB
Fauna :-Mammalia 153· Petaurista magnificus NWB
154· P. nobilis NWB
155· Ratufa bicolor NWB
156. Myotis annectans NWB
157· M. mystacinus NWB
158. Rhinolophus trifoliatus NWB
159· Manis crassicaudata EWB
160. Canis lupus SWWB
161. Cuon alpinus NWB, SWB
162. Melurnus ursinus NWS, SWWB
163. Ailurus fulgens-Sch. I NWB
164. Lutra lutra EWB
165. Aonyx cinerea NWB, SWB
166. Herpestes palustris-Sch. I SWB
167. Hyaena hyaena SWWB, NWB
168. Prionailurus bengalensis EWB.
169. P. viverrinus NWB, SWB
170. Neofelis nebulosa WWB
171. Panthera pardus EWB
172. Panthera tigris-Sch. I NWB, SWB

r
173· Elephas maximus-Sch. I NWB, SWWB
r

1--.
174· Capricorn is sumatraenis NWB
175· Caprolagers hispidus-Sch. I SWB, NWB
176. Rhinoceros unicornis-Sch. I NWB
177· Cervus duvaucelli-Sch. I SWB,NWB
178. Bos frontalis NWB
179· Bubalus bubalis-Sch. I SWB, NWB
180. Platanista gangetica-Sch. I SWB, NWB
181. Orcaella brevirostris-Sch. I SWB
Aves 182. Ardea goliath SWB
183. Ciconia ciconia NWB,
SANYAL et ala : Species of Special Significance 75

Table-24 : Contd.
Group SI. No. Name of the threatened Region of
species and IUCN status mmain occurrence
184· Leptoptilos dubius-Sch. IV SWWB, SWB
185· L. javanicus-Sch. IV EWB
186. Platalea leucorodia EWB
187· Dendrocygna bicolor NWB, SWB
188. Threskiornis aethiopica SWB
189· Aviceda jerdoni NWB
187· A. leuphotes NWB
191. Accipiter nisus NWB'
192. A. virgatus NWB
193· Haliaectus leucogaster SWB
194· Sarcogyps calvus SWB
195· Gyps indicus-Sch. I SWWB
196. G. bengalensis-Sch. I EWB
197· Pandion haliaetus SWWB, SWB
198. Falco peregrinus-Sch. IV SWWB
199· Polyplectron bicalcaratum NWB
200. Ithaginis cruentus NWB
201. Lophurus leucomelana NWB
202. Pavo cristatus NWB
203· Grus nigricollis NWB
204· Hatiaectus leucoryphus NWB
205· Tyto alba SWB
206. Aceros nipalensis NWB
207· Anthracoceros malabaricus NWB
208. Pellomeum palustris-Sch. IV NWB
Reptiles 209· Aspideretes gangeticus-Sch. I SWB
210. Aspideretes hurum-Sch. I SWB
211. Melanochelys tricarinata-Sch. I SWB
212. Gavialis gangeticus-Sch. I SWB
213· Crocodylus porosus SWB
214· Lepidochelys olivacea-Sch. I SWB
215· Batagur buska-Sch. I SWB
216. Eretmochelys imbricata-Sch. I SWB
217· Chelonia mydas-Sch. I SWB
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-24 : Contd.
Group Sl. No. Name of the threatened Region of
species and IUCN status main occurrence
218. Kachuga kachuga-Sch. I SWB
219· Geoclemys hamiltonii-Sch. I SWB
220. Eretmochelys imbricata-Sch. I SWB
221. Lissemys punctata NWB, SWB
222. Chitra indica-Sch. I SWB
223· Varanus bengalensis EWB
224· V. flavescens SWB
225· V. salvator SWB
226. Python molurus-Sch. IV NWB
227· P. reticulatus NWB
228. Elachistodon westermanii-Sch. I NWB
229· Ptyas mucosus EWB
230. Naja naja EWB
Amphibia 231. Trilototriton verrucosus-Sch. I EWB
Pisces 232. Ompokpabo
233· Carcharhinus gangeticus-Sch. I
234· O. bimaculatus
235· Ailia bengalensis
236. Bagrius bagarius
237· Eutropichthys vacha
238. Puntius sarana
239· Semiplolus semiplolus
240. Osphronemus nobilis
241. Labeo diacanthys
242. L. fimbriatus
243· L. gonius
244· Anabas testudineus
245· Notopterus notopterus EWB
246. N. chitala EWB
247· Pangasius pangasius
248. Balitora brucci
249· Gadusia chapra
250. Meastacembelus armatus
SANYAL et al. : Species of Special Significance 77
Table-24 : Contd.
.Group Sl. No. Name of the threatened Region of
species and IUCN status nBain occurrence
251. Mystas tangra
252. M. aor

253· Rasbora rasbora


254· Setipinna phasa
255· Bengala elonga
256. Wallago attu

257· Nandus nandus


258. Amblypharyngodon mola

259· Tor putitora NWB


260. T. tor NWB

261. Raiamas bola NWB


262. Barilius vagra NWB

263. Odontamblyopus rubicondus SWB

Arthropoda 264· Burmagomphus sivalikensis-Sch. I SWB, NWB


2 6 5. Lyriothemis tricolor-Sch. I SWB, NWB

266. Epiophlebia laidlawi-Sch. I SWB, NWB

267. Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda SWB

268. Tachypleus gigas SWB

269· Gerenia bengalensis NWB

270. Hypolimnas missipus EWB

271. Lethe distans WB

Mollusca 272. Alycaeus lectus EWB

273· Austenia annandalei EWB

Annelida 274· Scolioscolides bergtheili NWB


Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Ascription of a country (ies) of origin to any appear to be true for other groups. Firstly, the
genetic resource is evidently related to the number of genera and species to be handled is
patterns of geographical distribution of living extremely large; secondly, there has still not
organisms. Genetic resource or species confined been thorough surveys conducted for all groups
to a country/geographical region is considered in the country; thirdly, a good number of genera
as endemic to that country or region. In the and species are "known from their original
applications of Intellectual Property Right record only", giving the impression that they
(IPR) and patenting the genetic resources, are endemic there, which mayor may not be
documentation of endemic species in the true due to insufficient surveys; and fourthly
country level is the most important function the detail taxonomic studies of all orders and
particularly for countries with rich biological families occurring in India could not be
diversity. Alfred (1998) provided an estimate completed for want of experts. Analysis of the
of endemic faunal species of the country. fauna of West Bengal reveals that not only a
According to that estimate percentage of substantial percentage of Indian endemic
endemic species in different animal groups species occur in the state but also there are
varies from 1 to 100 percent. However, except many species which are exclusively endemic to
for higher vertebrates, there has been no West Bengal. Some of the Indian endemic
indepth and standard study of the enumeration species occurring in the State have been listed
of endemic taxa in India for various reasons. in Table 25, and those which are confined
Varshney (1998) has focused some of these within West Bengal along with main region of
reasons with reference to insect groups which occurrence are shown in Table 26.
Table-25 : Some Indian endemic species occurring in West Bengal alongwith main region of
their occurrence in the state. (Abbreviations as in Table 24)
Group Sl. No. Species Main region of
occurrence
Mammals 1. Anathana ellioti SWWB
Aves 1a. Perdicula manipurensis NWB
lb. Galloperdix lunulata NWB
Reptiles 2. Sitana ponticeriana EWB
3· Psammophilus blanfordanus SWWB, SWB
4· Japalura variegata NWB
Amphibia 5· Ichthyophis sikkimensis NWB
6. Rhacophorus tuberculatus NWB
7· Limnonectus mawphlangensis NWB
Pisces 8. Labeo gonius NWB
9· Noemacheilus devdevi NWB
10. N. multifascialus NWB
11. Balitora brucei NWB
..
Arthropoda 12. Platyrhop~lus denticornis SWB
Coleoptera 13· P. intermedius NWB
14· Neocollyris attenuata NWB
SANYAL et ale : Species of Special Significance 79

Table-25 : Contd.
Group Sl. No. Species Main region of
occurrence
15· N. distincta NWB
16. N. juscitarsis NWB
17· Prothyma proxima SWWB
18. Heptodonta nodicollis NWB
19· Cicindela tetrastacta SWWB, SWB
20. C. dromicoides NWB
21. C. erudita NWB, SWB
22. C. grammophora NWB, SWB
23· C.ognata NWB
24· C. albopunctata NWB
25· C. bicolor EWB
26. C. haemorrhoidalis SWB
27· C. cyanea NWB
28. C. striatifrons NWB
29· Harpalus indicus NWB
30. Dioryche nagpurensis EWB
31. Oxycentrus parallelus SWWB, SWB
32. Pachytrachelus cribiceps NWB
33· Coleolissus perlucens SWWB
34· Laccophilus anticatus SWB, WWB
35· L. elegans WWB
36. L. rufulus EWB
37· Metheles indicus SWB
38. Guignotus fulvescens SWWB
39· G. regimberti SWB
40. Clypeodytes bufo SWB
41. C. indicus SWB
42. Uvarus quadrilineatus SWB
43· Hyphoprus oper SWWB, SWB
44· H. bengalensis SWB, NWB
45· Peschetius .quadriscostaius SWWB
46. Platynectes kashmirensis NWB
47· Rhanthus ovalis NWB
48. Cybister regulosus SWB
49· Orectochilus similis SWB
80 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-25 : Contd.
Group Sl. No. Species Main region of
occurrence
50. O. productus EWB
51. O. haemorrhous SWB
52. O. fletcheri SWWB, SWB
53· O. cylindricus SWWB
54· O. cardoni SWB
55· Haliplus prathii SWB
56. Spercheus gibbus SWB
57· Sphaeridium cameroni SWWB
58. Pachysternum cardoni NWB
59· P. stenvensi NWB
60. Laccobius rotundatus SWB
61. L. simulans NWB
62. Helochares lentus SWWB, SWB
63· Hydrophilus olivaceus SWWB
64· H. rufocinctus SWB
65· Hypocacculus malabaricus SWB
66. Abraeus paria NWB
67. Acritus tuberisternus NWB
68. Platylomalus oblisus NWB
69· Paraepierus corticicola NWB
70. Platylister atratus SWB, NWB
71. Atholus silvicola NWB
72. Micropeplus sikkimi NWB
73· Eupiestus sikkimi NWB
74· Eleusis sikkimensis NWB
75· Priochirus rubiginosus NWB
76. P.longicornis NWB
77· P. sikkimellsis NWB
78. Thoracochirus assamensis NWB
79· Pseudopsis prolixa NWB
80. Megarthrus chatterjeei NWB
81. M. Septempunctatus NWB
82. M. basicornis NWB
83. Anthobium sikkimi NWB
84· Planeustomus bengalensis NWB
SANYAL et ale : Species of Special Significance 81

Table-25 : Contd.
Group Sl. No. Species Main region of
occurrence
85. Oxytelopsis andrewesi NWB
\

86. Anotylus laetus NWB


87· A·frater NWB
88. Osorius sikldmensis NWB
89· Stenus sikkimensis NWB
90. S. pictus NWB
91. S. fistulosus NWB
92 . S. kurseonginus NWB
93· Dianous annandalei NWB
94. D. cameronii NWB
95· D. versicolor NWB
96. Stenoesthelus quadrisulcatus NWB
97· Pinophilus depressus SWB
98. Palaminus indicus NWB
99· Oedichirus longipennis NWB, SWB
100. Astenus asitus NWB
101. A. Jlavipennis NWB
102. A. terminalis NWB
103· A. semibrunneus NWB, SWB
104· A. concolor NWB
105· Paederus himalayicus NWB
106. P. nigripennis NWB
107· P. conicollis SWB
108. Acanthoglossus testaceipennis NWB, SWB
109· Stilicopsis pallida NWB
109a. S. indica NWB
109b. Scopaeus andrewesi SWB
110. S. germanus NWB
111. Lobochilus granulicollis NWB
112. L. fortepunctatus NWB
113· Dibelonetes sikkimensis NWB
114· Thinocharis debilis NWB
115· Pachymedon shugnuensis NWB
116. Lathrobium triste SWB
117· L. unicolor NWB
82 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-25 : Contd.
Group SI. No. Species Main region of
occurrence
118. Stilicus parous NWB
119· S. velutinus NWB
120. Cryptobium sikkimense NWB
121. C. fluviatile SWB
122. Stiliderus umbratus NWB
123· Indoscitalinus dispilus
124· Platyprosopus fuliginosus SWB
125· Philonthus industanus NWB
126. Diceros childreni SWB
127· Rhomborrhina glaberrima NWB
128. Heterorrhina punctatissima NWB
129· H. nigritarsis NWB
130. Trigonophorus scintllans NWB
131. Protaetia aurichalcea SWB
13 2 . P. peregrina NWB
133· P. neglecta NWB
134· Oxycetonia jucunda NWB, S,WB
135· Chiloloba acuta NWB
136. Clinteria spilota NWB, SWB
137· Cymophorus pulchellus SWB
138. Heteronychus annulatus SWB
139· Parastasia ochracea NWB
140. Spilopopillia sexguttata NWB
141. Mimela horsfieldi NWB
142. M. globosa NWB
143· M. marginalis SWB
144· Anomala dorsalis
145· A. aegrota NWB
146. A. fulviventris NWB
147· A. signaticollis NWB
. 148. A. xanthoptera NWB
149· A. crythroptera NWB
150. A. pusilla NWB
Ephemeroptera 15I. Claeon variegatum NWB, SWB
152. Gilliesia hindustanica NWB
SANYAL et al. : Species of Special Significance

Table-25 : Contd.
Group SI. No. Species Main region of
occurrence
Odonota 153· Aciagrion olympicum NWB
154· Agriocnemis lacteola NWB, SWB
155· A. splendidissma NWB, SWB
155a. A. aborensis NWB, SWB
156. Coeliccia renifera WWB
157· Calicnemia miniata SWWB, NWB
158. Ceylonolestes cyanea NWB
159· Lestes thoracica
160. Philoganga montana NWB
161. Rhinocypha bifasciata NWB
162. R. immaculata NWB
163. R. trifasciata
164· R. bifenestrata NWB
165· R. unimaculata NWB
166. Anisopleura lestoides
167· A. comes NWB
168. Allogaster latifrons NWB
169· Jagoria martini NWB
170. Cephalaeschna orbifrons NWB
171. C. masoni NWB
17 2 . Gynacanthaeschna sikkima NWB
173· Periaeschna magdalena NWB
174· Gymacantha albistyla NWB
175· Polycanthagyna erythromeles NWB
176. Perissopgpmphus stevensi NWB
177· Burmagomphus sivalikensis NWB
178. Platygomphus dolobralus
179· Anisogomphus occipitalis NWB
180. A. bivittatus NWB
181. A. arites NWB
182. Stylogomphus inglisi NWB
183· Onychogomphus aureus NWB
184· Epophthalmia vittata NWB
185· Macromia flavicincta
186. Pseudotramea prateri NWB
187· Bradinopyga geminata NWB, SWB
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-25 : Contd.
Group Sl. No. Species Main region of
occurrence
Plecoptera 188. Amphinemoura luteipes NWB
189· Gibosia needhami NWB
190. Neoperla limosa NWB
19l. Cryptoperla torva NWB
Orthoptera 19 2 . Eucriotellix dohertyi NWB
193· Hebardittix quadratus NWB
194· Loxilobus assamus NWB
195· Synalibas perplexus NWB
196. Thoradonta pruthii SWB
197· Bolivaritettix dubius NWB
198. B. laticeps NWB
199· B. sikldmensis NWB
200. Hyboella conioptica NWB
20l. H.obesa NWB
202. H. tentata NWB
203· Teredorus frontalis NWB
204· Xistrella dromadaria NWB
205· X. inermis NWB
206. Paratettix rotundatus V
207· Velarifictorus sikkimensis NWB
208. Gyllodes sigillatus SWWB, SWB
209· Loxoblemmus macrocephalus NWB
210. . L. nigriceps NWB
21l. Pteronemobius pantelchopardorul n NWB
212. Cacoplistes rogenhoferi NWB, SWB
213· Holopercna darjeelingensis NWB
21 4. Chondronotulus bengalensis
215· Epistaurus sinetyi SWB, SWWB,
216. Peripolus pedarius NWB
217· Eupreponotus inflatus NWB, SWB
218. Paraconophyma scabra SWWB
219· Sanna reg a lis NWB
220. Eucocephalus incertus SWWB
Dermaptera 22l. Paradipplatys gladiator SWB, NWB
222. Diplaty$ sinuatus NWB
223· Haplodiplatys rileyi NWB
224· H. rufescens
225· Euborellia annandalei NWB
SANYAL et al. : Species of Special Significance 85

Table-25 : Contd.
Group SI. No. Species -
Main region of
occurrence
226. Antisolabis formicoides NWB
227· Forc ipula indica NWB
Dictyoptera 228. Trichoblatta sericea NWB
229· Stictolampra plicta EWB
230. Panesthia regalis NWB
Mantodea 231. Anaxarcha acuta NWB
232. Ephestiasula amoena SWB
233· Heliomantis elegans NWB
234· Hestiasula inermis NWB
235· Creobroter apicallis SWB
236. Dysaules longicollis
237· Leptomantis indica NWB
238. L. montana NWB
239· H eterochaetula tricolor SWB
240. Parananomantis brevis SWB
241. Amantis subirina NWB
242. A. biroi SWB
243· Gonypetyllis semuncialis SWB
244· Hierodula butleri NWB
245· Aethalochroa ashmoliana NWB
Psocoptera 246. Granthakita cuttackae SWB
247· Pachytroctes georgi SWB
Hemiptera 248. Machaerota planitiae SWB
249· Eugnathodus ocellatus NWB
250. Halotrichosiphum rusellae NWB
251. Pseudoastegopteryx himalayensis NWB
252. Pemphigus vulgaris NWB
Diptera 253· Microtytum strigatum NWB
254· M. trimelas NWB
255· Simulium tenuistylum NWB
256. S. dentatum NWB
Lepidoptera 257· Pseudopanthera himalayica NWB
258. Boarmia diversicolor NWB
259· B. atrostipata NWB
260. Apocalypsis velox NWB
261. Campsogene mansoni NWB
261a. Oxyambalyx matti NWB
262. Anambulyx elwesi NWB
263· Punacra moseri NWB
86 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-25 : Contd.
Group SI. No. Species Main region of
occurrence
Acari 264. Euteranychus maximae SWB
265. Oligonychus ma{1niJerus EWB
266. Malconothrus assamensis SWB
267. Basilobelba indica EWB
Mollusca 268. Parreysia lima NWB
269. Pisidium atkinsonianum NWB
270. Sphaerium indicum NWB
271. Cyclophorus aurora NWB
272. C. polynea SWB
273· Theobaldius phaenolopicus NWB
274· Clithon reticularis SWB
275· Scaphula celox SWB
276. Macrochlamys petrosa SWB, SWWB
277· Pterocyclus rupestris NWB
Rotifera 278. Lecane lateralis -
279· L. pawlowski -
Annelida
Oligochaeta 280. Dero indica SWWB, NWB
281. Branchiodrilus semperi EWB
Porifera 282. Corvospongilla lapidosa SWB
283. C. caunteri
Cnidaria 284. Edwardsia jonesli SWB
285. E. tinctrix SWB
286. Pelocoetes exul SWB
287. Phytocoetes gangeticus SWB
288. Nevadne glauca SWB
289. Diadumene schilleriana SWB
290. Paracondylactis indica SWB
Plants
291. Agrostris brachiata -
292. A. sikkimensis NWB
293· A. triaristata NWB
294· Arundinella decempedalis NWB
295· Bambusa balcooa NWB
296. Dendrocalamus petellaris NWB
297· Festuca leptopogon NWB
298. Alysicarpu homosus EWB
299· Cajanus villosus NWB
300. Dysolobium tetragonum NWB
SANYAL et ale : Species of Special Significance

Table-26 : Some species exclusively endemic to West Bengal with region of their main occurrence.
Abbreviations a,s in Table 24.
Group Sl. No. Species Main region of
occurrence
Mammals I. Herpestes palustris SWB
Reptiles 2. Oligodon juglandifer NWB
Amphibia 3· Bufo abatus NWB
4· Megophryus robusta NWB
5· Rana senchalensis NWB
6. R. annandalii NWB
7· Rhacophorus jerdonii NWB
8. R. dubius NWB
Pisces 9· Puntius dukai NWB
Arthropoda
Strepsiptera 10. Trizocera pugipenis -
Coleoptera II. Omoglymmius darjeelingensis NWB
12. Heptodonta kraatzi NWB
13· Cicindela seriepunctata NWB
14· C. oberthuri NWB
15· Amblystomus bivittatus SWB
16. Chydaeus obscurus NWB
17· Laceophilus kempi NWB
18. Hydraena tenjikuana NWB, SWB
19· H. wittmeri NWB
20. Coelostoma subditum SWB
21. Crenitis orientalis NWB
22. Saprinus chalcites NWB
23-· Chaetabraeus fakir NWB
24· Cypturus bengalensis SWB
25· Apobletes bengalensis NWB
26. Hyposotenus bengalensis NWB
27· Chronus scaliformis' NWB, SWB
28. Hister pullatus SWB
29· Santalus parallelus SWB
30. Micropeplus vulcanus NWB
31. Apatetica sikkmi NWB
32. Eupiestus angulatus NWB
33· Siogonium indicum NWB
34· Holosus rugipennis NWB
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal
88

Table-26 : Contd.
Group SI. No. Species Main region of
occurrence
H. lopchuensis NWB
35·
36. Thoracophorus montanus NWB

37· Eleusis speculifer NWB


38. E. rotundiceps NWB

39· E. persimilis NWB


40. Priochirus bengalensis .NWB
41. P. micrognathus NWB
4 2. P. eucerus NWB

43· P. gardneri NWB

44· Thoracochirus denticollis NWB


45· Tetradelus trigonuroides NWB
46. Trogophloeus calcuttanus SWB
47· Oxytelopsis bengalensis NWB
48. Oxytelus punctipennis NWB
49· Anotylus gardneri NWB
50. Bledius suravius SWB
51. B. totias NWB
52. B. torsius NWB
53· B. baltus NWB
54· Osorius gardneri NWB
55· O. lopchuensis NWB
56. Mimogonus niger NWB
57· Oxyporus excellens NWB
58. O. terminalis NWB
59· O. tricolor NWB
60. Stenus vorticosus NWB
61. S. conj1uens NWB
62. S. obliteratus NWB
63. S. lopchuensis NWB
64· S. mangpuensis NWB
65· S. separandus NWB
66. S. pseudopictus NWB
67. Dianous championi NWB
68. D. obliquenotatus NWB
69· D. adjacens NWB
SANYAL et ale : Species of Special Significance 89

Table-26 : Contd.
Group SI. No. Species Main region of
occurrence
70. D. wittmeri NWB
71. Edaphus binodulus NWB
72. E. brevipennis NWB
73· Aulacosthaetus indicus NWB
74· Pinophilus indicus SWB
75· Astenus bisalicus NWB
76. A. gracilentus NWB
77· Paederus atrocyaneus NWB
78. P. hingstoni NWB
79· Scopaeus bicuspis SWB
80. Sclerochiton indicus NWB
8l. Lobochilus brachypterus NWB
82. L.labralis NWB
83. L. brevipennis NWB
84. Dibelonetus bhaumild NWB
85. Charichirus immaculatus NWB
86. Dolicaon longipennis SWB
87. Leptacinus aethiops. NWB
88. Pachycorynus niger NWB
89. Mitimorphus brevipennis NWB
90. M. brachypterus NWB
9l. Xantholinus oeneus NWB
92. X. ruficaudatus NWB
93· Gauropterus marginalis NWB
94· Othius monticols NWB
95· Philonthus rupicola NWB
96. Macronota westoodi NWB
97· M. nigricollis NWB
98. Rhomborrhina microcephala NWB
99· R. mearesi NWB
100. Heterorrhina dispar NWB
10l. Trigonophorus saundersi NWB
102. Coenochilus cambelli NWB
103· Eupatorus hardwickei NWB
104· Anomata siligurio NWB
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal
90

Table-26 : Contd.
S1. No. Species Main region of
Group
occurrence

Thysanura 105· Tricholepisma gravelyi SWWB


106. Atelura typhioponsis NWB

107· Stylifera wygodzinskyi SWB, SWWB

Ephemeroptera 108. Baetis tigroides NWB

109· B. thurbonis NWB


110. B. solitarius NWB
11l. Pseudocloeon inopinum NWB
112. Coenis pica SWB
113· C. piscina SWB
114· Ecdyonurus bengalensis NWB
115· Isca purpurea
Odonata 116. Himalagrion exclamationis NWB
117· Drepanosticta polychromatica NWB
118. Caconeura 0' doneli -
119· Orolestes selysi -
120. Rhinocypha cuneata NWB
12l. Allogaster hermionae NWB
122. Periaeschna unifasciata NWB
123· Gynacantha o'doneli SWB
124· G. rammohni SWB
125· Gamphidia williamsoni NWB
126. Macrogomphus seductus NWB
12 7. Burmagomphus hasimaricus NWB
127a. Go mph us o'doneli NWB
127b. Megalogomphus jlavicolor NWB
128. Lamelligomphus risi NWB
129· Onychogomphus M-jlavum NWB
130. O. duaricus NWB
13l. Macromia pallida NWB
132. M. flavovittata NWB
133· Idionys stevensi NWB
Plecoptera 134· Amphinemoura elegans NWB
135· A. pulchera NWB
136. Indonemouria indica NWB
137· I. shergaoni NWB
SANYAL et ale : Species of Special Significance 91

Table-26 : Contd.
Group SI. No. Species Main region of
occurrence
138. Nemoura magnicauda NWB
139· Neoperla lushana NWB
140. N. montivaga NWB
141. Perla ~enocia NWB
Orthoptera 142. Oxyphyllum pennatum NWB
143· Epitettis elytratus NWB
145· Indoscelimena angulasta SWB
146. 1. jlavopicta SWB
147· 1. saussurei SWB
148. • Eucriotettix aequalis NWB
149· Hebarditettix lobatus NWB
150. Synalibs vagans NWB
151. Bolivaritettix ghumtianus NWB
152. B. singlaensis NWB
153· Systolederus graveli NWB
154· Teredorus carmichaeli NWB
155· Ergatettix callosus NWB
156. Hedotellix grossus NWB
157· Paratettix alatus NWB
158. Saussurella indica NWB
159· Teleogryllus himalayanus NWB
160. Melanogryllus carmichaeli NWB
161. Callogryllus pallidus NWB
162. Gryllopsis pubescens NWB
163. Nemobiodes sukhadae NWB
164· Pteronemobius rufipes NWB
165· Scottiola diverna NWB
166. S. elongata NWB
167· Speonemobius decolyi NWB
168. Speonemobius annandalei NWB
169· Paratrigonidium unifasciatum NWB
170. Madasumma gravelyi NWB
171. Dnopherula physopoda NWB
172. D. rubripes NWB
173· M eristopteryx rotundata NWB
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal
92

Table-26 : Contd.
SI. No. Species Main region of
Group
occurrence
Cercopephalus indica NWB
174·
Catantops erubescens NWB
175·
176. Gerenia bengalensis NWB
177· Diplatys brindlei NWB
178. Haplodiptalys kurseongensis NWB
179· H. bidentatus NWB
180. H.lobatus NWB
18l. Anisolabis bhowmiki NWB
182. Paralabella fulleri NWB
183· Apovostox bum NWB
184· Chaetospania kurseongae NWB
Mantodea 185· Cimantis fumosa NWB
186. C. testacea NWB
Psocoptera 187. Liposcelis bengalensis NWB
188. Tapinella fasciata SWWB
189. Caecilius bengalensis NWB
190. C. persimilaris NWB
19l. Dypsocus fucosus NWB
192. Stenopsocus pallidus NWB
193· Amphipsocus heterothrix NWB
194· Ectopsoeus ramburi SWB
195· E. bengalensis SWB
196. E. cinclus NWB, SWB
197· Peripsocus sinensis NWB
198. P. anoplus NWB, SWB
199· P. scierotus SWB
200. P. bhaktae NWB
20l. Heterocaecilius fusciplapus NWB
202. Allocaecilius heterothorax NWB
203· Psococerastis asiatica SWB
20 4. Myopsicus pattoni NWB
Diptera 205· Ammophilomima rufescens SWB
206. Leptogaster ophionea SWB
207· Laphlria furva NWB
208. L. gilvoides NWB
20 9. Laphystia indica NWB
210. Maria bicolor NWB
21l. Nusa bengalensis NWB
212. N. mukherjeei NWB
SANYAL et ale : Species of Special Significance 93

Table-26 : Contd.
Group S1. No. Species Main region of
occurrence
213· Microstylum apicale NWB
21 4. Oldroydia scatophogoides NWB
215· S. nigrofasciatus NWB
216. Damolis claripennis NWB
217· Stchopogon bengalensis NWB
218. S. menoni NWB
219· Ommatius bengalensis NWB
220. O. gopalpurensis SWB
221. O. singlensis NWB
222. O. subgracilis NWB
223· Astochia femorata NWB
224· Heligmoneura bengalensis NWB
225· H. chaetoprocta SWB
226. H. yenpingensis NWB
227· Hoplopheromerus armatipes NWB
228. Machimus infrafemoralis NWB
229· Neoitamus bengalensis SWB
230. N. calcuttaensis NWB
231. Nemochtherus himalayensis NWB
232. Simulium dasguptai NWB
233· S. ghoomense NWB
234· S. gracile NWB
235· S. nemorivagum NWB
236. S. praelargum NWB .
237· S. purii NWB
238. S. darjeelingense NWB
239· S. asishi NWB
240. S. biforaminiferum NWB
241. S. nigrifacies NWB
242. S. tenuitarsus NWB
243· Diamesa bicornipes NWB
244· D. edentisyla SWWB, SWB
245· Ablabesmyia alba SWWB, SWB
246. A. ensiceps NWB
Lepidoptera 247· Gastropocha divaricata NWB
248. Kosala flavosignata NWB
249· Metanastria lineata NWB
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal
94

.
Table-26 · Contd.
Group SI. No. Species Main region of
occurrence
250. M. obliquifascia NWB
251. Arguda bheroba NWB
252. Cosmotricha lidderdalii NWB
253· Dasychir cymata NWB
254· D.perdix NWB
255· D. bhana NWB
256. Aroa ochracea SWB
257· Cyllogenes suradeva NWB
258. Syntomis luciana SWB
259· S. insueta SWB
Hemiptera 260. Tricentrus cinereus SWB
261. T. dubius SWB
262. Gargara brevis SWB
Acari 263· Olgonychus sapienticolis NWB
264· Schizotetranychus cajani NWB
265· Colopodacus combretus SWB
267· Cosella ichnocarpasia SWB
268. Epicecidophyes clerodendris SWB
269· Allonothrus indicus SWB
270. H eterobelba restrata NWB
Mollusca 271. Alycaeus lectus NWB
272. Tanysiphon rivalis SWB
273· Pupilla barrackporensis SWB
274· Succinea crassinuclea SWB
Rotifera 275· Lecane vaishti -
276. Lepadella triprojectus -
277· Ptygura stephanion -
278. Rotaria ovata -
Phoronida 279· Phoronis bhaduraii SWB
Bryozoa 280. Membranipora hugliensis SWB
Porifera 281. Eunapis calcuttanus NWB, SWB
Plants 282. Acer osmastonii -
283· Bulbophyllum roxburghii -
284. Cardenthera uliginosa var.
birbhumensis
285· Cuscata sharmanum
SWWB
SWB
.
286. Hydrocotyle himalayica . NWB
287· Hypericum assamcum NWB
288. Dalbergia duarensis NWB
SANYAL et ale : Species of Special Significance 95

The state also contains a large number of monocot monotypic genera are also represented
floral and faunal species which deserve special in the region. A large number of monotypic
mention owing to their taxonomic, faunal genera such as Anathana, Sco tozous ,
evolutionary, distributional, economic, Cuon, Melursus, Ailurus, Arctonyx, Mellivora,
medicinal and other signficance. Arctogalidia, Paguma, Lutrogale, Neofelis,
There are at least 15 species of carnivorous Hyaena, Pardofelis, Elephas, Cannomys,
plants belonging to the genera Drosera, Nesokia, Caprolagus (all mammals), Netta,
Aldrovanda and Utricularia found within the Butastur, Hydrophasianus, Metopidius,
limit of the state. Philomachus (all birds), Catla, Rhinomugil
A number of primitive flowering plants and (Fish), Oxyphyllum, Melanogryllus,
animals occur in the state which serve as Condronotulus, Meristopteryx (Orthoptera),
evolutionary link and often considered as living Nevadne (Cnidaria) and many others are also
fossils. Among plants Betula alnoides, found. As there are no closely related genomes
Magnolia sp., Actinodaphne angustifolia, of these genera anywhere in the world, their
Exbucklandia populnea while among animals conservation is of special significance.
Carcinoscropius rotundicanda, Tachypleus Many of the species and genera occurring in
gigas, Epiophelbia laidlawi, Trilototriton the state exhibit extreme discontinuity in
verrucosus are notable in this aspect. distribution. They occur in Penninsular south
West Bengal, particularly the northern part or West or even in Sri Lanka and other
contributes significantly to the conservation of continent with an extensive intervening areas
the world's genetic resources by way of totally without them. Some examples of such
harbouring a number of monotypic families and discontinuous distribution have been shown in
genera. Hippocastanaceae (Aesculus assamica), Table 27. There are also a large number of
Stachyuraceae (Stachyrus himalaicus), floral and faunal forms which are mostly
Rhizophoraceae (Caralia integmma), confined to West Bengal and further north-east
Datiscaceae (Tetrameles nudiflora) , but do not enter the Peninsular India. This
Sonneretiaceae (Duabanga grandiflora), phenomenon- is best exemplified by the
Scrophulariaceae (Wrightia gigantea), distribution of Mammalian families, genera and
Proleaceae (Helicia erratica), Hamamelidaceae species such as Rhinocerotidae, Euroscaptor,
(Exbucklandia populnea) are few monotypic Megaerops niphanae, Microtus sikkimensis,
families of the state. At least 517 dicot and 171 Cannymys badius, etc.

