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TECHNOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM: FROM THE LENS OF

PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS

A Research

Presented to

The Faculty of the Graduate School

University of the Immaculate Conception

Davao City

In Partial Fulfillment

of the requirements for the Degree

Philosophy of Education

Major: Educational Leadership

By

MORRIS JOHN I. LOBETOS

March 2019

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MAA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL


Maa, Davao City

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENT

_______________________________________________________________

APPROVAL SHEET

This research paper entitled Factors Affecting Non Compliance of Subject-Class

Requirements in MA-A NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL is prepared and submitted by Mary Elaine U.

Bisquera & Stephanie C. Dongiapon in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Practical Research

1 in Senior High School Department of Ma-a National High School, has been examined and is

recommended for approval and acceptance.

MORRIS JOHN I. LOBETOS Ph.D.


Subject Teacher

_______________________________________________________________

APPROVED by the panel of research examiners with a grade of PASSED.

MORRIS JOHN I. LOBETOS Ph.D. REX M. PALES


Chairman Member

_______________________________________________________________

March 2019

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researchers give thanks to a teacher – Abdon C. Canonoy, Jr. who had taught them
how to conduct a research through examples and techniques so that the researchers know better.
They also give their thanks to the Grade 8 Advisers such as: Elizabeth D. Policios, Rizzie Mae G.
Pañuela, Mayla T. Bandayanon, Che-che C. Ochia, Julie Mae Q. Laher, Forfirio A. Caronan, Fardia
Pawai, Mary Jane B. Bolando, and Gladys Jane D. Pardillo who have allowed the researchers to
interview the respondents who were their students in their respective advisory. The researchers’
deepest gratitude to the students who were the respondents and have answered the questions
honestly, through them this study has completed and successful. To the parents and guardians, they
have been a great help to the researchers through their financial and emotional supports; their care
and understanding have inspired the researchers to continue and finish this research study.
Above all, to Almighty God who is the giver of knowledge and understanding. All the glory
and honor be given back to Him for what He has done specially to complete this research paper.

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to identify the Factors Affecting Non Compliance of Subject-Class
Requirements. The researchers conducted a survey study developing a questionnaire comprising of
such factors and administered it to these students of Maa National High School, Maa Davao City.
Selected grade 8 students of Maa National High School were the respondents and out 729 there are
40 data collected. The data were analyzed and interpreted in terms of percentage. It was concluded
that different factors like electronic gadgets, being busy, forgetfulness, laziness, playing computer
games, lack of time, being tired, doing household-chores, doing something, doesn’t understand,
don’t want to pass and being uncomfortable affect noncompliance of Subject-Class Requirements.
The researchers also recommended suggestions for the removal of those factors.

Key words:

Non Compliance

Subject-class Requirements

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

TITLE PAGE …………………………………………… i

APPROVAL SHEET …………………………………………….. ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………… ii

ABSTRACT ………………………………………… iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………… v

Chapter

I INTRODUCTION

Purpose of the study…………………………………………………….... 6

Research Questions …………………………………………………........6

Theoretical lens …………………………………………………………..…8

Importance of the Study ………………………......................................9

Delimitation and Limitation of the Study ……………………….……......10

Definition of Terms ………………………………………………………..11

Review of Related Literature……………………………………….….….11

Teachers’ attitudes towards the use of ICT……………………………………12

Extent To Which Technology Has Been Integrated Into The Teaching-Learning

Process………………………………………………………………………………13

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Barriers To The Implementation Of Technology In The Teaching-Learning

Process………………………………………………………………………….…15

Technology Anxiety……………………………………………………………...17

Organization of the Study………………………………………………………..18

II. METHODOLOGY

Research Design …………………………………………..……….……….19

Research Participants……………………………………………..….........20
.
Data Sources ………………………………………………………..………20