Table-27 : Showing some discontinuously distributed faunal element (species and genera) of
the state.
Group SI.No Species/Genera Region of occurrence
Porifera 1. Corvospongilla lapidosa W.B., Maharashtra
Annelida 2. Nais simplex W.B., Europe, N. America
3· N. elinguis W.B., Europe
4· Aelosoma bengalense W.B., Kerala, S. America
5· Dero indica W.B., Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
Mollusca 6. Succinea daucina W.B., Sri Lanka
Arthopoda
Acari 7· Plateremaeus rotundus W.B., Indonesia
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal
96

Table-27 : Contd.
Group Sl. No. Species/Genera Region of occurrence

Hemiptera 8. Coccosterphus obscurus W.B., Sri Lanka


Lepidoptera 9· Crambus atkinsoni W.B., Sri Lanka, Myanmar
10. Chartona consociella W.B., N. America
1I. Boarmia diversicolor W.B., Punjab
12. Oxyambulyx matti W.B., Karnataka
Coleoptera 13· Guignotus fulvescens W.B., Nicobar

14· Acritus pascua rum W.B., China


15· A. tuberisternus W.B.,Kerala
16. Hypocacculus malabaricus W.B., Kerala
17· Bacanius atomarius W.B., Honolulu
18. Platylomalus oblisus W.B., Andamans
19· Pachylister chinensis W.B., China
20. Priochirus longicornis W.B., Tamill Nadu
2I. Trogophloeus simplex W.B., Sri Lanka, Australia
22. Oxytelopsis andrewesi W.B., Tamil Nadu
23· Stenus pictus W.B., Tamil Nadu
24· S. fistulosus W.B., Tamil Nadu
25· Palaminus indicus W.B., Tamil Nadu
26. Astenus term ina lis W.B., Tamil Nadu
27· Scopaeus andrewesi W.B., Tamil Nadu
28. S. germanus W.B., Tamil Nadu
29· Anomala elata W.B., Tamil Nadu, Kamataka
Odonata 30. Macromia jlavicincta W.B., Maharashtra
Orthoptera 3I. Pteronemobius pantelchopardorum W.B., Kerala
32. Dnopherula decisus W.B., Maharashtra
Mantodea 33· Ephestiasula amoena W.B., Tamil Nadu, Kerala
Amphibia 34· I chthyophis W.B., N.E. India, Kerala
35· Rana keralensis W.B., Kerala
Aves 36. Garrulax W.B., N.E. India, Peninsular India
Mammals 37· Ratufa W.B., N.E. India, Peninsular India
38. Hemitragus W.B., Sikkim, Kerala
39· Harpiocephalus harpia W.B., N.E. India, Tamil Nadu
SANYAL et ale : Species of Special Significance 97

Quite a large number of exotic floral and crassipes (1928), Paspalum dilatatum
faunal species have become an important part (1976).
of the natural biodiversity of the state. While 3. Africa : Cleome rutidosperma (1969),
some of them were brought by the human beings Gressocephalum crepidioides (1976),
for some definite purpose, but many others got Euphorbia chamaesyee (1969), Gisekia
the entry without the direct intention of the pharnacioides (1976), Hibiscus micranthus
people. Vast and rapid encroachment of few
(1966), Indigofera spicata (1969), Ludwigia
exotic species is gradually becoming a threat in
erecta (1969), L. hyssopifolia (1966),
many of the ecosystem, while many have been
Micrococca mercurialis (1966), Mitracarpus
naturalized or commercially grown. Director,
verticillatus (1979), Brachiaria mutica
Botanical Survey of India (1997) provided the
(1976), Melinus minutiflora (1970),
following concise list of major weed flora of the
Rhynchelytrum villosum (1980).
state in~genous to various countries and year
of their first report from West Bengal in 4. Europe : Chrysanthemum leucanthemum
parenthesis. (1970), Convolvulus arvensis (1969),
1. North America: Alternanthera pungens
Cuscuta campestris (1966), Lepidium
(1966), Calceolaria mexicana (1954), Cassia ruderale (1970), Rumex acetosella (1969),
corymbosa (1966), C. laevigata (1966), Senecio vulgaris (1980), Anthoxanthum
Centrosema virgznzacum (1970), odoratum (1966), Phalaris minor (1975),
Eleutheranthera ruderalis (1966), Lathyrus aphaca (1903), Vicia sativa
Eupatorium adenphorum (1966), E. (1903), Senebiera pinnatifida (1903),
erythropappum (1966), E. ligustrium Alyssum maritimum (1903), Lepidium
(1970), Gnaphalium purpurcum (1881), sativum (1903).
Hyptis pectinata (1940), Melichia 5. Malaysia and Australia: Cotula australis
pyramidata (1969), Nothosaerva brachiata (1969), Dentella serpyllifolia (1968),
(1966), Oxalis Latifolia (1870), O. maritima Eryngium foetidum (1979), Ipomoea
(1969), Parthenium hysterophorus (1978), quinata (1979), Lobelia radicans (1960),
Petiviero alliacea (1961), Pseudo- Pseudarthia viscida (1979), Rothia trifoliata
elephantopus spicatus (1961), Solanum (1966), Digitaria adscendens (1966), D.
glaucum (1905), Tithomia diversifolia prestii (1960), Poly trias amaura (1960).
(1966), Bromusunioloides (1975), Setaria 6. China and Japan Hydrangia
panicu~ifera (1970), Argemone mexicana
macrophylla (1966), Viola thomsonii (1916),
(1903), Malvastrum coromandelianum
Primula malacoides (1966).
(1903), Malachra capitata (19 0 3),
Passiflora suberosa (1903), P. foetida 7. Western Asia : Euphorbia helioscopia
(1978), Aeluropus lagopoides (1965),
(1903), Melochia pyramidota (1969),
Erigeron karvinskianus (1966), Opuntia Capsella bursa-pastoris (1903).
dillenii (1903), Neptunia plena (1903). The major portion of the openwater
2. South America : Alternanthera fico idea interface of the unmanged waterbodies of the
(1964), Boerhavia erecta (1978), Croton state are now occupied by exotic weeds mostly
bonplandianum (1905), Gompherna of South American origin. Among these
celosioides (1966), Ipomoea carnea (1978), Eichhomia crassipes and Alternanthera
I. congesta (1969), I. fistulosa (1966), philoxeroides are fairly common in most of the
Solanum viarum (1970), Spermacace waterbodies except in high altitudes. In addition
latifolia (1976), Turnera subulata (19 69), to these Sagittaria ,montividensis occupies
Echinochloa craspavonia (1970), Eichornia water edges of waste water canals. Free floating
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

aquatic weeds like Salvinia molesta and S. being transported/introduced from outside can
cucullata are also common in the brackish and not be ruled out. The study of Venkataraman,
nutrient rich water bodies. Submerged members 1992 and Venkataraman and Das, 1993, 1994
of the family Hydrocharitaceae are mostly old- (in Alfred and Nandi, 2001) revealed the
world species and considered as serious occurrence of several temperate and palaeractic
weedpest of the aquatic ecosystem of the state. species of cladocera as detailed below in the
Cabomba caroliniana, a strictly aquatic flood plain wetlands of West Bengal. Migratory
submerged weed introduced in India through birds might have played significant role in the
aquarium plant and now becomes a part of the dispersal of Cladoceran species.
natural flora of the state. Exotic cladoceran species in West Bengal :
A number of exotic spice species have Daphnia similes, Diaphanosoma brachyurum,
enriched the state flora and exclusively D. senegalensis, chydorus flavifrons, C.
cultivated. Among these Capsicum - Capsicum pubescens, Alona intermedia, A. rectangular,
annuum (America), Coriander - Coriandrum A. costata, Camptocercus australis, Pleu~oxus
sativum (Mediterranean), Cumin - Cuminum similis, Grimaldina brazzai, Graptoleberis
cyminum (Levant), Carcuma - Carcuma longa testudinaria. Leydigia australis, L.
(south east Asia), Fennel - Foeniculum vulgare acanthocercoides.
(Mediterranean) are worth-mentioning. Country as well as the state of West Bengal
Gardens and avenues of the state are also have long history of introduction of exotic fish
flourished with variety of exotic ornamental species for the purpose of bio-control, more
floral species such as Snapdragon - Antirrhinum production and adding glamour to the
majus (North America), Bougenvilla - aquarium. The Gold fish - Carassius auratus
Bougainvillea spectabilis (South America), and C. carassius which occur in nature all over
Croton - Codiaeum variegatum (North China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and the Tench or
America), about 40 species of Cactus (Tropical shoemaker- Tinca tinca found in fresh water of
America), Guldaudi - Chrysanthemum indicum Europe had been introduced as sport and
(Japan), Gulmoho- Delonix regia (Madagascar), ornamental fish. The Silver Carp,
Larkspur - Delphinium ajacia (South Europe), Hypopthalmichthys molitrix, a native of South
Sunflower - Helianthus annus (North America), and Central America was first brought to India
Champa - Michelia champaca (China), from Japan in 1959. The consignment of Grass
Surmaineel - In dig ofera articulata (Egypt), Carp-Ctenopharhyngodon idella (a riverine
Amarphal- Monstera deliciosa (Central freshwater fish of Amur region) was brought to
America), Ipomea creeper Mina lobata Kolkata in 1959. The Tilapia-Oreochromis
(Mexico), Ashok - Polyalthea longifolia mossambica (original home-East Coast of
(Malaysia), Rajinigandha - Polyanthes tuberosa Africa) was brought to India in 1952 via
(Mexico), Gulab - Rosa alba (Turkey and Bangkok. The Gourami - Osphronemus gorami
Arab), etc.
(natural habitats in Indonesia, Thailand,
Not much documentation has been made as Malayesia and Vietnam) was introduced in
regard the exotic invertebrate species of India Kolkata during the first half of nineteenth
or West Bengal. However, many of the century via Java. The common Carp - Cyprinus
invertebrate species particularly the arthropods carpio with three of its varieties (natural home
are soil inhabiting animals and associated with China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan and Europe),
agricultural crops, stored products and Minnows-Gambusia affinis, Poecilia reticulates
parasitic to other animals including migratory (naturally found in America), Thai Magur-
species of birds. As such, the chances of their Clarias gariepinus (Thailand) have been
SANYAL et ale : Species of Special Significance 99

introduced at different times for natural has been taken to focus the species of West
purposes. All the above species are well- Bengal with bio-medical potential, as
established in the different aquatic ecosystems pharmacological study on the bioresources of
of the state as well as country. Some of exotic the state as well as of India is still in the initial
food fishes like Silver Carp, Grass Carp, Tilapia, stages.
Thai Magur, etc. have been incorporated in our Sponges have come to limelight in recent
composite fish culture and helped in enhancing years on account of certain chemical
aquaculture production in purely closed compound they contain. Many of these
system. However, the exotic fish species may chemicals have biomedical potentials and
bring range of various diseases caused by hence species of sponges are being screened for
bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc. The ~ost virulent 'wonder drugs' Arabinose nucleosides
and menacing one threatening many species is extracted from Tetya crypta is now used in the
the Epizootic Ulcerative Disease Syndrome treatment of blood cancers and certain
(EUS). It has wiped out large populations of a malignant tumours. Sea anemones and jellyfish
number of native commercial and non- contain a number of antibiotics, useful in curing
commercial species in West Bengal, and the rest a variety of cellular and bone diseases. Two
of the country. species of Horse-shoe crabs, viz.,
There are· stray accidental introduction of Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and Tachypleus
exotic bird species in the state as well as gigas, are potential source of bioactive
country, chiefly concerned with the escaped substances-Carcinoscorpius Amoebocyte
imported pet birds like Javan Sparrow, but Lysate (CAL) and Tachypleus Amoebocyte
such individuals gradually exterminated from Lysate (TAL). These reagent~ are highly
the wild within a short span after release. Until sensitive and use for the rapid and accurate
recently, before the trade restriction, there has assay of gram negative bacteria. Annelids are
been a considerable import of exotic bird source of various valuable compounds which
species of family Psittacidae land Phasianidae can be extracted from their bodies for treating
mainly from southeast Asian countries, variety of ailments like haemorrhoids, jaundice,
Australia, South America and Africa. Among rheumatism, etc. 'Hirudin' an extract from
the exotic species represented in captivity, Leeches (Hirudinaria sp.) is being experimented
Macacow, Coccatoe, Lory, Pheasants, Cocatil, in research to understand the mechanism of
etc., are very prominent. blood clotting. Venomous snake species are the
At least two exotic mammalian species, viz., source of antivenin and other medically
House Mouse-Mus musculus and the Norway important chemicals.
Rat- Rattus norvegicus have spread over It has been said that each and every plant
throughout the country. The former species has species contains medicinal properties.
been well-established in diverse habitats However, only a few of them have so far been
alongwith number of subspecies. brought under the commercial arena, a. few
From the published accounts on ethnobotany more are being used almost in crude forms by
of West Bengal more than 550 species are found the 'Baidyas' and 'Kabirajs', and a large number
to be used by the tribals either medicinal or for of them are so far used mainly by the tribals.
other economic purposes. Similarly, the An attempt has been made to provide a list of
biomedical properties of more and more faunal some of the plant species of the state having
species are also being revealed. Leaving apart medicinal properties and which may be
the role of species yielding food, fuel, timber, commercially exploited in a sustainable way
household accessories, fodder, fibre, wood, (T~ble-28). However, the list is far fronl the
feather, paint and many others, opportunity complete.
100 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-28 : Some plant species of West Bengal having medicinal potential and their parts in use.
SI. No. Scintific name Local name Parts in use

1. Abelmoschus moschatus Muskdana Seeds

2. Ambroma augusta Ulat Kambal Whole


Acontium ferox Katbish Root

4· Alpina galanga Kalanjan Rizome

5· Acorus calamus Bach Rhizome


6. Aloe vera Ghritakumari Leaf

7· Atalantia missions Koklash Fruit


8. Andrographis paniculata Kalmegh Whole

9· Artemisia annua Vagdana Whole


10. Argemone mexicana Sitalkanta -
11. Abrus precatorius Lalgeri -
12. Acacia pennata Arare Kanta -
13· Aegale marmelos Bel Fruit
14· Adhatoda zeylanica Vasaka Leaf
15· Asparagus recemosus Satamuli Root
16. Azadirachta indica Neem Whole
17· Bargeris aristata Daruharida Stem
18. Bixa orellana Latkan Seed
19· Bacopa monnieri Brahmi Leaf
20. B.utea monosperma Palash Seed, Flower
21. Boerhavia repens Punarnaba Leaf
22. Berberis chima - Root
23· B. insignis - Root
24· Bergenia ligutata - Root
25· Centratherum authelminticum Somraj Seed
26. Calendula sp. Calendula, Bhimgaraj Whole
27· Cymbobogon sp. Lemon Whole
28. Cannabis sativa Ganja Whole
29· Cassi~ fistula Banar Lathi Fruit
"-

30. Cassia augustifolia Sonapata Whole


31. Catharanthus rose us Nayantara Whole
32. Cinchona sp. Cinchona Bark
33· Curcuma domestica Halud Rhizome
SANYAL et ale : Species of Special Significance 101

Table-28 : Contd.
SI. No. Scintific name Local name Parts in use
34· Croton tiglium Jayapala Seed
35· Centella asiatica Thankuni Leaf
36. Cordia dichotoma Boch Seed
37· Datura sp. Dutro Fruit
3B. Digitalis sp. Fox Glove Whole
39· Eclipta prostrata Keshut Leaf
40. Entada phaseoloides - Seed
41. Eupotarium triplinerve Ayapoma Whole
42. Eupatorium adenophorum - Whole
43· Emblica officinalis Amlaki Fruit
44· Fagopyrum cymosum - Seed
45· Glycyrrhiza glabra J ashtimadhu Root
46. Gloriosa superba Bighalanguli Seed, root
47· Gymnema sylvestris Merasingi Leaf
48. Ginkgo biloba Ginko Whole
49· Henidesmus indicus Ananatamul Root
50. Hedera nepalensis - Leaf, Seed
51. Hedyotis scandens - Leaf root
52. Hedychium spicalum - Root
53· Heracleum nepalense - Root
54· Imperata arundinacca - Root
55· Ipomoea digitata Bhuni Kumra Tuber
56. Kaempferia galanga Aekangi Rhizome
57· Lawsonia intermis Mehendi Leaf
58. Mentha arrensis Pudina Whole
59· Mucuna prusiens Alkushi Seed
60. Mahonia nepalense Berries
61. Martynia annua Baghnok Fruit
62. Nardostachys grandiflora Jatamansi Root
63. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Shiuli Leaf
64· Ocimum sp. Tulsi Whole
65. Plantago ovata Isafgul Seed
66. Psoralca corzliJolia Babchi Seed
102
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

.
Table-28 · Contd .
SI. No. Scintific name Local name Parts in use

67. Piper nigrum Gol Morich Fruit

68. P.longum Pipal Fruit

79· P. retrofractum Chai Stem

70. P. mullesus Paharl pan Fruit

71. Pelargonium graveolens - Whole

72 . Paederia foetida - Leaf

73· Polygala arillata - Root

74· Rauvolfia serpentina Sarpagandha Root

75· R. tetraphylla - Root

76. Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron Flower

77· Rubia cordifolia Manjishthha Whole

78. Rheum emodi Bangala reperachini Rhizome


89. Strychnos nuxvomica Kuchilla Seed
80. Swertia chirayita Chirata Whole
81. Solanum surattense Konti Karl Whole
82. S. viarum - Fruit
83. Saraca asoka Asoka Bark
84. Tinospora crispa Gulancha Stem
85. T. cordifolia Gulancha Stem
86. Terminalia chebula Haritaki Fruit
87. T. bellirica Bhairah Fruit
88. T. arjuna Arjuna Bark
89. Tribulus terrestris Gokhur Fruit
90. Tylophora indica Antamue Leaf
91. Withania somifera Ashwagandha Root
92. Vitex negundo Nisinda Whole
93· Valeriana hardwickii - Root
94· Viscum articulatum - Whole
95. Xanthoxylum hamiltonianum - Fruit
96. Zingiber officinale Ada Rhizome
SANYAL et ale : Protected Areas in West Bengal 103

PROTECTED AREAS IN WEST BENGAL


It has already been stated that Protected A. Sundarban Biosphere Reserve
area Network of West Bengal is extended over Southern most part of West Bengal is
15 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 5 National Parks and 2 indented by numerous river openings. The
Tiger Reserves (Overlapping with National important rivers from east to west are
Parks/sanctuaries) covering almost 34 percent Harinbhanga, Gosaba, Matla, Thakuran,
of the recorded forest land. Each of these
Saptamukhi, Muriganga and Hugli, which
Protected areas has its own ecological
ultimately end up at the Bay of Bengal. On the
significance supporting a rich biodiversity. A
way they have encompassed nearly 100 islands
brief account of biodiversity contained in the
criss-crossed and intersected by numerous
most important ones has been provided in
creeks and delta distributaries. The region is
Annexure- I.
popularly known as Sundarban. With its
PRIORITISATION: PROTECTED
counterpart in Bangladesh Sundarban covers a
AREAS
total land and water area of about 1,000,000
Using an analytic methodology, a series of ha. The area supports the world's famous
global 'Hot-spot' areas have been designated for mangrove block which is a well known
prioritisation of conservation efforts. The 'Hot- ecosystem of the Tropics. Nearly 9630 Sq. km.;
spot' approach identifies key localities of biotic of the Indian Sundarban lying between 20 0 32'
richness under acute threat. As such, it enables
north latitude and 22°40' and 80°05' and 89 0
conservationists to determine their priorities in
east longitude has received the status of
a more informed and methodical manner than
'Sundarban Biosphere Reserve' in 1989. The
has often been the case to date. Based on the
Biosphere Reserve includes both forest and
local situation and richness of biodiversity,
reclaimed area spreading mainly over civil
certain areas of the state have already been
district of South 24 Parganas and to some
earmarked for conservation. All these areas
extent North 24 Parganas. Within the limits of
have been brought under the Protected Area
Biosphere Reserve comes Sundarban Tiger
network of the country. Various conservation
measures and management programmes in Reseve (National Park, Sanctuary and Reserve
different scales are being carried in these Forest), South 24 Parganas Forest Division,
protected areas through state, national as well Lothian Island Wildlife Sanctuary, and Halidaty
as international support. In the present chapter, Island Wildlife Sanctuary. A part of it in
based on available information regarding Sundarban Tiger Reserve has been considered
ecological situation, floral and faunal richness, as the world Natural Heritage site since 1985.
number of threatened species, existing threats, The Biosphere is bounded by the Dampier-
an attempt has been made to designate some of Hodges line on the north, Bay of Bengal in the
these protected areas for prioritization of south, Ichhamati- Kalindi- Raimangal on the
conservation programme. However, this east and river Hugli on the West. It includes
prioritisation was not done on the basis of any 4264 sq. km. of mangrove forests (Core zone:
mathematical or statistical analysis, but simply 1700 sq. km.; Manipulation zone (Forestry) :
on the apparent floral-faunal richness, existing 2400 sq. km.; Restoration zone 200 sq. kIn.
threats and role in conservation of threatened App.). The balance area of the Biosphere
species. Though only three areas have been Reserve (5367 Sq. km.) comprises lands outside
identified, but conservation of other protected the forests [Manipulation zone (AgrL)], but
areas is also no less imporant. within the intertidal zone.
104 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

The mangrove ecosystem of Sundarban is erosion, alongwith deposition. This is effecting


the only ecological habitat of Tiger, Panthera the plant communities to give rise to dynamic
tigris of its kind not only in India but also the changes. The plant communities are
world except in Bangladesh. The tidal forms and conti~uously adjusting to the new condition.
the mangrove vegetation in Sundarban are Two distinct types of mangrove forests, viz..
responsible for dynamic ecosystem with Littoral forest and Tidal Swamp forest could
vigorous nutrient cycling both terrestrial and be recognized in Sundarban. Each of these is
aquatic. The whole ecosystem is sensitive to further subdivided into three subtypes with
changes in salinity, and the continuous cycle of characteristic vegetation as shown in Table 29.
Table-29 : Forest types in Sundarban (adopted from Mitra and Pal, 2002).
TYPE SUB-TYPE DOMINANT VEGETATION
Littoral Forest CLASS-I Dolichandrone spathacea, Erythrina variegata, Hibiscus
tiliaceous, Ixora arborea, Tamarix troupii, Thespesia
populnea, Trewia nudijlora, Vitex negundo, V. trifolia~
CLASS - II Acanthus ilicifolius, Crotolaria sp., Lippia geminata,
Porteresia coarctata, Saccharum spontaneun,
MANGROVE Aegialitis rotundifolia, Avicennia alba, Ceriops decandra,
SCRUB Excoecaria agallocha, Phoenix peludosa, Acanthus
ilicifolius, Brownlowia lanceolata.
TIDAL SWAMP MANGROVE Avicennia alba, Bruguiera conjugata, Ceriops decandra,
FOREST FOREST Ceriops tagal, Exocoecaria agallocha, Kandelia candel,
Lumnitzera recemosa, Rhizophora sp., Sonneratia apetaia,
Xylocarpus granatum, X. mekongensis.
SALT WATER Aegialitis rotundifolia, Amoora cucullata, Avicennia
MIXED officinalis, Bruguiera conjugata, Ceriops decandra,
FOREST Excoecaria agallocha, Heritiera fornes, Xylocarpus
mekongensis, Nypa jruticans.
BRACKISH Avicennia officina lis, Bruguiera conjugata, Heritiera
WATER fomes, Sonneratia apetaia, S. caseolaris, Xylocarpus
MIXED memongensis, Amoora cucullata, Acanthus ilicifolius,
FOREST Acrostichum aureum, Brownlowia lanceolata, Nypa
jruticans, Ceriops decandra, Excoecaria agallocha, Phoenix
peludosa.

The variable salinity, pH, sandy and loamy families and 50 genera have been recognized,
soil, daily inundation by high tides, different out of which 34 species are ture mangrove type
grades of subsurface nutrient, weather hazard, (Mitra and Pal~ 2002). Apart from the higher
etc. of Sundarban support specialized group of plants, microbial community of deltaic
plants known as mangrove. The mangroves are Sundarban is equally impressive, and encom-
salt tolerant halophytic seed plants that range passes a large range bacteria, cyanobacteria and
in size from tall trees to shrubs with some phytoplankton of the ambient aquatic phase.
similarities in architecture and physiology. In Banerjee et ale (2002) recorded a total of 64
the mangrove forest of Indian Sundarban, a phytoplankton species from the brackish water
total of 69 floral species belonging to 29 system of Indian Sundarban.
SANYAL et ale : Protected Areas in West Bengal 105

Sundarban provides characteristic type of the nesting ground of a number of globally


habitat suitable for animals inhabiting vast tidal threatened marine turtles particularly for Olive
swamp area. Because of their intimate Ridley - Lepidochelys olivacea. Many
association with the estuarine environment, heronries are formed here during postmonsoon
sizeable portion of aquatic animal communities and winter months. The area also serves as the
are inter-related with the animals inhabiting the temporary home for two species of Horse-shoe
land area. In terms of faunal species diversity, Crabs, viz., Carcinoscorpius rotundicanda and
mangals of Sundarban ranks first among the
Tachypleus gigas during premonsoon period of
different mangrove ecosystems of the country
high salinity. A number of plant species of
with record of 1434 species representing 20
conservation significance such as Sundari-
phyla (Das 2001). Faunal diversity includes
Heritiera james, Golpata - Nypa jruticans,
both resident and the visiting or transient forms.
Faunal diversity mainly comprises of Cnidaria Genwa - Excoecaria agallocha, Goran-
(33 spp.), Mollusca (142 spp.), Crustacea (240 Ceriops decandra, etc. have also found suitable
spp.), Insecta (201 spp.), Arachnida (33 spp.), ecological habitats in Sundarban.
Echinoderm~ta (20 spp.), Pisces (176 spp.), There is no denying the fact that the
Amphibia (8 spp.), Reptilia (58 spp.), Aves (163 management of this most productive ecosystem
spp.), Mammalia (40 spp.). However, there are is very tough because of its difficult geographic
certain differences as regard the number of situation and hostile terrain, criss-crossed by a
species under different group (MandaI and net work of turbulant streams and having long
Nandy, 1989, Chaudhuri and Chaudhuri, 1994, stretch of international boundary with
Das 2001). Though a number. of vertebrate Bangladesh. Sea and rivers provide vast fishing
species like J avan Rhinoceros - Rhinoceros
arena and draw thousands of trawlers,
sondaicus, Wild Buffalo - Bubalus bubalis,
mechnised boats, country boats. This induces
Barking Deer - Mutiacus muntJac, White
threats like poaching of animals, pilferage of
Winged Wood Duck - Cairina scutulata etc.
woods and also seepage of soil in the water
have disappear~d from Sundarban, still at least
20 species considered as threatened have found
surface. Shooting of tiger prawn seed with nets
shelter in this ecosystem. It contains the of small mesh size by the huge number of local
country's largest Tiger - P. tigris population in residents is also hampering the biodiversity ~o
its unique setting. Joint tiger Census with a great extent. Construction of embankments
Bangladesh in 2004, revealed 274 Tigers in for the protection of reclaimed area is effecting
Indian Sundarban. The numerous creeks form the salinity gradient of rivers and thus may
the safe home of the Estuarine Crocodile- disrupt floral and faunal community structure.
Crocodylus porosus, Salvator Lizard - Varanus Further, storm, cyclone, flood are the frequent
salvator, River Terrapin - Batagur baska. natural threats to Sundarban.
Among the other threatened species of B. Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary
Sundarban Gangetic Dolphin - Platanista
The sanctuary lies in the civil district of
gangetica, Snub - nosed Dolphin - Orcaella
brevirostris, Fishing Cat - Prionailurus Jalpaiguri, in between 20°58' and 27°45'
bengalensis, Lesser Adjutant - Leptoptilos North latitudes, 89°08' and 89°55' East
javanicus, White - bellied Sea Eagle- longitude. It covers an area of 216·51 sq. knl.
Haliacetus lencogaster, Osprey - Pandion In the flood plains of river Torsa and other
haliaetus, Indian Python - Python molurus are small rivers and support,s vast tracts of
worth-mentioning. The deltaic islands serve as grasslands. The Sanctuary is demarcated on the
106 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

north by the international boundary with for the great Indian One-horned Rhinoceros-
Bhutan and Totapara village. Falakata-Koch Rhinoceros unicornis outside Nepal and Assam,
Behar Road forms the southern limit. Eastern and safeguards against any possible extinction
side is bounded by J aigaon, National Highway of wild Rhino population elsewhere due to
No. 31D, Reserve forests and Tea estates. unforeseen events. Some forest blocks of the
There are villages and cultivated fields on the Sanctuary provide excellent elephant habitat.
south western side which may be considered to Elephant herds can be kept confined inside the
be bounded by the Madarihat-Falakata Road. forest for longer duration if sufficient food,
Northwestern boundary is broadly demarcated water and cover are provided and biotic
by Hasimara-Madarihat railway line, several pressure is reduced. This, in turn, will
Tea estates and Reserve forests. However, in automatically reduce elephant depredation
consideration of the to and fro movement of incidences. The National Level Action Plan on
wild animals such as Rhinos, Gaurs, Elephants, Project Elephant has already identified this
Deers, Leopards, several species of birds, the Sanctuary as part of the extended Elephant
ecological boundaries of the Sanctuary have Reserve of Buxa- Manas Protected Areas.
extended far beyond the legal boundaries. The Sanctuary provides a wide range of
The sanctuary has great ecological wildlife habitats depending on the forest types
significance as it forms the genepool reserve (Table 30).
Table-30 : Forest types of Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary (Adopted from Management plan of
Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary 1997-98 to 2006-07 by Wildlife Circle, Govt. of West
Bengal, 1997).
TYPE SUB-TYPE DOMINANT VEGETATION
RIVERINE Acacia catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Lagerstroemia parvijlora,
FORESTS Bischofiajavanica, Toona ciliata, Gmelina arborea, Trewia
nudij1ora, Anthocephalus in dicus, Bauhinia purpurea,
Grewia lavigata, Dillenia indica, Bombax ceiba.
SAL FORESTS Shorea robusta, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Dillenia
pentagyna, Sterculia villosa, Careya arborea,
Stereospermum tetragonum, Machilus villosa, Phoebe
attenuata, Terminalia sp., Meliosma simplicifolia, Michelia
champaca, Aphanamixis polystachya, Macaranga
denticulata, Bauhinia purpurea,Prema bengalensis, Leea
sp., Mikania sp., Mimosa sp., Albizzia sp., Amoora rohituka.
WETMIXED Syzygium sp., Amoora rohituka, Aphanamixis polystachya,
FORESTS Stereospermum chelonoides, Michelia champaca, Mesua
ferrea, Myristica longifolia.
SEMIEVER Bauhinia purpurea, Chukrasia tabularis, Gmelina arborea,
GREEN Michelia champaca, Schima wallichi, Toona ciliata,
FORESTS Duabanga grandiflora, Litsaea sp., Dysoxylum sp.,
Dendrocalamus hamiltonii.
EVER Shorea robusta, Bischofia javanica, Chukrasia tabularis,
GREEN Cinnamomum sp., Calamus sp., Dysoxylum sp.,
FORESTS Stereospermum sp., Mesuaferrea, Amoora wallichi.
SANYAL et ale : Protected Areas in West Bengal 107

Table-30 : Contd.
TYPE SUB-TYPE DOMINANT VEGETATION
SAVANNAH MOIST SAL Shorea robusta, Careya arborea, Lagerstroemia parvijlora,
FORESTS SAVANNAH Bauhinia purpurea, EmbIica officina lis, Saccharum sp.,
Arundo donax, Phragmitis karka, Imperata cylindrica,
Themeda arundinacea.
LOW Bombax ceiba, Albizzia sp., Acacia catechu, Bischofia
ALLUVIOM javanica, Trewia nudijlora, and grass species similar to that
SAVANNAH of Moist Sal Savannah.
WOODLAND
EASTERN Almost pure grassland with species like Saccharum
ALLUVIAL spontaneum, S. procerum, Erianthus arundinacea, Arundo
GRASSLAND donax, Phrogmitis karka.
HYDROPHYTIC Typha angustifolia, Eleocharis palustris, E. retroflexa,
VEGETATION Ludwigia octovalvis, Alternanthera sessilis, Polygonum
barbatum, Panicum paludosum, Najas minor, Sagittaria
trifolia, Hydrilla verticillata, Leersia haxandra.
A large number of perennial and seasonal angusta, Costus speciosus, Dendrobium
streams flowing through the sanctuary which lituijlorum, Discoreafalcatum, D. bulbifera, D.
provide not only further diversity to the wildlife puber, Drosera peltata, Nervi/ia falcata, Musa
habitats but also a frequent changing scenario. balbsiana, Gloriosa superba, Rauvolfia
Torsa, the main river which flows through the serpentina, Utricularia bifida, U. coerulea, U.
sanctuary, is rising and falling with great scanadens, Zeuxine nervosa, etc. Further, vast
rapidity and changing its courses frequently. tracts of Savannah grassland have already been
Within the sanctuary, it has occupied different lost in North Bengal due to extension of
positions over a tract of about 20 km wide from agriculture and other developmental activities.
east to west, by shifting its courses time and The patches survived within the territory of
again in the last one and half century. As a result, Sanctuary provide ideal habitat for many
literally the whole tract comprises of a network threatened faunal species including Rhinoceros.
of water pools, dead streams with abondoned As such these grasslands are also of great
river beds. conservation significance. Faunal diversity,
Diverse soil formation (Alluvial, Terai, particulary in respect of invertebrate species,
Bhabar), huge ground water resource, good have not yet been totally worked out. However,
monsoons, combined with some amount of as many as 29 species of fish, 12 species of
altitudinal variations resulted a great diversity amphibians, 24 species of reptiles, 246 species
of floral species. Nearly 733 species of plants of birds and 39 species of mammals have
belonging' to 114 families have been listed from already been recorded from Jaldapara and its
the sanctuary apart from numerous species of surroundings. Apart from the great One horned
phytoplankton, mosses, fungi, etc. At least, 491 Indian Rhinoceros, several other threatened
species of plants occurring in the Sanctuary species including Tiger-Panthera tigris,
considerd as threatened in the state level. Leopard-P. pardus, Gaur-Bosfrontalis, Indian
These include Aristolochia togala, Pangolin-Manis crassicaudata, Bengal
Bulbophyllum striatum, B. trista, Calamus Florican-Eupodotis bengalensis, Hill Myna-
erectus, C. tenuis, C. latifolius, Calanthe Gracula religiosa, Pea fowl-Pavo cristatlls,
108
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Indian Soft-shelled Turtle- Lissemys punctata, of the terai and alluvial plains towards the
Python-Python sp. and many others are south. In fact, sanctuary is unique in its
protected within the sanctuary. Recently, a topographical configuration as the Himalayan
small population of the Hispid Hare- range meets the Bhabar tract in a continuum.
Caprolagas hispidus, a critically endangered Consequently there are a seasonal vertical
species, have been recorded from grasslands of migration of some species, which adds to the
the Sanctuary (Maheswaran, 2002). This has variety of fauna exhibited by the area. Further,
further increased the importance of Jaldapara the sanctuary falls in the region east of the
from the conservation point of view. Mechi river, a region reported to possess the
The entire sanctuary is under management richest variety of avian species in India. It is
programme for a pretty long period. However, the largest compact block of forested habitat
the total ecological set up alongwith rich situated at the western end of the elephant
biodiversity is under constant threat of erosion migration route. It is, therefore, expected to
owing to various biotic and abiotic pressure. play an extremely significant role in the control
The flood of variable intensity is a frequent measures to be adopted for tacklin"g the
feature, which not only takes a heavy toll of problem arising out of depredatory impact of
wildlife species, but also changes the migratory elephant herd in North Bengal.
composition of forest. Changes in habitats are Owing to many zigzag turns, it is difficult to
also very common on account of natural describe the legal boundry of the sanctuary.
process of succession, e.g., invasion of Broadly, in the north it is bounded by Ruyem,
grasslands by tree species. Fire, grazing, illegal Upper Ghoramara, Lat-panchar and Mana
felling, collection of non-timber forest produce forest blocks; in the east by river Tista; by
and tourism are also resulting detrimental Latlong, Singimari, Hatisar, Mohorgong,
effects on the carrying capacity of different Chamta and Adalpur blocks in the south; while
habitats. Poaching of rhino, elephant and other Bandarjora, Punding, Kuklong, Adalpur and
species is also serious matter of concern. In Kyananuka block in the west. Many of the
recent times, problem of insurgency is also forest blocks in north, south and west are
building up within the Sanctuary, which makes extended beyond the limit of the sanctuary and
the management activity more difficult. act as spill over area for wild animal population.
c. Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary Conversion of higher hills into tea estates and
The Sanctuary falls in the transition zone Cinchona plantations has fragemented the
between Peninsular Indian subregion and Indo- ecological boundary in the north.
Malayan subregion of Oriental region. It covers Tista, a perennial snow fed river, flows down
an area of about 129.04 Sq. km. in the Terai along the eastern boundary. Many other water
region of the Eastern Himalayas on the West courses, mostly spring fed, such as Mahanadi,
Bank of river Tista between latitudes 26°55' , 33 Gulmakhola, Choklong, Nandikhola, etc., are
and 26°47" 54 North, longitudes 88°33" 31 found within the limits of the sanctuary. Except
and 880 23" 36 East. Roughly, 60 percent of the Mahanadi and Gulmakhola, flow of water in
sanctuary is hilly ranging from 150 M. to 1300 other rivers starts weakening from December
M. and comes under DaIjiling distrl<;t. However, onwards and finally during May-June confined
it also includes Latlong block of forest falling to small pools along their courses. Presence of
within the district Jalpaiguri. The sanctuary is at least three natural salt licks makes the
characterized by moderate, steep to precipitous Sanctuary further suitable as Wildlife habitat.
mountain slopes and high ridges towards the Forest types and dominant vegetation of the
north and gently sloping to almost flat stretches sanctuary are provided in Table 31.
SANYAL et al. : Protected Areas in West Bengal 109

Table-3t : Forest types and dominant vegetation of Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary (Adopted
from Management Plan for Mahananda Wild life Sanctuary-1997-98 to 2006-07 by
Wildlife Cycle, Govt. of West Bengal, 1997).
REGION TYPES DOMINANT VEGETATION
PLAINS GRASSLAND Phragmitis karka, Saccharum munja
KHAIR-SISSO Acacia catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Albizzia sp., Erythrina sp.,
FOREST Eupatorium odoratum, Mimosa himalayana, Saccharum
spontaneum.
SIMUL-SIRIS- Bombax ceiba, Albizzia sp., Erythrina sp., Adina sp., Tetramelas
FORESTS sp., Lantana sp., Tinospora sp., Dalbergia sp., Butea sp.,
MOIST SAL Shorea robusta, Schima wallichi, Chukrassia tabularis, Garuga
FORESTS pinnata, Prema bengalensis, Eupatorium odoratum, Mimosa
himalayana, Acacia himalayana, Lea sp., Terminalia crenulata,
Machilus gamblei, canes and ferns species.
DRY MIXED Shorea robusta, Dillenia pentagyna, Careya arborea Terminalia
FORESTS crenulata, Sterculia villosa, Bauhinia purpurea, Fagara budrunga,
Lea sp., Mimosa himalayana, Tinospora cordifolia.
WET MIXED Dillenia indica, Eugenia sp., Elaoecarpus lanceaofolius,
FORESTS Tetrameles nudiflora, Alpinia sp., Lafortea sp., Storchilanthes sp.,
ferns and canes species.
HILLS LOWER HILLS Shorea robusta, Schima wallichi, Terminalia crenulata, Careya
SAL FORESTS arborea, Lagerstroemia parvijlora, Albizzia sp., Machilus sp.,
Clerodendron viscosum, Bauhinia vahlii, Dalbergia stipulata.
LOWER HILLS Terminalia crenulata, Gmelina arborea, Cedrella toona, Sapidus
. DRY MIXED detergens, Ostodes paniculates, Melisome simplicifolia, Bauhinia
FORESTS purpurea, Wrightia tomentosa, Lea sp., Morinda certrifolia,
Butea parvij7.ora, Dalbergia stipulacea, Tinospora cordifolia,
Bamboo species.
LOWER HILLS Duabanga sonneratio-fraxinifolius, Cinamomus obtusifolia,
WET MIXED Macaranga sp., Callicarpa arborea, Machilus sp., Travesia
FORESTS pulmata, Clematis sp., Lea sp., Bamboos, Canes and ferns
MIDDLE HILL Schima wallichi, Castanopsis sp., Talacima hodgsonii, Betula
FORESTS alnoides, Phoebe attenuata, Macaranga sp., Wrightia tomentosa,
Baccaurea sepida, Polygonum molle, Maesa indica, Clematis sp.,
Imilax sp., Bamboos.

It is obvious that altitudinal variation study on the 'Survey of Flora and Fauna of
coupled with varied edaphic factors and Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary' in the year
favourable monsoon have given rise to great 1996 has provided a glimpse of biological
floristic variety. This in turn resulted diversity. The project prepared herbarium
enrichment of faunal species. No detailed sheets for 39 species of trees, 55 species of
inventory of species composition has so far herbs, 54 species of shrubs and 22 species of
been made. However, a collaborative research climbers. The actual number of floral species
110 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

is much higher, as for a large number of very ment potential for both forest dwellers and
common species such as Acacia catechu, fringe poplulation and generating an element
Dalbergia sisso, Bombax ceiba, Shorea of hostility against conservation practices.
robusta, Dillenia pentagyna, Sterculia villosa, Various illicit activities like poaching of wild
Phragmitis karka, Saccharum munja and many animals, cattle grazing, lopping of trees for
others which were described under forest type, fodder, head and van loading of fuelwood are
no herbarium sheet was made. Several building up to meet the needs of local people.
threatened species of plants, viz., Boehmeria A section of city-based business community are
rug ulosa, Canarium sikkimense, Elaeocarpus also exploiting local people in these operations.
aristatus, Machilus parvi/1ora, Ormosia glauca, Illicit timber removal is further facilitated due
etc. found protection in the sanctuary. In case to a large number of water ways passing through
of faunal composition qualitative richness is the sanctuary. These when flowing in full
very much evident, but many of the species are provide opportunities for rafting down illicitly
represented by very small and scattered removed timber. Again, during summer, most
populations thus' deserving special of the streams and jhoras inside the sanctuary
conservation measures. The project recorded dry up resulting acute shortage of water.
61 species of mammals, 253 of birds, 10 of Subsequently, typical migration of animals
reptiles, 6 of amphibian, 29 of butterflies and from the dry zones to more wet zones takes
moths. Among the species of conservation place. This congregation of animals developes
importance Tiger-Panthera tigris, Gaur-Bos the acute intra-interspecific competition for
frontalis, Serow-Capricornis sumatraensis, food and also increases the chances of being
Himalayan Black Bear-Selenarctos thibetanus, poached. The metalled roads (NH 55, NH 31)
Hodgson's Frogmouth-Batrachostomas and railway tract pass through the Sanctuary.
hodgsoni, Indian White-backed Vulture-Gyps This disrupts the free movement of animals and
bengalensis, Osprey-Pandion haliaetus, Kalij increases the chances of 'Road Kills' The
pheasant-Lophura leucomelana and many Sanctuary is prone to natural fire hazards. The
others have found shelter in Mahananda. fire is often caused by the sparks of railway
The entire ecological set up of the sanctuary engine, throwing of burning match sticks or
has become fragile owing to local socio- cigarettes, deliberate burning by poachers and
economic situation. Since the reconstitution of graziers. Being in the vicinity of business center
the sanctuary in 1976, commercial exploitation and tourist spots, it is regulary visited by a large
of forest resources was stopped. This has number of tourists and obviously faces the
resulted in substantial reduction of employ- hazards of tourism activities.
SANYAL et ale : Loss of Biodiversity and Causes 111

LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY AND CAUSES


The biodiversity in all the ecosystems of the chemical fertilizers and excessive siltation
state takes many pressures such as commercial from degraded catchments. Excessive
clear felling and selective clear felling, withdrawal of water from water-bodies for
conversion for agriculture; settlements, roads, industry, irrigation or domestic use, dredging
inundation for developmental projects like and reclamation of water bodies, excessive
multipurpose river valley projects, conversion fishing, building of dams and canals are other
to mqnoculture, army operation, grazing, factors adversely affecting the wetlands. West
mining, firewood collection, introduction of Bengal State Biodiversity and Strategy Action
exotics, fire and pollution, tourism, disease, Plan (Dept. of Environment and R.K.M.
natural calamities, wildlife trade and many Narendrapur, 2002) provided a item-wise
others. The marshes, river systems and other matrix on the loss of biodiversity and causes
wetlands are threatened mainly by domestic in the State. The same matrix is provided
pollutants and toxic effluents, agricultural below with slight alteration and additional
run-offs containing residues of pesticides and information.
Loss of Biodiversity and causes
Item Loss suffered Causes
I II III
A. Plants
1. Govt. Forest Land
i. Govt. Policy/Action
Related
a. Diversion of 1660 ha. since 1980 involing Ayodha Permission granted by Forests Dept.
forest land for Hills, North Bengal forests. for irrigation, road, army, hydel and
non-forest other projects.
purposes
b. Exotic tree Teak plantation in North Bengtal foot Practice of monoculture plantation in
monoculture hills and plains = 25,980 ha. Conifer West Bengal hills and plains after
plantations in North Bengal hills = clearing high forest consisting of broad
11,600 ha. Eucalyptus + Acacia leaved species communities. Pure
auriculiformis plantation in S.W. West block plantation of Eucalyptus and
Bengal = 2,59,000 ha. Acacia on blank and degraded sites of
S.W. West Bengal and Central Bengal.
c. I D due e d Landslide affected areas in North About 70 percent of landslide in North
landslide and Bengal hills = 290 sq. km. Areas Bengal hills are subjected to
soil erosion affected by sheet and gully erosion in accelerated erosive processes due to
S.W. West Bengal = 7500 sq.km. faulty land use policy, deforestation
and dearth of proper water disposal
systems. Erosion in ~.W. West Bengal
is due to bad land use in uplands, poor
watershed management, deforestation,
etc.
112 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Item Loss suffered Causes


I II III
d. Habitat loss Grassland habitat In Jaldapara Flood control embankment constituted
due to cons- Sanctuary = 5000 ha. along the right bank of Torsa river had
truction of Erosion of mangrove forest lands of resulted in loss of seasonal flood water
flood control Sundarban. flow through prime rhino habitat in
embankment Jaldapara sanctuary. This has caused
elimination of preferred habitat for the
ungulate and associated species.
Embankments around reclaimed areas
for defence against wave action,
resulting more pressure and erosion
on the forested islands of Sundarban.
ii. Industry policy/Action related
a. Biodiversity 1.2 million m3 fuel wood and 2000 There are 274 tea gardens in plains and
loss due to tonne green fodder are removed from hills of North Bengal. About 60% of
fuel wood and hills and plain forests of North Bengal these are abutting forests lands. Two
f 0 d d e r by tea garden labourers annually. lakhs labour force of the tea gardens
removal Expansion of tea gardens in the past plunder neighbourhood forest for fuel
caused severe fragmentation in Duars wood and fodder due to inaction by the
region. industry concerned to provide
Annually 1000 ha area in the buffer alternatives.
zone of S.T.R. bearing mature crop, is Twenty five percent of small wood and
operated following the method of fuel wood extracted from the annual
selection-cum-improvement felling on cropes of Sundarban are given to local
20 years cycle. panchayets and rest of the produce is
sold in the local markets by the
allottees.
iii. Unorganised population action related
a. Tree felling There are on average 7000 detected Forest and fringe dwelling poor people
illegal tree feeling cases per annum are engaged by wood based industries
with seizure of 10,000 m3 timber. An and mafia groups with interstate and
equal number goes undetected. international linkages for illegal tree
Therefore, annual loss is 20,000 m3 felling at huge profits. Poor staffing
timber mainly from North Bengal and infrastructural facilities of Forest
forests. Depts., dearth of local level
Deforestation leads to extinction of participation, lack of inter-state and
symbiotic microbes that are host across the boarder coordination
specific and have poor dispersal coupled with infiltration of militants in
ability. the forested tracts have increased the
Owners of 26 saw-mill, 45 cane- problems.
processing units and 4 veneer
factories in close proximity of B.T.R.
SANYAL et ale : Loss of Biodiversity and Causes 113

Item Loss suffered Causes


I II III
have always looked greedily on the
resources of the reserve, and found
willing parterns among a large number
of unemployed or underemployed
.
youths for plundering the forests .
The habitat of STR shows evidence of
felling in the past and timber-smuggling
is still a threat to this Tiger Reserve.
b. F u e I woo d 5 million M3 fuel wood in green form Fuel wood collection from the forest
removal is removed from the forest every year has become a custom and tradition in
by the villagers-about 60 percent of rural areas fringing forest lands. This
this in South West West Bengal and resource drain has become alarming
balance in North Bengal. An estimate due to upsurcharge in population
revealed. that nearly 300 ladies visit growth and lack of cheap alternatives
Ayodhya hills daily and return in the at local levels. Social forestry
afternoon each with head load of about endeavours from 1987 outside forest
50 kg of wood. lands have not made any dent in the
situation due to perception of farm
forestry as an income generation
enterprise from poles and pulp wood
and not as a means to obtain fuel wood
from outside forest lands.
c. Cattle grazing Two third of the State Forest i.e. about Lack of grazing policy, loss of
8900 sq.km. area visited by nearly 7 traditiodnal common lands,
million cattle annually, causing severe uneconomic returns for development
damage to 10,000 ha. forest area of pastures, retention of unproductive
every year. Apart from damage due to cattle for slaughter, uncontrolled cattle
consumption, grazing also reduces the trade across the boarder.
regeneration capacity of grassland.

d. Encroachment Encroachment of forest lands even in Land hunger, influx of people across
the protected areas is very common the border, lack of consolidation
throughout for one or other purposes. efforts for forest land.
In the past large number deltaic islands
in Sundarban had been occupied for
human habitation. Seventy-three fixed
demand licensees and other 181
individu,als (including residents
of forest villages) have encroached
on to Reserve Forest Lands of B.T.R.
to establish 300 ha. of orange
orchards.
114
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Item Loss suffered Causes


I II III

e. Unregulated Excessive collection of leaves, fruits, Landless labours and huge number of
NTFP seeds, roots, climbers, etc., as NTFP unemployed persons have adopted this
removal without regulatory measures. This has practice for livelihood. Products are so
resulted a huge decline of biodiversity diverse and collectors are so many that
specially of species of medicinal the regulation and control is not
importance in North Bengal and S.W. possible through Government
West Bengal. intervention.
f. Trade Over collection has been disastrous for Lucrative price In national and
various species of orchids, cycads and international market. Not much
medicinal plants. achievement in respect of artificial
propagation. "
g. Weed in- Weeds and climbers are acute problem Timber smuggler's activities, creating
festation in North Bengal. The most common opening without biological safeguards
and proliferating weeds are Leea sp., against weed infestation.
Cassia tora, Mikania sp., Lantana
camara, Eupatorium sp., etc. Nearly
550 km. Forest lands comprised
mostly of plantation areas, riverine
tracts and the areas denuded by timber
smugglers are affected by pernicious
weed infestation - smothering natural
regeneration, and hindering seed
dispersal.
2. Non-Government Forest land
i. Unorganised sector action related

a. Habitat loss Vast areas of non-Government forest Partition of land among the family
due to lands, orchards destroyed throughout members; soaring prices and demand
urbanisation the state and this is particularly true of land for housing and industrial
for those lying around metropolies. purposes.
3· Non-forest land
i. Govt. policy/action related.
a. Encourage- During pre-independence period 1015 Campaign to grow more food.
ment of high indigenous and improved indigenous
yielding varieties of paddy were in cultivation,
agricultural at present only 255 are in the field.
crop Huge num~er of mostly non-descript
local varieties of pulses, oilseeds,
sugarcane, potato, jute, etc. which were
in cultivation during pre-independence
SANYAL et ale : Loss of Biodiversity and Causes 115

Item Loss suffered Causes


I II III
period, are replaced by a few number
of better yielding varieties. The only
mung variety i.e. Sonamug endowed
with a characteristic scent has been
pushed to a backseat owing to its poor
productivity. The short duration
indigenous toria, part of the natural
diversity in its center of origin - the
foot hills of the Himalaya- is facing
extinction due to urge of the farmers
for higher productivity in rapeseed,
Brassica campestris, and subsequent
adoption to yellow sarson its place.
The precious genotype of Gitanjoli
variety of wheat known to withstand
moisture stress in the soils is getting
lost after the introduction of HYVs in
the uncultivated arena.
b. Diversion of Mangroves have been cleared in many High price of tiger prawn in the
Coastal Lands pockets of coastal West Bengal for international market; Export policy.
constructing shrimp. culture farms. In Tourism development without caring
Medinipur district coastal land is for ecological consequences.
excavated to retain the tidal water,
from which the salt is obtained. The
process increases the salinity of soil
and adjacent aquatic system. Various
mangrove species like H eritiera
jomes, Nypa sp. are threatened due to
these processes and there is change in
the orientation of pelagic commuity.
More than 230 ha. foreshore land on
Digha and Shankarpur beach have
been utilized for construction of hotels
and tourist facilities, fish stocking, etc.

ii. Unorganised sector action related

a. Conversion of 65,000 ha. village common lands, Land hunger, economic pursuits,
common land earlier used as pasture and 2,20000 promotion of social forestry.
and waste- ha. wastelands earlier used for
lands fuelwood/fodder collection have been
converted for agriculture/tree
farming.
116
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Item Loss suffered Causes


I II III
B. Animals
1. Govt. forest Land
i. Govt. Policy/action related
a. Loss of animal Elephant corridor disrupted over 150 Development and defence priorities.
corridor and km. length in North Bengal due to
fragmentation diversion of forest land for rails/
of habitats roads/irrigation and army camps.
Fragmentation leads to inbreeding
hazards among the populations of
confined area.
b. Loss of On an average, four elephants are Railway tracks, roadways, irrigation
animals killed every year on the railway track canals passing through the forests.
between Siliguri and Binnaguri. Road
kills are common affair in highways
passing through forests. Sudden release
of water from dams often washes away
animals including elephants.
ii. Unorganised sector action related
a. Loss of Large number of species and their Superstition, ego and supposed
species due to derivaties have great demand in the medicinal values have created a
poaching and national and international market. tremendous demand and soaring prices
illegal trade. Wide range of species from butterflies, for various wildlife and their products.
horse-shoe-crabs, sharks, sea-horse, Lack of man-power and non-
snakes, lizards, turtles molluscs, cooperation from neighbouring
echinoderms, birds, mammals, etc. are countries make it difficult to
victims of illegal trade. During the implement the legal action.
period 1997-98 to 2000-2001, at least
12 tiger skins, 9 leopard skins, 4 bear
skins, 5 rhino horns, 3 elephant tusks,
6 pangolins, 6068 birds, 25 kg. peacock
feather, 11075 turtles, 9609
amphibians and reptiles, 18 moths and
butterflies and many other wildlife
products involving flying squirrel,
mongoose, fshing cat, hog deer, etc.
have been seized by the State Forest
and other departments.
b. Loss of Ritual hunting on different auspicious Lack of awareness. Political reasons.
species due to days (Budh Purnima at Ayodhya and
ritual hunting neighbouring hills; Bengalee New-Year
day in North Bengal) involves mass
killing ot all the species sighted.
Protected species such as Leopard,
Pangolin, Spotted Deer, Peacock, etc.
are also not spared on these days.
SANYAL et ale : Loss of Biodiversity and Causes 117

Item Loss suffered Causes


I II III
2. Non-Forest Land
i. Govt. Policy/Action related
a. Loss of indi- Over 1100 sq.km. of water bodies is Profit motive. Government
genous fish under cultivation of high yeilding fish encouragement with seeds, loans and
varieties due varieties including exotics. This has others.
to encourage- pushed back the population of
ment of high indigenous fish varieties. Various
yielding fish diseases have also arrived causing
varities harm to the native germplasm.

b. Conversion Vast stretches of wetlands and swamps Provide shelter and other amenities to
of wetlands are being filled up. Reclamation of Salt the evergrowing human poplulation.
Lakes for satellite township has taken Profit making.
a huge toll of avain and other
biodiversity. 248 species of birds had
been recorded from this area during
1964-69, reduced to only 135 during
1984-97. Only endemic mammalian
species of the State-Herpestes
palustris, and several other species
have almost been wiped out from the
area.
c. Soil erosion Soil erosion causing siltation of natural Destruction of forest in catchment
. and habitat water bodies causing eutrophication areas; to improve irrigation facilities
alteration in and reduction in the productivity and generation of hydel power.
both u p- of the water bodies and subsequently
stream and the loss of species. Construction of
down stream dams and barrages are spoiling feeding
of dams and and breeding grounds of aquatic
barrages species and their migration. This along
with the changes in the salinity
resulting the erosion of overall species
composition.
2. Unorganised sector Action related
a. Poaching Poaching of local birds, frogs in Poor economic condition and absense
different villages is a regular of alternative livelihood.
incidence. Collection of yellow
monitors by the tribals in S.W. West
Bengal for selling them to 'Hakim' for
medicines. Foxes, jackals, squirrels,
mongooses are being regularly hunted
for pelts.
118 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Item Loss suffered Causes


I II III
b. Iridiscrimate Microbial community of soil Increase of agricultural production.
pesticides significantly affected. Pesticides also
application results tremendous reduction in
earthworm population.
c. Wanton Fishermen in Nadia and Murshidabad Lack of awareness and to get quick
destruction districts often fish in deep pools in the return.
river courses using all possible gears,
ultimately removing all fish including
juvenile and brood fishes. In
J alp aiguri , Kochbehar and other places
barricades are created in a particular
section of shallow stream and extracts
of some plants are mixed to the
confined water. This kills not only all
the fishes but also other faunal
components:.. .
d. Prawn seed Several thousands of people specially Due to absence of hatchery in the
collection women and children in Sundarban are state, entrepreneurs of shrimp culture
engaged in the collection of tiger prawn depend on wild harvest of prawn seed.
seeds. Unregulated use of shooting
nets of small mesh-size results in
tremendous loss in faunal diversity. It
has been estimated for collection of
single seed of tiger prawn, 208
juveniles on average mostly belonging
to fishes, molluscs, crabs and other
prawns are destroyed and as such
creating a great pressure on the
ecosystem.
e. Lime Variety of molluscan species like Calcium carbonete. is the important
generation Telescopium sp., Saccostrea cucullata, component of molluscan shell and
Crassostrea gryphoides, Anadari sp., practically there is no measures in lime
etc., are sacrificied particularly in generation practices.
Medinipure and South 24 Parganas for
generation of lime from their shells.
3· Organised sector Action related
a. Antifowling Antifowling paints applied to the So far no regulatory measures have
paints and numerous fishing vessels, petroleum been devised to control this hazard.
hydrocarbons hydrocarbons including diseal fuel
originating in the harbours and ports
result bioaccumulation in the existing
flora and fauna of coastal water and
pose serious negative stress on the
planktonic community.
SANYAL et al. : Current Conservation Initiatives in West Bengal 119

CURRENT CONSERVATION INITIATIVES IN WEST BENGAL


Conservation has been defined as "...... the plantations. The strategy of commercial
management of human use of the biosphere (i.e. exploitation of forests received a back seat. In
all living things) so that it may yield the greatest the following a summary of current
sustainable benefit to present generations while biodiversity conservation related aspects in the
maintaining its potential to meet the need and state has been provided.
aspiration of future generations" In India 1. Major Actors Relevant to Biodiversity
conservation of biodiversity is integral to Issues:
mainstream forest management and West
With the increased importance of
Bengal has one of the oldest history of scientific
Biodiversity Conservation, more and more
management of its forest, which dates back to
agencies in the Government as well as non-
mid-nineteenth century. Detailed working plans Government levels are being involved directly
were prepared by the British Foresters for
or indirectly in the process of conservation.
management of this natural resources, which
depended heavily on economic aspect of value- 1.1. Government Agencies:
addition, but did not totally overlook the aspect 1.1.1. Central Government Agencies:
of Biodiversity conservation. In late nineteenth * Ministry of Environment and Forests
and early twentieth century, the art and science * Geological Survey of India * Anthropological
of artificial regeneration were perfected in the Survey of India * Regional Meterological
lowly-productive, remote forest zones in North Centre, Kolkata * Bose Institute, Kolkata
Bengal. Some of the most picturesque and * Central Soil and Salinity Research Laboratory
beautiful plantations of conifer and other * ICAR * Border Security Force * Coast Guard
broad-leaved species like teak, sal, champ, etc. of India * Kolkata Port Trust * Indian Statistical
were raised during this period. The trend Institute, Kolkata * Central Groundwater Board,
continued till mid-seventies. Meanwhile, in Kolkata * National Atlas and Thematic Mapping
South-West West Bengal, in the districts of Organisation * Department of Science and
Bankura, Puruliya, Medinipur and elsewhere, Technology * Department of Earth Science
large scale Eucalyptus and Akashmoni (Acacia * National Biodiversity Authority * Zoological
auriculiformis) plantations were raised during Survey of India * Botanical Survey of India
sixties and seventies, as part of "Degraded *Central Pollution Control Board.
Forest Regeneration" Sal plantations were also 1.1.2. State Government Agencies :
tried in degraded sal forest areas, however, with
* Department of Environment/Coastal Zone
limited success due to heavy biotic pressure in Authority * Department of Development and
the form of forest ground-fire, fuel-wood
Planning * Department of Forests * Fisheries
collection and grazing.
Department * Land and Land Reforms
Early eighties saw the global resurgence of Department * Panchayet and Rural
Biodiversity Conservation and renewed interest Development Department * Tribal Welfare
in the preservation of the endangered flora and Department * Urban Development and
fauna of the world. In keeping with the Municipal Affairs Department, * Public Health
international and national trend, West Bengal Engineering Department * Irrigation land
too· shifted its priority in forest management Waterways Department * Water Investigation
towards conservation of natural flora and fauna and Development Department * Health and
in their natural habitats and also in ex-situ Family Welfare Department * Department of
condition. National Forest Policy of 1988 and Science and Technology and NES * Zilla
the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 put severe Parishads in respective districts * West Bengal
restrictions on the harvesting of natural forests Renewable Energy Development Agency
and their conversion into monoculture (WBREDA) * West Bengal State Pollution
120
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Control Board * Sundarban Development Board 2. Policy and Legal Structure :


* Haldia Development Authority * Digha Multifarious activities such as survey of
Development Authority * West Bengal Forest flora, fauna, forest habitat management,
Development Corporation * Eastern Forest afforestation and regeneration of degraded
Rangers College (Kurseong) *Institute of areas; prevention and control of pollution;
Environmental Studies and Wetland establishment of protected areas; regulation of
Management (IESWM). hunting, felling and Wildlife-related trade;
protection of environment; international
1.1.3. Institutions:
collaboration and cooperation; research and
* Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur awareness programmes and above all socio-
* University of Calcutta * J adavpur University economic development are intimately linked
* Kalyani University * Bidhan Chandra Krishi with the success of Biodiversity Conservation.
Vishwa Vidyalaya, Kalyani * West Bengal All these activities are well supported and
University of Animal and Fisheries Science guided by a set of legislative and regulatory
* Burdwan University * North Bengal measures in the international, national and state
University * Vidyasagar University * Indian levels.
Institute of Management, Kolkata * Indian The 73rd Amendment Act 1992 of the
Institute of Science Education and Research, constitution of India on Panchayats, which adds
Kalyani. as 11th Schedule in the constitution has eight
1.2. Non-Government Organisations : entries that are linked to environmental
There are more than hundred Non- protection and conservation. Entry 8 of the 12th
Government Organisations working directly or Schedule added to the Constitution by the 74th
indirectly in the field of Biodiversity Amendment Act 1992 assign the function of
Conservation in West Bengal. These 'Protection of Environment and Promotion of
Ecological Efforts' to urban and local bodies.
Organisations function mostly on the
programmes/projects approved by the local Different biodiversity related Action Plans
administration, Central and State Governments. and Policies have also been adopted by the
They are often supported by the international Government of India. Indian Environmental
funding agencies as well as business houses like Action Plan (1993, 1996) identified
TATA, GODREJ, etc. As listing of all the NGOs conservation and sustainable utilisation of
biodiversity related to ecosystem as one of the
is not within the scope of present report, some
seven priorities for further action. The
important ones are mentioned below.
National Conservation strategy and Policy
* World Wide Fund for Nature-India (WWF) Statement on Environment and Sustainable
* WWF-India (Sundarban programme) * S.D. Development (1992), National Forest Policy
Marine Biological Research Institute (1998), National Wildlife Action Plan (1973,
* Ram Krishna Mission Lokasiksha Parish ad 2002) and National Biodiversity Action Plan
* Pugmarks * Nature Environment and Wildlife (2008) provided due consideration to the needs
Society * Prakriti Samsad * IBRAD * Kolkata of local people and their support as well as
Wildlife Society * Tagore Society For Rural involvement in the conservation of Biological
Development * Friends of Trees * Centre For Diversity. Recently Ministry of Environment
Study of Man and Environment * North Eastern and Forests, Govt. of India has published,
Society For Preservation of Nature * Society India's Fourth National Report to the
For Wildlife Avifauna and Nature Study * Help .Conservation of Biological Diversity (2009).
Tourism * Forest Protection Committees India is also a party to various international
* Ecodevelopment Committees, * Paschim Conventions and Agreements relevant to
Banga Bigyan Mancha * ENDEV * Paribesh biodiversity such as, CITES (1973), RAMSAR
Unnayan Parishad. (1971), World Heritage (1972), Bonn
SANYAL et ale : Current Conservation Initiatives in West Bengal 121

Convention on Conservation of Migratory draw up the charge sheets and persue the cases
species of Wild Animals (1979), CBD (1992), in the court, one legal cell has been established
Convention on Wetlands (1971), Vienna in all the divisions under the Wildlife Wing.
Convention on Ozone layer (1985), Montreal Orders related to Biodiversity Conservation
Protocal on Ozone layer (1987), Basel have also been issued by different departments
Convention on Hazardous Wastes (1989), of the State Government. To Minimise the
UNFCCC (1997), Cartagena Protocol on incidental catch and fishery related mortality
Biosafety (2000), UN Convention to combat of Olive Ridley Turtle, Fishery Department
desertification (1994) and many others. issued order No. 3209-Fish/C-V/IA-2/90 pt.1,
Adopting a consultative process with the dt. 17.11.2000 and Memo No. 1473-Fish/C-V/
stake holders, a National Policy and Action IP-5/37, dt. 20.11.2000 regarding mesh size of
Strategy .on Biological Diversity has been drawn gill net and introduction of TED in fishing
up as a macro-level statement of strategies, gaps vessels.
and further actions needed for conserVation, For the conservation of Wetlands, the State
sustainable use and strategies and realization Government has formulated several acts as
of actual as well as potential value of Biological follows.
Diversity. *Town and Country Planning Act, 1979 : To
Often the natural ecosystem areas are spread control the land use change.
over the boundaries of neighbouring countries, *Inland Fisheries Act, 1984 : For
e.g. Sundarban Mangrove in India and conservation of fish species and management
Bangladesh. Again, population of a species of water bodies.
ranges different countries. Thus, for the
\, *Inland Fisheries (Amendment) Act, 1993 :
cqnservation of such ecosystem or species,
For proper management as well as conservation
regional agreements are necessary. India is a
of wetlands measuring 0.035 hal or more.
member of South Asian Association of Regional
Co-operation (SAARC), South Asian Co- West Bengal State Biodiversity Strategy and
operation for Environmental Programme Action plan as a component of National
(SACEP) and others. Biodiversity Strategy and Action plan has been
finalized and submitted in 2002. A set of ten
Above all, there is Indian Board for Wildlife desirable Actions have been prioritized. The
to devise ways and means for the conservation most important Action suggested is the
of Wildlife, Promotion of public interest in formation of Biodiversity Conservation Board
Wildlife and to advise Central Government on at the state headquarters, which will have
related matters. • overall autho{ity to obtain biodiversity related
West Bengal being a component state of information and spearhead conservation-
Union of India is guided by the Acts (Box I), management initiatives in a sustained' manner.
Actions and Policies adopted in the Central The West Bengal State Biodiversity Board has
level. However, depending on the local been Constituted and is Working in full swing.
situation, a number of Acts and Actions have During the years of activity the Board has
been implemented in the state level. To advise published several 'People's Biodiversity
State Government for formulating policy of Register' (PBR) and semitechnical books for
protection and conservation, State Wildlife identification of animals and plants by the non-
Advisory Board was established in 1955. scientific people. The most important
According to a directive of the Supreme Court, achievement of the State Board is publication
a Green Bench has been established in Calcutta of State Biodiversity Rules (2005). Ghosh
High Court to dissolve the cases on various (2008) published the, 'Status of Environmentn
environmental issues including felling of trees, in West Bengal-A Citizen's Report' In this
filling of Wetland, etc. In order to effectively report he attempted to project the views with
122 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

sufficient information/data to the maximum Scientific management plans for each


extent on the environment related critical Protected Area is a must to achieve the goal of
issues including biodiversity. Biodiversity Conservation. The plan must be
based on the sound principles of Biology; it
3. IN-SITU CONSERVATION :
must be practicable in context of the resources
In West Bengal, the concept of conservation at the command of the manager; must conform
of natural habitats and the species therein is to laws, policies and regulations in force; must
deep-rooted, as Senchal Wildlife Sanctuary was accord with the local socio-economical
notified as early as in the forties vide NO.10699 situation and must be ethically acceptable. As
dt. 18.11.1940, Jaldapara sanctuary on such making a management plan is a time taking
18.11.1940 vide No. 10694, Gorumara and affair and requires huge amount of information.
Chapramari Sanctuaries were notified vide West Bengal has made significant progress in
Nos.5181 dt. 2.8.1949 and 10694: dt. the preparation of management plans for
18.11.1940 and No.8403 dt. 30.8.1941 Protected Areas and the same for all the
respectively. All these notifications being issued Protected Areas except the names below have
under the Indian Forest Act of 1927 prior to been completed.
promulgation of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Box 1. Important Central and State
However, with the advent of the latter Act, the Acts with relevance to Biodiversity
conservation of natural habitat alongwith floral
~ Fisheries Act, 1897
and faunal diversity received a tremendous
booster and statutory support. Since then, ~ Destructive Insects and Pests Act, 1914
large-tracts of forest areas including water ~ Forest Act, 1927
bodies having ecological significance and ~ Agricultural Produce (Grading and
importance had been identified by the state and
Marketing) Act, 1937
declared as Protected Areas in the form of
National Parks, Sanctuaries and Tiger Reserves ~ Tea Act, 1953
to ensure an adequate network covering the ~ Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960
almost complete range of Biological Diversity ~ Import and Export (Control) Act, 1980
in the State. Further, considering the
~ Seeds Act, 1966
importance of the bio-geographic region and its
unique biodiversity, the National Park area of ~ Customs Act, 1962
Sundarban Tiger Reserve was included in the ~ Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
list of World Heritage Sites in 1985, and whole ~ Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution)
Sundarban area was declared as Biosphere Act, 1974
Reserve in 1989. Till date, Protected Area
~ Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution)
network of the state includes 5 National parks,
15 sanctuaries, 2 Tiger Reserves and 1 Cess Act, 1977
Biosphere Reserve (Table 10). The existing ~ Marine Products Exports Development
Protected Area network comprises of 34 Authority Act, 1972
percent of state forest area and 4.6 percent of ~ Economic Zone and other Marine Zones
state geographical area. It may be interesting Act, 1976
to note that in West Bengal, a unique effort was
~ Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986
made to conserve the Himalayan Newt or
Salamander by declaring sanctuary in its name ~ Foreign Vessels Act, 1980
and consequently, the Jorepokhri Salamandar ~ Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
Sanctuary was formed in Darjiling district. This ~ Foreign Trade (Development and
is the only sanctuary in the country to be
Regulation) Act, 1992
dedicated to the conservation of an amphibian
species. ~ New Seed Development Policy, 1988
SANYAL et al. : Current Conservation Initiatives in West Bengal 123

!l. Spices Board Act, 1986 taken for preserving the habitat and food base
!l. Hazardous Waste (Management &
of associated species living in the PAs. Some of
Handling) Amendment Rules, 2000 the habitat management activities in the
protected areas are mentioned below.
!l. Biodiversity Act, 2000
Overwood removal and fodder plantation :
!l. Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 1951
Rhino and other herbivore species prefer
~ West Bengal Forest Produce (Establishment riverine grass land and savannah grassland for
and Regulation & Saw Mills) Rules, 1982 food and shelter, controlling the invasion of
!l. Town and Country Planning Act, 1979 grassland by the pioneer tree species is an
4 Inland Fisheries Act, 1984 important strategy for development of rhino
habitat. As such the process of overwood
!l. Inland Fisheries (Amendment) Act, 1953
removal followed by artificial regeneration for
!l. Biomedical Waste (Management and maintaining grassland habitat is an extremely
Handling) (Amendment) Rule, 2003 important component of management and same
J'he management plans for Raiganj, is done in a phase manner in Jaldapara,
Ballavpur, Halliday and Lothian Island Wildlife Gorumara; Mahananda and others to halt the
.Sanctuaries and Chintamoni Kar Bird Sanctuary encroachment of wood land in grass land.
are under preparation (Annual Report, Wildlife Plantation of indigenous grasses : The
Wing Directorate of Forest, Govt. of West plantation of indigenous fodder grasses are
Bengal, 2009-10). taken up in Mahananda, Gorumara, Jaldapara
Policy decisions were taken to handover and Buxa in degraded forest areas, or as follow
administrative control of Protected Areas to up action of weed eradication and overwood
Wildlife Wing for more intensive management removal. These plantations are done to increase
from wildlife conservation angle. the fodder base for wild animals, so that they
Regular intensive patrolling and maintaining get adequate food inside the PAs and do not
constant vigil over the PAs is the primary stray out of the PAs into the human habitation
condition for preventing poaching of wild or crop field. Such fodder plantations are being
animals, illicit felling of timber, grazing, done under the Centrally Sponsored Schemes
encroachment and other deleterious activities. and State Plan. Only the indigenous species like
For the purpose of patrolling, each Beat Officer 'Dhadda', 'Chepti', 'Malsa','Madhua', 'Ekra'
arrange for daily and intensive scanning of the (Saccharum sp.), 'Nal', (Arundo donax),
forest beat under his control, particularly the 'Khagra' (Phragmitis karka), 'Bhuttagrass' (Coix
sensitive habitat areas by staff on foot, elephant lachrymajobi), 'Purundi' (Alpinia sp.), etc. are
back, launch and boats. During rainy season, locally collected and planted.
rafting of timber along river is a serious Weed eradication: Weeds and climbers are
problem in North Bengal. Temporary tree top acute problems in most PAs in North Bengal.
camps are establilshed during rainy season to The most common and proliferating weeds are
control such theft of drift timber. Similarly, Leea sp., Cassia tora, Mikania sp., Lantana
temporary camps are set up at regular intervals camara, Clerodendron bengalensis, etc., the
along the course of rivers passing through the growth of which often surpasses that of grasses.
PAs. For eradication of Leea sp., uprooting is done
A host of activities are being regularly at the time of flowering, i.e., around Septeluber,
carried out in and around PAs for the habitat to prevent further propagation of the species
improvement. While these activities are through its seeds. Similarly, cutting of Lantana
primarily directed for developing the habitats camara is done in the month of October. All
for identified flagship species and sensitive weed eradication operations are done manually
species, but at the same time sufficient care is and no weedicides are applied.
124 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal-

Table-to : Protected Areas of West Bengal (Source : Anon. 2002. Biodiversity Conservation in
West Bengal, Govt. of West Bengal).
SI. Name Of Protected Area Major Flora Major Fauna
No. Area & District (sq.
km.)
A. National Parks
1. Buxa N.P., Jalpaiguri 117.10 Sal, Simul, Siris, Khair, Tiger, Leopard (Black
Champ, Sidha, Toon, Lali, Panther also) Elephant,
Lampate, Mandane, Katus, Clouded Leopard, Himalayan
Teak, Orchids. Black Bear, Civet, Sambar,
Serow, Barking deer, Gaur,
Pangolin, Python, Raptors,
Black-necked Crane and
other birds, Moths,
Butterflies, etc.
2. Gorumara N.P., 79.45 Tropical moist deciduous Great Indian Rhinoceros,
Jalpaiguri Sal forests associated with Leopard, Elephant, Sloth
Odal, Lali, Katus, Dilenia, bear, Hog deer, Sambar,
Simul-Siris-Khair, Terai Wild boar, Python, Turtle,
grassland. Migratory birds, Peafowl,
Indian Pied Hombill.
3. Neora Valley, DaIjiling 88.00 Odal, Pterocarpus, Tiger, Leopard, Himalayan
Chlanune, Michelia, Black Bear, Sloth Bear, Civet,
Kawla, Katus, Buk, Oak, Golden cat, Barking Deer,
Bamboo, Rhododendron, Sambar, Wild Boar, Serow,
Tree ferns, Orchids. Goral, ~ed Panda, Wild dog,
Leopard cat, Gaur, Kalij
Pheasant, Satyr Tragopan
and other Hill birds.
4. Singalia N.P., DaIjiling 78.60 Highest located National Himalayan Black Bear, Red
Park In West Bengal. Panda, Couded Leopard,
Forest type changes with Leopard cat, serow, Wild
attitudinal Range at 2400- Boar, Pangolin, Pika, Barking
3636. Mailing bamboo, deer, Kalij pheasant, Satyr
Buk, kawla, Magnolia, Tragopan, Blood Pheasant.
Bhujpatra, Rhododendron,
Oak, Hemlock, Silver fir,
Juniper.
5· Sundarban N.P., South 1330.10 Largest Mangrove Forest Tiger, Fishing cat, Rhesus
24-Parganas with 64 species. Nipa Macaque, Estuarine-
palm, Phoenix, Avicennia, Crocodile, Water Monitor
Bruguiera, Ceriops Lizard, Wild boar, Fox,
Exeoccaria, Rhizophora, Spotted deer, White bellied
Xylocarpus Sea Eagle, Goliath Heron,
Migratory birds
SANYAL et ale : Current Conservation Initiatives in West Bengal 125

Table-10 : Cont'd.
Sl. Name Of Protected Area Major Flora Major Fauna
No. Area & District (sq.
km.)
B. Wildlife Sanctuaries
1. Ballavpur 2.021 Sal, Akasmoni, Sisoo, Spotted deer, Black Buck
Amla, Bahera, Ficus (introduced), Mongoose,
species, etc. (mainly Hare, Jackal, Bengal Fox,
plantations). common birds.
2. Bethuadahari WLS, 0.6686 Sal, Arjun, Teak, Sisoo, Spotted deer, Jackal, Bengal
Nadia Siris, Mango, Gamar and Fox, Porcupine, Common
other planted species .. r' Langur, Barking Deer,
Sambar, Jungle Cat
Parakeets, Indian Cuckoo,
Hawk, Cuckoo, Barbets and
other smaller birds, large
Pythons, etc.

3· Bibhutibhusan WLS, N. 0.64 Simul, Mingiri, Arjun, Spotted deer. Rich in


24-pgs. Siris, Bamboo etc., all common birds.
planted species.
4.' ' Buxa WLS, J alpaiguri 267.92 A part of Buxa Tiger Elephant, Leopard, Gaur,
Reserve same as' Buxa Spotted deer, Sambar, jungle
National Park, Buffer cat, Fishing cat, Birds.
area.
5. Chapramari WLS, 9.60 Predominant Sal mixed Elephant, Gaur, Leopard,
Jalpaiguri forest lali, Chilaune, Sambar, Barking deer,
Kanchanan, Bahera, Rhesus and Assamese
Kawla, Dilenia, Mallotus, macaque, Hornbill, lesser
etc. Adjutant Stork.

,6. , Haliday Island WLS, Mangrove Forest of Spotted deer, wild boar,
South 24-Pgs. Sundarban. barking deer, Rhesus
macaque, Tiger.
7. Jaldapara WLS, 216.51 Terai Grass land, riverine Great Indian One horned
Jalpaiguri forest, sal forests, Simulo, Rhino, Tiger, Gaur, Elephant,
Kyair, Sisoo, Sidha, Badger, Leopard, Sloth Bear,
Gamar, Mallotus, Kawla, otter, Bengal Florican, Kind
Dilenia, Ficus. Cobra.
8. Jorepokhri Salamander 0.11 Developed into a tourist- One of the favourite breeding
WLS, Darjiling spot very recently and ground of Himalayan Newt
artificially decorated. or Salamander (Trilotriton
verrucosus)
126 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-to: Cont'd.
SI. Name Of Protected Area Major Flora Major Fauna
No. Area & District (sq.
km.)
9. Lothian Island WLS, 38.00 Sundarban Mangrove Estuarine Crocodile, Olive
South 24-Pgs. Forest. Ridley sea turtle, spotted
deer, jungle cat, Rhesus
Macaque.
10. Mahananda WLS, 158.04 Tropical moist deciduous Tiger, Leopard, Elephant,
DaIjiling Sal forests, Khair, Udal, Gaur, Goral, Spotted deer,
Lali, Champ, Teak, Jarul, Golden cat, Himalayan Civet,
Sisoo, Gamar, Mandane, Hornbill, Racket tail drongo,
Bamboos, Sidha, Ferns, very rich in birds.
Orchids.