Data Collection ………………………………………………………….….20

Data Analysis ………………………………………………………….…….21

Trustworthiness of the Study………………………………………….……22

Role of the Researcher……………………………………………..……..23

Ethical Considerations…………………………………………………..….23

III RESULTS …………………………………………………………….……24

IV DISCUSSIONS……………………………………………………….…....26

Implications for Educational Practice……………………………………30

Recommendation for future research…………………………………….31

Concluding Remarks……………………………………………………….33

REFERENCES …………………………………………..…………………35

APPENDICES …………………………………………………..……….…35

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Appendix A……………………………………………………….………. .35

Appendix B…………………………………………………………………36

Appendix C…………………………………………………………..…….37

Curriculum Vitae …………………………………………………..………38

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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

The use of technology inside the classroom is very useful to teachers

as well as the students. It cannot be denied that using technology aided

instructions makes the job of the teachers simple and convenient. It also makes

learning meaningful and lasting on the part of the students. So it is necessary for

the teachers to adapt to this technological era because this is one way of improving

his or her competence as a teacher in delivering his or her lesson. The use of

technology in teaching process is an indispensable tool for a teacher.

I have been teaching Mathematics subjects for many years and I have

observed that my co -teachers have a hard time in adapting to computers like using

the presentation tools, spreadsheets, graphing softwares and writing equations

using word processing softwares. As a teacher I feel the sufferings and struggles

of my co-teachers and I really extend my helping hand to them. In this light, I

became more interested to explore and discover the experiences of my co-

teachers in adapting to technology in the classroom. I wanted to give light to their

experiences so that other teachers can understand their situation.

Adapting to technology is really hard sometimes especially to those who are

not born into this age of technological era. There are teachers who are having

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difficulty in coping with technological resources that is used inside the classroom

like the computers, projectors and internet resources. Research shows that the

success of technology use in the educational settings largely depends on teachers

attitudes toward technology use (Albirini, 2006, Baylor & Ritchie, 2006). Teachers’

attitudes are considered as a major predictor of the use of new technologies in the

educational settings (Albirini, 2006).

Although many educational systems have quickly embraced digital

technologies, the effective inclusion of these technologies into teaching practice

has encountered, and continues to encounter, practical and pedagogical barriers

(Wood, Specht, Willoughby, & Mueller, 2008). In 2006, Ajzen noted that to

understand teacher’s belief is to look about their attitudes and behavior. In a study

of teachers who did not change their practices after targeted professional

development, Palak and Walls (2009) found the teacher attitudes toward

technology were the strongest predictors of whether or not they would incorporate

technology rich instructional strategies into their classrooms. Hofer and Swan

(2011) found that teachers with their limited training and relatively superficial

curricula, most likely find the implementation of technology quite challenging.

In the educational community, the level of technology integration can deeply

affect what teachers do and what their student’s experience. “Within the last two

decades, affordable technology has allowed schools to experience a growing

investment in technology or the teaching/learning process. Because technology is

changing so rapidly, it is causing more and more confusion about the best way to

use it in schools" ( Bailey, 1997 , p. 57).

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As a teacher of Mathematics, I have been using various computer software

that will aid me in teaching my students. The ways that teachers incorporate

technology into their teaching and classroom may deeply affect what they do and

what their students experience ( Sheingold & Hadley, 1990 ). It means that as a

teacher we must adapt to the new changes especially in using technology into the

classroom setting. But based on my observations there are some teachers who

are not able to use technology inside the classroom properly and some are

stubborn to adapt to it. Because of technological advances, many of the old ways

of doing things may be effective but not efficient.

Several authors have written about barriers to the implementation of

technology. Kerr (1989) stated that " the teacher's world is substantially limited by

powerful social and administrative pressures to teach in a particular way" (p. 7). In

his 1997 article, Glenn supported Kerr by noting that the organizational structure of

schools inhibits teachers' efforts to learn about new technologies and resists

innovation, for example, the limited "amount of time available to teachers to learn

about new technology" (p. 127). In a review of several meta-analyses by Fabry and

Higgs (1997) , it was found that the major issues in the implementation and

integration of technology in the teaching/learning process were: resistance to

change, teachers' attitudes, training, time, access, and cost. This research finding

is supported by a study by Smerdon, Cronen, Lanahan, Anderson, Iannotti, and

Angeles (2000) for the National Center for Education Statistics in which they found

that the barriers to the use of the Internet and computers for instruction included

lack of computers, lack of release time for teachers to learn how to use technology,

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and lack of time in the school schedule for student computer use. This research

finding was also supported by George (2000) who indicated that the primary

obstacle in incorporating technology in the teaching/learning process is the lack of

expertise, time, and funds.