11. Narendrapur WLS, 0.07 . Orchard plantation. Rich in smaller birds,


South 24-Pgs. specially paradise fly
catcher, Oriole, etc.

12. Raiganj WLS, N 1.30 Kadam, Jarul Largest nesting place of open
Dinajpur (Lagerstromia spp.), bill stork (60,000-70,000
Sisoo, Teak, Khair, nests). Night Heron,
Saccharrum grasses, etc. Cormorant, Egrets,
Kingfisher, Wood peckers,
Barbets, etc., Jackal, Bengal
fox, Mongoose, monitor
lizards.
13. Ramnabagan WLS, 0.14 Teak and sal plantation, Spotted deer, common
Barddhaman jamun, Ficus and other langur, introduced species -
plated species. Black Buck.

14. Sajnekhali WLS, 362.4.0 Mangrove Forest. A part Spotted deer, Rhesus
South 24-Pgs. of Sundarban Tiger Macaque, Wild boar, Tiger,
Reserve. Water monitor lizard, Fishing
Cat, Otter, Crocodile, Batagur
terrapin and Migratory birds.

15. Senchal WLS, Darjiling 38.88 Magnolia cambelii, Serow, Goral, Barking deer,
Rhododendron, Michelia Himalayan Black Bear,
Bamboo, Buk, Kawla, Utis, Leopard, Leopard cat, Jungle
Hemlock, Pipli and cat, Assamese macaque,
Crytomeria (planted Giant Squirrel, Flying
species) Squirrel, kalij, Hornbill,
Imperial pegion, Thruses,
and other hill birds.
SANYAL et at : Current Conservation Initiatives in West Bengal 127

Table-l0 : Cont'd.
81. Name Of Protected Area Major Flora Major Fauna
No. Area & District (sq.
Ion.)
C. Tiger Reserves
1. Buxa Tiger Reserve 760.87 As above As above
(includinvg WLS & (Core:
N.P.), Jalpaiguri 385·02,
Buffer:
375.85)
2. MSundarban Tiger 2585.00 As above As above
Reserv~, South 24-Pgs. (Core:
& North 24-Pgs. 1330,
Buffer:
1255)
Biosphere Reserve
1. Sundarban Biosphere 9630 As above As above
Reserve, South 24-
Pgs., & North 24-Pgs.

Control burning of old grass plantations for Control of grazing by livestock : Grazing by
natural regeneration: Fodder grass plantations livestock from fringe villages is a great threat
in. North Bengal PAs when become more than to the habitat. Domestic livestock not only
three years old start loosing their importance competes with the wild herbivores for food but
as foraging areas, since the animals do not also spreads serious diseases. To minimize the
prefer coarse grasses. Such three year old hazardous impact of grazing various actions are
plantations are usually brought under control being taken as detailed below.
burning operations during winter. In order to * Extensive patrolling specially along the
create minimum disturbance for animals and forest boundaries and grazing prone areas.
to provide them shelter and fodder while
carrying out these operations, not more than
* The camps situated on the main roads are
activated to prevent entry of cattle in the
12 to 15 such patches of less than 5 ha. in each PAs.
PA are undertaken in a year.
* Reduction of low yielding variety cattle
Control of wild fire : Accidental and man- through castration of bulls and artificial
made wild fire is common in most of the PAs of insemination for improvement of stock
North Bengal. Several fire protection measures
such as maintenance of fire line before fire
* Regular immunization of domestic cattle
against Anthrax, FMD, HS, BQ diseases
season, construction of tower/tree machan for
fire detection, engaging fire watchers during fire * Replacement of low-yielding varieties with
season and publicity and public awareness, and high-yield variety.
others have been adopted. Creation and * Involvement of Eco-developnlen t
maintenance of firelines are usually done under Committee and seeking their cooperation to
centrally sponsored scheme. prevent illicit grazing.
128 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Reforestation of degraded forest areas : momentum after Government resolutions were


Substantial chunks of blank areas or degraded issued for Sundarban, forests of North Bengal
forest areas along the boundaries of PAs in and those lying under the jurisdiction of
North Bengal have been brought under Darjiling Gorkha Hill Council. A detailed area-
vegetation cover through plantation of wise number of FPC, total members, total
indigenous timber, fruit and tree fodder species. protected area and forest land Cha.) per FPC
Since the inception of Sundarban Biosphere members has been shown in Table 11. A
Reserve, plantations are raised in the mangrove mangrove rehabilitation project already
blocks, with special thrust on species like launched envisages the afforestation of
Heritierafomes, Xylocarpus granatum and X. embankments with mangrove species over
mekongensis. 3,300 ha. and protection of degraded mangrove
forest land covering 25, 000 ha. through FPCs.
Joint Forest Management (JFM) outside the
PAs in West Bengal has its origin in the success Eco-development project in and around
achieved in rejuvenating a patch of 1270 ha. of PAs: The concept of JFM in the traditional
degraded forests under a pilot project forestry sector has been extended to the PAs
implemented during 1972 near Arabari in in the name of 'Eco-development' The
Medinipur. The JFM movement gathered Government Order for the constitution of Eco-
momentum when in 1989 a programme of development Committee CEDC) was issued in
resuscitation and re-establisment of moribund the year 1996. The objective of the project is
sal and other hardwood forests in the districts to conserve the floral and faunal biodiversity
of Medinipur, Bankura, Puruliya, Barddhaman of the protected areas through direct
and Birbhum was initiated with the active involvement of the fringe population but with
participation and involvement of local people a clear distinction of non-sharing of products
and panchayets. Simultaneously a Government of PA. The strategy is to carry out ecologically
resolution was issued defining the principles of sustainable economic development of fringe
sharing of duties, respo~sibilities as well as polpulation, so that the biotic pressure on the
benefit from the forests, with the participating. forests for subsistence of fringe population is
local people living inside and in the fringe of reduced with social control. Number of EDCs
forests. The procedure for establishment of the formed around the PAs of West Bengal has been
institution called Forest Protection Committee shown in Table 12.
(FPC), consisting the participants as members, Others : Various activities such as thinning
was formalized. The foundation of an of older plantation, conversion of monoculture
innovative participatory forest development, plantations into mixed plantation, soil and
protection and management system was thus water conservation measures, development of
laid for the forests of southwestern Bengal salt-licks, mitigation of man-animal conflict'
.

which now cover approximately 38 percent of census of wild animals and others are being
the total forest area of the state. JFM systematically carried out to achieve the goal
contributed to conversion of vast tracts of of in-situ conservation.
scattered, over-exploited and degraded sal and
miscellaneous scrub forests to productive pole 4. EX-SITU CONSERVATION :
crop with great improvement in quality and The principal institutions holding Ex-situ
density in many regions of southwest West population of animal species are zoos, deer
Bengal. JFM picked up and gathered parks, snake parks, aquaria, while that of plant
SANYAL et ale : Current Conservation Initiatives in West Bengal 129

species are botanical gardens, seed banks, gene kept in cages, but with the financial assistance
banks, etc. of the State Government and CZA, Open Air
4.1. ANIMALS : Zoos play the most Moated Enclosures have been constructed for
important role in Ex-situ conservation of better housing of Sloth Bear, Tiger, Lion, Rhino
animal species. The Zoo Management concept and others. Opening of a freshwater aquarium
started changing drastically in the 20th Century in 1977 added a new dimension to the Alipore
where it had been felt through out the world Zoo. The Zoo has made significant achievement
that zoos have much important role to play in respect of captive breeding of a number of
rather than being a place of mere amusement native as well as exotic threatened species. This
and is now considered as an extension of forests. includes Rhino, Lion, Tiger, Leopard, Leopard
Captive breeding of endangered animals is the Cat, Chinkara, Manipur Deer, Hog Deer,
Spotted Deer, Barking Deer, Giraffe, Common
main aim of the modem zoo management and
Marmoset, Common Pea Fowl, Pheasants,
the concept "Nature to Zoo" has changed to the
Painted Stork, Spoonbill, Marsh Crocodile and
concept of "Zoo to Nature" The zoos are also
many others. Research works on conservation
playing a role in developing the awareness
of wildlife in captivity are being regularly
among the people and educating the people
carried out by the officers and veterinarians.
about the importance and significance of
Regular awareness and training programmes are
conservation. With the establishment of the
also organized in collaboration with the NGOs
Central Zoo Authority (CZA) in February 1992,
or other Government agencies.
a .systematic documentation of facts regarding
Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological
captiv~ breeding and exchange of the same with
Park (DaIjiling) is the only high altitude zoo in
various Zoos have been started. CZA also issues
this part of the world~ It posesses (till March
guidelines to be fol~owed by every zoo with
2000) 70 specimens of mammals, 191 of birds
respect to captive breeding, maintenance of
and one of Reptiles. Most of its holdings are
animals, exchange and loaning and others.
high altitude species such as Snow Leopard,
In West Bengal the concept of Zoo and Himalayan Wolf, Himalayan Black Bear, Red
Menageries started long back mainly under Panda, Yak, Ussuri Tiger, Markhor, Chir
private capacity. Some of the oldest Zoos of Pheasant, Kaleej Pheasant, etc. The zoo is
the state are : successfully carrying out captive breeding of
* Barr~ckpur Menagerie, founded in 1801 and some of the endangered species of the
closed in 1879 Himalayan ecosystems, such as, Red Panda,
* Wazir Ali Shah's Menagerie, founded in Tibetan Wolf and Snow Leopard. It is also
1830'S and wound up in 1880 initiating release of the captive bred animals in
their natural habitat.
* Alipore Zoo, founded in 1875 and
Zoological Survey of India has opened on 4-
continuing.
2-2003 the Marine Aquarium and
* Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park Research Centre at Digha for holding a
established in 1958 and continuing. spectrum of animals of our Marine Ecosysten1s.
Alipore Zoological Garden is holding It is also educating, motivating and initiating
nearly 350 specimens (35 species) of mammals, awareness campaigns among the local people,
1300 bf birds (65 species), 70 of reptiles (18 students and tourists on the importance of
species) and 1000 of fishes. Animals are mostly conservation.
130 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

A number of Deer parks were established working on a project on reintroduction of once


in the state during post-independence era present pygmyhog in Gorumara National Park
mainly by the Forest Department. Some of in collaboration with the department of forests,
these Deer Parks such as Parmadan, Ballavpur , Government of West Bengal. The state
Bethuadhari were elevated to the status of government has decided to start a fesibility
Sanctuary. Deer Parks mainly contain Cheetal study of reintroduction of rhinoceros in Buxa
and Barking Deer. Besides, antelopes, Nilgai and National Park. This study will also be
rescued specimens of other groups of mammals, undertaken by ZSI scientists.
birds, reptiles are also reared in some of the In West Bengal, the rehabilitation and
Deer Parks. Excess deer population from the restocking of some of the endangered wild
existing Deer Parks are often translocated in animals have been initiated like translocation
the forested tracts particularly of South West of more than 1100 Cheetal deers in the forest
Bengal. Wildlife wing built up a Deer Research of South Bengal, Sundarban and North Bengal.
Centre at Salt Lake in 1975 covering an area of The release of marsh Crocodile (421 Nos.) and
0.02 sq.km. Existing Deer parks of the state
Batagur buska are being done regularly in
are listed below. various creeks and rivers of Sundarban (Table-
* Deer Park, Dow Hill, Kurseong 13). In addition, two Red Pandas have been
* Gor Chumuk Deer Park, Haora released in Singalila National Park.
* Kumari Kangsabati Deer Park, Bankura 4.2 Plants : Large varieties of cereals,
* Bellilias Park, Haora vegetables, horticultural crops and forestry
* Corporation Park, Haora related plants are traditionally under Ex-situ
conservation through the numerous seed banks,
* Jhargram Deer Park, West Medinipur nurseries, home gardens, etc. maintained by the
* Adina Deer Park, Maldah Department of Agriculture and Forest,
* Garhmandaran Deer Park, Hugli Agricultural Universities, as well as private
Two Snake Parks, one in Badu (North 24 bodies including farmers, scientists and
Parganas) and other in Kolkata are being business houses. In Darjiling district,
maintained under private capacity. These are particulary in Kalimpong, artificial propagation
also maintaining a fairly good collection of of orchids are being carried out in private
reptiles and carrying out awareness capacity. However, largest center for Ex-situ
programmes to grow love and affection for conservation of plant species in West Bengal is
these creatures. the Indian Botanic Garden, Haora under the
Captive hatching and rearing centers Botanical Survey of India.
have been established for Salt Water Crocodile, The Indian Botanic Garden established way
Olive Ridley Turtle and River Terrapin at back in 1787 is presently a center of excellence.
Sajnekhali and Bhagabatpur by the Forest The Garden is the repository of more than
Department. Wild laid eggs were collected and 12,000 trees, shrubs and climbers representing
brought to the centers for captive hatching. over 1400 species together with a large number
Regular release of specimens to the wild is being of wild and cultivated plants. The garden has
done successfully from both the centers. played a very important role in the economic
Reintroduction of wild animal : development of the country by introducing,
Scientists of Zoological Surveyof India are improving and distributing a number of
SANYAL et ale : Current Conservation Initiatives in West Bengal 131

economic plants, such as, Tea, Rubber, Jute, forestry and managerial aspects. For senior
Cinchona, Sugar cane, Mahogany, etc. It forest officials training courses on 'Application
preserves one of the best collection of native of Remote Sensing Techniques in Forestry' are
and exotic plants and large number of curious, being organized by the Forest Survey of India.
rare and threatened species. Rich collection of Zoological Survey of India regularly organising
Bamboo" Screwpine, Palm, Waterlily, Orchid, various training courses on collection,
etc., are some of the proud possession of this preservation and identification of animals of
Garden. economic importance, field ornithology, basic
There are ten medicinal plant gardens in the taxidermy and wildlife conservation for forest
state containing 150 species maintained by the officials, teachers, students and members of the
Sylviculture Division of the Forest Department NGOs. Similarly, Botanical Survey of India
at Mirik, Darjiljng. The garden established by conducts regular courses on field survey,
the Darjiling Gokha Hill Council is one of the herbarium methodology and identification of
finest of its kind. floral species. State Forest Department also
5. Training and Awareness Programme: organises various training programmes such
No Conservation programme can be as veterinary care, capture and release of
successful without people's awareness, wild animals, ecodevelopment (irrigation,
involvement and support. A host of activities pisciculture, etc.), wildlife census, handling of
thus directed towards educating common captive animals specially elephant, and others
people, decision makers, enforcement staff and for his own staff, EDC, FPC members as well as
particularly the people living in multiple use NGOs.
areas through Central and State Governments Key of conservation success lies in the
as well as non-Government organisations. nature education and awareness generation
Wildlife Institute of India (WI!) is the main among the common people. In recent years
training center in order to train Indian Forest 'Environmental Science' has been included in
Service (IFS) and State Forest Service (SFS) the curriculum at school and college level.
officers as well as the Rangers. Further, WII Dissemination of information on the
imparts training on Wildlife management, importance, ways and objectives of Wildlife
captive breeding, ecodevelopment for cum Biodiversity consevation is being done by
.Biodiversity Conservation, community the Central and State Government, NGOs, and
participation in Biodiversity Conservation, business houses. through the following means.
wildlife study techniques, Tranquillisation and
chemical immobilisation of wild animals and
* Establishment of well-equipped nature
interpretation centers at Madarihat,
others. Regular tr.aining courses covering the
subject area of tree planting, nursery Kunjanagar, Lataguri, Murti, Lava, Sukna,
techniques, etc. are being organized by the DaIjiling Natural History Museum in North
Institutre of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding. Bengal and Bethuadahari and Sajnekhali in
Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy South Bengal.
arranges professional training to the * Installation of hoardings at strategic points
probationers of the IFS officers to face on the National and State Highways, places
challenges in the profession on technical of tourist interest.
132 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

* Circulation of leaflets, brochures, posters to research in multidisciplinary aspects of


the common people, students, visitors of environmental protection, biodiversity
PAs, highlighting the importance of conservation and development are to advance
conservation as well as legal implications. the scientific understanding and to generate
* Organising regular relevant film shows at information required to develop strategies,
schools, colleges, fairs, panchayets and technologies and methodologies for better
others. ~anagement plan. It also aims attempting
* Release of postage stamps depicting Wildlife. solutions to practical problems of resource
* Releasing advertisements with appeal for management, conservation of biodiversity and
conservation through audiovisual media like ecoregeneration of degraded areas. Large
TV, Radio, Cinemas, Newspapers, number of organizations, such as, Zoological
Magazines, etc. Survey of India, Botanical Survey of India,
* Organising nature camps, sit and draw Wildlife Institute of India, Forest Survey of
competition, debate, lectures for children India, Fisherey Survey of India, I CAR, CSIR,
and youngs.
Department of Science and Technology, State's
* Creation of ecotourism zone by involving Forest, Fishery, Environment, Agriculture
NGOs and Social Forestry Division.
Departments, Pollution Control Board,
* Rewarding commendable Biodiversity Universities, NGOs like Bombay Natural
Conservation initiatives to individuals/
History Society, P.rakriti Samsad, Nature
groups
Environment and Wildlife Society, Pugmarks,
* Building up of public opinions particularly WWF-India, IBRAD and many others are
by the NGOs to prevent any anti-
carrying out extensive research work dealing
conservation action or policy.
with the biodiversity of the state, Central and
* Celebration of World Environment Day, State Governments are the main funding
Wildlife Week, Forest Week, Biotechnology
Day at Government and non-Government agencies of these research organizations.
level by organising lectures, workshops, Further, project specific financial and technical
exhibition, distribution and planting of supports are also extended by the international
seedlings, cleaning operation, film shows and agencies like IUCN, UNDP, WWF-India,
others. International Develolpment Association and
* Following the suggestion of IBWL,. Global Environment Trust, U.S. Embassy and
PMonailurus viverrinus (Fishing Cat), others.
Halcyon smyrnensis (White-throated or It is not possible to provide the total range
White-breasted Kingfisher), Alstonia
of research activities. As such some of the
scholaris (Chhatim) and Nyctanthes
major areas of research works either completed
arbor-tristis (Shepali/Siuli) have been
identified as state animal, bird, tree and or in progress have been mentioned below.
flower respectively. This has a very positive Botanical Survey of India (BSI) and
impact towards awareness and support for Zoological Survey' of India (ZSI) carry out
conservation (Plat-I, p. 133). surveys to inventorise and determine the status
6. Research : of floral and faunal resources at the state and
This is a critical component of Biodiversity national level. Documents of floral and faunal
Conservation. The objective of promotion of resources at the district and State level are
SANYAL et al,. Current Conservation Initiatives in West Bengal 133

PLATE 1

West Bengal State Flower, Plant, Bird & Animal

State Flower State Plant

Nyctanthes ,arbor-tristis Alstonia scholaris


- (Shephalil (Chbatim)

State Bird State Animal

Halcyon smyrnensis Prion.oilurus viverrinus


(White Throated Kingfisher) (Fishing cat)
134 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

being published by them. Identification manuals sponsored by G.O.I. Other collaborative studies
for different groups have already been taken up under W.B. Forestry project (IDA-
published. Red Data Book for vertebrate species assisted) include i) Studies on Gaur (WWF-
and Lepidoptera have been completed and that India), ii) Study on Control of illegal trade in
for invertebrate is under preparation. Recently Wildlife (Wildlife Protection Society of India,
(2011) a book on critically endangered species iii) Study on control of Tiger straying in
of India has been published by ZSI. Number of Sundarban (NEWS), iv) Survey of avi-fauna and
volumes of Red Data Book on floral species water quality monitoring in identified Wetlands
have been published. Recently Ghosh (2010) of W.B. (NEWS) and v) Fesibility study on
has published a document on urban biodiversity reintroduction of Pygmyhog in Gorumara
of Kolkata. A national data base on the National Park (ZSI). Contract studies initiated
Bioperspective survey of plant resources to under the Wildlife and Biodiversity component
identify economically as well as of W.B. Forestry Project include i) Study on
ethnobotanically important ·species for their elephant (WII) , ii) Study of leopard (WWF-
conservation has been developed at BSI. India) and iii) Study of Rhino (WII).
Similar database on faunal' diversity is being Under "GOI-UNDP Sea Turtle project",
developed by the ZSI. The Forest Survey of
NEWS has conducted the survey of sea turtles
India publishes every three years, a report on
along the coast of W.B. on behalf of WII.
the state of the forest in India based on remote
Centraly sponsored projects like i) Population
sensing and ground truthing. A compilation of
trends of some threatened species of W.B.
district-wise wetlands in West Bengal has been
(NEWS), iD Ecological crop loss due to wild
prepared by the Institute of Environmental
harvest of prawn seeds in Sundarban Biosphere
Studies and Wetland Management (IESWM),
Reserve (S.D. Marine Biological Research
Department of Environment, Govt. of West
Institute), iii) Identification of Wetlands of
Bengal. The State Forest Department in
Water fowl importance (SACON, Prakriti
collaboration with R.R.S.S.C., Kharagpur is
Samsad) and many others have been
carrying out forest change detection studies and
successfully undertaken.
wetland mapping through digital image
processing of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite Mapping of Environmentally Sensitive Zones
Data. State Wildlife Wing have inducted local and Industrial Sites (Statewise) programme has
universities, institutions and NGOs to undertake' been taken up by Central Pollution Control
collaborative studies on ecosystems and Board under the Environmental Management
identified endangered species. Such studies Capacity Building Technical Assistance Projects
include i) Study of Red Panda and Satyr of the World Bank.
Tragopan in Singalila N.P. (Darjiling Govt. There are many more significant research
College), ii) Study of Bio-ecological Resoruces works related to conservation of biodiversity
of Neora Valley N.P. (North Bengal University), and their list will be unending. As such, it is
iii) Food preference study of Rhino in Jaldapara concluded with the mention of WII's reviews
WLS (Raiganj University College), iv) Survey of the Protected Area net work of the country
of floral and faunal resources of Mahananda (2002), which has suggested the extension of
WLS (NEWS), v) Entomological studies in Buxa some PAs in the state to ensure the conservation
T.R. (Calcutta University). These studies were of the species there in.
SANYAL et ale : Current Conservation Initiatives in West Bengal 135

Table-1t : Forest Protection Communities of West Bengal (Source : Dept. of Environment &
Ramkrishna Mission, Narendrapur 2002. West Bengal State Biodiyersity Stragety &
Action Plan. Ramkrishna Mission, Narendrapur).
Division Total No. Total Area Total No. Forest land
of FPC Protected of FPC (ha)/FPC
(ha.) Members Members
E. Medinipur 315 41274 44686 0·92
W. Medinipur 542 62629 44017 1.42
Kharagpur 82 12068 18677 0.65
Rupnarayan 182 25296 22258 1.14
-Bankura(N) 468 1
41 46 44210 0·93
Bahkura(S) . 538 40858 50192 0.81
Panchet 221 27618 24865 1.11
Puruliya 174 25479 17865 1.45
Kangsabati I 186 14033 15855 0.88
Kangsabati II 293 24900 28446 0.87
Barddhaman 57 16380 16249 1.00
Durgapur 21 3 0 53 2553 1.19
Birbhum 133 9068 8428 1.07
S-24 Parganas 23 39 167 9652 4·05
Datjeeling 41 7827 2699 2·90
Kalimpong 35 15486 1171 13·22
Kurseong 18 2590 906 2.86
Jalpaiguri 49 18204 12169 1.50
-Koch Bihar 21 5891 2872 2.05
Koch Bihar SF 22 3405 1458 2·33
. Baikunthapur 55 7657 6113 1.25
Buxa r.R. (E) 17 10288 3454 2·98
Buxa T.R. (W) 24 16213 4083 3·97
Sundarban T.R. 10 17565 3875 4·53
Total 3545 488095 386753 1.26

Table-12 : Ecodevelopment Committees around the National Park/Sanctuaries in West Bengal


(Source: Dept. of Environment & Ramkrishna Mission, Narendrapur, 2002. West
Bengal State Biodiversity Strategy & Action Plan, Ramkrishna Mission, Narendrapur).
National Park/Wildlife Sanctuaries Total No. of EDC Total No. of families
Gorumara National Park 9 1418
Jaldapara Sanctuary 32 15022
Mahananda Sanctuary 11 1751
Singalila National Park 1 22
Sanchal Sanctuary 10 1277
Buxa Tiger ReServe 20 2524
Sundarban Tiger Reserve 16 4283
Total 99 26297
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Table-13 : Year wise record of release of Crocodile Hatchling from Crocodile Project,
Bhagabatpur under 24-Parganas (South) Division.
Year Male Female Total Progressive Place of Release
Total
1979 13 27 40 40 Parchamutli, Matla-II, Gosaba Pirkhali-I,
Pirkhali-II, Lothian
1982 3 22 25 65 Netidhopani, Gowa-II, Chamta
1983 6 12 18 83 Netidhopani, Matla, Chandkhali
1984 6 15 21 104 Netidhopani, Chamta-II, Bhurkunda Khali,
Bhagmari
1986 1 29 30 134 Netidhopani, Chotta Chamta, Arbiga
1987 17 13 30 164 Pirkhali-7, Chhota Hodi, Chamta-4
1988 15 12 27 191 Haldibari, Buridabri, Chamta
1989 1 12 13 204 Netidhopani, Panchamundi, Chamta-4
1991 11 9 20 224 Chamta-2 & 4, Netidhopani
1992 7 8 15 239 Matla-2 (Surajmukhi Khal)
1993 7 8 15 254 Khewra Shuli N arayantala, Chhoto
Chamta-1
1994 3 18 21 275 Chotto Hardy Camp-2, Chand Khali Camp-4
1995 2 12 14 289 Ejukhali, Matla-1, Netidhopani
1996 5 10 15 304 Chamta-4, (Chandra Duani)
1997 4 10 14 318 N~tidhopani, Chamta
1998 4 11 15 333 Netidh9pani, Chamta
1999 14 6 20 353 Sajnakhali, N etidhopani, Bakkhali &
Suddhannakhali
2000 - - - - -
2001 - - - - -
2002 5 15 20 373 Chamta, Netidhopani
2003 - - - - -
2004 1 1 2 375 Chulkati, Dhulibasani
2005 4 10 14 389 Chulkati-Sajnekhali
2006 2 4 6 395 Sundarikhati
2007 2 4 6 401 Sundarikhati khal in Ajmalmari-7 Reserved
Forest Block"
2008 - - - - -
2009 12 8 20 421 Chulkati~I

Source: Annual Report (2009-2010), Wildlife Wing, Directorate of Forests, Govt. of West Bengal.
SANYAL et aI. : Discussion 137

DISCUSSION taxonomic units, Medinipur district tops


Maintaining ~ehighest number of species the list with representatives of Smajorand
without considering their taxonomic position minor faunal phyla amongtbe total 20 pby a
makes little sense in -terms of b' odiversity.. .For recorded so far from the state (Text-fig.. 27)..
example ·80 percent of the total species on earth South-24 parganas also have a diversity level
occur in terrestrial ,ecosystem mainly because nearest to Medinipur district with the
vascular plants and insects are so numerous on
occurrence of 16 phyla However, diversity in
land accounting for 72 percent of all described
species. But the sea contai s greater proportion
respect of taxonomic unit is much less in
Murshidabad WIth representation of only 8
of higbee taxonomic units. Marine eco~y'stem
phyla. When faunal spe,c ies richness is
con~ains representatives of .34 phyla while
terrestrial ,environments are home to only 28 considered, Darjilin,g district ,comes frrst with
pbYla. Within the limits of the state, Medinipur 4387 .specie,s and Kolkata share the next
may be considered as the maritime district and position with 2555 species (Text .. fig . 28).
South 24 .parganas to some extent. In tenns of Darjiliog district contains significantly higher

r fa raULfI

lO

6
.,
-t

o ,.
~
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oJ
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oJ
~

S
,.
~
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.....
~
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-....
.S
vv
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-
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10-1
le Q ~ ~ ~ -r
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.",.
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Pi,. 27 : Diversity in phyla in fauna and flora in different district of W,est Bleng.aL

number of floral species also (2439 Nos.) shares a major part of total land .are,a of the
followed by Medinipur (871 Nos. )., while stat,e which obviously influences the
d' stricts like Bankur,a, Birbbum, PuruUya have distribution of fauna . There is a direct
less than 500 species each (Text..fig . 29). Grid- interaction ,and even conflict of human beings
wise concentr,a tion of species richness in with both the major and minor .anima groups
dif~erent parts of West Bengal (Textefi,g. 30) in diffiefent parts aU over the state in whkh a
shows a higber number of species in northern sq. km afiea is occupied by 904 individuals .
and southern parts. Conserving these faunal elements occllrrin ~
Alfred et al. (2004) found a positive outside he protect,e d ,a reas matters nlore
correlation (r=0 . 242) between total forest because they are equally valu .a b le in
cover and species richness in the districts maintaining the biodiversity in totality. Human
(T,ext..fig. 31). It is true that agricultural land population densities in different dislricts of (he:
138 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Haor Hl h
ad Na "
D aJp r

Fi,. 28: Diversity of faunal species in different districts of West Beng,al.

3000
500

0 ....
~
'-" ~
C'I:I
1..0 'eo 'I: ~
I-< ..c::
~
I
(0:;1
"0 ,~ '-"
= "<t (!) "=t en C':j
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~= ..c: 0 :;)
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..c
:.a "0
-;; ~
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"2
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!:= "0 :t: ';j ..c
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'-"
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co Q:l ~
co ~ 0 =' Z 0
CI)
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-, ~ ~ ~

Fig,. 29 : Districtwise floral species richness in West Bengal.

state show a negative correlaltion (r := -0.226) even to tbepoint of extinction in the state. Till
with the species richness comprising flora and r1e cently our priority hitherto has been-
fauna together (Te,xt-fig. 32). Development, with a capital D! Mainly to
Some of the previous chapters provide a accommodate the ever~ growing buma I

, panoramic glimpse of the rich and diverse plant populations, all out efforts are being done w' th
and animal life along with their rapid decline no r,e spect for nature, ' 0 thought for other
SANYAL et al. Discas,sion 139

_P C RI SS
~ ORA &FAU A
6,590
3.720
2,380
2.110
2.030
1,850
1.720
1.580
1.450
1,380
1.300
1.260
1.220
1,170
1.050
820

Fig. 30: Grid-wise concentration of spedesrichness in different parts of 'West Bengal.

P·,. 3 : Status of forest cover (sq. km.) and PiS. 32: Human population density {per sq. km .}
species ricbness (flora & ~auna) in W,e st Bengal. and species richness (flora & faunal in
'West Bengal
140 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

living beings, and no concern for the tomorrow. of survival of culturally diverse and sensitive
However, it is heartening to note that in recent traditional communities. These areas must
past scienario has been changed to a great remain inviolate from urban and industrial
extent. Since nineteen seventies there is pressures. However, the process of setting up
growing concern for wildlife and subsequently and managing the~e protected areas has also
the total aspects of biodiversity. As already resulted severe problems for local communities
stated various steps, policies, actions have been dependant on their natural resources for
adopted not only to protect and preserve what livelihood and sustenance. Almost always, areas
remains of our fauna, flora and natural habitats have been declared national parks or
but also to devise ways and means of sanctuaries without adequate consultation with
augmenting this priceless natural resource. Now these communities and have resulted in their
it is not necessary to plead the case for rights being terminated, acess to basic resources
biodiversity any more than it is necessary to
being cut off without adeqate provision of
argue for the continued existence of mankind.
alternatives. In this situation, a feeling of
The plain fact is that we can not live without it
hostility amongst local communities has quite
as we are a part of the unity called life on earth
naturally built up, resulting in conflicts of
and if any part is injured or des.troyed,
other parts will certainly be impaired in their 'various kinds. These conflicts threaten the
turn. This is the truth which just can not, be objectives of protected areas and also the local
ignored. communities which live in and around them.
This people - conservation conflict tends to take
As a component of National Biodiversity
attention away from the more deep - rooted
Strategy and Action Plan, West Bengal State
Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2002) problem facing both protected areas as also
and Status of Environment in West Bengal-A forest dwelling communities; over - exploitation
Citizen's Report (2008) have been finalized by of resources by dominant urban-industrial
a team. of experts from Government and non- interests. The major aim of protected areas is
Government sectors. The said plan worked out the conservation of biological diversity present
present status of environment and biodiversity in them. However, human settlements and
in the State, gaps in our knowledge, strategies, human modified ecosystems are a part of the
needed action, respective actors, time frame for systems being conserved. Traditional
each action and other related aspects. In the communities and their activities are as much a
meantime National Wildlife Action Plan (2002- part of the ecosystem as the wild plants and
2016), which is also concerned with the animals and their protection should be a part
conservation of biodiversity, has also been of the objectives of protected areas. Indeed
finalized. However, from the understanding of there are scientific evidences which suggest that'
the ecosystems and species diversity of the limited forms of human intervention may
state, existing gaps and problems of their actually increase local levels of biodiversity. At
conservation alongwith ever increasing human present by law, the wildlife wing of the Forest
populations certain further recommendations Department of the state has the responsibility
have been made in the following to ensure that of management of protected areas. Often the
we have sustainable development without serious problems arising from a, lack of
destruction, and that we can take of the coordination between various government
resources as we leave behind for the future
departments operating in and around protected
generations.
areas. Example of Sundarban may be given
I. Protected Areas : where often conflicts arising among he policies
Protected areas represent amongst our last of Forest, Fisheries, Tourism and other
reserves of biological diversity, as also the basis departments.
SANYAL et ale : Discussion 141

It is necessary to resolve the above problems Conservation of biodiversity and its


and to make conservation of biodiversity in sustainable utilization is a challenging issue of
protected areas· as invocation of the local the day and requires committed biologists and
people and not imposition. But to do so, there social workers who possess scientific
is an urgent need for all concerned people and competence, organizing and planning ability
agencies to unite, and to build partnerships of aided by communication skills. They also need
joint decision making. As such Joint Protected sharp detection and enforcement capabilities
Area Management policy as far as practicable against organized criminal elements nursed by
is recommended. This is the conceptualization, big-money illegal trade. Frontline staff equally
planning, ail.d management of protected areas must have similar skills at the grassroots level.
aJ)d their surrounds, ·with the objective of The current capacity building, personnel
conserving natural ecosystems and planning and management measures need to be
biodiversity, therein, while ensuring the greatly strengthened for the conservation of
livelihood security of local traditional
biodiversity which is distributed over dive~se
communities, through mechanisms which
ecosystems and facing multifarious threats.
ensure a partnership between these
Several organizations like Wildlife Institute of
communities, government agencies, and other
India (WII), Indira Gandhi National Forests
concerned parties. There is ~ need to study the
Academy (IGNFA), Indian Institute of Forest
diversity of experiences on how either
Management (IIFM), Indian Institute of Public
government or community control had worked
Administration (lIPA), Zoological Survey of
towards conservation of natural habitats;
India (ZSI), Botanical Survey of India (BS!),
further, what could be the respective sharing
Eastern Forest Rangers College (Kurseong) and
of powers, rights, responsibilities and function
of each partner (Community, Government few NGOs organize regular training courses on
agency, NGO, etc.). biodiversity research· and forest management.
These training programmes often do not
II. Human resource development and
include the common people such as fishermen,
perso~el planning
peasants, minor forest produce collectors, and
Information on the biota is a prerequisite for
o!hers who are in regular interaction with the
undertaking appropriate conservation
local·biodiversity. As compared to the richness
strategies and this has been emphasized in the
and extension of the biodiversity and existing
CBD (1992). Documentation of biodiversity is
threats, the number of staff engaged in the
the primary requisite for biodiversity
conservation and therefore, in order to develop conservation activities is far below the
scientific conservation strategies, it is necessary requirement. Understanding this ground
to dev~lop taxonomic skill. With the reality, our Honourable Ex.Prime Minister,
degeneration of taxonomic expert~se in the Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee stated in the 21St
. current. century, taxonomic investigations are meeting of Indian Board of Wildlife that State
at crossroads. Fortunately headquarters of two Governments should increase the staff engaged
premier taxonomic institution viz., Botanical in conservation activities and give them better
Survey of India and Zoological SUlVey of India training, facilities and equipment.
are "located at Kolkata and both having Under the above circumstances, it is
enormous series of comparative material. These recomamended that training programmes on
institutions should be provided with the fullest biodiversity conservaton, management and
support to carry out advanced taxonomic sustainable use to be organized at Panchayet
researches and to render proper training for level taking common villagers, traders,
building. up capacity of such researchers. teachers, manufacturers, field staffs belonging
142 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

to Forest, P.W.D., Tourism, Fisheries, Tribal appropriate level. A data base for basic-trained
Welfare, Agriculture, Development and and another for advan.ce-trained persons to be
Planning departments as target group. Faculty developed and maintained in a central office.
members for such training programme should III. Monitoring and Research
primarily be comprised of specialists from local It has been clearly stated in the National
Forest, Environment and Fisheries departments Wildlfe Action Plan (2002-2016) that
and NGOs. As and when necessary service of monitoring and research are tools for a better
expertise from WII, IGNFA, IIPA, IIFM, ZSI, understanding of nature, its functions and to
BSI, and other organisations may be sought for. enable optimum or sustainable utilization of its
However, care should be taken that language resources, as well as to evaluate the
of the speaker may not be a barrier for conservation status of species and habitats and
understanding the subject. Special training the extent of impact of conservation
programmes to be organized for members of endeavours undertaken. Such understanding
different enforcement authorities such as will also help to reduce man-animal ~onflicts.
Forest, Police, Customs, Coast Guards, Border Developmental projects are often undertaken
Security Force, and others regarding on expediency rather than hard data and this
preliminary identification of Schedule and sometimes results in permanent damage to
CITES listed species; various legal implications fragile ecosystems. There is no doubt numerous
and procedures related to biodiversity long-term and short-term biodiversity related
conservation. To combat with the poachers, re~earch projects are being carried out by the
smugglers, and militants, ground staff of the universities, State and Central Government
forest department should be equipped with Organisations, NGOs and others. Findings of
sophisticated arms and ammunition after these researches helped a lot in the
providing necessary training by the expertise management and conservation of biodiversity
from Defence department. As the management in the State. However, several basic information
of biodiversity in different situation requires necessary for the proper management of
full time service of large number of persons, it biodiversity are still lacking. Handbooks for
is necessary to fill up immediately all the posts identification of threatened and CITES related
lying vacant particularly at the field level in the species are not yet available for many of the
Forest, Fisheries, Environment and other groups; species-inventory of protected areas
related department. It is a fact that the are not complete; Methodology for sustainable
resources of the State Government is limited. commercial use of most of the medicinally or
However, as Honourable ex-Prime Minister economically important plant and animal
suggested, "This limitation can be considerably species not yet developed; reintroduction and
over come through innovative initiatives such restocking feasibility of threatened species not
as redeployment of surplus employees in other been properly evaluated; and many others
departments, hiring local people on a voluntary indicate existing gaps in this regard.
or honorary basis, raising donations from It has already been stated that large number
business houses and other members of the of organizations are carrying active research
public in return for a greater role for them in for the success of biodiversity conservation.
implementing programmes" Apart from the However, often there is lack of coordination
basic training on the conservation of among these organizations. Thus it is
biodiversity, advanced courses on the wildlife recommended that a committee may be· formed
census, use of Internet, GIS, Radio-telemetry with appropriate representatives of the
and related teachnology are to be imparted at different organisations under the control of
SANYAL et ale : Discussion 143

State Biodiversity Board. The committee will n. Improvement of socio-economic condition


assess the current state of knowledge and and alternate income generation.
determine the priorty of the research projects O. Status of pollinators in different ecosystem.
to be taken and help to build up necessary
IV. Management of natural habitats
coordination among different organizations.
outside the Protected areas
Considering the local situation following aspects
of research may take priority in action. Vast stretches of natural habitats covering
patches of forests, wetlands, grasslands, coastal
a. Inventorisation of species in different
lands, crop lands, orchards, wastelands, etc.
habitats and molecular characterisation of
used to serve as hosts of large number of wild
the economically valuable species alongwith
species from micro-organisms to mammals.
,key stone, umbrella, rare, endangered
Several districts of south and north Bengal
species.
maintain sacred groves, which are declining
b. Documentation, inventorisation and fast under the anthropogenic pressure and
utilization of ethnic knowledge for continuing encroachment on land. In the tribal
conservation; sophistication of ethnic belts of Puruliya and Medinipur such tradition
. knowledge about various utilization of are still going on. In Medinipur fresh blood of a
bioresources for commercial viability. fowl is offered at the base of a grove where their
c. Feasibility of reintroduction/restocking of deity "Marangburu" resides. 'Panchvati" in
'threatened species. Dakhineswat is also one such sacred grove
d. ,Carrying capacity of Protected areas with worshipped in a different way. Many other such
special reference to key species. folk lores are associated with different rituals
e. Mapping of sensitive sites and identification performed by various sections of the common
masses in this state. Further, these lands are of
of sensitive species.
critical importance in respect of grazing, fishing,
f. Developing warning system against natural
fuelwood/fodder/medicinal plant collection,
calamities.
animal corridor, spatial movement of spillover
g. Veterinary aspects with special reference to species outside Protected Areas. More over, the
wildlife species. occurrence of a species in a protected area is
h. Impact ot mass scale use of chemical no guarantee of long-term security. It has
pesticides and fertilizers. already been described that many of the
i. Identification of wild relatives of ,protected areas are subject to continuing
domesticated plants and animal species. pressures of encroachment, degradation and
hunting. Even areas which are adequately
j. Monitoring and mitigation of man-animal
protected are often too small to maintain the
conflicts owing to fragmentation of wildlife
viable populations of species which live at low
habitats and success of JFM.
population density or which are nomadic or
k. Utilisation of remote-sensing techniques in migratory. These problems are becoming
the field of land use, flood control, weather increasingly pressing as habitats outside
forcast, forestry, crop disease, marine protected areas become more and more altered
resource assessment, soil conservation, and degraded, leaving protected areas as
limnological studies, etc. 'islands' of natural or seminatural habitat.
1. Sustainable utilsation of species and Natural habitats outside Protected Areas are
ecosystem. rapidly lossing their characteristics and
m. Restoration of indigenous species lost due degraded owing to encouragement of high
to encouragement of high yielding varieties. yielding agricultural crops, urbanisation,
144 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

promotion of social forestry, construction of implementation and follow up actions. Lion


roads, industrial development and others. share of the budget is spent for high sounding
These has affected not only the biodiversity of projects dealing with charismatic species
natural habitats but also increased pressures on ignoring other equally important (if not more)
the forested tracts and disturbance in the species living in the ecosystem. Often these
movement of forest dwelling species. Under the projects do not involve the son of the soils who
circumstances, the areas outside protected area understand the situation and actual requirement
are in need of more active management if they better than the people coming from outside. No
are to be maintained for their ecological doubt expertise is required, but at the same time
integrity and continue to play their role in involvement of local people alongwith their
preventing the extinction of species. traditional knowledge will contribute in the
better achievement and percolation of
To restore the degraded natural habitat areas
resources at ground level. Base line data on the
and to prevent further. degradation, mapping
population, behaviour, feeding and breeding
of district-wise avan~ble natural habitats
habits, habitat utilization, movement threats
particu~arly those.i PH,~~i~~ private holdings to
and other ecological processes are important
be ~one o~ Prio~ty' basis. Any transformation requirements for planning management of
of maPl?ffirjireas for development or other biodiversity. Authentic data in these aspects
pl)rpp~~~" shqpJ:~: ,p!~ceded by impact can be procured from the local people easily
assessment on the biota .. In· a recent trend it
. ' . . ; J..: • • . . ,.. ,
after providing appropriate scientific training.
has been noticed that age-old trees are being Scientific processing and subsequent
cut or swamp areas are filled up without interpretation of data thus obtained can be
considering the consequences on the utilized suitably. Such practice will
biodiversity. A definite policy is to be evolved automatically improve the economic condition
to curve this trend. Traditional and current use of the poverty-stricken forest and rural people
pattern of private property, common lands and which in turn automatically reduce the direct
waterbodies to be preserved. Specific pressure on biological resources. Strict
programmes to be framed through imposition of several biodiversity-conservation
participatory management for restoring related Acts have taken away the traditional
degraded or partly degraded areas and rights of the large section of economically
subsequent monitoring of the impact. deprived people on the biological resources. For
Without doubt, the need to save the livelihood they often become party to illegal
biodiversity is of utmost urgency. Human ego, timber and other wildlife trade resulting
greed and population pressure have already enormous permanent loss of biodiversity. As
done irreparable damage of the biodiversity. such goals of conservation can only be achieved
Fortunately there is a growing awareness among not by prohibition but through sustainable
the policy makers and common people about utilization of under used biological resources
the significance of biodiversity conservation and generating gainful employment in
and this is particularly true for the State of West conservation related activities.
Bengal. Existing national and State SUMMARY
conservation strategy for living resource Huge amount of biodiversity related data of
conservation and sustainable development are West Bengal have been accumulated
providing both an intellectual framework and particularly for higher groups of plants and
practical guidance for conservation actions. animals. Challenging issues of biodiversity
However, certain gaps exist as regard to conservation and its sustainable utilization
SANYAL et ale : Summary 145

become complex and multifarious. Each state Tiger - Panthera tigris. North Indian Moist
or region within the country has specific Deciduous forests alongwith its grasslands in
necessary elements concerned with North Bengal provide second home to a Great
biodiversity, which need to be integrated into On - horned Rhinoceros - Rhinoceros unicornis,
the framework of action plan. It is the primary and many other threatened species including
requirement for regional policy makers and Hispid Hare - Caprolagus hispidus , Bengal
managers of biodiversity to have status report. Florican - Eupodotis bengalensis, etc. Out of
Unfortunately, most of the valuable data on the five main grass covers of India, three, viz.,
biodiversity of the state are very much Phragmites - Saccharum - Imperata type,
scattered and have limited use. It is essential Themeda - Arundinella type and Temperate-
that relevant and user friendly data bases are Alpine type are found in the state. There are
prepared and made available through modern 54 natural and nine man-made wetlands which
information technologies. cover more than 100 ha. These alongwith
Owing to favourable agroclimatic condition, numerous small water bodies cover an area of
West Bengal was always one of the most about 3,44,527 ha. which is nearly 8.5 percent
populated states of the country. The problem of the total wetland area in India. Diversity of
of population explosion has been aggravated wetland plants of West Bengal is richest in India
due to huge immigration from East Pakistan and is represented by more than 380 species
belonging to 170 genera and 81 families.
(now Bangladesh) since 1947. As per census .
2011, population of West Bengal has reached With the increased importance of
913.471akhs (fourth among Indian provinces) biodiversity conservaton, more and more
and population density standing 1029 per agencies in the Government as well as non-
sq.km. (second to Kerala). Since 1971, the government levels are being involved directly
population of the state has become more than or indirectly in the process of conservation.
double. This has created tremendous pressures Multifarious activities such as survey of flora,
on the natural habitats and resources alongwith fauna, forests and wildlife; habitat management;
transformation for agriculture, developmental regeneration of degraded areas; prevention and
projects and urbanization. control of pollution; establishment of protected
Varied physical environment of the state areas; regulation of hunting, felling and wildlife
have given rise great diversity in ecosystems in related trade; research and awareness; socio-
one region to other.' The recorded forest of economic development; sustainable use of
West Bengal is about 11,879 sq.km. i.e. 1.54 natural resources; Ex-situ conservation;
percent of the recorded foiest' of India and 13.4 international collaboration and cooperation
percent of state's total geographical area. At and many others are being taken. All these
least 10 different kinds of forests can be found activities are well-supported and guided by a
within the limits of the state. Maximum diversity set of legislative and regulatory measures in the
of forest ecosystems are met within the international, national and state levels.
northern parts mainly due to altitudinal Different biodiversity related Action Plans and
variations. Northern Tropical Dry Deciduous Policies such as Indian Environmetnal Action
type has the greatest coverage (4,527 sq.km.) Plan (1993), National Forest Policy (1988),
but in a very much degraded state. Littoral and National Conservation Strategy and Policy
Swamp (Mangrove) forest is extended over Statement on Environmment and Sustainable
4,263 sq.km in estuarine south West Bengal. It Development (1992), National Wildlife Action
is the only mangrove forest of the world (except Plan (1973, 2002), etc. provided due
Bangladesh) which supports population of considerations to the needs of local people and
14 6 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

their support. West Bengal State Biodiversity natural resources for livelihood and sustenance.
Strategy and Acton Plan as a component of To resolve the problem there is urgent need
National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for all concerned people and agencies to unite,
has been drawn up. and to build partnerships of joint decision
The known faunal diversity of the state making. Thus, Joint Protected Area
consists of at least 11042 species out of 91771 Management Policy as far as possible has been
present in the country and 1239166 in the recommended.
world. The number of floral species goes upto The current ·capacity building and personnel
7000 against nearly 49000 species known from planni;ng and management measures need to be
India. A large number of species of both the greatly strengthened to meet the challenging
groups are represented by several subspecies, issues of conservation. Large number of
varieties and races. This has resulted further organizations are conducting training
richness in respect of genetic diversity. programmes. However, such training
Explorations ofa number of districts are not programmes often do not include common
yet been done properly. However, districts of people such as fishermen, peasants, minor
DarjiIing and Kolkata exhibit higher species forest produce collectors and others who are
richness. Domestic biodiversity of the state is in regular interaction with the local biodiversity.
equally impressive. With large number of For human resource development, training
varieties and breeds. An attempt has been made
programmes to be organized at Panchayet level
to provide lists of species.
taking common villagers and field staffs of
State biota is enriched by holding a biodiversity related departments as target
enormous number of species having groups. Care to be taken that the language of
significance in respect of conservation, the speakers may not be a barrier for
zoogeography, taxonomy, economy, endemism understanding the subject. A data base for basic
and other aspects. Some of these species have trained and another for advance . . trained
been focussed and listed.
persons to be developed and maintaIned in a
Biodiversity and significance of the central office.
Protected Areas of the state have been
Numerous biodiversity related researches
discussed. Sundarban, J aldapara and
are being carried out. Findings of these
Mahananda have been identified as top priority
researches helping a lot in the management and
areas in respect of conservation.
conservation of biodiversity. However,
Various factors resulting loss of biodiversity researches related to the local situation should
in different sectors have been dealt with be given priority in action. Further to obtain
alongwith the causes behind them.
authentic data, project authorities should
It has been found that species richness of involve the local people living in and around
the state is directly proportional with the forest the natural habitat areas.
cover, while the same is almost inversely
.Goals of conservation can only be achieved
proportional with human population density.
not by prohibition but through sustainable
Objectives of Protected areas often can not utilization of under used biological resources
be fulfilled owing to the resistance of the local and generating gainful employment In
communities who were dependant on the conservation related activities.
:SANYAL et ale : Selected References 147

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PART-II
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 155

BACTERIA
1. Aeromones hydrophila 19. Brucella abortus
Habitat: Soil/Water/Sewage. Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage.
2. Aeromonas punctata 20. Chlorobium thiosulphilum
Habitat: Soil/Water/Sewage. Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage.
3. Agromonas fumefacieus 21. Cifrobacter sp .
. Habitat: Soil/Water/Sewage. Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage.
4. Alcaligenes pagadoxus 22. Clostridium butylicum
Habitat : Plant gall forming. Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage.
5. Arthobacte~ globiformis 23. Clostridium perfringens
Habitat : Water/Soil/Sewage. Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage.
6. Arthrobacter vinelandii 24. Clostridium tefani
Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage. Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage.
7. Bacillus rubotibis 25. Clostridium thermoaceticum
Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage. Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage.
8. Bacillus cereus 26. Corynebacterium diptheriae
Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage. Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage.
9. Bacillus licheniformis 27. cryptococcus neoformans
Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage. Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage.
10. Bacillus maceraus 28. Desulfovibrio desulfericans
Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage. Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage.
11. Bacillus plymixa 29. Enterobacter aerogenes
Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage. Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage.
12. Bacillus sphaericus 30. Escherichia coli
Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage. Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage.
13. Bacillus pumillus 31. Salmonella typhiurium
Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage. Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage.
14. Bacillus tunigensis 32. Heamophilum irifluenzae
Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage. Habitat : Air.
15. Bacterium erthrogens 33. Halobacterium salinasium
Habitat : Water/Soil/Sewage. Habitat: Air.
16. Beigeriucuia sp. 34. Klebsiella sp.
Habitat : Water/Soil/Sewage. Habitat : Soil/Air.
17. Beggiatoa sp. 35. Lactobacillus acidophilus
Habitat: Water/Soil/Sewage. Habitat : Soil/Air.
18. Bordefella perfusis 36. Lactobacillus brevis
Habitat : Water/Soil/Sewage. Habitat : Soil/Air.
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

37. Lactobacillus lacns 56. Saeina maxima


Habitat : Soil/Air. Habitat : Soil.
38. Leuconostor mesenteroides 57. Saeina morrhuae
Habitat : Soil/Air. Habitat : Soil.·
39. Methnococus sp. 58. SelTatra mareeeseeus
Habitat : Soil/Air. Habitat : Soil.
40. Methanobacillus omelianskii 59. Shigella dysenteriae
Habitat : Soil/Air. Habitat : Soil.
41. Mycobacterium tuberculosis 60. Sphaerotrilus diseophorus
Habitat : Soil/Air. Habitat : Waste water.
42. Neisseria gorolThoeae 61. Staphyloeoeus aureus
Habitat : Soil/Air. Habitat : Soil.
43. Neisseria meningitridis 62. Staphyloeocus laens
Habitat : Soil/Air. Habitat : Soil.
44. Nitrobacter winogradskyi 63. Staphyloeocus bovis
Habitat : Soil/Air. H abUat : Soil.
45. Nitrococeus naobilis 64. Staphyloeoeus faeealis
Habitat : Soil/Air. Habitat : Soil.
46. Nitrosomonas europaeea 65. Staphyloeoeus laems
Habitat : Soil/Air. Habitat : Soil.
47. Noeardia asteroids 66. Staphyloeocus pneumonae
Habitat : Soil/Air. Habitat : Soil.
48. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 67. Staphyloeocus pyoens
Habitat : Soil. Habitat : Soil.
49. Pseudomonas flava 68. Staphyloeocus thermophilus
Habitat : Soil. Habitat : Soil.
50. Pseudomonas marina 69. Staptomyees griseus
Habitat : Soil. Habitat : Soil.
51. Pseudomonas putida 70. Staptomyees busmitus
Habitat : Soil. Habitat : Soil.
52. Pseudomonas vesieularis 71. Staptomyees nodosus
Habitat : Soil. Habitat : Soil.
53. Rhodosprillum flavum 72. Staptomyees veneznelae
Habitat : Soil. Habitat : Soil.
54. Rhodosprillum rubrum 73. Su(folobus aeidoealdasius
Habitat : Soil. Habitat : Soil.
55. Rhodosprillum tenue 74· Tetrahymena pyrtformis
Habitat : Soil. Habitat : Soil.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 157

75. Thermoactinomycets sacchagi 81. Thiospirillum jenese


Habitat : Soil. Habitat : Soil.
76. Thermobactreium sp.
82. Vibrio cholerae
Habitat : Soil.
77. Thiobacillus ferroxidams Habitat : Soil.
. Habitat : Soil. 83. Vibrio comma
78. Thiobacillus thioxidans Habitat : Soil.
Habitat: Soil.
84. Xanthomonas rinicola
79. Thiobacillus intermedius
Habitat : Soil.
Habitat : Soil.
80. Thiosarcina sp. 85. Yersinia perlis
Habitat : Soil. Habitat : Soil.
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

ALGAE
Kingdom PLANT KINGDOM 7. Aphanocapsa montana
Subkingdom CRYPTOGAMA Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Division THALLOPHYTES Habitat : Rice field.
Class CYANOPHYCEAE Distribution : Kolkata, Darjiling, Haora,
Order CHROOCOCCALES Hugli and Murshidabad (Baharampur).
Family CHROOCOCCACEAE 8. Aphanocapsa roeseana fonna.
1. Aphanocapsa roeseana major
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Life form : Plankton/soil algae.

Habitat: Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.


Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. Distribution: J alp aiguri , Maldah, Medinipur
(Canning), Hugli, Jalpaiguri, Maldah, Medinipur (Jhargram, Garbeta) and Nadia.
(Silda, Contai), Murshidabad (Beldanga, 9. Aphanocapsa thennalis
Baharampur) and Nadia. Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
2. Aphanocapsa banaresensis Habitat : Rice field.
Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
.
Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs .
(Dimond Harbour), Birbhum, Datjiling, Haora,
Distribution: Maldah, Medinipur (Contai, HugH and Murshidabad.
Junput) and Nadia. 10. Aphanocapsa pulchra
3. Aphanocapsa biformis Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field. Distribution : Koch Bihar, Dinajpur
Distribution: Maldah, Medinipur (Kolaghat) (Islampur), Jalpaiguri, Murshidabad, North 24
and Nadia. Pgs. and South 24 Pgs. (Diamond Harbour).
4. Aphanocapsa greviZZei 11. Aphanotheca bulZosa
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution : Birbhum, Barddhaman and Distribution : Bankura, Birbhum and Haora
Medinipur (Garbeta). (Sankrail).
5. Aphanocapsa koorders 12. Aphanotheca castagnei
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution : Kolkata, Darjiling, Haora and Distribution : Kolkata.
Hugli. 13. Aphanotheca microscopia
6. Aphanocapsa litloralis Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Habitat : Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field. Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Distribution : Barddhaman (Asansol), (Dimond Harbour), Bankura (Harmasra),
Kolkata and Koch Bihar. Kolkata, Murshidabad (Baharampur) and Nadia.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 159

14. Aphanotheca naegelii 21. Gleocapsa crepidinum


Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: Darjiling, Haora (Uluberia) and Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Murshidabad (Ragunathgunj). (Kakdwip, Frazergunj), Maldah, Murshidabad
15. Aphanotheca pallida and Nadia.
22. Gleocapsa decorticans
Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Habitat: Rice field. Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Distribution : Bankura, Barddhaman, Habitat : Rice field.
Kolkata, Haora, HugH and Medinipur Distribution: Bankura (Bishnupur), Kolkata,
(Medinipur Sadar). Haora (Bagnan), Maldah and Murshidabad.
16. Aphanotheca sragnina 23. Gleocapsa luteo-fusca
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
,Habitat: Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution: Bankura, Barddhaman, Kolkata Distribution : South 24 Pgs., Bankura,
and Haora. Darjiling, Dinajpur (Islampur), Jalpaiguri,
Maldah, Medinipur and Murshidabad
17. Chroococcus cohaerens (Beldanga).
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. 24. Gleocapsa montana
Habitat: Rice field. Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Distribution: Bankura (Moynapur), Kolkata, _ Habitat: Rice field.
Koch Bihar, Darjiling, Dinajpur, Maldah and
Distribution: South 24 Pgs. (Nurpur),
Nadia. Bankura, Koch Bihar, Darjiling, Jalpaiguri,
18. Chroococcus minutes· Maldah and Murshidabad.
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. 25. Gleocapsa pleurocapsoides
Habitat: Rice field. Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. Habitat : Saline area.
(Falta), Bankura, Birbhum, Koch Bihar, Distribution: South 24 Pgs. (Sunderban),
Darjiling (Mirik'Lake), Dinajpur, Haora and Murshidabad, Nadia and Puruliya.
Medinipur (Contai, Garbeta). 26. Gleocapsa polydermatica
19. Chroococcus pallidus Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field. Distribution : North 24 Pgs., Bankura,
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., Koch Bihar, Birbhum, Barddhaman, Medinipur (Kolaghat,
Darjiling, Dinajpu~ and Haora (Uluberia). Medinipur Sadar) and Puruliya.
20.Gleocapsa calcarea 27. Gleocapsa rupesms
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Life form: Plankton/soil algae.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. Distribution: North 24 Pgs. (Taki), South
(Nurpur), Koch Bihar, Darjiling, Dinajpur and 24 Pgs. (Roychawk), Birbhum, Barddhalllan,
Medinipur (Kolaghat). Jalpaiguri, Maldah, Murshidabad and Nadia.
160 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

28. Gleothece membranacea Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.,


Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Maldah, Murshidabad and Nadia.
36. Microcystis aeruginosa
Habitat : Rice field.
Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Distribution: South 24 Pgs. (Mathurapur),
Birbhum, Barddhaman (Memary), Medinipur, Habitat : Rice field.
Nadia and Puruliya (Bagmundi). Distribution: South 24 Pgs., Bankura,
29. Gleothece rupesms Kolkata, Koch Bihar, Dinajpur, Medinipur,
Murshidabad and Nadia.
Life form : PlaI:1kton/ soil algae.
37. Microcystis benglensis
Habitat: Rice field.
Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Distribution: South 24 Pgs. (Joynagar),
Habitat : Rice field.
Bankura, Haora, HugH, Medinipur and
Puruliya. Distribution : South 24 Pgs. (Dimond
Harbour), Bankura, Kolkata, Koch Bihar,
30. Gleothece samoensis
Dinajpur, Haora, HugH, Murshidabad and
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Puruliya.
Habitat : Rice field. 38. Microcystis elongata
Distribution : South 24 Pgs. (Falta) and Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Murshidabad. Habitat: Rice field.
31. Gleothece var. maxima Distribution: Bankura (Onda), Birbhum,
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Barddhaman, Haora, Hugli, Murshidabad and
Habitat : Rice field. Puruliya.
Distribution : Birbhum, Barddhamall1 39. Microcystis flos-aquae
Maldah, Medinipur (Kolaghat) and Nadia. Life form : Planktonic.
32. Merismopedia conuoluta Habitat: Rice field Estuary.
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Distribution : South 24 Pgs., Bankura
Habitat : Rice field:- (Joyrambati), Birbhum, Barddhaman, Dinajpur,
Medinipur, Murshidabad and Nadia.
Distribution : Bankura (Bishnupur),
40. Microcystis litoralis
Birbhum, Barddhaman and Puruliya.
. Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
33. Merismopedia glauca
Habitat : Saline.
Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Habitat: Estuary.
(Sunderban) and Puruliya.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 41. Microcystis pseudofilamentose
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
34· Merismopedia sp.
Habitat : Rice field.
Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Distribution : Bankura, Haora, HugH,
Habitat : Benthic. Jalpaiguri and Medinipur.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. 42. Microcystis robusta
(Sunderban), Bankura and Puruliya.
Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
35· Merismopedia tenuissima Habitat : Rice field.
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Distribution : Koch Bihar, Dinajpur,
Habitat: Rice field. Medinipur and Murshidabad (Baharampur).
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 161

43. Microcystis viridis Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.


Life form : Plankton/soil algae. (Falta), Bankura, Jalpaiguri and Maldah.
Habitat : Rice field. 50. Microchaete uberrima
Distribution: Murshidabad (Baharampur). Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Family ENTOPHYSLIDACEAE Habitat : Rice field.
44. Chlorogloean fritschii Distribution: Maldah, Medinipur (Narajole)
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. and Nadia.
Habitat : Rice field. Family NOSTACACEAE
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. 51. Anabaena ambigua
(Falta), Haora, HugH, Medinipur and Nadia. Life form : Soil.
45. Johannesbaptistia pellucida Habitat: Rice field.
Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.,
Habitat: Rice field. Bankura, Birbhum, Barddhaman and Medinipur
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. (Haldia).
(Canning) and Murshidabad. 52. Anabaena anomana
Order CHAMAESIPHONALES
Life form : Soil.
Family DERMOCARPACEAE
Habitat : Rice field.
46. Stichosiphon sansibaricus
Distribution: South 24 Pgs. (Sunderban),
Life form : Plankton/soil algae. Bankura and Murshidabad.
Habitat: Rice field. 53. Anabaena cercinalis
Distribution: Medinipur (Medinipur sadar) Life form : Soil.
and Murshidabad.
Habitat : Rice field.
Order P LEUROCARP SALES
Distribution: Bankura and Medinipur.
Fami~ PLEUROCARPACEAE
54. Anabaena fertilissima
47. Myxosarcina spectabilis
Life form : Soil.
Life form : Plankton/soil algae.
Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. Distribution : Haora, Medinipur and
(Dimond Harbour, Sunderban), Kolkata, Murshidabad.
Medi¢pur (Digha) and Nadia. 55. Anabaena fuellebornii
Order NOSTOCALIS Life form : Soil.
Family MICROCHAETACEAE Habitat: Rice field.
48. Microchaete loktakensis Distribution Bankura, Birbhu111,
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Barddhaman and Medinipur (Panchmari).
Habitat: Rice field. 56. Anabaena gelatinicola
Distribution : Nadia. Life form : Soil.
49. Microchaete tenera Habitat: Rice field.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.,
Habitat : Rice field. Haora and HugH.
162 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

57. Anabaena iyengarii 65. Anabaena oscillarioides

Life form : Soil. Life form : Soil.


Habitat: Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution : Bankura, Barddhaman,
Distribution : Kocl1 Bihar, Darjiling,
Medinipur and Puruliya.
Jalpaiguri and Medinipur.
66. Anabaena sphaerica
58. Anabaena iyengarii var. attenulata
Life form : Soil.
Life form : Soil. Habitat : Rice field.
Habitat : Rice field. Distribution : Kolkata.
Distribution: Bankura, Medinipur and 67. Anabaena spiroides
Puruliya. Life fonn : Soil.
59. Anabaena khannae Habitat : Rice field.
Life form : Soil. Distribution : Bankura, Murshidabad
Habitat: Rice field. (Baharampur) and Nadia (Kanchrapara,
Krishnanagar).
Distribution: Medinipur (Dharma, Contai).
68. Anabaena totulosa
60. Anabaena laxa
Life fonn : Soil.
Life form : Soil.
Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat : Rice field. Distribution Bankura, Birbhum,
Distribution : Bankura. Barddhaman, Maldah, Medinipur (Contai) and
61. Anabaena nauiculoides Nadia.
Life form : Soil. 69. Anabaena utermohlii
Life fonn : Soil.
Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., Bankura,
Distribution: Murshidabad and Nadia
Birbhum and Barddhaman.
(Nabadwip).
62. Anabaena orientalis
70. Anabaena aginicola
Life form : Soil. Life form : Soil.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution : Maldah, Medinipur (Salboni, Distribution : Bankura, Birbhum and
Garbeta) and Nadia (Chakdha). Puruliya.
63. Anabaena orientalis var. 71. Anabaena uaginicola forma
ellipsospora fertilissima
Life form : Soil. Life fonn : Soil.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution : Bankura and Medinipur.
Distribution : Bankura and Nadia.
72. Anabaena uariabilis
64. Anabaena oryzea
Life fonn : Soil.
Life form : Soil.
Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution : Bankura, Darjiling, Dinajpur,
Distribution : South 24 Pgs. (Sunderban, Haora, Medinipur and Murshidabad
Dimond Harbour) and Medinipur (Narajole). (Baharampur).
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity

73· Anabaena ariabilis var. ellipsospora 81. Aulosira implexa


Life form : Soil. Life form : Soil.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution : Bankura and DaIjiling. Distribution : Barddhaman, Medinipur and
74. Anabaena ariabilis var. kashiensis Murshidabad.
Life form : Soil. 82. Aulosira prolifica
Habitat: Rice field. Life form : Soil.
Distribution : DaIjiling. Habitat : Rice field.
75. Anabaena olzii Distribution : Bankura, J alpaiguri,
Life form : Soil. Medinipur (Dharma, Jhargram, Silda, Contai)
Habitat : Rice field. and Nadia.
Distribution : Medinipur (Jhargram, Contai, 83. Aulosira pseudodarmosa
Garbeta). Life form : Soil.
·76. Anabaena olzii var. crassa Habitat : Rice field.
Life form : Soil. Distribution: Barddhaman, HugH and
Habitat: Rice field. Medinipur (Thakurchak).
Distribution : Bankura. 84. Cylindrospermum alatosporium
77. Aulosira aenigmatica Life fornl : Soil/water bodies.
Life form : Soil. Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field. Distribution : Bankura, Haora and
Distribution : South 24 Pgs. (Sunderban, Medinipur.
Dimond Harbour), Maldah, Medinipur (Digha) 85. Cylindrospermum cuvatum
and Murshidabad. Life form : .Soil/water bodies.
78. Aulosira fertilissima Habitat: Rice field.
Life form : Soil. Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat : Rice field. 86. Cylindrospermum doryphorum
Distribution : South 24 Pgs. (Sunderban, Life form : Soil/water bodies.
pimond Harbour), Dinajpur (Raigunj),
Habitat : Rice field.
Medinipur (Digha) and Nadia (Santipur).
Distribution : Kolkata.
79. Aulosira fertilissima var. tenius
87. Cylindrospermum indicum
Life form : Soil.
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution: Bankura, Koch Bihar, Dinajpur, Habitat : Rice field.
Jalpaiguri, Maldah, Medinipur and Puruliya. Distribution: Haora and Medinipur.
80. Aulosira fritschii 88. Cylindrospermum licheniforme
Life form : Soil. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution Bankura, Birbhum, Distribution: Bankura, Darjiling, Dinajpur,
Barddhaman and Puruliya. J alpaiguri, Maldah and Nadia.
164 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

89. Cylindrospermum licheniforme f. 96. Nodularia harveyana


lemmeranni Life form : Soil.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat : Rice field. Distribution : Bankura.
Distribution: Bankura, Koch Bihar, DaIjiling, 97. Nodularia spumigena
HugH and Nadia. Life form : Soil.
90. Cylindrospermum majus Habitat: Rice field.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Distribution : Bankura and Puruliya.
Habitat : Rice field. 98. Nostoc calcicola
Distribution Bankura, Medinipur Life form : Soil/water bodies.
(Jhargram). Habitat: Rice field.
91. Cylindrospermum michailoukoense Distribution: Barikura, Medinipur (NaIjole),
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Murshidabad and Nadia (Kalyani).
Habitat : Rice field. 99. Nostoc comminutum
Distribution: South 24 Pgs., Bankura and Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Medinipur. Habitat: Rice field.
92. Cylindrospermum muscicola Distribution : Hugli, J alpaiguri and
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Medinipur.
Habitat: Rice field. 100. Nostoc commune
Distribution: Bankura (Onda), Kolkata, Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Medinipur (Contai) and Nadia. Habitat : Rice field.
93. Cylindrospermum muscicola yare Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.,
longispora Barddhaman, Kolkata, Haora, Hugli, Medinipur
Life form : Soil/water bodies. and Nadia.
Habitat: Rice field. 101. Nostoc depressum
Distribution : Bankura (Simlipal) and Life form : Soil/water bodies.
PuruHya. Habitat: Rice field.
94. Cylindrospermum sphaerica Distribution: Medinipur (Dharma).
Life form : Soil/water bodies. 102. Nostoc ellipsosporum
Habitat : Rice field. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs., Habitat: Rice field.
Haora and HugH. Distribution : Bankura, Maldah (Kalichak,
95· Cylindrospermum stagnale Bamangola), Murshidabad (Baharampur) and
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Nadia (Goyeshpur, Ranaghat).
Habitat: Rice field. 103. Nostoc entophyton
Distribution Bankura (Jhilimili), Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Barddhaman (Asansol) and Medinipur Habitat: Rice field.
(Keshpur). Distribution : DaIjiling.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 1'65

104. Nostoc hatei 112. Nostoc spongiaefoMne


Life form ; Soil/water bodies. Life form ; Soil/water bodies.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: Bankura, Birbhum and Haora. Distribution; Bankura (Bishnupur), Birbhum
ios. Nostoc humifusum and Puruliya.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. 113. Nostoc spongiaeforme var. tenue
Habitat: Rice field. Life form ; Soil/water bodies.
Distribution : Darjiling and Medinipur Habitat : Rice field.
(Contai). Distribution: Bankura, Murshidabad and
106. Nostoc labatus Nadia.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. 114. Nostoc errucosum
Habitat : Rice field. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Distribution; Murshidabad. Habitat : Rice field.
107. Nostoc linckia Distribution : Medinipur and Murshidabad.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Pseudanabaena schidlei
115.
Habitat : Rice field. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Distribution: Bankura (Onda), Barddhaman Habitat : Rice field.
and Medinipur (Dharma). Distribution: Bankura and Medinipur.
108. Nostoc mUSCOMLm
Wollea bharadwajae
116.
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat; Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.,
Distribution : South 24 Pgs., Bankura and
Bankura and Dinajpur (Itahar).
Hugli.
109. Nostoc paludosum
Family OSCILLATORIACEAE
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Arthosporia gomotiana
117.
Habitat; Rice field.
Life form : Planktonic/soil algae.
Distribution : Bankura, Darjiling and
Habitat: Rice field.
Medinipur (Garbeta).
Distribution : North 24 Pgs., Bankura and
110. Nostoc piscinale
South 24 Pgs. (Dimond Harbour).
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Arthosporia jenneri
118.
Habitat: Rice field.
Life form : Planktonic/soil algae.
Distribution : South 24 Pgs. (Sunderban,
Habitat: Rice field.
Dimond Harbour), Barddhaman (Panagar),
Kolkata, DaIjiling and Nadia. Distribution : Jalpaiguri, Medinipur
~ (Medinipur Sadar) and Nadia.
111. Nostoc punctiforme
Arthosporia massartii
119.
Life form ; Soil/water bodies.
Life form: Planktonic/soil algae.
Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
(Sunderban), Bankura, DaIjiling, Maldah and Distribution Bankura, Maldah,
Nadia. Murshidabad and Nadia (Kalyani).
166 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

120. Arthosporia massartii var. indica 128. Lyngbya allorgei


Life form : Planktonic/soil algae. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: Bankura (Onda). Distribution : Darjiling and Medinipur
(Contai, BeIda).
121. Arthosporia plalensis var. tenuis
129. Lyngbya birgei
Life form : Planktonic/soil algae.
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat : Rice field.
Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.,
Distribution: Bankura (Onda), Medinipur
Bankura, Birbhum and Medinipur (Haldia). (Garbeta) and Murshidabad (Baharampur).
122. Crinalium magnum 130. Lyngbya ceylanica
Life form : Soil algae. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Falta). Pgs. (Matla, Diamond Harbour).
123. Hydrocoleum meneghinianum 131. Lyngbya ceylanica var.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. bunkurensis
Habitat : Rice field. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Distribution: Murshidabad. Habitat: Rice field.
124. Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum Distribution Bankura (Mayapur,
Bishnupur), Maldah, Medinipur (Garbeta) and
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Nadia.
Habitat : Rice field. 132. Lyngbya corifervoides
Distribution : Medinipur (Geokhali), Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Murshidabad and South 24 Pgs. (Sunderban,
Habitat : Rice field.
Diamond Harbour).
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
125. Lyngbya aerugineo-coerulae Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Soil/water bodies. 133. Lyngbya cryptovaginata
Habitat : Rice field. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Distribution : Bankura (Bishnupur) and Habitat : Rice field.
Hugli. Distribution: Medinipur (Narajole).
126. Lyngbya aestuarii 134. Lyngbya hieronymusii
.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Life form : Soil/water bodies .
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: Kolkata and Dinajpur. Distribution : Medinipur (Panskura,
127. Lyngbya agerheimii forma Dharma).
lacerata 135. Lyngbya lachneri
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution: Medinipur (Narajole). Distribution : DaIjiling (Mirik) and Haora.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity

136. Lyngbya largerheimii 144. Lyngbya spiralis


Life form : Soil/water bodies. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution : Bankura (Bishnupur), Distribution : Bankura (Kotalpur),
Medinipur and Nadia. Barddhaman (Asansol) and Murshidabad
137. Lyngbya laxe$piralis (Baharampur).
Life form : Soil/water bodies. 145. Lyngbya stagnina
Habitat: Rice field. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Distribution: Bankura (Onda), Birbhum, Habitat : Rice field.
Barddhaman (Asansol), Medinipur (Garbeta) Distribution Bankura, Birbhum,
and Puruliya (Jhalda). Barddhaman, Maldah and Nadia.
138. Lyngbya magnifia 146. Microcoleus chthoJioplastes
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution : Medinipur. Distribution Bankura, Birbhum,
139. Lyngbya major Barddhaman, Medinipur (Garbeta, Silda) and
Murshidabad.
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
147. Microcoleus lacustris
Habitat: Rice field.
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Distribution: South 24 Pgs., Dinajpur, Haora
and Nadia. Habitat: Rice field.
140. Lyngbya majuscula
Distribution: Darjiling, HugH, Jalpaiguri,
Maldah and Nadia.
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
148. Microcoleus lyngibyaceous
Habitat: Rice field.
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
(Falta, Sunderban), Kolkata, Medinipur Habitat : Rice field.
(Tamluk). Distribution : Bankura.
141. Lyngbya martensiana 149. Microcoleus paludosus
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. Distribution : Bankura, Darjiling and
(Bakkhali), Bankura (Onda), Kolkata, Medinipur (Haldia, Kolaghat).
Medinipur (Haldia, Digha). 150. Microcoleus sp.
142. Lyngbya mesomcha Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Habitat: Benthic.
Habitat: Rice field. Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution: Murshidabad (Baharampur). Pgs. (Sunderban).
143. Lyngbya perelegems 151. Microcoleus subtorulosus
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution : Bankura, Barddhaman and Distribution : Medinipur (Digha) and
Puruliya. Murshidabad.
168 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

152. Microcoleus vaginatus 160. Oscillatoria agardii

Life form : Soil/water bodies. Life form : Soil algae.