Bosch (1993) reported that teachers did not see computers as part of the

normal classroom process and often used them for ancillary activities. He

recommended that administrators look beyond the number of computers in schools

and determine whether real integration across the curriculum had occurred. A

Rand Corporation Study ( Berman & McLaughlin, 1978) found that innovations tend

to fail when they are implemented without considering the complex social nature

of schools. The authors stressed it is not enough to simply make teachers better

or more efficient they must like new technology better than what they already had.

Byron (1995) listed several shortcomings related to teacher effectiveness when

using technology in instruction. These shortcomings included the lack of faculty

training on the use in instructional technology, classrooms that were not designed

to support the use of technology, teachers' doubts about whether technology would

improve their performance, and teachers' concerns about whether technology

enhances or detracts from teaching and learning.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this phenomenological study is to understand the

“Technology in the classroom: From the lens of public school teachers” at

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Maa National High School Maa, Davao City. At this stage in the research, the

Technology in the classroom will generally be defined as computer devices

and softwares that aide the teacher in his teaching activity and career.

Research Questions:

1. What are the experiences of a public school teacher in adapting new

technology in the classroom?

2. How do teachers cope in technology for instruction?

C. Theoretical Lens

The concept of this study was anchored on the study of Sandholtz, Ringstaff,

and Dwyer (1997). Their work divides the stages of the technology integration

continuum into five categories: Entry, Adoption, Adaptation, Appropriation, and

Invention. Another widely used model, based on these five stages, was developed

by Chris Moersh (1995) and utilizes similar categorizations divided into seven

levels. Moersh’s model adds a Nonuse level before the Entry designation and

ultimately the Entry level is divided into two levels: Awareness and Exploration. In

terms of the impact of such integration, some experts insist students cognitively

process at higher levels when taking part in constructivist settings (Sprague &

Dede, 1999). These kinds of environments promote authentic, real-world learning.

In their work, Learning to solve problems with technology: A constructivist

perspective, Jonassen, Howland, Moore, and Marra (2003) identify five attributes

of meaningful learning which promote engaged learning through technologically

enhanced means: Active, Constructive, Intentional, Authentic, and Cooperative.

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Constructivist theory differs from behaviorism, which uses conditioning strategies

to teach students, in that it places the emphasis on students’ prior knowledge to

make meaning of new information.

On the other hand, Budin (1999) stated that the placement of technology into

classrooms without teacher preparation and curriculum considerations has

produced high levels of anxiety among teachers. Russell (1995) identified six

stages that naive users go through when learning to use technology: awareness,

learning the process, understanding an application of the process, familiarity and

competence, adaptation to other contexts, and creative application to new

contexts. "Understanding the stages of learning to use the technology empowers

the learner through the knowledge that the feelings of tension and frustration will

be overcome" (p. 173). Teachers' understanding of these stages will assist them

to reduce their anxiety level and pass through the stages more rapidly. Technology

and psychological support are important because early successful encounters with

technology will create enthusiasm and build teachers' confidence. These

observations were supported by Hardy (1998) in her study of teacher attitudes

toward and knowledge of computer technology.

Importance of the study

This study intends to depict the experiences of public school teachers of

Maa National High School in adapting to computers as aide in instruction and ease

in workload. This study is helpful to the administrators because it will give them a

background of the experiences of the teachers who are not technologically savvy.

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This will provide avenues for them to conduct programs that could help mitigate

the undesirable experiences of teachers when it comes to adapting to the new

trends in technology. This study can also help other teacher to continue to update

themselves in learning the new trends of technology that can help them in their

career and also to be compassionate enough to other teachers especially in

mentoring senior teacher who are not technologically savvy. For the students, the

study may help them in attaining insights about the experiences of teachers

especially those who are not good in using technology in the classroom. This will

encourage initiative on the part of the students to help the teachers especially in

set-up procedures of projectors and other devices.