Habitat: Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution : Bankura, Barddhaman and Distribution : Bankura.
Dinajpur. 161. Oscillatoria amaena
153. Oscillatoria amphigranulata Lifeform: Soil algae.
Life form : Soil algae. Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field. Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Distribution : 13ankura (Bishnupur), (Canning) and Kolkata.
Birbhum, Barddharhan, Jalpaiguri and 162. Oscillatoria amphibia
Medinipur. Life form : Soil algae.
154. Oscillatoria jascrvensis Habitat: Rice field.
Lifeform: Soil algae. Distribution: Bankura (Onda), Barddhaman
Habitat: Rice field. and Murshidabad.
Distribution : Darjiling and Medinipur. 163. Oscillatoria anguina
155. Oscillatoria proboscidae Life form : Soil algae.
Life form : Soil algae. Habitat : Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field. Distribution : Bankura (Jairambati),
Distribution : Bankura (Moynapur), Birbhum, Barddhaman, Kolkata and Puruliya.
Birbhum and Barddhaman. 164. Oscillatoria anguina gomond
156. Oscillatoria prolifica forma
Life form : Soil algae. Life form : Soil algae.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: Murshidabad (Baharampur). Distribution : Bankura, Birbhum and
157. Oscillatoria proteus Barddhaman.
Life form : Soil algae. 165. Oscillatoria animalis

Habitat: Rice field. Life form : Soil algae.


Distribution : Bankura (Onda), HugH and Habitat : Rice field.
Medinipur (Jamtala). Distribution Bankura, Birbhum,
158. Oscillatoria acuminata Barddhaman, Kolkata, Medinipur and Puruliya.
Life form : Soil algae. 166. Oscillatoria annae

Habitat : Rice field. Life form : Soil algae.


Distribution : Bankura, Haora, HugH and Habitat : Rice field.
Medinipur (Medinipur Sad~r). Distribution : J alpaiguri, Maldah, Medinipur
159. Oscillatoria acuta (Panskura) and Nadia.
Life form : Soil algae. 167. Oscillatoria breis
Habitat: Rice field. Life form : Soil algae.
Distribution: Medinipur (Jhargram, Tumluk, Habitat : Rice field.
Silda). Distribution : Bankura.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 169

168.Oscillatoria breis yare 176. Oscillatoria limosa


nongranulata Life form : Soil algae.
Life form : Soil algae. Habitat : Rice field.
Habitat: Stagnant water in Rice field. Distribution : North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Distribution : Medinipur (Tumluk, Contai). (Sunderban), Birbhum, Haora and Medinipur.
Oscillatoria chalybea
-169. 177. Oscillatoria margaretifora
Life form : Soil algae. Life form : Soil algae.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat: Saline area.
Distribution Bankura, Birbhum, Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Barddhaman, Haora, Hugli and Medinipur. (Sunderban).
170.Oscillatoria chilkensis 178. Oscillatoria mougeotii
Life form : Soil algae. Life form : Soil algae.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: Murshidabad. Distribution : Medinipur.
179. Oscillatoria obscura
Oscillatoria chlorina
171.
Lifeform : Soil algae.
Life form : Soil algae.
Habitat : Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution : South 24 Pgs. (Sunderban),
Distribution: Murshidabad.
Bankura (Onda), Dinajpur (Balurghat, Raigunj)
Oscillatoria cortiana
172. and Murshidabad.
Life form : Soil algae. 180. Oscillatoria okeni
Habitat: Rice field. Life form : Soil algae.
Distribution : Medinipur. Habitat: Rice field.
Oscillatoria curviceps
173. Distribution: Bankura and Medinipur
Lifeform : Soil algae. (Panskura)
Habitat : Rice field. Oscillatoria princeps
181.

Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. Life form : Soil algae.


(Kakdweep), Bankura, Koch Bihar and Habitat: Rice field.
Medinipur. Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
174. Oscillatoria earlei (Sunderban) and Medinipur (Salboni, Haldia).
Life form : Soil algae. 182. Oscillatoria pseudogeminata
Habitat: Rice field. Life form : Soil algae.
Distribution: Hugli, Jalpaiguri, Medinipur Habitat: Rice field.
(Tamluk, Silda, Keshpur). Distribution: Koch Bihar and Jalpaiguri.
175.Oscillatoria formosa 183. Oscillatoria pseudogeminata yare
Lifeform: Soil algae. unigranata
Habitat : Rice field. Life form : Soil algae.
Distribution: South 24 Pgs. (Sunderban), Habitat: Rice field.
Bankura and Medinipur (Jhargram). Distribution: Bankura (Bishnupur).
170 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

184. Oscillatoria quadripunctuatulata 192. Oscillatoria tenuis


Life form : Soil algae. Life form : Soil algae.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution : Bankura (Jairambati), Distribution : South 24 Pgs. (Falta), Bankura
Birbhum, Barddhaman, Kolkata and Puruliya. (Onda), Birbhum and Barddhaman.
185. Oscillatoria rooi
193. Oscillatoria terebriformis
Life form : Soil algae.
Life form : Soil algae.
Habitat : Rice field.
Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: Bankura (Bishnupur) and Hugli
(Chinsura). Distribution : Kolkata.
186. Oscillatoria scanta 194. Phormidium angustissimum

Life form : Soil algae. Life form : Soil algae.


Habitat: Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: Medinipur. Distribution : Kolkata and Dinajpur.
187. Oscillatoria schultzii 195. Phorinidium molle f. tenuior
Life form : Soil algae. Life form : Soil algae.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution : Kolkata, Medinipur (Ghatal, Distribution : Bankura.
Contai).
196. Phormidium ambiguum
188. Oscillatoria simplicissima
Life form : Soil algae.
Life form : Soil algae.
Habitat : Rice field.
Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution : Medinipur. Distribution: Bankura (Mukutmanipur),
Birbhum, Barddhaman, Medinipur (Panskura)
18g. Oscillatoria splendida
and Puruliya (Jhalda).
Life form.: Soil algae.
197. Phormidium ambiguum var. major
Habitat : Rice field
Life form : Soil algae.
Distribution: Bankura (Jhilimili), Kolkata,
Haora and Puruliya. Habitat: Rice field.
190. Oscillatoria subbrevis Distribution : Birbhum (Siuri) and Puruliya
Life form : Soil algae. (Bagmundi).
Habitat : Rice field. 198. Phormidium anomala
Distribution : South 24 Pgs. (Sunderban, Life form : Soil algae.
Dimond Harbour), Bankura, Kolkata, Dinajpur Habitat : Rice field.
(Balurghat), Jalpaiguri, Medinipur and
Distribution : North 24 Pgs., Maldah and
Murshidabad.
Nadia.
191. Oscillatoria subbrevis forma
major 199. Phormidium bohneri

Life form : Soil algae. Life form : Soil algae.


Habitat: Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., Medinipur Distribution: Haora, Hugli and Medinipur
(Haldia), Murshidabad and Puruliya. (Narajole).
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 171

200. Phonnidium corium 208. Phonnidium luCidum


Lifeform : Soil algae. Life form : Soil algae.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution : Maldah, Medinipur (Silda, Distribution : Bankura and Birbhum.
Salboni, Godapiasal) and Nadia. 209. Phonnidium molle

201. Phonnidium corium fonna major Lifeform: Soil algae.


Life form : Soil algae. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.,
Habitat: Rice field.
Haora and Medinipur (Medinipur Sadar).
Distribution : Medinipur (Salboni). 210. Phonnidium papyraceum
202. Phonnidium corium var. Life form : Soil algae.
capitatum Habitat : Rice field.
Life form : Soil algae. Distribution: Squth 24 Pgs. and HugH.
Habitat : Rice field. 211. Phonnidium purpurascens
Distribution : Bankura (Simlipal) and Lifeform: Soil algae.
Darjiling (Siliguri). Habitat : Rice field.
203. Phonnidium faeolarum Distribution: DaIjiling, Dinajpur, Jalpaiguri,
Life form : Soil algae. Maldah and Murshidabad.
Habitat: Rice field. 212. Phormidium retzii
Life form : Soil algae.
Distribution : Bankura.
Habitat: Rice field.
204.Phonnidium faosum
Distribution: Bankura, Haora and HugH.
Life form : Soil algae.
213. Phormidium rotanda
Habitat: Rice field. Life form : Soil algae.
Distribution : Bankura, Haora and Hugli. Habitat : Rice field.
205. PhonJiidium fragile Distribution : Medinipur (Garbeta).
Life form : Soil algae. 214. Phonnidium stagnina

Habitat: Rice field. Life form : Soil algae.


Distribution : Bankura, Birbhum (Panagar) Habitat: Rice field.
and Medinipur (Digha). Distribution : North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
206. Phonnidium jadinianum (Sunderban), Bankura, Haora and HugH.
215. Phonnidium tenue
Lifeform: Soil algae.
Life form : Soil algae.
Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution: Dinajpur (Raigunj), Maldah
Distribution : Bankura (Simlipal), Maldah,
(Ratua, Gazol) and Medinipur (Salboni, Contai).
Medinipur (Egra), Nadia and PuruHya (Jhalda).
207.Phonnidium laminosum 216. Phormidium uncinatum
Life form : Soil algae. Life form : Soil algae.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution : Bankura (Susunia) and Distribution : Bankura, Darjiling and
Birbhum (Santiniketan). J al paiguri.
172 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

217. Phormidium ulderianum 225. Schizothrix rubella


Life form : Soil algae. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs., Bankura, Distribution : Bankura, Birbhum and
Birbhum, Barddhaman, Jalpaiguri and Nadia. Barddhaman.
218. Porphyrosiphon nostarisii 226. Schizothrix tamyl
Life form : Soil algae. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Distribution: Bankura, Hugli, Jalpaiguri, Habitat : Rice field.
Medinipur (Garbeta, Kharagapur, Keshpur) and Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Nadia. Pgs. (Dimond Harbour).
219. Schizothrix arenaria 227. Schizothrix telephoroides
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution : Bankura, Maldah and Distribution : Bankura (Onda) and
Murshidabad. Medinipur (Garbeta, Panchmari).
220. Schizothrix calcicola 228. Spirulina labyrinthiformis
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Life form : Soil algae.
Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: Medinipur.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., Murshidabad
and Puruliya. 229. SpiMllina major
221. Schizothrix friesii Life form : Soil algae.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Habitat : Rice field.

Habitat : Rice field. Distribution : North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.,


Maldah, Medinipur (Haldia, Kolaghat),
Distribution : Darjiling, Medinipur (Keshpur)
Murshidabad and Nadia (Kalyani).
and Puruliya.
230. Spirulina meneghiniana
222. Schizothrix lacutris
Life form : Soil algae.
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: Bankura (Onda), Birbhum and
Distribution : Bankura and Barddhaman. Barddhaman.
223. Schizothrix muelleri 231. SpiMllina princeps
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Life form : Soil algae.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution: Dinajpur, Medinipur (Garbeta) Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
and Murshidabad. and Medinipur (Narajole).
224. Schizothrix penicillata 232. SpiMllina subalsa
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Life form : Soil algae.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.,
(Dimond Harbour) and Medinipur (Salboni). Maldah, Medinipur (Haldia, Narajole) and Nadia.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 173

233. Symploea muralis 10. Calothrix eonarenii


Life form : Soil/water bodies. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution : Bankura, Birbhum and Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Medinipur (Salboni, Silda). Pgs. (Sunderban).
234. Triehodesmium th,ieb autii 24 2 . Calothrix elenkinii
Life form : Soil algae. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.,
Pgs. (Sunderban, Dimond Harbour). Haora and Nadia.
Family RIVULARIACEAE 243. Calothrix fusea
235. Calothrix bharadwojae Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Habitat : Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field. Distribution : Medinipur (Dharma).
Distribution: Murshidabad (Baharampur). 244. Calothrix fusea var. ~assa
236. Calothrix braunii Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Habitat : Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field. Distribution: Bankura (Joyrambati) and
Distribution: Bankura, Haora, Hugli, Maldah Puruliya.
and Nadia. 245. Calothrix ghosei
237. Calothrix brevissima Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Habitat : Rice field.
Habitat: Rice field. Distribution: Medinipur (Ghatal).
Distribution : South 24 Pgs., Barddhaman .246. Calothrix marchiea
and Haora.
, Life form : Soil/water bodies.
238. Calothrix breissima var.
Habitat: Rice field.
moniliforme
Distribution: Bankura, Darjiling (Mirik) and
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Di~ajpur.
Habitat: Rice field.
247. Calothrix membranaeea
Distribution : Bankura and Puruliya.
Life fornl : Soil/water bodies.
239. 'Calothrix eastellii
Habitat: Rice field.
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Distribution : Bankura, Murshidabad and
Habitat: Rice field.
Nadia.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 21 Pgs.
248. Calothrix paMelina
(Sunderban), Haora and Medinipur.
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
240. Calothrix eastellii var.
somastipurensis Habitat: Rice field.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Distribution: Barddhaman, Haora and HugH.
Habitat: Rice field. 249. Calothrix scytonemieola
Distribution : Bankura, Hugli and Puruliya. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
174 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Habitat : Rice field. 258. Gloeotrichia raciborskii


Distribution : Puruliya. Life form : Soil.
250. Caiothrix thermalis Habitat: Rice field.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Distribution: South 24 Pgs., Bankura and
Habitat : Rice field. Medinipur (Dharma).
Distribution: Murshidabad (Baharampur). 259. Gloeotrichia raciborskii kashi~e
251. Gloeotrichia pisum Life form : Soil.
Life form : Soil. Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., HugH and
Distribution: South 24 Pgs., Bankura (Onda) Medinipur.
and Haora.
260. Homeothrix juliana
252. Gloeotrichia echinulata
Life form : Soil.
Life form : Soil.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution : Murshidabad (Baharampur). Distribution: Dinajpur, Medinipur (Tamluk)
253. Gloeotrichia ghosei and Nadia.
Life form : Soil. Family SYTONEMATACEAE
Habitat: Rice field. 261. Plectonema battersii
Distribution : Bankura and Birbhum. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
254. Gloeotrichia intermedia Habitat: Rice field.
Life form : Soil. Distribution : DaIjiling.
Habitat: Rice field. 262. Plectonema indica
Distribution : Kolkata, Medinipur and Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Murshidabad.
Habitat : Rice field.
255. Gloeotrichia intermedia var.
kanwaensis Distribution : DaIjiling (Mirik).
Life form : Soil. 263. Plectonema nostocorum
Habitat: Rice field. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Distribution: Medinipur (Keshpur) and Habitat: Rice field.
Murshidabad. Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and Haora.
256. Gloeotrichia natans 264. Plectonema notatum
Life form : Soil.
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat : Rice field.
Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Distribution : J alpaiguri, Medinipur
(Sunderban), Bankura, Kolkata, Maldah,
Medinipur and Murshidabad (Baharampur). (Thakurchak) and Nadia.
257· Gloeotrichia pilgeri 265. Plectonema tomasinianum
Life form : Soil. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution : Bankura and Puruliya. Distribution: Barddhaman and Hugli.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 175

266. Scytonema bohneri 275. Scytonema javanicum


Life form : Soil/water bodies. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution: Barddhaman, HugH and
267. Scytonema buMltanicum Medinipur (Keshpur).
Life form : Soil/water bodies. 276. Scytonema leptobasis
Habitat: Rice field. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Distribution: Barddhaman, Haora and HugH. Habitat: Rice field.
268. Scytonema caldarium Distribution : Barddhaman, Haora and
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Medinipur (Pachara).
Habitat: Rice field. 277. Scytonema mirabile
Distribution: Barddhaman. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
269. Scytonema ciricinnatum Habitat : Rice field.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Distribution : Bankura, Dinajpur and
Habitat : Rice field. Puruliya.
Distribution : Bankura, Medinipur and 278. Scytonema myochrous
Puruliya. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
270. Scytonema coactile Habitat: Rice field.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Distribution : Bankura, Birbhum and
Habitat: Rice field. Medinipur.
Distribution: Medinipur (Kolsanda). 279. Scytonema schmidtii
271. Scytonema feMltyii Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Habitat : Rice field.
Habitat : Rice field. Distribution : Barddhaman.
Distribution: Barddhaman and Medinipur. 280. Scytonema simplex
272. Scytonema fritschii Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Life form : Soil/water bodies. Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat : Rice field. Distribution Bankura, Birbhum,
Distribution: Barddhaman and Hugli. Barddhaman, Haora, Hugli, Medinipur
(Jhargram) and Murshidabad.
273. Scytonema guyanense
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
281. Scytonema stuposum
Habitat: Rice field. Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Distribution : Barddhaman and Puruliya. Habitat: Rice field.
274. Scytonema hofmanii Distribution : Bankura, Birbhum and
Puruliya.
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
282. Scytonema tolypothrichoides
Habitat: Rice field.
Life form : Soil/water bodies.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., Birbhum, Koch
Bihar, Darjiling, Haora, Hugli, Jalpaiguri, Habitat: Rice field.
Maldah, Medinipur (Contai) and Nadia. Distribution : Bankura, Haora and Nadia.
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Order STIGONEMATALES 291. Hapalosiphon intricatus


Family MASTIGOCLADACEAE Life form : Soil.
283. Mastigocladus laminosus Habitat : Rice field.
Life form : Soil. Distribution : Bankura (Moynapur) and
Habitat: Rice field. Birbhum.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs., 292. Hapalosiphon luteolus
Bankura, Barddhaman, Haora, HugH and Life form : Soil.
Nadia.
Habitat : Rice field.
Family STIGONEMATACEAE
Distribution : Bankura and Puruliya
284. Camptyionema indicum (Jhalda).
Life form : Soil. 293. Hapalosiphon welwitschii
Habitat : Rice field. Life form : Soil.
Distribution : Bankura (Bishnupur, Habitat : Rice field.
J oyrambati) and Puruliya.
Distribution : Medinipur (Panchkuri).
285. Camptylonemorpsis boldii
294. Hormidium subtilis
Life form : Soil.
Lifeform : Water bodies.
Habitat: Rice field.
Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution : DaIjiling and J alpaiguri.
Distribution : Darjiling.
286. Camptylonemorpsis lahorensis
Life form : Soil. 295. Nostocopsis hangsgirgi

Habitat : Rice field. Lifeform : Water bodies.


Distribution : Nadia. Habitat: .Benthic.
287. Dennocarpa leibleiniae Distribution: Murshidabad (Baharampur).
~ife form: Water bodies. 296. Nostocopsis lobata
Habitat : Benthic. Life form : Water bodies.
Distribution : Kolkata. . Habitat : Benthic.
288. Dermocarpa sp. Distribution: Murshidabad (Baharampur).
Life form : Water bodies. 297. Raphidiopsis indica
Habitat: Benthic. Life form : Water bodies.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Habitat: Benthic.
Pgs. (Sunderban). Distribution : Bankura.
289. Fischerella muscicola 29B. Rivula.,..,.a manginii
Life form : Water bodies. Lifeform : Water bodies.
Habitat : Benthic. Habitat : Benthic.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution : Darjiling.
290. Hapalosiphon fontinalis 299. Stigonema hormoides
Life form : Soil.
Habitat: Water logged area.
Habitat : Rice field.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution: Bankura (Joyrambati). Pgs. (Sunderban).
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 177

300. Stigonema ocellatum 308. Amphora sp.


Life form : Soil. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Rice field. Habitat: Estuary.
Distribution: Bankura, Birbhum, Maldah and Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Puruliya. Pgs. (Sunderban).
301. Stigonema tomentosum 309. Asteomphalus flabellatus

Life form : Soil. Life form : Planktonic.


Habitat: Estuary.
Habitat: Rice field.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution : DaIjiling.
Pgs. (Sunderban).
302. Synechocystis aquatitis
310. Asterionella Formosa
Life form : Water l:>odies. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat : Saline area.
Dis~bution : ~urshidabad. Distribution : Kolkata.
~tiellopsis prolifica 311. Asterionella japonica
Life form : Soil. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat : Rice field. Habitat: Mangrove Estuary.
Distribution: Bankura (Onda) and Puruliya. Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban).
304.J.renococcus acervatus
312. Bacillaria paradoxa
Life form : Water bodies.
Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic.
Habitat: Estuary.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Class BACILLARIOPHYCEAE
313. Bacteriastrum hyalinum
305. Achnanthes sp. Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat: Estuary.
Habitat : Estuary. Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution : DaIjiling (Sinchallake). Pgs. (Sunderban).
306. Amphipora sp. 314. Bacteriastrum hyalinum var.
princeps
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat : Estuary.
Habitat: Estuary.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Pgs. (Sunderban).
307. Amphora ovalis 315. Bacteriastrum varians
Life form : Planktonic. Life form ~ Planktonic.
Habitat : Estuary. Habitat: Estuary.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Pgs. (Sunderban).
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

316. Biddulphia heferoceros 324. Chaetocerous diversus


Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Estuary. Habitat: Estuary.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Pgs. (Sunderban).
317. Biddulphia longicruris 325. Chaefocerous indicus
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Estuary. Habitat: Estuary.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Pgs. (Sunderban).
318. Biddulphia mobiliensis 326. Chaefocerous lorenzianus
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Estuary. Habitat: Estuary.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Pgs. (Sunderban).
319. Biddulphia pulchella 327. Chaefocerous peruvianus
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Estuary.
Habitat : Estuary.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Pgs. (Sunderban).
320. Biddulphia sinensis
328. Chaefocerous anheurckii
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Estuary.
Habitat : Estuary.
_ Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Distribution : North ·24 Pgs. ·and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban).
321. Caloneis madraspafensis
329. Climacodium frauenfeldianum
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Estuary.
Habitat: Estuary.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
322. Campylodiscus clypeus Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Planktonic. 330. Climacosphenia elongata

Habitat: Estuary. Life form : Planktonic.


Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Habitat: Estuary.
Pgs. (Sunderban). Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
3 2 3. Chaefocerous curvisetus Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Planktonic. 331. Cocconeis placentula var. englypfa
Habitat: Estuary. Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Habitat: Estuary.
Pgs. (Sunderban). Distribution: Darjiling (Senchallake).
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 179

332. Corethrone inerme 340. Cymbella aflins


Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat : Estuary. Habitat: Saline area.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Distribution: Darjiling (Senchallake).
Pgs. (Sunderban)
341. Cymbella aspera
333. Coscinodiscus asteromphalus
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Estuary. Habitat: Saline.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Distribution: Darjiling (Senchallake).
Pgs. (Sunderban). 342. Cymbella chandolensis
334. Coscinodiscus excentricus Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat: Estuary.
Habitat: Estuary. Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Pgs. (Sunderban).
Pgs. (Sunderban).
343. Ditylum brightwellii
335. Coscinodiscus jonesianus
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Estuary.
Habitat: Estuary.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Pgs. (Sunderban).
336. Coscinodiscus oculotridis 344. Ditylum sol
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Estuary. Habitat: Estuary.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Pgs. (Sunderban).
337. Coscinodiscus perforatus 345. Eucampia balaustium
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat : Estuary. Habitat : Estu~ry.
pistribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Pgs. (Sunderban).
338. Coscinodiscus perforatus var. 346. Eucampia cornuta
pavillardi
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Estuary.
Habitat : Estuary.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Pgs. (Sunderban).
339. Cyclotella sp. 347. Eucampia zoodiacus
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Estuary. Habitat: Estuary.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pg~. (Sunderban). Pgs. (Sunderban).
180 Status of Biodiversity of West Be~gal

348. Eunotia pectinalis yare undulata 357. Gomphonema sphaerophorum


Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat : Saline area. Habitat: Saline area.
Distribution: DaIjiling (Senchallake). Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
349. Eunotia pectinalis yare minor Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Planktonic. 358. Gyrosigma ballicum

Habitat: Saline area. Life form : Planktonic.


Distribution : DaIjiling (Mirik lake). Habitat : Estuary.
350. Eunotia sp. Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Planktonic.
359. Hemiaulus sp.
Habitat: Estuary.
Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Habitat: Estuary.
351. Eunotia yare minor Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form :. Planktonic.
360. Hemidiscus cuneiformes
Habitat: Saline area.
Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution: DaIjiling (Mirik lake).
;;,
Habitat : Estuary.
352. Fragillaria canica
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Life form : Planktonic.
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Habitat , : Saline area.
361. Isthmia enervis
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Life form : Planktonic.
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Habitat : Estuary.
353. Fragillaria capucina
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
.Life form : Planktonic.
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Habitat: Saline area.
362. Lauderia annulata
Distribution: DaIjiling (Senchallake).
Life form : Planktonic.
354. Frustulia sp.
Habitat : Estuary.
Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Habitat : Estuary. Pgs. (Sunderban).
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 363. Leptocylindrus danicus
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Planktonic.
355. Gomphonema acumnatum
Habitat: Estuary.
Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Habitat : Saline area. Pgs. (Sunderban).
Distribution : Kolkata. 364. Lithodesmium undulatum
356. Gomphonema sp. Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat : Estuary~
Habitat: Saline area. Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distrihution : Darjiling (Senchallake). Pgs. (Sunderban).
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 181

365. Melosira sulcata 374. Nitzschia closterium


Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat : Estuary. Habitat: Estuary.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Pgs. (Sunderban).
366. Navicula cryptocephaloides 375. Nitzschia linearis
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat : Estuary. Habitat: Estuary.
Distribution : Darjiling (Senchallake). Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
367. Navicula mgna Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Planktonic. 376. Nitzschia longissima
Habitat: Estuary. Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution: Darjiling (Senchallake). Habitat: Estuary.
368. Navicula similis Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Life form : Planktonic. Pgs. (Sunderban).
Habitat : Saline area. 377. Nitzschia pelagica
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Life form : Planktonic.
Pgs. (Sunderban). Habitat : Saline area.
369. Navicula sp. Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Life form : Planktonic. Pgs. (Sunderban).
Habitat : Estuary. 378. Nitzschia scaleris
Distribution: South 24 Pgs. (Sunderban) and Life form : Planktonic.
"Darjiling (Sench~lllake). Habitat: Estuary.
370. Navicula stauroptera Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Life form : Planktonic. Pgs. (Sunderban).
Habitat: Estuary. 379. Nitzschia seriata
Distribution: Kolkata and Darjiling (Tonglu). Life form : Planktonic.
371. Navicula stauroptera yare Habitat: Estuary.
interrupta Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Life form : Planktonic. Pgs. (Sunderban).
Habitat : Estuary. 380. Nitzschia sigma
Distribution: Darjiling (Mirik). Life form : Planktonic.
372. Navicula viridis Habitat: Estuary.
Life form : Planktonic. Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Habitat: Estuary. Pgs. (Sunderban).
Distribution : Kolkata. 381. Par-alia sp.
373. Nitzschia acuta Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat: Estuary.
Habitat: Estuary. Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution: Darjiling (Senchallake). Pgs. (Sunderban).
182 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

382. PinnulaMa gibha yare parva 390. Rhizosolenia stolterfothii


Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat : Saline area. Habitat : Estuary.
Distribution: Darjiling (Senchallake). Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
383. Pinnularia lebellaria Pgs. (Sunderban).

Life form : Planktonic. 391. Rhopalodid gibba

Habitat: Estuary. Life form : Planktonic.

Distribution: Darjiling (Senchallake). Habitat : Saline area.

384. Planktoniella sp. Distribution : Kolkata.

Life form : Planktonic. 392. Scheultia sp.

Habitat: Estuary. Life form : Planktonic.


Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Habitat: Estuary.
Pgs. (Sunderban). Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
385. Pleurosigma elongatum Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Planktonic. 393. Selectonema sp.

Habitat: Estuary. Life form : Planktonic.


Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Habitat: Estuary.
Pgs. (Sunderban). Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
386. Pleurosigma normanii Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Planktonic. 394. Skeletonema costatum
Habitat: Estuary. Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Habitat: Estuary.
?gs. (Sunderban). Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
387. Rhizosolenia alata Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Planktonic. 395. Slephanopyxis turris
Habitat: Estuary. Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Habitat : Estuary.
Pgs. (Sunderban). Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
388. Rhizosolenia robusta Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Planktonic. 396. SUMrella eximia
Habitat: Estuary. Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Habitat: Saline.
Pgs. (Sunderban). Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
389. Rhizosolenia stigera Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Planktonic. 397. Surirella linearis
Habitat: Estuary. Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Habitat: Estuary.
Pgs. (Sunderban). Distribution: Darjiling (Senchallake).
SANYAL et al. : Plant Diversity

398. Synedra ulna 406. Caloglessa leprieurii


Life f()rm : Planktonic. Lifeform : On water.
Habitat: Estuary. Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution: Kolkata and DaIjiling (Senchal Distribution : Kolkata.
lake). 407. Catenella ripae
399. Tetradinium sp. Lifeform : On water.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat: Benthic.
Habitat: Estuary. Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Pgs. (Sunderban).
Pgs. (Sunderban). 408. Ceraminum gracillimum
400. Thalassiosirs coramandeliana Life form : On water.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat : Benthic.
Habitat: Estuary. Distribution : Kolkata.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. ~nd South 24 409. Ceraminum elegans
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Lifeform : On water.
401. Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii
Habitat: Benthic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Habitat : Estuary. Pgs. (Sunderban).
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24 410. Compsopogan lividus
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Lifeform: On water.
402. Thalassiothrix longissima
Habitat: Fresh water.
Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat: Estuary.
411. Compsopogan coeruleus
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Life form : On water.
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Habitat : fresh water.
403. Triceratium elengans
Distribution : Kolkata.
Life form : Planktonic.
412. Gygetina sp.
Habitat : Estuary.
Lifeform : On water.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Habitat: Benthic.
404. Tropidoneis elengans Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Planktonic.
413. Polysiphonia angustissimum
Habitat: Estuary.
Lifeform : On water.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Habitat: Fresh water.
Class RHODOPHYCEAE Distribution : Kolkata.
405. Caloglessa adnata 414. Porphyra sp.
Lifeform: On water. Lifeform : On water.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban). Pgs. (Sunderban).
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Class DINOPHYCEAE 423. Protoperidinium depressum


415. Ceratiu11t hirundinella Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat: Estuary.
Habitat: Estuary. Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Distribution : Kolkata.
424. Pyropbacus borologicum
Class PYRROPHYCEAE
Life form : Planktonic.
416. Ceratium extensum
Habitat: Estuary.
Life form : Planktonic. Distribution: South 24 Pgs. and Dinajpur.
Habitat: Estuary. Class PRASINOPHYCEAE
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 425. Halosphaera sp.
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Planktonic.
417. Ceratium furea
Habitat: Marine.
Life form : Planktonic. Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Habitat : Estuary. Pgs. (Sunderban).
"Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Class EUGLENOPHYCEAE
Pgs. (Sunderban) and Koch Bihar. 426. Euglena viridis
418. Ceratium horridum Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat: Fresh water.
Habitat: Estuary. Distribution ~ Barddhaman and Kolkata.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 427. Phaeus pleuroneetes
Pgs. (Sunderban). Life form: On wa~er.
419. Ceratium mops Habitat : Estuary.
Life form : Planktonic. Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Habitat : Estuary. (Sunderban), Barddhaman and Kolkata.
.Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 428. Phaeus triqueter
Pgs. (Sunderban). Life form : Plankton~c.
420. Dinophysis eandata Habitat: Estuary.
Life form : Planktonic. Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Habitat: Estuary.
Class CHAROPHYCEAE
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
429. Chara braunii forma schweinitzii
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Benthic.
421. Noetiluea sp.
Habitat: On water.
Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : Murshidabad~
Habitat : Estuary. 430. Chara braunii yare eoromandelina
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Life form : Benthic.
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Habitat: On water.
422. Peridinium bre ipes Distribution : Kolkata.
Life form : Planktonic. 431. Chara eoralina yare walliehii
Habitat: Estuary. Life form : Benthic.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Habitat: On water.
Pgs. (Sunderban). Distribution : Birbhum.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 185

432. Chara el1Jthrogyna 441. Chara ulgaMs yare nitelloiodes


. Life form : Benthic. Life form : Water logged area.
Habitat: On water. Habitat: On water.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Pgs.
433. Chara fibrosa yare fibrosa fonna 442. Chara zeylanica
longeorollata Life form : Benthic.
Life form : Benthic.
Habitat: On water.
Habitat: On water.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution : Kolkata. . Pgs. (Sunderban).
434. Chara flaccidus 443. Chara zeylanica var. zeylanica
Life form : Benthic. Life form : Benthic.
Habitat: On water. Habitat: On water.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution : Nadia.
435. Chara globularis yare 444. Nitella acuminata
leptospanna forma leptospenna
Life form : Benthic.
Life form : Benthic.
Habitat: On water.
HabItat: On water.
Distribution: Medinipur.
IDistribution : Kolkata.
445. Nitella furcata
436. Chara globularis yare virgata
Life form : Benthic.
Life form : Benthic.
Habitat: On water.
Habitat: On water.
Distribution : Kolkata.
Distribution: Medinipur.
437. Chara hydropitys yare indica 446. Nitella gracillis var. corifer acea
forma major Life form : Benthic.
Life form : Benthic. Habitat: On water.
Habitat: On water. Distribution : Kolkata
Distribution: Medinipur (Digha) and Nadia. 447. Nitella hyaline
438. Chara setosa fonna Life form : Benthic.
presudobrachypus Habitat: On water.
.Life form : Benthic. Distribution : Kolkata, Murshidabad
Habitat: On water. (Baharampur) and Puruliya.
Distribution : Kolkata. 448. Nitella mucronata
439. Chara socotrensis fonna nuda Life form : Benthic.
Life form : Benthic. Habitat: On water.
Habitat: On water. Distribution : Kolkata.
Distribution : Kolkata. 449. Nitella polycarpa
440. Chara andalurensis Life form : Benthic.
Life form : Benthic. Habitat: On water.
Habitat: On water. Distribution : Medinipur, Murshidabad
Distribution: Murshidabad. (Baharampur) and Puruliya.
186 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

450. Nitella tuberculata Habitat : Planktonic/sediment.


Life form : Benthic. Distribution : Darjiling.
Habitat: On water. 460. Actinotaenium subglobosum
Distribution : Jalpaiguri, Medinipur Life form : On water/on soil.
(Narajole) and Nadia. Habitat: Planktonic/sediment.
Class XANTHOPHYCEAE Distribution : Darjiling.
451. Tribonema bomybcinum 461. Bambusina brebissonii
Life form : Soil.
Life form : On waterJon soil.
Habitat: Moist shady soil.
Habitat : Planktonic/sediment.
Distribution : Kolkata.
Distribution : Medinipur.
452. LHchotomosiphon tuberosus
462. Bambusina sp.
Life form : Soil.
Life form : On water/on soil.
Habitat: Moist shady soil.
Habitat : Planktonic/sediment.
Distributio:-, : HugH.
Distribution : Medinipur.
453. Vaucheria alaskana
Life form : Soil.
463. Closterium abrupum
Habitat: Moist shady soil. Life form : On water/on soil.
Distribution : Darjiling. Habitat : Planktonic/sediment.
454. Vaucheria aversa Distributipn: Barddhaman and Medinipur.
Life form : Soil. 464. Closterium acerosum
Habitat: Moist shady soil. Life form : Straight fusiform.
Distribution: Darjiling (Sandakphu). Habitat: Planktonic/sediment.
455. Vaucheria germinata Distribution : Darjiling (Ghoom, Mirik),
Life form : Soil. Maldah and Medinipur.
Habitat: Moist shady soil. 465. Closterium baillyanum
Distribution : Darjiling. Life form : On water/on soil.
456. Vaucheria sessilis Habitat : Planktonic/sediment.
Life form : Soil. Distribution : Medinipur.
Habitat: Moist shady soil. 466. Closterium calosporum
Distribution: Kolkata and Murshidabad. Life form : On water/on soil.
457. Vaucheria scssilis forma clavata Habitat : Planktonic/sediment.
Life form : Soil. Distribution : Medinipur and Puruliya.
Habitat: Moist shady soil. 467. Closterium cornu
Distribution : Darjiling. Life form : On water/on soil.
458. Vaucheria sessilis forma repens Habitat: Planktonic/sediment.
Life form : Soil. Distribution : Darjiling (Mirik, Phalut,
Habitat: Moist shady soil. Rimbick).
Distribution : Darjiling. 468. Closterium cynthia
Class CHLOROPHYCEAE Life form : On water/on soil.
Order DESMIDS Habitat : Planktonic/sediment.
459. Actinotaenium sp. Distribution : Barddhaman, Darjiling
Life form : On water/on soil. (Mungpoo, Tonglu) and Medinipur.
SANYAL et al. : Plant Diversity 187

469. Closterium dianea 478. Closterium libellula


Life form : On water/on soil. Life form : On water/on soil.
Habitat : Planktonic/sediment. Habitat: Planktonic/sediment.
Distribution: DaIjiling (Mirik, Phalut) and Distribution : Medinipur.
Medinipur.
479. Closterium lineatum
470. Closterium eboracense
Life form : On water/on soil. Lifeform : On water/on soil.
Habitat : Planktonic/sediment. Habitat : Planktonic/sediment.
Distribution: DaIjiling (Ghoom, Rimbick and Distribution : Medinipur.
Sandakphu). 480. Closterium moniliferum
471. Closterium ehvenbergii Life form : On water/on sediment.
Life form : On water/on sediment. Habitat : Planktonic.
Habitat : Planktonic. Distribution: DaIjiling, Dinajpur (Balurghat)
Distribution: Murshidabad. and Medinipur.
472. Closterium intermedium 481. Closterium moniliferum var.
Lifeform: On water/on soil. concaum
Habitat : Planktonic/sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Maldah. Habitat : Planktonic.
473. Closterium lacoeolatum var. Distribution : Puruliya.
parum
482. Closterium moniliformis
Life form : On water/on soil.
Habitat: Planktonic/sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Distribution: Bankura and Medinipur. Habitat : Planktonic.
474. Closterium lanceolatum Distribution: Murshidabad (Baharampur).
Life form : On water/on soil. 483. Closterium paMJulum
Habitat : Planktonic/sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Medinipur. Habitat: Planktonic.
475. Closterium leibleini var. Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
intermedium (Dimond Harbour) and Darjiling (Mirik lake).
Life form : On water/on soil. 484. Closterium par ulum var.
Habitat : Planktonic/sediment. angustum
Distribution: DaIjiling (Darjiling town, Lava, Life form : On water/on sediment.
Mungpoo) and Dinajpur (Balurghat).
Habitat : Planktonic.
476. C)osterium leibleini var.
recuratum Distribution : Puruliya.
Life form : On water/on soil. 485. Closterium raffsii
Habitat : Planktonic/sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Distribution: D~iling (Kurseong, Mungpoo) Habitat: Planktonic.
and Jalpaiguri. Distribution: Medinipur.
477. Closterium leibleinii 486. Closterium rectimarginatum
Life form : On water/on soil.
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat : Planktonic/sediment.
Habitat: Planktonic.
Distribution: Darjiling (Manebhanjan, Mirik,
Tonglu). Distribution: Barddhaman and Medinipur.
188 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

487. Closterium striolatum 495. Cosmarium bipunctatum


Life form : On water/on sediment. Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Planktonic. Habitat : Planktonic.
Distribution : Medinipur. Distribution : South 24 Pgs. (Dimond
Harbour), DaIjiling (Mirik, Tonglu, Rimbick),
488. Closterium ulna Medinipur, Murshidabad (Baharampur).
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. 496. Cosmarium binum
Habitat : Planktonic. Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Darjiling (Darjiling town, Habitat : Planktonic.
Ghoom) and Medinipur. Distribution : Darjiling (Kalimpong, Lava,
489 .. Closterium enus Sukna, Tista bazar).
Lifeform: On water/on sediment. 497. Cosmarium ceylanicum
Habitat : Planktonic. Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Birbhum (Suri) and Habitat: Planktonic.
Barddhaman. Distribution : Darjiling (Mirik lake,
490. Closterium enus yare debegenica Mungpoo, Tiger Hill) and Medinipur.
Life form : On water/on sediment. 498. Cosmarium connatum
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Habitat : Planktonic.
Habitat : Planktonic.
Distribution : Darjiling (Kalimpong),
J alpaiguri and Maldah. Distribution: Birbhum, Datjiling (Kalimpong,
Phalut) and Dinajpur (Balurghat).
491. Cosmarium aeguale
499. Cosmarium connatum yare
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. dep~essum
Habitat: Planktonic. Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Distribution: DaIjiling (Lachen, Lachung). Habitat: Planktonic.
492. Cosmarium amoenum Distribution: Bankura and Medinipur.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. 500. Cosmarium contractum yare

Habitat: Planktonic. ellipsoiedium


Distribution : Bankura, Murshidabad Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
(Baharampur) and Puruliya. Habitat: ·PlanktQnic.
493. Cosmarium angulatum forma Distribution : Medinipur.
majus 501. Cosmarium contractum yare
minu'tum
Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Habitat : Planktonic.
Habitat : Planktonic.
Distribution: Medinipur.
Distribution : Bankura.
494· Cosmarium auriculatum yare
502. Cosmarium controversum
bogoriense
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Habitat : Planktonic.
Habitat : Planktonic. Distribution : Darjiling (Mungpoo) and
Distribution : Medinipur. J alpaiguri.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity

503· Cosmarium CMLciferum 512. Cosmarium depressum var.


Life form : On water/on sediment. aspertum
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Life form : On water/on sediment.
Distribution: Darjiling (Mirik lake). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
504. CosmaMum cuneatum Distribution : Birbhum (Siuri) and
Life form : On water/on sediment. Medinipur.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). 513. Cosmarium formosulum
Distribution : Medinipur. Life form : On water/on sediment.
505. CosmaMum cyclicum Habitat : Aquatic (freshwater).
Life form : On water/on sediment. Distribution: Darjiling (Mirik, Naya bazar,
Habitat :- Aquatic (freshwater). Tiger hill, Tonglu), Jalpaiguri and Medinipur.
Distri!Jution : Mediniprir. 514. Cosmarium freemanii
506. Cosmarium cyclicum var articum Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Hc;zbitat : Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution: Medinipur.
Distribution : Darjiling (Lava, Mungpoo, 51!? Cosmarium freemanii var
Sandakphu, Yoksum) and Medinipur. verrucosum
507. Cosmarium cylanicum Life form : On water/on sediment.
Life form : On water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
'Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution : Dinajpur (Balurghat).
Distribution: Darjiling (Mirik, Mungpong,
516. Cosmarium garrolense
Tiger hill) and Medinipur.
Life form : On water/on sediment.
508. Cosmarium decoratum
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Darjiling (Darjiling town,
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Sandakphu).
Distribution : Medinipur.
517. Cosmarium geminatum
509. Cosmarium decoratum forma
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Bankura, Birbhum and
Distribution : Medinipur.
Barddhaman.
510. Cosmarium depressum
518. Cosmarium granatum
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat : Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Darjiling (Nayabazar, Tiger
hill, Tonglu), Maldah and Medinipur. Distribution : Barddhaman and Darjiling
511. Cosmarium depressum forma
(Kalimpong, Batasi, Mungpoo, Tonglu).
minor 519. Cosmarium granulatum
Lifeform: On water/on sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Medinipur. Distribution : Darjiling (13atasi).
190 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

520. Cosmarium hammeri 528. CosmaMum margartijeMlm


Life form : On water/on sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Birbhum (Suri) and DaIjiling Distribution: DaIjiling (Mirik, Mungpoo),
(Nayabazar). Medinipur and Puruliya.
521. Cosmarium impressulum 529. Cosmarium margispinatum
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution Darjiling (Kurseong, Distribution : Barddhaman and Medinipur.
Mungpoo). 530. CosmaMum meneghinii
522. Cosmarium laeve Life form : On water/on sediment.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution: DaIjiling (Mirik lake).
Distribution: Medinipur and Nadia. 531. CosmaMum nitidulum

523. Cosmarium leave var. Lifeform : On water/on sediment.


octangulare Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
· Life form : On water/on sediment. Distribution: DaIjiling (Mirik lake).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). 532. CosmaMum obsolatum
Distribution : Medinipur and Nadia. Life form : On water/on sediment.
524. Cosmarium lundellii Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Distribution : Barddhaman.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). 533. Cosmarium ocellatum yare
mamilla tum
Distribution : Darjiling (Ghoom, Lava,
Mungpoo, Phalut), Jalpaiguri and PuruIiya. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
525· CosmaMum lundellii yare
corpuptum Distribution: DaIjiling (DaIjiling town, Tiger
hills).
Life form. : On water/on sediment.
534. Cosmarium pardalis
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Distribution: Medinipur.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
526. CosmaMum lundellii yare
Distribution : Puruliya.
ellipticum
535. Cosmarium perforatum var:' skujae
Life/orm : On water/on sediment.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Puruliya.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
527· Cosma Mum margaMtatum Pgs. (Dimond Harbour).
Life form : On water/on sediment. 536. Cosmarium phaseolus yare minutum
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Distribution: DaIjiling (Ghoom, Kalimpong). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
SANYAL et a1. : Plant Diversity 191

,Distribution: Murshidabad (Baharampur) 545. Cosmarium pseudoconnatum yare


and Puruliya. minus
537. Cosmarium planogranatum Life form : On water/on sediment.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution : Medinipur.
Distribution : Medinipur. 546. Cosmarium pseudoPllramidatum
fonna minor.
538. Cosmarium platydesminum
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution: Medinipur.
Distribution : Medinipur. 547. Cosmarium pseudo,.etusum var.
539. Cosmarium polymorphum var africana
gronbladi Life form : On water/on sediment.
Life form : 01:1 water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution: Barddhaman and Medinipur.
Distribution: Birbhum (Siuri) and Darjiling 548. Cosmarium punctulatum
(Ghoom, Kalimpong, Mungpoo). Life form : On water/on sediment.
540. Cosmarium portianum Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Life form : On water/on sediment. Distribution: Darjiling (Manebhanjan).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). 549. Cosmarium punctulatum yare
Distribution : Medinipur and Murshidabad subpunctatum
(Baharampur). Life form : On water/on sediment.
541. Cosmarium pseudobiremum Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Life form : On water/on sediment. Distribution : Barddhaman, Darjiling
(Ghoom, Sukna, Tsungthan, Tonglu) and
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Medinipur.
Distribution: Darjiling (Ghoom). 550. Cosmarium pyramidatum
542. Cosmarium pseudobroomei Life form : On water/on sediment.
Life form : On water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution: Medinipur.
Distribution : Puruliya. 551. Cosmarium quadratum
543. Cosmarium pseudoconnatum Life form : On water/on sediment.
.Life form : On water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater) .
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution: Darjiling (Batasi).
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. 552. Cosmarium quadrilaterium
(Dimond Harbour), Darjiling (Darjiling town, Life form : On water/on sediment.
Kurseong, Mungpoo) and Medinipur. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
544. Cosmarium pseudoconnatum Distribution : Barddhaman.
fonna minus 553. Cosmarium quadrum
Life form : On water/on sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Darjiling (Manebhanjang, Distribution: Darjiling (Lava, Mungpoo,
Mirik), Dinajpur (Balur ghat) and Medinipur. Phalut), Maldah and Medinipur.
19 2 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

554. Cosmarium quadrum yare minus Distribution: Medinipur.


Life form : On water/on sediment. 563. Cosmarium striolatum yare
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). nordstedtii
Distribution : Medinipur. Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
555. Cosmarium regulare Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Lifeform: On water/on sediment. Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Pgs. (Dimond Harbour).
Distribution : Darjiling (Batasi, Darjiling 564. Cosmarium subarulare yare
town, Lava).
rugosum
556. Cosmarium retusum yare
angust~tum
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Life form : On water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution : Bankura.
Distribution: DaIjiling (Phalut, Sandakphu). 565. Cosmarium subauriculatum
557. Cosmarium speciosissimum Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Life form : On water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution: DaIjiling (Ghoom), Jalp~iguri
Distribution : Bankura, Barddhaman and and Medinipur.
Medinipur.
566. Cosmarium subauriculatum yare
558. Cosmarium speciosum
truncatum
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Darjiling (Batasi, Ghoom, Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Kalimpong, Tonglu) and J alpaiguri. Distribution: Medinipur.
559. Cosmarium speciosum yare 567. Cosmarium subcrenatum
biforme
Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Birbhum (Siuri) and DaIjiling
Distribution : DaIjiling
(Kurseong).
560. Cosmarium speciosum
var.intermedium 568. Cosmarium subspeciosum
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution: Medinipur. Distribution: Dinajpur (Balurghat).
561. Cosmarium stigmosum yare 569. Cosmarium subspeciosum yare
hakalukiense valdius
Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Puruliya.
562. Cosmarium striolatum forma Distribution : Birbhum (Siuri).
intermedia 570. Cosmarium subtumidum
Life form : On water/on sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 193

Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. 579. Cylindrocystis sp.


(Diamond Harbour) and Darjiling (Kalimpong, Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Kurseong, Mirik).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
571. Cosmarium subtumidum forma
Distribution : DaIjiling.
minor
580. Desmidium aptogonum
Life for:m : On water/on sediment.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution: DaIjiling (Sukiapokhri).
Distribution: DaIjiling (Mirik lake).
572. Cosmarium uldulatum yare
crenula tum 581. Desmidium bailevi
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Puruliya. Distribution : Medinipur.
573. Cosmarium uldulatum yare 582. Desmidium bailevi forma
minutam tetragona
Life form : On water/on sediment. Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution: Darjiling (Ghoom). Distribution : DaIjiling.
574. Cosmarium venus tum 583. Desmidium bengalicum
Lifeform : On water/on· sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution: Barddhaman. Distribution : Bankura.
575. Cosmarium wenmanae 584. Desmidium coarctatum
Life form : On water/on sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Medinipur. Distribution : Medinipur.
576. Cosmarium witrockii 585. Desmidium grevilli De Baryfa
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution: Darjiling (DaIjiling town). Distribution : Birbhum (Siuri), Barddhaman
577. Cylindrocystis brebissonii and Kolkata.
Life form : On water/on sediment. 586. Desmidium grevillii
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Life form : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : DaIjiling (Mungpoo, Phalut, Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Rimbik, Senchal lake). Distribution : Maldah.
578. Cylindrocystis crassa 587. Desmidium quardratum
Life form : On water/on sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution: DaIjiling (Mungpoo). Distribution: Darjiling (Senchallake).
194 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

588. Desmidium sp. 597. Euastrum cQralloides var.


Lifeform : On water/on sediment. trigibberum
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Darjiling. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
589. Desmidium swaetzii yare ambloydon Distribution : Medinipur.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. 598. Euastrum denticulatu!'l
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Distribution: Barddhaman. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
590. Desmidium swarrzii Distribution : Birbhum (Siuri) and Darjiling
Lifeform : On water/on ~ediment. (Batasi, Ghoom, Phalut).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater)~ 599. Euastrum didelta var bengalium
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
(Diamond Harbour) and DaIjiling (Mirik lake). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
591. Euastrum acanthophorum Distribution : Medinipur.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
600. Euastrum dubium
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Distribution: Bankura al\d Medinipur.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
592. Euastrum ~J1$atum
Distribution : Barddhaman, Darjiling
Lifeform : On water/on ~diment. (Kurseong, Mungpoo, Phalut), Dinajpur (Balur
Habitat: Aquatic (freshw·~ter). ghat) and Medinipur.
Distribution : MedinipQl\ 601. Euastrum elegans
593. Euastrum ansatunt yare dideltiforum Life form : On water/on sediment.
Life form : On watert9J) sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (fr~water).
Distribution : Medinipur.
Distribution : Medinip\lr.
602. Euastrum gnathophorum var.
594 .. Euastrum ansa~m yare pyxidatum bulbuosum
Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution: Darjiling (Miri~ lake).
Distribution: Medinipur.
595. Euastrum binale
603. Euastrum horikawae
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat : Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution: Darjiling (Darjiling town,
Mirik, Mungpoo, Tonglu) and Jalpaiguri~ Distribution: Medinipur.
596. Euastrum ceylanicum 604. Euastrum longicolla var
Life form : On water/on sediment. capitatum fonna
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Darjiling (Kurseong, Lava, Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Sukna, Mungpoo). Distribution : Medinipur.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 195

605. Euastrum moebii Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).


Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Distribution : Birbhum (Siuri).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). 614. Euastrum spinulosum yare vaasii
Distribution : Bankura. Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
606. Euastrum sen-atum Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Life form : On water/on sediment. Distribution : Maldah.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). 615. Euastrum subhexalobum yare
Distribution : Medinipur. scrobiculatum
607. Euastrum sinuosum Life form : On water/on sediment.
Life form : On water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution : Medinipur.
Distribution : Medinipur. 616. Euastrum sublabatum var
incrassatum
608. Euastrum sinuosum yare
ceylanicum Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Darjiling (Darjiling town,
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Sukna) and Dinajpur (Balurghat).
Distribution : Medinipur.
617. Euastrum sublobatum yare
609. Euastrum sinuosum yare o b tusa tum
marchesoni
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Life form. : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution: Darjiling (Mungpoo).
Distribution : Bankura and Puruliya. 618. Euastrum substellatum
610. Euastrum sp. Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution : Darjiling (Kurseong) and
Distribution : Bankura. J alpaiguri.
611. Euastrum spinulosum 619. Euastrum turgidium var.
Lifeform: On water/on sediment. grunowii
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Life form : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Barddhaman, Darjiling and Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Medinipur. Distribution : Medinipur.
612. Euastrum spinulosum yare 620. Euastrum alidium

bunnenese Life form : On water/on sediment.


Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution: Medinipur.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 621. Gonatozygon aculeatum
Pgs. (Diamond Harbour). Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
613. Euastrum spinulosum yare Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater}.
intennius Distribution: Darjiling (Ghoom, Sandakphu,
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Tonglu).
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

622. Gonatozygon kinahani 631. Micrasterias mahabuleshwarensis


Distribution : Darjiling (Kalimpong, Lava, Life form : On water/on sediment.
Mirik) and Hugli. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
623. Gonatozygon monotaenium Distribution : Medinipur.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. 632. Micrasterias mahabuleshwarensis
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). yare comperei
Distribution : Darjiling (Kurseong, Senchal Life form : On water/on sediment.
lake, Tiger hills). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
624. Gonatozygon pilosum Distribution : Darjiling and Medinipur.
Life form : On water/on sediment. 633. Micrasterias rotata
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Darjiling (Lower hills of
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
DaIjiling).
Distribution : Medinipur.
625. Gonatozygon sp.
634. Netrium digitus
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Maldah, Murshidabad Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
(Baharampur) and Puruliya. Distribution : Bankura, Birbhum, Darjiling
626. Hyalotheca dissiliens (Sandakphu), Maldah and Medinipur.
Life form : On water/on sediment. 635. Netrium sp.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Bankura, Darjiling (Lava, Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Mungpoo, Phalut) and Medinipur. Distribution : Darjiling.
627. Hyalotheca sp. 636. Onychonema laeva
Life form : On water/on sediment. Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Bankura and Birbhum. Distribution : Darjiling (Kurseong) and
628. Micrasterias alata Medinipur.
Life f.orm : On water/on sediment. 637. Onychonema laeva var malacense
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Life form : On water/on sediment.
Distribution: Medinipur. Habitat : Aquati~ (freshwater).
629. Micrasterias foliacea Distribution: Medinipur.
Life form : On water/on sediment. 638. Onychonema laeva yare malacense
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). forma granulatum
Distribution : Medinipur. Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
630. Micrasterias mahabuleahwarensis Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
yare surculifera Distribution : Medinipur.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. 639. Onychonema laeva yare
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). sumatranum
Distribution : Medinipur. Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 197

Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).


Distribution : DaIjiling. Distribution: Medinipur and Puruliya.
640. Onychonema sp. 649. Pleurotaenium nodosum
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution: DaIjiling.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
641. Phymatodocis i.,.,.egulans (Diamond Harbour) and Bankura.
Life form : On water/on sediment. 650. Pleurotaenium ovatum
Habitat : Aquatic (freshwater).
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Bankura.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
642. P~eurotaenium trabecula
Distribution: Medinipur (Keshpur).
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.,
651. Pleurotaenium sp.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Bankura and Medinipur
(Jamtala). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
643. Pleurotaenium coroniferum Distribution : DaIjiling.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. 652. Pleurotaenium subcoronulatum
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Medinipur. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
644. Pleurotaenium ehrenbergii Distribution: Murshidabad (Baharampur)
Lifeform: On water/on sediment. and Puruliya.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). 653. Pleurotaenium trabecula yare
Distribution : Barddhaman, Darjiling elongatum
(Kalimpong), Maldah, Medinipur and Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Murshidabad (Baharampur). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
645. Pleurotaenium eugeneum
Distribution : Bankura.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
654. Pleurotaenium trabecula yare
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
elongatum
Distribution: Bankura and Medinipur.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
646. Pleurotaenium i.,.,.egulare
Distribution: Medinipur.
,Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
655. Pleurotaenium truncatum
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Medinipur.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
647. Pleurotaenium kayei
Distribution : Birbhum (Siuri) and DaIjiling
Life form : On water/on sediment.
(Ghoom, Kurseong, Phalut, Sukna).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
656. Pleurotaenium errucosum
Distribution: Medinipur.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
648. Pleurotaenium lagerheimii forma
minor Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Life form : On water/on sediment. Distribution : DaIjiling.
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

657. Spirof;aenia condenSata Distribution : Darjiling.


Lifeform : On water/on sediment. 666. Staurastrum corniculatum var.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). anable
Distribution : Bankura and Medinipur. Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
658. Spirotaenia sp. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Lifeform: On water/on sediment. Distribution : Bankura, Medinipur and
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Puruliya.
Distribution : Bankura. 667. StaurastnLm dejectum

659. Spondyloslum nitens Life form : On water/on sediment.


Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution: Darjiling (Mirik lake).
Distribution : Darjiling (Phalut, Rimbick, 668. StaurastnLm furcatum fonna
Sandakphu). richae
660. Spondyloslum nitens var. Llfeform: On water/on sediment.
tria~gulare forma Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater):
Lifeform: On water/on sediment. Distribution : Darjiling (Kurseong, Senchal
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). lake, Tiger hill).
Distribution : Nadia. 669. Staurasfrum gladiosum
661. Spondyloslum planum Life form : On water/on sediment.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution: Medinipur.
Distribution: Medinipur. 670. Staurasfrum indentatum forma
662. Spondyloslum sp. minus
Life form : On water/on sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat.: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Medinipur. Distribution : Medinipur and Puruliya.
663. Staurastrum aculeatum 671. StaurastnLm longispinum
Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Darjiling (Phalut, Sandakphu,
Distribution : Birbhum (Siuri), Barddhaman
Tonglu).
and Kolkata.
664. Staurastrum bellum are simplicius
672. Staurasfrum polymorphum
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution: Birbhum (Siuri), Barddhaman,
Kolkata, Maldah and Murshidabad Distribution: Darjiling (Ghoom).
(Baharampur). 673. StaurastnLm saltans
665. Staurastrum borgeanum Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
·Lifeform : On water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Distribution: Medinipur.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 199

674. Staurastrum saltans var. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).


javanicum Distribution: Darjiling (Sukna).
Life form : On water/on sediment.
683. Staurodesmus cur atus var. latus
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Bankura.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
675. Staurastrum saltans var.
. polychara Distribution: Darjiling (Darjiling town).
Life form: On water/on sediment. 684. Staurodesmus dejectus
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Life form : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
(l)iamond Harbour) and Medinipur. Distribution: Darjiling (Ghoom).
676. Staurastrum sp. 685. Staurodesmus dickiei var.
Lifeform : On water/on seq.iment. microspinus
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Distribution : Darjiling. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
677. Staurastrum tohopekaligense Distribution : Darjiling (Kurseong).
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
686. Staurodesmus sp.
"Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Distribution: Darjiling (Mungpoo).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
678. Staurastrum tohopekaligense
fonna minus Distribution: Kolkata and Koch Bihar.
Lifeform: On water/on sediment. 687. Tetmemorous laveis

Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Life form : On water/ on sediment.


Distribution: Medinipur. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
679. Staurasfrum wildemanii var. Distribution: Darjiling (DaIjiling town).
horzontale
., 688. Tetmemorous sp.
Life form : On water/on sediment. Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat : .Aquatic (freshwater~. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution: Bankura and Medinipur.
Distribution : Darjiling.
680. Staurodesmus andrzejewskii 689. TMploceras gracile
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Puruliya.
Distribution 'Bankura, Darjiling
681. Staurodesmus convergens
(Manebhanjang, Mirik, Mungpoo, Tonglu),
Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Jalpaiguri and Medinipur.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
690. Triploceras sp.
Distribution : Medinipur.
Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
682. Staurodesmus convergens var.
ralfsii forma Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Lifeform: On water/on sediment. Distribution: Darjiling.
200 Status of Biodiversity of West. Bengal

691. Xanthidum acanthophorum var. 700. Xanthidum superbum


,.acibo,.skii Lifeform : On water/on sediment.
Lifeform: On water/on sediment. Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : South 24 Pgs. (Diamond
Distribution : Medinipur and Nadia. Harbour).
692. Xanthidum antilopaeum
701. Xanthidum sp.
Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution: Darjiling and Medinipur.
Distribution : Kolkata and Koch Bihar.
693. Xanthidum a.-matum var.
anguligerum Class CHLOROPHYCEAE
Life form : On water/on sediment. 702. Aphanochaete repens
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Life form : Water bodies.
Distribution: Birbhum (Siuri), Barddhaman Habitat: Benthic.
and Kolkata.
Distribution : South 24 Pgs., Kolkata and
694. Xanthidum calca,.ato aculeatum
Murshidabad.
var. sudense
703. Aphanochaete sp.
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat : Aquatic (freshwater). Life form : Water bodies.
Distribution : Maldah. Habitat: Benthic.
69s.Xanthidum ~tatum Distribution : Barddhaman and Kolkata.
Lifeform : On wa~er/on sediment. 704. Bulbochaetae elatior
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Life form : Water bodies.
Distribution : Bankura. Habitat: Benthic.
696. Xanthidum freemanii Distribution: Maldah and Murshidabad
Lifeform: On water/on sediment. (Baharampur).
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). 70 5. Bulbochaetae insignis var.
Distribution: Barddhaman. bengalensis .
697. Xanthidum lepidum Life form : Water bodies.
Life form : On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Benthic.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater).
Distribution : Birbhum.
Distribution: Medinipur.
706. Bulbochaetae nana
698. Xanthidum siolii
Life form.: Water bodies.
Lifeform: On water/on sediment.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution : Bankura. Distribution: Birbhum (Gusoro).
699· Xanthidum spinosum 707. Bulbochaetae nigerica
Life form : On water/on sediment. Lifeform : Water bodies.
Habitat: Aquatic (freshwater). Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution: Medinipur. Distribution: Birbhum (Bangchatra).
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 201

708. Bulbochaetae nigeMca var. indica 717. Cephaleuras parasiticus


Life form : Water bodies. Life form: Water bodies.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution : Barddhaman. Distribution : Koch Bihar and Daxjiling (Tista
bazar).
709. Bulbochaetae nordsledtii
718. Cephaleuras sp.
Life form : Water bodies.
Lifeform : Water bodi~s.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution : Birbhum (~usoro). Distribution : Darjiling.
710. Bulbochaetae praereticulata 719. Cephaleuras virescens
Lifeform : Water bodies. Life form : Water bodies.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution : Murshidabad (Pilkunda). Distribution : Koch Bihar and Darjiling.
711. Bulbochaetae sp. 720. Ceratium furca
Life fonn : Water bodies. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat: Marine.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Distribution : Kolkata.
(Sunderban) and Koch Bihar.
712. Bulbochaetae tenus 721. Ceratium fusus
Life fonn : Water bodies. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic.· Habitat: Marine.
Distribution Birbhum (Gusoro), Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Barddhaman and Kolkata. and Koch Bihar.
713. Bulbochaetae wuhanensis 722. Ceratium sp.
Life fonn : Water bodies. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat: Marine.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Distribution : Maldah, Murshidabad
(Sunderban) and Koch Bihar.
(Bazarsau) and Nadia.
723. Ceratium trichoceros
714. Caulerpa scalpeliformis
Life form : Planktonic.
Lifeform : Water bodies. Habitat: Marine.
Habitat: Benthic. Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 and Koch Bihar.
Pgs. (Sunderban). 724. Chaetomorpha linum
715. Caulerpa sp. Life form : Planktonic.
Lifeform : Water bodies. Habitat: Marine.
Habitat : Benthic. Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
and Kolkata.
Distribution : South 24 Pgs.
725. Chaetomorpha sp.
716. Cephaleuras laevis
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Water bodies. Habitat: Marine.
Habitat: Benthic. Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Distribution :' Koch Bihar and Darjiling. (Sunderban) and Kolkata.
202 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengell

726. Characium apiculatum 735. Cladophora sp.


Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat : Marine. Habitat: Marine.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution: Murshidabad.
Pgs.
727. Characium augustum
736. Cladophora crispata yare genuina
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : P~anktonic.
Habitat: Marine. Habitat: Marine.
Distribution: Kolkata and Murshidabad. Distribution : Kolkata.
728. Characium oMssicum 737. Cladophora glomarata
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Marine. Habitat: Marine.
Distribution: Murshidabad. Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and Sout.' 24
729. Characium sp. Pgs. (Sunderban).
738. Cladophora indica
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Marine.
Habitat: Marine.
Distribution : Kolkata and Murshidabad.
Distribution: Kolkata, Medinipur and Nadia.
730. Chlamydomonas gleogama
739. Coleochaete conchata
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Marine. Habitat: Epiphytic on Vallisneria.
Distribution : Darjiling. Distribution : Birbhum (Godadharpur) and
731. Chlamydomonas sp. Murshidabad (Sagardighi).
Life form : Planktonic. 740. Coleochaete leve
Habitat: Marine. Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : Darjiling. Habitat : Marine.
732. Chlorella sp. Distribution : Birbhum (Karidda).
741. Coleochaete pseudo-soluta
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Marine.
Habitat: Marine.
Distribution : Barddhaman, Kolkata, Koch
Distribution: Murshidabad (Sagardighi).
Bihar and Dinajpur.
742. Coleochaete pulvinata
733. Chlorella conglomerat~
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat : Pond.
Habitat: Marine.
Distribution : Birbhum (Bangachatra).
Distribution : Kolkata.
743. Coleochaete sp.
734. Chlorella vulgaMs
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat: Epiphytic.
Habitat: Marine. Distribution : Barddhaman, Koch Bihar and
Distribution : Kolkata. Dinajpur.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 203

744. Cylindrocapsa geminella Distribution : Birbhum, J alpaiguri and


Life form : Planktonic. Medinipur.
Habitat: Water bodies. 753. Gonium pectora Ie
Distribution : Birbhum (Kotasur). Life form : Planktonic.
745. Cylindrocapsa sp. Habitat: Benthic.
Life form : Planktonic. Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat: Marine. 754. Gonium sp.
Distribution : Barddhaman and Kolkata. Life form : Planktonic.
746. Draparnaldipsis indica Habitat: Benthic.
Life form : Planktonic. Distribution : Kolkata, Murshidabad and
Habitat: Aquatic. Puruliya.
Distribution : J alpaiguri. 755. Hydrodictyon indicum

747. Draparnaldipsis sp. Life form : Planktonic.


Life form : Planktonic. Distribution : Maldah and Murshidabad
(Baharampur).
Habitat: Aquatic.
756. Hydrodictyon reticulatum
Distribution : J alpaiguri~
Life form : Planktonic.
748. Entel·omorpha prolifera
Habitat: Benthic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat .: Aquatic.
757. Hydrodictyon sp.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
(Sunderban) and Kolkata. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic.
749. Enteromorpha sp.
Life form : Planktonic. Distribution : Koch Bihar and Dinajpur
Habitat : Aquatic. 758. Lychnothamnus barbatus
Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
and Kolkata. Habitat : Benthic.
750. Enteromorpha tuberosa Distrjbution : Kolkata.
Life form : Planktonic. 759. Lychnothamnus sp.
Habitat: Benthic. Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. Habitat; Benthic.
and Kolkata. Distribution ; Kolkata.
751. Fritschiella sp. 760. Microspora ilTegularis
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat : Benthic. Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution : Barddhaman, Kolkata, Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
J alpaiguri and Medinipur. Pgs. (Sunderban).
752. Fritschiella tuberosa 761. Mougeotia bangalorensis
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat : Benthic. Habitat: Benthic.
204 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Distribution : Birbhum (Tantipara), Habitat : Benthic.


Barddhaman and Kolkata. Distribution : Murshidabad.
762. Mougeotia cyanea 770. Mougeotia poinciana
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat : Benthic.
Distribution Birbhum (Bolpur), Distribution: Birbhum (Kotasur), Maldah
Barddhaman and Kolkata. and Murshidabad (Bazarsau).
763. Mougeof;ia droueti yare 771. Mougeotia seminoleana
Birbhumensis Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat : Benthic.
Habitat: Benthic. Distribution : Maldah and Murshidabad
Distribution: Murshidabad (Bhabta) and (Marodighi).
Puruliya. 772. Mougeotia sphaeroca,.pa
764. Mougeotia drouetii Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat : Benthic.
Habitat: Benthic. Distribution Birbhum (Mirapur),
Distribution: Birbhum (Murarai, Mitrapur), Barddhaman and Kolkata.
Barddhaman and Kolkata. 773. Mougeotia sps.
765. Mougeotia jloridana Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat: Benthic.
Habitat: Benthic. Distribution : Kolkata .and Koch Bihar.
Distribution: Murshidabad (Bazarsau) and 774. Mougeotia viridis
Puruliya. Life form : Planktonic.
766. Mougeotia laetavirens Habitat: Benthic.
Life form : 'Planktonic. Distribution: Murshidabad (Kandi).
Habitat: Benthic. 775. Oedocladium prescotti
Distribution : Murshidabad (Bidyapara) and Life form : Planktonic.
Puruliya.
Habitat: Benthic.
767. Mougeotia longiarticulata
Distribution : North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Life form : Planktonic. (Sunderban) and Barddhaman..
Habitat : Benthic. 776. Oedocladium terrestris
Distribution: Murshidabad (Bazarsau) and Life form : Planktonic.
Puruliya.
Habitat : Benthic.
768. Mougeotia macrocarpa
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.
Life form : Planktonic. and Barddhaman.
Habitat : Benthic.
777. Oedocladium sp.
Distribution: Murshidabad and Puruliya. Life form : Planktonic.
769. Mougeotia mysorensis Habitat : Benthic.
Life form : Planktonic. Distribution : Bardhhaman.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 205

778. Oedogonium multisporium 787. Panium navicula var. inJlatum


Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat : Benthic.
Distribution: Medinipur (Narajole) and Distribution : Darjiling (Lower hills of
Nadia. Darjiling).
779. Oedogonium sociale 788. Panium sp.
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution: Darjiling (Mirik lake) and Distribution : Darjiling.
Jalpaiguri. 789. Pediestrum duplex
780. Oedogonium sp. Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat: Estuary.
Habitat: Benthic. Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution : Barddhaman and Kolkata. Pgs. (Sunderban).
781. Padiagtrum clathratum 790. Pediestrum simplex
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat: Estuary.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24
782. Padiagtrum simplex Pgs.
791. Peridinium globulus
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic.
Habitat: Marine.
Distribution : Kolkata.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
783. Padiagtrum tetras
Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form : Planktonic.
792. Peridinium granii
Habitat: Benthic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution: Murshidabad.
Habitat: Marine.
784. Padiagtrum sp.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Life form : Planktonic. Pgs.
Habitat: Benthic. 793. Peridinium hyaline um
Distribution : Kolkata. Life form : Planktonic.
785. PandoMna morum Habitat: Marine.
Life form : Planktonic. Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Habitat : Benthic. Pgs.
Distribution: Darjiling (Senchallake). 794. Peridinium sp.
786. Pandorina sp. Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat: Marine.
Habitat : Benthic. Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution : Darjiling. Pgs.
206 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

795. Phymatodocis sp. 804. Sirocladium sp.


Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Marine. Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution : Bankura. Distribution : Darjiling.
796. Pithophora oedogonia 805. Spirogyra anomala
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat : Benthic. Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution : Darjiling.
797. Rhizoclonium riparium 806. Spirogyra bellis
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs. Distribution : Barddhaman, Kolkata and
(Sunderban) and Kolkata. Koch Bihar.
798. Rhizoclonium sp. 807. Spirogyra brunna
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat : Benthic.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs and South 24 Distribution: Murshidabad.
Pgs. (Sunderban). 808. Spirogyra condensala
799. Scenedesmus oblicues Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : Planktonic. Habitat: Benthic.
Habitat : Benthic. Distribution : Barddhaman, Kolkata and
Distribution : Kolkata. Koch Bihar.
800. Schizomeris leibteinii 809. Spirogyra corrugata
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat : Benthic. Habitat : Benthic.
Distribution Birbhum (Tatipara), Distribution : Barddhaman, Kolkata and
Murshidabad (Baharampur) and PuruHya. Koch Bihar.
801. Sirocladium himalayensis 810. Spirogyra crenulata
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat : Benthic.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution : Barddhaman, Kolkata and
802. Sirocladium kumaoense Koch Bihar.
Life form : Planktonic. 811. Spirogyra daedalea
Habitat : Benthic. Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : Kolkata. Habitat: Benthic.
803. Sirocladium maharashtrense Distribution: Darjiling (Mungpoo), Haora
Life form : Planktonic. and HugH.
Habitat: Benthic. 812. Spirogyra elliptica
Distribution : DaIjiling. Life form : Planktonic.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 207
,
Habitat: Benthic. 821. Spirogyra orentalis
Distribution : Barddhaman, Kolkata and Life form : Planktonic.
Koch Bihar. Habitat: Benthic.
813. Spirogyra farlowii Distribution : Darjiling.
Life form : Planktonic. 822. Spirogyra porticalis
Habitat : Benthic. Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : Barddhaman, Kolkata and Habitat : Benthic.
Koch Bihar.
Distribution : Barddhaman, Kolkata and
814. Spirogyra gujaratensis
Koch Bihar.
Life form : Planktonic.
823. Spirogyra rhizobrachialis
Habitat : Benthic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution Maldah, Medinipur,
Habitat: Benthic.
Murshidabad and Nadia.
Distribution: Barddhaman, Kolkata and
815. Spirogyra hunanensi's
Koch Bihar.
Life form : Planktonic.
824. Spirogyra setiformis
Habitat : Benthic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution: Darjiling, Haora and Hugli.
Habitat: Benthic.
816. Spirogyra kundaensis
Distribution : Barddhaman, Kolkata and
Life form : Planktonic. Koch Bihar.
Habitat: Benthic. 825. Spirogyra sulcata
Distribution : Barddhaman, Kolkata and
Life form : Planktonic.
Koch Bihar.
Habitat: Benthic.
817. Spirogyra maxima
Distribution: Darjiling.
Life form : Planktonic.
826. Spirogyra texensis
Habitat: Benthic.
Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution: South 24 Pgs. (Sunderban),
Kolkata, Koch Bihar and Dinajpur. Habitat: Benthic.
818. Spirogyra minor Distribution : DaIjiling (Kalimpong).
Life form : Planktonic. 827. Spirogyra wabshensis
Habitat: Benthic. Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : Darjiling (Sukna), Haora and Habitat: Benthic.
Hugli. Distribution : DaIjiling (Sukna).
819. Spirogyra neglecta 828. Stigeoclonium farclum
Life form : Planktonic. Life form : Planktonic.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution : Kolkata and Koch Bihar. Distribution : Birbhum (Mitrapur),
820. Spirogyra nitida Barddhaman and Kolkata.
Life form : Planktonic. 829. Stigeoclonium aestivale
Habitat: Benthic. Life form : Planktonic.
Distribution : Kolkata and Koch Bihar. Habitat: Benthic.
208 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Distribution Birbhum (Tatipara), Habitat : Epiphytic.