Delimitation and Limitation of the study

The study was delimited to the live experiences of seven public school

teachers of Maa National High School, Maa Davao City. This study is conducted

at Maa National High School Maa, Davao City on school year 2015- 2016. The

participants of the study are the seven teachers who are not inclined on adapting

to computers in their teaching career. They are coming from different fields of

specialization.

Meanwhile, I admitted the fact that this study had some weaknesses. Time

constraints are one of the major weaknesses of the study. The researcher had only

limited time in observing the participants of the study. This paper lacks generality

due to small samples in the study.

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Definition of Terms

For reason of clarity, the following important terms were defined

conceptually and operationally to provide common understanding of the concepts

being discussed.

a. Technology. A manner of accomplishing a task especially

using technical processes, methods, or knowledge (Merriam

Webster Dictionary).In this study it refers to computer devices

and softwares used by teacher in the practice of their career.

b. Teachers. A person who teaches, especially in a school

(Merriam Webster Dictionary. In this study it refers to

individuals with teaching degree that provide educational

services to high school students.

Review of Related Literature

In this section, the researcher presents his readings from the articles and studies

previously conducted that are related to the current study.

The pervasiveness of technology nowadays has led to many horizons.

Technology offers a lot of possibilities in communication, entertainment, education,

engineering and medicine. This only means that we should learn to adapt to the

new trends in our society today. It is already proven that technology makes our

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work simple and faster like what happen during industrial revolution. In this

generation human lives are greatly linked to technology.

Teachers’ attitudes towards the use of ICT

Achieving a meaningful use of computer technology in the field of education

can be influenced by many factors. One of these factors is teachers’ attitudes

towards the use of technology in teaching and learning process. Research shows

that the success of technology use in the educational settings largely depends on

teachers attitudes toward technology use (Albirini, 2006, Baylor & Ritchie, 2002).

Teachers’ attitudes are considered as a major predictor of the use of new

technologies in the educational settings (Albirini, 2006). Thus, their attitudes

toward computer can play an important role in the acceptance and actual use of

computers. The successful utilization of technologies in the classroom depends

mainly on the teachers’ attitudes toward these tools (Kluever, Lam, Hoffman,

Green & Swearinges, 1994). Thus, it can be concluded that the attitude further

related to the usage frequency of technology and usage amount of the technology.

Thus, an attitude plays an important role in determining people reactions to

situations.

A review of the psychological literature reveals diverse definitions of

attitudes. Allport (1935) defined it as “a mental and neural state of readiness,

organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the

individual’s response to all objects and situations with which it is related” (p.810).

Other researchers define attitude as a positive or negative emotional reaction

toward a specific situation. Moreover, Fishbein (1967) defined attitude as “a

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learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently

favorable or unfavorable way”. Attitudes are key factors in whether teachers accept

computer as a teaching tool in their teaching practices.

Based on my experience as a teacher , I can relate to this scenarios

especially in the public school system. Many of my co-teachers are reluctant to

adapt to technology. As a result they submit reports late and having a hard time to

cope up with paper work. Other reasons also is that senior teachers who are not

born with computer generation are lazy enough to adapt to the changes that is

happening around them.

Extent to which technology has been integrated into the teaching-

learning process

In the educational community, the level of technology integration can deeply

affect what teachers do and what their students experience. Within the last two

decades, affordable technology has allowed schools to experience a growing

investment in technology for the teaching/learning process. Because technology is

changing so rapidly, it "… is causing more and more confusion about the best way

to use it in schools" ( Bailey, 1997 , p. 57). The ways that teachers incorporate

technology into their teaching and classroom may deeply affect what they do and

what their students experience ( Sheingold & Hadley, 1990 ). Because of

technological advances, many of the old ways of doing things may be effective but

not efficient. Learners need to acquire lifelong-learning skills and the ability to cope

with constantly changing workplaces. "Today's students need not only to know how

to learn, but how to analyze and summarize data, make decisions, work in teams,

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plan solutions to complex problems and be capable of adapting to the unexpected"

( Dwyer, 1999 , p. 300). Dwyer noted that the traditional learning paradigm is still

being used in which teachers lecture while students listen, take notes and

demonstrate mastery on objective exams. This paradigm may not provide learners

with all the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) for a rapidly

changing global community. Dwyer stated that technology-based learning

environments can help students acquire the type of KSAs needed for success, for

example, cooperative team projects via e-mail and the Internet, electronic

discussion, experiential learning activities via specialized software, simulation of

real-life observation experiences, computerized movies with interactive check

sheets, and practice activities for developing decision-making, problem-solving,

and management skills.

"If the integration of technology in the classroom in the next ten years is to

look any different from the last ten …," the educational community” … must focus

time, money, and resources in the areas that can have the greatest impact for our

students, our teachers" ( Fabry & Higgs, 1997 , p. 393). To determine where

technology can have the greatest impact in the classroom, research is needed. In

fact, several of the top rated topics identified by Rader and Wilhelm (2001) are

directly related to technology integration in the teaching/learning process. One

topic asked, how does technology instruction with group support systems compare

to traditional instruction? Another topic queried, are there differences in

achievement with distance learning versus classroom learning.

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As a teacher I frequently use technology in teaching. I gives me a lot of

convenience on my part especially in presenting lessons. It is a great advantage

on my part because I can easily manage my visual aids which is through

PowerPoint Presentation. When it comes to grade computation, I use

spreadsheets for fast computing of grades.

Barriers to the implementation of technology in the teaching-learning

process

Several authors have written about barriers to the implementation of

technology. Kerr (1989) stated that " … the teacher's world is substantially limited

by powerful social and administrative pressures to teach in a particular way" (p. 7).

In his 1997 article, Glenn supported Kerr by noting that the organizational structure

of schools inhibits teachers' efforts to learn about new technologies and resists

innovation, for example, the limited " … amount of time available to teachers to

learn about new technology" (p. 127).

In a review of several meta-analyses by Fabry and Higgs (1997) , it was found

that the major issues in the implementation and integration of technology in the

teaching/learning process were: resistance to change, teachers' attitudes, training,

time, access, and cost. This research finding is supported by a study by Smerdon,

Cronen, Lanahan, Anderson, Iannotti, and Angeles (2000) for the National Center for

Education Statistics in which they found that the barriers to the use of the Internet

and computers for instruction included lack of computers, lack of release time for

teachers to learn how to use technology, and lack of time in the school schedule

19
for student computer use. This research finding was also supported by George

(2000) who indicated that the primary obstacle in incorporating technology in the

teaching/learning process is the lack of expertise, time, and funds.

Budin (1999) stated that, until recently, schools had their priorities

backwards. They were more concerned with acquiring equipment and software

rather than emphasizing staff development and planning for the integration of

technology. Budin questioned what will happen to support for technology

integration in the future if funding for technology integration results in test scores,

student writing, and other measures that fail to live up to expectations. Budin

indicated that curriculum, teacher training, and research have received minimal

attention. He also indicated that the use of technology needs to be

reconceptualized in areas such as students and teachers' roles in using

technology, how technology fits into the curriculum, what teachers should know

and how teachers will learn about technology, and how we should assess the

impact of technology.

Bosch (1993) reported that teachers did not see computers as part of the

normal classroom process and often used them for ancillary activities. He

recommended that administrators look beyond the number of computers in schools

and determine whether real integration across the curriculum had occurred. A

Rand Corporation Study ( Berman & McLaughlin, 1978) found that innovations tend

to fail when they are implemented without considering the complex social nature

20
of schools. The authors stressed it is not enough to simply make teachers better

or more efficient they must like new technology better than what they already had.