Barddhaman and Kolkata. Distribution : Birbhum, Barddhaman and
830. Stigeoclonium curvirosfrum Kolkata.
Life form : Planktonic. 838. Stigeoclonium penicillatum
Habitat: Benthic. Life form : On soil.
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., Murshidabad Habitat: Epiphytic.
and Puruliya. Distribution: Murshidabad.
831. Stigeoclonium fasciculore
839. Stigeoclonium pusillum
Life form : Planktonic.
Life form : On soil.
Habitat: Benthic.
Habitat : Epiphytic.
Distribution : Birbhum (Dubrajpur),
Distribution : Birbhum, Barddhaman and
Barddhaman and Kolkata.
Kolkata.
832. Stigeoclonium flagellifera
840. Stigeoclonium tenue
Life form : Planktonic.
Lifeform : On bark/on rock.
Habitat: Benthic.
Habitat : Epiphytic.
Distribution Birbhum (Nannur),
Barddhaman and Kolkata. Distribution : Birbhum, Barddhaman and
Kolkata.
833. Stigeoclonium geraldii
Life form : Planktonic. 841. Trentepholia abiedna
Habitat: Benthic. Lifeform : On bark/on rock.
Distribution : Birbhum (Bangshatra), Habitat: Epiphytic.
Barddhaman and Kolkata. Distribution: DaIjiling (Tiger hills).
834· Sngeoclonium geraldii var. 842. Trentepholia abienna var.
bengalensis cras~epta
Life form : Planktonic. Lifeform : On bark/on rock.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat : Epiphytic.
Distribution : Birbhum, Barddhaman and Distribution : DaIjiling (Tonglu).
Kolkata.
843. Trentepholia annulato
835. Stigeoclonium indicum
Life form : On bark/on rock.
Life form : On soil.
Habitat: Epiphytic.
Habitat: Epiphytic.
Distribution: Darjiling (Darjiling hills).
Distribution : Birbhum, Barddhaman and
Kolkata. 844. Trentepholia arboreum

836. Stigeoclonium longipilum Life form: On bark/on rock.


Life form : On soil. Habitat: Epiphytic.
Habitat : Epiphytic. Distribution: Darjiling (DaIjiling hills).
Distribution : Birbhum, Barddhaman and 845. Trentepholia aur.ea
Kolkata. Lifeform: On bark/on rock.
837· Stigeoclonium pachydeM1tum Habitat: Epiphytic.
Life form : On soil. Distribution: Darjiling (Darjiling hills).
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 209

846. Trentepholia aurea yare lanosa Habitat: Epiphytic.


Life form : On bark/on rock. Distribution: DaIjiling (DaIjiling hills).
Habitat: Epiphytic. 856. Trentepholia villosa
Distribution: Darjiling (DaIjiling hills). Life form : Planktonic.
847: Trentepholia cuculata Habitat: Benthic.
Lifeform : On bark/on rock. Distribution: DaIjiling (DaIjiling hills).
Habitat: Epiphytic. 857. lnothrix fimbriata
Distribution : Darjiling (Phalut). Life form : Aquatic.
848. Trentepholia dialepta Habitat: Epiphytic.
Life form : On bark/on rock. Distribution: Murshidabad.
Habitat : Epiphytic. 858. lnothrix munaliformis
Distribution: Darjiling (Kalimpong). Life form : Aquatic.
849. Trentepholia diffracta Habitat: Epiphytic.
Lifeform : On bark/on rock. Distribution : Birbhum, Barddhaman and
Habitat: Epiphytic. Kolkata.
Distribution: Darjiling (Sandakphu). 859. Ulothrix ariablis
850. Trentepholia jucunda Life form : Aquatic.
Life form : On bark/on rock. Habitat: Epiphytic.
Habitat: Epiphytic. Distribution : Darjiling (Mirik lake) and
Distribution : Darjiling. Murshidabad (Baharampur).
851. Trentepholia lagerheimii 860. Ulothrix orida
Life form : On bark/on rock. Life form : Aquatic.
Habitat : Epiphytic. Habitat: Epiphytic.
Distribution : Darjiling (Rimbick). Distribution: DaIjiling (Mirik lake).
852. Trentepholia odorata 861. Ulothrix zonata
Lifeform : On bark/on rock. Life form : Aquatic.
Habitat: Epiphytic. Habitat: Epiphytic.
Distribution: Darjiling (Rimbick). Distribution : Birbhum and Kolkata
853. Trentepholia santurcensis 862. Ulva lobata
Life form : On bark/on rock. Life form : Aquatic.
Habitat: Epiphytic. Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution: DaIjiling (Sandakphu) Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
854. Trentepholia sps. Pgs. (Sunderban).
Life form: On bark/on rock. 863. Ulva sp.

Habitat : Epiphytic. Life form : Aquatic.


Distribution : Koch Bihar, Darjiling and Habitat: Benthic.
Dinajpur. Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Pgs.
855. Trentepholia umbrina 864. Uronema gigas
Lifeform : On bark/on rock. Life form : Aquatic.
210 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Habitat: Benthic. 870. Zygnema pectinatum


Distribution Birbhum (Tatipara), Life form : Aquatic.
Barddhaman and Kolkata. Habitat: Benthic.
865. Vaucheria sessilis Distribution: Kolkata and Koch Bihar.
Life form : Aquatic. 871. Zygnemorpsis benghalensi$
Habitat : Benthic.
Life form : Aquatic.
Distribution : Kolkata and Murshidabad.
Habitat: Benthic.
866. Volvox aureus
Distribution : Birbhum (Rajnagar) and
Life form : Aquatic.
Barddhaman.
Habitat: Benthic.
872. Zygnemorpsis pseudolahaulensis
Distribution : Kolkata, Koch Bihar and
Dinajpur.
Life form : Aquatic.

867. Vaucherier sessilis Habitat : Benthic.


Life form : Aquatic. Distribution : Birbhum (Bakreswar) and
Habitat: Benthic. Barddhaman.

Distribution : Murshidabad. 873. Zygnemorpsis scrobiculata

868. Zygrrema kiangsiense Life form : Aquatic.


Life form : Aquatic. Habitat : Benthic.
Habitat : Benthic. Distribution : Murshidabad (Bazarsau) and
Distribution: Kolkata and Koch Bihar. Puruliya.
869. Zygnema majus 874. Zygnemorpsis sp.
Life form : Aquatic. Life form : Aquatic.
Habitat: Benthic. Habitat: Benthic.
Distribution: Kolkata and Koch Bihar. Distribution : Birbhum and Barddhaman.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 211

FUNGI
Kingdom PLANTAE Habitat : On soil.
Sub kingdom CRYPTOGAMA Distribution : Kolkata and Haorah.
Division THALLOPHYTA 9. Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb : F) Linb
Sub Division FUNGI Life form : Saprophyte.
1. Absidia blakesleeana Lender Habitat: On soil.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Family CAPNODIACEAE
leaves. 10. Acanthostoma wattii (Syd. & Bntl.)
Distribution : Kolkata. ·Theiss.
2. Acanlopage pectospora Drechs Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.

Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/


leaves.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Distribution : DaIjiling.
leaves.
Family DOTHIDEACEAE
Distribution : Nadia.
11. Achorella indicum Cast.
3. Mucor..,janseni Lander
Life form· : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: .Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Habitat : On soil/leaves.
leaves.
Distribution : South 24 Pgs. Distribution : Kolkata.
4. Mucor lamprosporus Lender 12. Achlya klebsiana Pieters
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: On soil/leaves. Habitat: Pond water.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution : Kolkata.
5. Mucor mucedo L. : Fr. 13. Aulographum maculare Berk. & Br.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat : On soil/leaves. Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litter/
Distribution : Kolkata. leaves.
6. Rhizopus cambodja (Chrasziz) Yuill. Distribution : Darjiling.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 14. Appendiculella colostroma (Desm.)
Hohn.
Habitat: On soil.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : DaIjiling.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
7. Rhizopus nigricans Ehrenb. leaves.
Life form : Saprophyte. Distribution : Darjiling.
Habitat: On soil. 15. Armatella cinnamoni Hansf. & Thirum.
Distribution : Kolkata , Haora. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
8. Rhizopus rhizopodiformes (Cohn) Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Zopf. leaves.
Life form : Saprophyte. Distribution: Darjiling.
212
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

16. Asteromassaria macrocarpci (Desm) Habitat: On soil/Leaves.


Hohnel. Distribution : South 24 Pgs.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 24. Aspergillus atropurpureus Zirnrn.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
leaves. Habitat: On soil/Leaves.
Distribution : South 24 Pgs. Distribution : Kolkata.
17. Botryospaeria ingae Kar & Maity 25. Aspergillus glaucus Link.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: Leaves. Habitat: On soil/Leaves.
Distribution : Kolkata and Nadia. Distribution : All districts.
18. Ceuthospora diospyri 26. Aspergillus porositieus Speore
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: Leaves. Habitat: On soil/Leaves.
Distribution : Nadia. Distribution : All districts.
19. Chaetothyrium javanicum (Zimm.) 27. Aspergillus ruber (Bremer) Thorn &
Boedijn. Raper
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: Leaves. Habitat: On soil/Leaves.
Distribution: Darjiling. Distribution : All districts.
20. Endodothella bambusae (Raben) 28. Aspergillus rugulosus Thorn & Raper
Theiss. & Syd.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial Colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: On soil/Leaves.
Habitat: On leaves.
Distribution : All districts.
Distribution : Kolkata.
29. Aspergillus tamarii Kita
Family MONILIACEAE
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
21. Acremonium argemonis
Habitat: On soil/Leaves.
Purk & Malik
Distribution : All districts.
Life form : Parasites.
30. Aspergillus terreus Thorn.
Habitat: Leaf surface.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution: North 24 Pags.
Habitat : On soil/Leaves.
22. Acrophialophora fusispora (Sak.)
Samson Distribution : All districts.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 31. Aspergillus aculeatus Lizuka
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
leaves. Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Distribution : Nadia. leaves.
23. Aspergillus argentum Rai & Distribution : Darjiling.
Chowdhury 32. Aspergillus candidus Link
,I
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
SANYAL et al.> : Plant Diversity 213

Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ 40. Aspergillusjlavipes (Bain. & Start.)


leaves. Thorn. & Churt
Distribution : Kolkata. L.ife form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
33. Aspergillus clariflori Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. leaves.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Distribution : Hugli.
leaves. 41. Aspergillus jlavus Link
Distribution : J alpaiguri. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
34. Aspergillus drimycorpi Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/
leaves.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/
leaves. 42. Aspergillus fumigatus Fees
Distribution : DaIjiling. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
35. Asperg,illusjlavipes (Bain. & Start.) Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Thorn. & Churt leaves.

Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Kolkata.


43. Aspergillus luchuensis Cnui
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
leaves. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.

Distribution : HugH. Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/


leaves.
36. Aspergillus aculeatus Lizuka
Distribution : H ugli.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
44. Aspergillus nanus Mont.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
leaves.
Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Distribution : DaIjiling.
leaves.
37. Aspergillus candidus Link
Distribution : Kolkata.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
45. Aspergillus ochraceus Withelm.
Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
leaves.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Distribution : Kolkata. leaves.
38. Aspergillus clariflori Distribution: Kolkata and Darjiling.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 46. Aspergillus pseudonidulans Yuill.
Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed . litters/ Life form: Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
leaves.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Distribution : J alpaiguri. leaves.
39. Aspergillus drimycorpi Distribution : Kolkata.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 47. Aspergillus raianum Chowdhury
Habitat : Moist soil! decomposed litters/ Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
leaves. Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters!
Distribution : DaIjiling. leaves.
214 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Distribution : South 24 Pgs. Habitat: Leaves.


48. Aspergillus striatus Rai Distribution : Kolkata.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 56. Castellania pasutropicales
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ (Schw.) de not
leaves. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : South 24 Pgs. Habitat: Leaves.
49. Aspergillus violaceo fuscus Casp • Distribution : Kolkata.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 57. Cephalosporium curtipes Sacco
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
leaves. Habitat: Leaves.I

Distribution: HugH. Distribution : Haora.


50. Aspergillus jlavus Link 58. Cephalosporium eichhorniae
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Padwick
Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Life form : Parasite.
leaves. Habitat: Leaves.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution : Kolkata.
\
51. Atractium indicum Chona & Munjal 59. Ceratophorum hypodennum Naissl.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Habitat : Leaves.
leaves. Distribution : Haora.
Distribution : Darjiling. 60. Cercosporidium tinosporae
52. Bipolaris halodes (Drechs) Shoem. Kar & Ray
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Habitat: Leaves.
leaves. Distribution : Nadia.
Distribution : Hugli. 61. Cladosporium fulvum eke.
53. Bispora antennata (Pers : Pers) Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Mason Habitat: Leaves.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ 62. Cladosporium herbarum (Pers.)Link.
leaves.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : South 24 Pgs.
Habitat : Leaves.
54. Botrytis cinerea Pers.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Pgs.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ 63· Cladosporium indicum
leaves. Rai, Tewari & Mukherjee
Distribution : South 24 Pgs. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
55. 'Candida ghosi Mitra Habitat: Leaves.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Birbhum.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 215

64. Cladosporium macrocarpum Preuss. 72. Dactylaria endermata Drechs


Lifeform : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: On leaves. Habitat : On soil.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Distribution : Nadia.
Pgs. 73. Drechslera chattopadhyagi MandaI
65. Cladosporium sphaerospermum & Dasgupta
Penz Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat : On leaves.
Habitat: On leaves. Distribution : Birbhum.
Distribution : Kolkata. 74. Drechslera spicij'era (Bain) Nicot.
66. Cylindrocladium camelliae Venkat Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Yank. Ram Habitat: On leaves.
Life form : Parasite. Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat: On leaves. 75. Endocalyx melanoxanthus
Distribution : Darjiling. (Berk. & Br.) Petch
67. Cladotrichum foliecola (Niess) Ferr. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: On leaves.
Habitat: On leaves. Distribution : DaIjiling.
Distribution : Kolkata. 76. Favotrichophyton discoides (Sabour)
Lemaire
68. Coniosporium donacis (Nie~sl.) Sacco
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: On leaves.
Habitat: On leaves.
Distribution : Kolkata.
Distribution : Kolkata.
77. Trichophyton craterijorme Sabour.
69. Coniothyrium phragmites
Purakayastha & Malik Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.

Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: On soil.


Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat : On leaves.
78. TMchophytonferruJineum (Ota) Lang.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Pgs. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
70. Corynespora caliciodea (Berk. &Br.) Habitat: On soil.
Ellis Distribution : Kolkata.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 79. Trichophyton niveum Sabour.
Habitat : On soil. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Habitat: On soil.
Pgs. Distribution : Kolkata.
71. Dactylaria dasguptii Shome & Shome 80. Trichophyton tonsurans Mahn.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: On soil. Habitat: On soil.
Distribution : Nadia. Distribution : Kolkata.
216 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengc:zl

81. Trichophyton rubrum (Cast.) Sabour 90. Aecidum pygei Syd.


Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: On soil. Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Distribution : Kolkata. leaves.
82. Trichophyton violaceum Sabour. Distribution : Darjiling.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 91. Chnoopsora butleri Diet. & Syd.
Habitat : On soil. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : Kolkata. Habitat: Leaves.
83. Trichurus gragonifer Bain. Distribution : Darjiling.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 92. Uredo discorenae P. Henn.
Habitat : On soil. Life form : Saprophyte.
Distribution : Kolkata. Habitat : On soil/leaves.
84. Trichurus spiralis Hess. Distribution : DaIjiling.
Life form : Saprophyte. 93. Uromyces setarie italicae (Diet.)
Habitat: On soil. Yashino
Distribution : DaIjiling and Kolkata. Life form : Parasite.
85. Ulocaladium botrytis (Preuss.) Simn. Habitat : On soil/leaves.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Darjiling.
Habitat : On soil. Family AGARICACEAE
Distribution : Kolkata. 94. Agaricus burkillii Moss
86. Verticillium cinnabarium (Corda) Life form : Saprophyte.
Reink. Habitat: On soil/litter.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat: On soil. 95. Agaricus campesms L.
Distribution : DaIjiling. Life form : Saprophytes.
87. Volutella indica (Niesel) Sacco Habitat: On soil/litter.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : All districts.
Habitat : On soil. 96. Agaricus exalatus Berk.
Distribution : Kolkata. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
88. Xenosporium indieum Panwar Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. leaves.
Habitat: On soil. Distribution : Darjiling.
Distribution : DaIjiling. 97. Agaricus silvaticus Schaelf
Family PUCCINIACEAE Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
89. Aecidum mori Barclay Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. leaves.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Distribution : Darjiling.
leaves. 98. Agaricus squalidus Mass
Distribution : DaIjiling. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 217

Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Family CAPRINACEAE


leaves.
108. Agrocybe preceox (Pers : Fr.) S. F.
Distribution : Kolkata. Gray
99. Chnoospora butleri Diet. & Syd. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Habitat : Leaves. leaves.
Distribution : Darjiling.
Distribution : Kolkata.
100. Pholiotoa examinans Berk
109. Annularia burldllae(Schultz.) Gill.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: On soil.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Distribution : Kolkata.
leaves.
101. Lepiota delicolum Berk.
Distribution : Kolkata.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
110. Coprinus comatus Fr.
Habitat: On decayed wood.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : Darjiling.
Habitat: On soil.
102. Lepiota cepaestipes Sow.

Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Kolkata.


Habitat: On decayed wood. 111. Coprinus disseminatus (pers.: Fr.) S.
F. Gray
Distribution : Kolkata.
103. Lepiota erminea Fr.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: On soil.
Habitat : On decayed wood. Distribution : Kolkata.
Distribution : Kolkata. 112. Coprinus hookeri Berk.
104. Lepiota jlavophylla Mass. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: On soil.
Habitat: On decayed wood. Distribution : Darjiling.
Distribution : Kolkata. 113. Coprinus micaceus (Bull.)Fr.
105. Lepiota mimica Mass. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: On soil.
Habitat: On decayed wood. Distribution : Kolkata.
Distribution : Kolkata.
114. Coprinus niveus (Pers.) Fr.
106. Lepiota sericea Mass.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: On soil.
Habitat: On decayed wood.
Distribution: Birbhum , Kolkata and Nadia.
Distribution : Kolkata.
115. Coprinus vellereus Berk.
107. Thielavia angulata Das
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat : On soil. Habitat: On soil.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution: Darjiling.
218 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Family ALBUGINACEAE Distribution : Darjiling.


Albugo bliti (Biv.) Kuntze
116. 124. Lamprospora lobata (Berk.& Curt)
Life form: Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Seaver.
Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
leaves. Habitat : On soil.
Distribution: Maldah. Distribution : Darjiling.
Albugo platenis (Speg.) Swingle
117. 125. Neottiella vivida (Nylander) Dennis
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Habitat: On soil/leaves.
leaves. Distributio.n : Darjiling.
Distribution : Kolkata, Dinajpur and Haora. 126. Scutellinia badioberis Berk: Cke
Family HUMARIACEAE Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
118.Aleuria aurantia (Pers.: Fr.) Fuckel Habitat: On soil.
Life for11} : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Habitat : Mo~st soil/decomposed litters/ Pgs.
leaves. 127. Scutellinia kergulensis (Berk.)
Distribution : Barddhaman and DaIjiling. Kunze
119.Aleuria balfour-browneae Waraitch Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: On soil.
Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Distribution : Darjiling.
leaves. 128. Scutellinia supsba
Distribution : DaIjiling. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
120. Cheilymenia coprinaria (Cki) Boud Habitat: On soil.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : DaIjiling.
Habitat: Leaves. Tricharia creta (Cki) Boud
129.

Distribution : DaIjiling. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.


121. Cheilymenia stercorea (Pers.: Fr.) Habitat : On soil.
Boud. Distribution : Darjiling.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophYtes. TMcharia gilva Boud.
130.
Habitat: Leaves. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : DaIjiling. Habitat : On soil.
122. Cheilymenia theleboloides (Alb. & Distribution : DaIjiling.
Schw.: Fr.) Boud. 131. TMcharia opculata Bruhal & Sen
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: Leaves. Habitat: On soil.
Distribution : DaIjiling. Distribution : DaIjiling.
123. Lachnellula himalyensis Kar & Pal Family DEMATIACEAE
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 132. Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler.
Habitat: On soil. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 219

Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/ 140. Alternaria triticina Prashad &


leaves. Prabhu
Distribution : Dinajpur and Nadia. Life form : Parasite.
133. Alternaria brassicola (Schw.) Willshire Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. leaves.
Habitat : Moist soil/ decomposed l~tters/ Distribution: Nadia (Kalyani).
leaves. 141. Alternaria uiolae Gall. & Dorsett.
Distribution : Darjiling and J alpaiguri. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
134. Alternaria chartarum Preuss. Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. leaves.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Distribution : Kolkata.
leaves.
142. Alternaria zinniae Pape
Distribution : Kolkata.
Life form : Parasite.
135. Alternaria citri Ellis & Pierce
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Life form : Parasite. leaves.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Distribution: Nadia (Kalyani).
leaves.
143. Annellophora mussaendae
Distribution: Kalimpong (Darjiling).
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
136. Alternaria crassa (Sacc.) Rsnds.
Habitat: Leaves.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution: Dinajpur.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
leaves. 144. Cercospora adinicola (Kar &
MandaI)
Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.,
Barddhaman, Kolkata and J alpaiguri. Life form : Parasite.
137. Alternaria dianthi Steve & Hall Habitat : Leaves.
Life form : Parasite. Distribution : Medinipur.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ 145. Cercospora albizziae Kar & MandaI
leaves. Life form : Parasite.
Distribution: Nadia (Kalyani). Habitat : Leaves.
138. Alternaria gomphurenae Togashi. Distribution: Medinipur.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 146. Cercospora allophylorum Kar &
Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/ MandaI
leaves.
Life form : Parasite.
Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat : Leaves.
139. Alternaria solani (Ell. & Mart.) Jones
Distribution: Medinipur.
& Grant.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 147. Cercospora amomi Kar & Mondal
Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
leaves. Habitat: Leaves.
Distribution: Darjiling. Distribution : Darjiling.
220 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

148. Cercospora antidesmatis Kar & 157. Cercospora cosmicola Kar & Mondal
Mondal Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: Leaves.
Habitat: Leaves. Distribution : Koch Bihar.
Distribution: DaIjiling. 158. Cercospora daemiae Kar & Mondal
149. Cereospora angulo-maculae Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat : Leaves.
Habitat: Leaves. Distribution : Barddhaman.
Distribution : Medinipur. 159. Cercospora daemiicola
150. Cercospora bagdorensis Kar & Mondal Kar & Mondal
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: Leaves. Habitat: Leaves.
Distribution : DaIjiling. Distribution: Medinipur.
151. Cercospora brassicicola P. Henn. 160. Cercospora daspurensis Kar &
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Mondal

Habitat : Leaves. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.


Distribution : Darjiling. Habitat : Leaves.

152. Cercospora cannabina Wakef. Distribution: Medinipur.


Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 161. Cercospora davaliae Kar & Mondal

Habitat: Leaves. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.


Distribution : Darjiling. Habitat: Leaves.
153. Cercospora cannae Kar & Ray Distribution : DarjiIing and Medinipur.
Life form : My~elial colourless thallophytes. 162. Cercospora diclipterae Kar & Maity

Habitat: Leaves. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.


Distribution : South 24 Pgs. Habitat: Leaves.
154. Cercospora celosiarum Kar & Distribution : Darjiling.
Mondal 163. Cercospora ecbolii Kar & MondaI
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: Leaves. Ha~itat : Leaves.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution : South 24 Pgs.
155. Cercospora chenopodii Fr. 164. Cercospora eupatoMcola Govindu &
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Thirym.
Habitat: Leaves. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : DaIjiling. -Habitat: Leaves.
156. Cercospora commelinae Kar & Distribution : Haora.
MondaI 165· Cercosporajici Heald & Wolf.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat : Leaves. Habitat: Leaves.
Distribution : Medinipur. Distribution : Kolkata.
SANYAL et al. : Plant Diversity 221

166. Cercospora gangetica Purkayastha & 174. Cercospora oxyphyli Pavgi & Singh
Malik Life form : Parasite.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat : Leaves.
Habitat : Leaves. Distribution : Medinipur.
Distribution : South 24 Pgs. 175. Cercospora oxysporae Kar & MandaI
167. Cercospora haematoxylonis Chupp. Life form : Parasite.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat : Leaves.
Habitat: Leaves. Distribution: Darjiling.
Distribution : Kolkata. 176. Cercospora phyllitidis Hume
168. Cercospora hemidesmi Kar & Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Mondal Habitat: Leaves.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Medinipur.
Habitat : Leaves. 177. Cercospora polygomiae
Distribution : Murshidabad. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
169. Cercospora ichnocarpi Habitat : Leaves.
Kar & Mondal Distribution : J alpaiguri.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 178. Cercospora polygonicola Kar &
. Habitat: Leaves. Mondal

Distribution : J alpaiguri. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.

170. Cercospora launaeae asplenifoliae


Habitat: Leaves.
Kar & Mondal Distribution : J alpaiguri
Lifeform : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 179. Cercospora pongamiae Kar &
Mondal
Habitat: Leaves.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution: Murshidabad.
Habitat: Leaves.
171. Cercospora leeae macrophyllae
Distribution : Haora.
Kar & Mondal
180. Cercospora pulchella Ramakr.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat : Leaves.
Habitat: Leaves.
Distribution : Medinipur.
Distribution : Darjiling.
172. Cercospora marsdeniicola
181. Cercospora roxburghii Purkayastha
Kar & Mondal
& Mallick
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat : Leaves.
Habitat: Leaves.
Distribution : Medinipur. Distribution: Birbhum, Kolkata and Nadia.
173. Cercospora oroxyli Kar & Mondal 182. Cercospora stachytarphetae
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. CEn & Ev)
Habitat: Leaves. Life form : Parasite.
Distribution : Nadia. Habitat: Leaves.
222 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Distribution : Darjiling. Distribution : Darjiling.


183. Cercospora subsessilis Syd. 192. Cercospora zingibericola Kar &
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Mondal
Habitat : Leaves. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : Birbhum, Haora and Nadia. Habitat: Leaves.
184. Cercospora tagetis Kar & Mondal Distribution: Murshidabad.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 193. Dwendsyphion vinosum (Berk.&
Habitat: Leaves. Curt.) Hughes
Distribution: Murshidabad. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
185. Cercospora trewiae Kar & Mondal Habitat: On soil.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat: Leaves. 194. Epicoccum oryzae Ito & Iwad
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Pgs. Habitat: On leaves.
186. Cercospora tragiaefolii Kar & Distribution : Nadia.
MondaI 195. Helminthosporium aUro-
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. olivaceum Cke. & Marlm.
Habitat: Leaves. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution: Murshidabad. Habitat: On soil/leaves.
187. Cercospora fyphonii Munjal. Lall & Distribution : Kolkata.
Chona
196. Helminthosporium hawaiiensis
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Boug.
Habitat: Leaves. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat : On soil/leaves.
188. Cercospora urarium Kar & Mondal Distribution : Darjiling.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
197. Heterosporium interseminatum
Habitat : Leaves. (Berk. & Rav.) Atk.
Distribution: Murshidabad. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
189· Cercospora withaniae H. & P. Syd. Habitat: On soil/leaves.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat : Leav.es. 198. Jhonstonia colocasiae Mo Bo Ellis
Distribution : Darjiling.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
190. Cercospora wedeliae Kar & MandaI Habitat : On soil/leaves.
Life form : Parasite.
Distribution: Murshidabad.
Habitat: Leaves.
199· Nigrospora oryzae (Berko & Br.)
Distribution : Darjiling. Petch
191. Cercospora zehneriae Kar & Mondal Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: On soil/leaves.
Habitat : Leaves. Distribution : Kolkata.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 223

200. Paecilomyces varion Bain Volvariella delicatula Mass


209.

Life form : Parasite. Life form : Saprophyte.
Habitat: On soil. Habitat: On soil.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution : Kolkata and Haora.
201. Stemphyliomma sarciniformae 210. Volvariella diplasia Berk. & Br.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Saprophyte.
Habitat: On soil. Habitat: On soil.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution : Kolkata and Haora.
202. Snlbum erythrocephalum Ditm. 211. Volvariella terasteria (Berk. & Br.) Sing
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Saprophyte.
Habitat: On soil. Habitat : On soil.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution : Kolkata and Haora.
203. Trichoderma Karmingii Family XYLARIACEAE
Life form : Parasite. 212. Anthostomella pandani (Rab.) Sacco
Habitat: On soil. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : Kolkata. Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
204. Trichoderma lignorum leaves.
Life form : Parasite. Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat : On soil. 213. Anthostoma ingae Monohar & Rama
Distribution : Kolkata. Rao
205. Trichoderma viride Pers. : Fr. Life form : Saprophyte.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: On soil.
Habitat: On soil. Distribution : South 24 Pgs.
Distribution : Kolkata. 214. Dalelinia vermicosa (Schro) Ces.
DeNet
Family AMANITACEAE
Distribution : DaIjiling.
206. Amanitopsis regalis (Berk.) Sacco
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
215. Hypoxylon bovei var microspora
Miller
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
leaves.
Distribution : DaIjiling. Habitat: On soil/leaves.
207. Termitomyces eurhizus (Berk.) Heim
Distribution: DaIjiling.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Hypoxylon fragariae Ces.
216.

Habitat: On soil. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.


Distribution : ~olkata. Habitat: On soil/leaves.
208. Termitomyces microcarpus (Berk.
Distribution : Darjiling.
& Br) Heim 217. Hypoxylon papillatum Ell. & Ev.

Life form : Saprophyte. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.


Habitat: On soil. Habitat: On soil/leaves.
Distribution : Nadia. Distribution: Jalpaiguri.
224 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

218. Hypoxylon rutilum Tul. 227. Xylana mellisii (Berk.) Ckoi


Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat : On soil/leaves. Habitat: On soil.
Distribution : DaIjiling. Distribution : DaIjiling.
219. NummulaMa suborbiculans (Welw. 228. Xylana regalis Ckei.
& Currey) Sacco Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: On soil.
Habitat : On soil/leaves. Distribution : DaIjiling.
Distribution : Kolkata. 229. Xylana tabacina (Kick.) Berk.
220. XylaMa brasiliensis (Theiss.) Lloyd. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat : On soil.
Habitat: On soil. Distribution : DaIjiling.
Distribution : DaIjiling. 230. Xylana ustorum (Pat.) Denmis
221. XylaMa dealbata Berk. & Curt. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life'form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat : On soil.
Habitat : On soil. Distribution : DaIjiling.
Distribution : DaIjiling. 231. Xylana apiculata Cke.
222. XylaMa digitatae (L.) Cuv. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat : On soil.
Habitat: On soil. Distribution : Darjiling.
Distribution : Darjiling. 232. Xylana hypoxylan (L.) Grev.

223· Xylana englossa Fr. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.

Life form :. Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat : On soil.


Habitat: On soil. Distribution : Darjiling.

Distribution : DaIjiling. 233. Xylana fulvella

224· XylaMafiliformis (Alb. Escho) Fr. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.

Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: On soil.

Habitat : On soil. Distribution: North 24 Pgs. and South 24


Pgs.
Distribution : DaIjiling.
234· Xylana multiplex (Kunz.). Dennis.
225· XylaMa graminicola Gerald.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: On soil.
Habitat: On soil.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24
Distribution : DaIjiling. Pgs.
226. Xylana grammica (Mont.) Fr. 235· Xylana nigripes (KI.) Sacco
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat : On soil. Habitat : On soil.
Distribution : DaIjiling. Distribution : Kolkata.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 225

236. Xylana polym0'1'ha (Pers.) Grev. 244. Eurotium herbariorum Link


~ife form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form ; Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: On soil. Habitat: On leaves.
Distribution : Kolkata. Distribution : Birbhum, Barddharnan,
237. Xylaria pyramidata Berk.& Br. Kolkata, Medinipur and Nadia.

Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 245. Eurotium repens de Bary


Habitat: On soil. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.

Distribution : Kolkata. Habitat: On leaves.


Distribution: North 24 Pgs., South 24 Pgs.,
238. Xylaria tricolor
Birbhum, Kolkata, Medinipur and Nadia.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
246. Penicillium chrysogenum Thorn.
Habitat: On soil.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : DaIjiling.
Habitat: On soil/leaves.
Family DIAPORTHACEAE
Distribution : DaIjiling.
239. Apiospora montagnei Sacco
247. Penicillium cyaneum (Bain & Sart.)
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Biourage
Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
leaves. Habitat; On soil/leaves.
Distribution : DaIjiling. Distribution : Kolkata.
240. Ceratosphaena ervatamiicola 248. Penicillium decumbens Thorn.
Kar & Maity
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: On soil/leaves.
Habitat : Leaves. Distribution: Kolkata, Haora and Hugli.
Distribution: Murshidabad. 249. Penicillium digitatum Sacco
241. Diaporthe taxicola Sacco & Syd. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: On soil/leaves.
Habitat: On soil. Distribution: Kolkata, Haora and Hugli.
Distribution : Darjiling. 250. Penicillium frequentanes Thorn.
Family EUROTIACEAE Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
242. Arachriotus indicus var major Habitat: On soil/leaves.
Chattop. Distribution : DarjiIing.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 251. Penicillium notarum Westling.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
leaves. Habitat: On soil/leaves.
Distribution: HugH. Distribution: Darjiling.
243. Eidamella actoni Datta 252. Penicillium oxalicum
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Currie & Thorn.
Habitat: On leaves. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : Kolkata. Habitat: On soil/leaves.
226
Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

Distribution : Kolkata. 262. Penicillium varia bile Scopp


253. Penicillium pinophilum Hedgcock. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: On soil/leaves.
Habitat: On soil/leaves. Distribution: Kolkata, Haora and Hugli.
Distribution : Kolkata. 263. Penicillium wartmanii Kloeck
254. Penicillium rubrum Stoll. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: On soil/leaves.
Habitat: On soil/leaves. Distribution: Kolkata, Haora and Hugli.
Distribution : Kolkata. 264. Thielavia angulata Das
255. Penicillium simplicissimum Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
(Oudern.) Thorn. Habitat: On soil.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat: On soil/leaves. 265. Thielama terricola (Grif. & Abbot.)
Distribution : Kolkata. Emm.
256. Penicillium luteum Zukal Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat : On soil/leaves.
Habitat: On soil/leaves. Distribution : South 24 Pgs.
Distribution: Kolkata, Haora and Hugli. Family ARCYRIACEAE
257. Penicillium nigricans (Bain). Thorn 266. Arcyria cinerea (Bull.) Pers.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: On soil/leaves. Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Distribution: Kolkata, Haora and Hugli. leaves.
258. Penicillium ochrochoron Bionrge Distribution : Kolkata.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 267. Arcyria denudata (L.) Wettst.
Habitat : On soil/leaves. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution: Kolkata, Haora and Hugli. Habitat : Moi&t soil/decomposed litters/
259. Penicillium spiculosporum Thorn. leaves.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat: On soil/leaves. 268. Arcyria feJTUginea Santer
Distribution: Kolkata, Haora and Hugli. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
260. Penicillium stipitatum Thorn. Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. leaves.
Habitat: On soil/leaves. Distribution : Kolkata.
Distribution: Kolkata, Haora and Hugli. 269. Arcyria globosa Schw.
261. Penicillium tenellum Cke Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/
Habitat: On soil/leaves. leaves.
Distribution: Kolkata, Haora and Hugli. Distribution : Darjiling.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 227

270. Oligonema flavidum (Peck) Peck Habitat: Soil.


Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat: On soil/Leaves. 279. Clitocybe incongrua Berk.
Distribution : Darjiling. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
271. Perichaena duadrata Macbr. Habitat: Soil.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Darjiling and J alpaiguri.
Habitat: On soil/leaves. 280. Clitocybe pumila Mass.
Distribution: Darjiling. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Family TRICHOLOMATACEAE Habitat : Soil.
272. Armillaria dicupella Berk. Distribution : Kolkata.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 281. Collybia albuminosa (Berk.) Petch
Habitat : On soil/leaves. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : Darjiling. Habitat: On leaves.
273. Armillaria duplicata Berk. Distribution : Kolkata.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 282. Collybia ambusta Fr.
Habitat: On soil/leaves. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Distribution : Darjiling. Habitat: On leaves.
274. Armillaria ho,.,.ens Berk. Distribution : Kolkata.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. 283. Collybia blandula Berk
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
leaves. Habitat: Soil.
Distribution : Darjiling. Distribution: Darjilirlg and Jalpaiguri.
275. Armillaria mallea (Vahl.) Qual. 284. Collybia camptoproda Berk
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless· thallophytes.
Habitat: On soil/leaves. Habitat: Soil.
Distribution : Darjiling (Kalimpong). Distribution: Darjiling and Jalpaiguri.
276. Armillaria multicolor Berk. 285. Collybia lutea Mass.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat: Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Habitat: On leaves.
leaves. Distribution : Kolkata.
Distribution : Darjiling. 286. Collybia mimica W. G. Smith
277. Armillaria omnitenus Berk. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat: On leaves.
Habitat : Moist soil/decomposed litters/ Distribution : Kolkata.
leaves. 287. Collybia napipes Hook.
Distribution : Darjiling. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
278. Calocybe indica Park & Chand Habitat: On leaves.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Darjiling.
228 Status of Biodiversity of West Bengal

288. Collybia papaveracea Berk. Habitat: On soil/leaves.


Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat: On leaves. 298. Mycena bicrenata Berk.
Distribution : Darjiling. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
289. Collybia raphanipes Berk Habitat: On soil.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Darjiling.
Habitat : On leaves. 299. Mycena broomiana Berk.
Distribution : Darjiling and J alpaiguri. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
290. Collybia rhodelia Berk. ifabitat : On soil.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Darjiling.
Habitat : On leaves. 300. Mycena myriadea Berk.
Distribution : Darjiling. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
291. Collybia stillaticia Berk. Habitat : On soil.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. . Distribution : Darjiling.
Habitat: On leaves. 301. Mycena rubiaetincta Berk.
Distribution : Darjiling. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
292. Collybia undabunda Berk. Habitat: On soil.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Darjiling.
Habitat : On leaves. 302. Mycena rufata Berk.
Distribution : Darjiling. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
293. Collybia ustipes Berk. Habitat: On soil.
Life form : Mycelial colourless th~llophytes. Distribution : Darjiling.
Habitat: On leaves. 303. Mycena rufopicta Berk.
Distribution : Darjiling. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
294. Collybia velutipes (Curt.) Fr. Habitat: On soil.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Darjiling.
Habitat: On leaves. 304. Mycena russulina Berk.
Distribution : Darjiling. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
295. Marasmius erythropus Fr. Habitat: On soil.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : DaIjiling.
Habitat: On soil/leaves. 305. Nothopanus hygropaitus (Mont.)
Distribution : Darjiling Singer : Peg.
296. Marasmius campanella Holt. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat : On soil/leaves.
Habitat: On soil/leaves. Distribution : Haora.
Distribution : Kolkata. 306. Omphalia fuliginosa Mass.
297. Marasmius haematocephalius Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
(Mont.) Fr. Habitat : On soil/leaves.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Kolkata.
SANYAL et ale : Plant Diversity 229

307. Omphalia oedipus Mass. Habitat: On leaves.


Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : Kolkata.
Habitat: On soil/leaves. 316. Diplodia embryoperidis Cke
Distribution : Kolkata. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
308. Omphalotus clerious (Dc : Fr.) Singer Habitat: On leaves.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution: Birbhum, Barddhaman, Raora
Habitat: On soil/leaves. and Maldah.
Distribution : North 24 Pgs. and South 24 317. Discosia tenzingii Tilak
Pgs. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
309. 'I'richoloma cremoMceps Berk. Habitat: On leaves.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Distribution : DaIjiling.
Habitat: On soil. 318. Lasmeniella globulifera (Rabenh.)
Distribution : DaIjiling. Petrak & Syd
310. 7Hcholoma giganteum Mass. Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes. Habitat : On decayed wood.

Habitat: On soil. Distribution : Kolkata.


Distribution : Kolkata. 319. Macrophomina phaseolina
(Maubl.) Ashby
311. Tricholoma lobayense Heim
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Life form : Mycelial colourless thallophytes.
Habitat : On soil/leaves.
Habitat: On soil.
Dist