Byron (1995) listed several shortcomings related to teacher effectiveness

when using technology in instruction. These shortcomings included the lack of

faculty training on the use in instructional technology, classrooms that were not

designed to support the use of technology, teachers' doubts about whether

technology would improve their performance, and teachers' concerns about

whether technology enhances or detracts from teaching and learning.

In my live experience in teaching, many teachers that are having a hard

time to cope with technology are those teachers that are not born in computer

generation.

Technology anxiety

Budin (1999) stated that the placement of technology into classrooms

without teacher preparation and curriculum considerations has produced high

levels of anxiety among teachers. Russell (1995) identified six stages that naive

users go through when learning to use technology: awareness, learning the

process, understanding an application of the process, familiarity and competence,

adaptation to other contexts, and creative application to new contexts.

"Understanding the stages of learning to use the technology empowers the learner

through the knowledge that the feelings of tension and frustration will be overcome"

(p. 173). Teachers' understanding of these stages will assist them to reduce their

21
anxiety level and pass through the stages more rapidly. Technology and

psychological support are important because early successful encounters with

technology will create enthusiasm and build teachers' confidence. These

observations were supported by Hardy (1998) in her study of teacher attitudes

toward and knowledge of computer technology.

Organization of the study

Chapter 1 of my study presents a substantial body of evidence to

support the Technology in the classroom: From the lens of public school

teachers. The second chapter demonstrated the method utilized in this

study which include the research design, participants of the study, data

sources, collection procedure, trustworthiness of the study, role of the

researcher, ethical considerations. Chapter 3 presents the results of the

study and chapter 4 gives the discussion, conclusions, implications for

practice and recommendation for future research.

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Chapter 2

METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the methodology of the study. It covers the

following components: research design, research participants, data sources,

data collection, data analysis, trustworthiness of the study, role of the

researcher, and ethical considerations of the study.

Research Design

In this research, I employed the qualitative phenomenological study

because it involves interpretation and description of gathered information.

Moreover, this research investigated a contemporary phenomenon within the real-

life situation (Creswell, 2007) and gathered pertinent information from the selected

participants using observations, interviews, and documents ( Yin, 2003).

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The phenomenological inquiry is particularly appropriate in this study

because this research inquires meanings and perspectives of the participants.

Thus, the most important concern of this phenomenological study is to understand

how the everyday, inter-subjective world is constituted” (Schwandt, 2000) from the

selected participants’ perspective.

The selection of the participants for this study corroborated Giorgi’s (2012)

recommendation of having at ‘least three participants’ in the phenomenological

method. He favored Creswell’s (2007) previous point that these numbers are

enough for the researcher to handle in terms of gathering the information.

Research Participants

The participants of the study are the seven high school teacher of Maa

National High School, Maa Davao City coming from different grade levels and

departments. One Math teacher, two ESP teachers, one MAPEH teacher and

three English teachers are the area of specialization of the teacher participants.

Data Sources

The sources of the data are the live experience of seven high school

teachers and the individuals that are having day to day interaction with the

research participants. The researcher gathered data through one-on-one interview

and observations of the participants.

Data Collection

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My study focused only to seven not technologically inclined teachers

coming from different areas of specialization. Observation and in-depth interview

were the main sources of gathering the needed information for this study.

After identifying seven not technologically inclined teachers, I immediately

gave them letter of invitation and consent form (see Appendix B). Before the in-

depth interview, I had a one-on-one orientation with the participant as to the

purpose of the study. The participants were given three days to return the consent

form by affixing only their pseudonym. One-on-one in depth interview followed after

an agreed date was set.

Before the gathering of information, I followed a thorough process of

selecting the possible participants. I conducted an observation of the teachers in

their workplace and interview some teachers that can give me an idea regarding

the possible participants of the study. After determining the possible participants, I

gave a letter of invitation to them to participate in the study. The participants were

given three days to return the consent form affixing their signature to participate

the study. After determining the participants who agreed to participate in the study

is the one-on-one interview with them. The participants were given three questions

to answer. I am able to interview seven participants and gather their responses to

the questions.

Data Analysis

A combination of inductive and deductive coding was used. The coding

structures for inductive analysis were based on the topics covered by the interview

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schedules which map onto the domains of the main study. The questions asked of

the participants were framed by technology in the classroom from the lens of public

school teacher. Each question is analyzed by open coding. Thematic analysis

entailed the examination of data to deduce patterns in participants‟ responses,

which were coded as emerging themes.

Trustworthiness of the study

Fenton and Mazuwelicz (2008) as cited by San Jose (2012) averred that

there are four things to be considered in order for the gathered information in a

qualitative research reliable. These are credibility, transferability, dependability,

and confirmability. On his side, Yin (2003) conveyed that incorporating necessary

operational measures are of importance in meeting credibility standards of a

qualitative research. Thus, credibility is realized in this study by ensuring that

materials I used in collecting the information needed were presented to the

authorities and the participants.

Confirmability according to Shenton (2003) concerns with the objectivity of

the findings-that is whether the findings are the experiences and ideas of

participants rather than the researcher’s preferences and characteristics. To

address this issue in the study. The reference codes were seen in every citation of

the transcripts as articulated by the participants. Lincoln and Guba (1985)

suggested that audit trail should be done by ‘someone not related to the study’.

Thus, the raw information was given to the auditor for his impressions, comments

and suggestions.

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Moreover, credibility of this study established through making the

description of the research steps acquired from the very start to the process of

developing and reporting and analyzing of findings available. All materials used

and transcriptions of this study were kept and could accessed in case of further

debriefing.

Role of the Researcher

My role in this study is three folds. First I became an observer. As an observer

I am very keen to determine the possible participants of the study. I entered

different faculty rooms and offices to observe the natural behavior of teachers in

the workplace. Secondly, I took the role of an interviewer. As an interviewer, I

prepared the necessary materials needed for the interview. Interview protocol was

observed. Prior to the interview proper, the participants were given one-on-one

orientation as to the purpose of the activity. The interview questions used in the

one-on-one interview underwent validation by experts validation (Appendix D)

namely Dr. Gloria Gempes. Thirdly, I served as the transcriptionist of the

information gathered from the interview.

Ethical considerations

Responsible researchers should always keep the privacy of the participants

of the study (Creswell, 1998). Privacy of participants in this study was given utmost

consideration. Initially before the formal conduct of the study, the participants were

given letter of invitation and consent. Further, their conformation does not indicate

27
their real names rather pseudonyms. Their identity is left in anonymity to protect

their privacy. They are given a free choice to withdraw any moment in the time of

study. The participants are given the time to review the results of the study for

counter checking purposes of their responses.

Chapter 3

RESULTS

This chapter presents the results of the study. Raw data from the responses

of the participants in the questions during the one-on-one interview are being

coded. Open coding is used to reduce the responses of the participants into

coherent themes then group into categories.

Question # 1 What are your experiences as a public school teacher in


adapting new technology in the classroom?”

“Inconvenient and “I’m unable to Sometimes you I don’t have


hassle to use for follow the will be hanging if knowledge in
me because you instructions in there will be no using computers
are going to bring using the electricity at the before, but then I
gadget. software. time you need it. have tried to adapt

The problem
sometimes is how

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to attach the
wires.

hassle to use unable to follow no electricity insufficient


instructions knowledge

Inconvenience No power supply Lack of expertise

The responses of the participants in question number two are the following.

Question # 2 How do teachers cope in adapting technology for instruction?

I ask the assistance of my co-teacher who is I hire somebody to do the job for
expert in using the computer softwares me

I let others to tutor me in using the softwares”

Asking help from co-teachers

I let other teachers guide me”

I attend hands-on seminars and ask


assistance from experts

Ask Technical Assistance Hire somebody

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Chapter 4

DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the discussions of the results of the study. The

discussion is sequence according to the order of the research questions.

In question number which is “what are your experiences as a public school

teacher in adapting new technology in the classroom?”. The prevalent themes

are inconvenience, no power supply and lack of expertise. In inconvenience, some

of the participants are not really good in using computers and other teaching

devices. The participants find it more laborious and time consuming on their part.

. Participant one stated that

“Inconvenient and hassle to use for me because you are going to bring

gadget. Sometimes you will be hanging if there will be no electricity at

the time you need it.”

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Some participants are used already in using manila paper and cartolinas as

teaching aide. For them it is more convenient because they can use it even during

brownouts. This research finding was also supported by George (2000) who

indicated that the primary obstacle in incorporating technology in the

teaching/learning process is the lack of expertise, time, and funds. The theory of

planned behavior by Ajzen (1991) provides the framework to focus participant

responses on their attitudes toward using technology. In this theory, Ajzen

postulates that attitudes, whether positive or negative, come from our beliefs and

experiences. Therefore, a teacher’s belief about technology can be difficult to

change because these beliefs are based on past experience.

On the theme lack of expertise, majority of the participants have a hard time

in following the commands of the computer. It seems that they cannot absorb the

instructions when using the computer. Participant two stated that

“I don’t comprehend the instructions and computer commands”.

Some of them have fear that they might damage the computer and projector.

One of the participant says that he is afraid especially in attaching the cables and

find it tiresome also on his part. This theme is supported by Cognitive

Constructivism theory based on the work of Jean Piaget. Learning is an active

process where direct experience, making errors, and looking for solutions is vital

for the assimilation and accommodation of information. Byron (1995) listed several

shortcomings related to teacher effectiveness when using technology in

instruction. These shortcomings included the lack of faculty training on the use in

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instructional technology, classrooms that were not designed to support the use of

technology, teachers' doubts about whether technology would improve their

performance, and teachers' concerns about whether technology enhances or

detracts from teaching and learning.

The last question “How do teachers cope in technology for

instruction?” the themes are attend trainings, ask assistance and hire someone.

Majority of the participants wanted to go to a training especially in ICT. They

are hoping that the government will be given training and hands-on workshop in

using computer technology. The lack of technological devices also is one of the

reason why many of the teachers failed to adapt. Many of the devices inside the

classroom are finance through the initiative of the teacher. If the teacher is not

willing to invest on technology that can aide him in his teaching career, he will be

lagging behind with the other teachers. "If the integration of technology in the

classroom in the next ten years is to look any different from the last ten …," the

educational community " … must focus time, money, and resources in the areas

that can have the greatest impact for our students, our teachers" ( Fabry & Higgs,

1997 , p. 393).To cope up with technological gap some teachers just asked the

assistance of other teachers to help them in encoding grades and making

powerpoint presentation. Through constant mentoring they are able to utilize

partially the softwares. Other participants that are really hesitant in adapting to

computer technology hire someone to do the job for them. One of the participant

stated that:

“I hire somebody to do the job for me”.

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They hire an encoder in making their grades and also in making presentations. It

seems that they don’t want to exert any effort anymore in adapting to technology

to avoid technological anxiety.

Implications for Educational Practice

The use of technology inside the classroom nowadays are one of the major

innovations in the field of education. Utilizing these devices greatly helps in the

teacher’s job and gives him more effectivity especially in doing paper works. It is a

great advantage on the part of the teacher to have technical knowledge of this

devices and softwares for his convenience and edge among other teacher. The

Department of Education ICT integration plan is one of the programs made to

strengthen the knowledge of teacher is using technology inside the classroom.

Many of the teachers in public school are not well prepared to adapt in ICT

integration in the classroom. Training programs for ICT orientation should be

enhanced so that those senior teachers can benefit from it and will lessen the

technological gap. By having these programs in the public school system, the

teachers will be more encouraged to apply technology in their teaching activities.

The morale of the teacher will be high and it will also lighten the burden of paper

works and especially in preparing visual aids.

The support from the heads of the Department of Education in providing

new technologies and innovation to the teachers can really help a lot on the part

of the teacher and it also makes learning more meaningful and lasting on the art

of the students.

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Recommendation for future research

The limitations of the study set constraints in deepening more the study. So

additional research will surely bring more meaning and insights about the

experiences of public school teachers in adapting to technology. Further study of

the research is encouraged to supplement this study.

Concluding remarks

In my experience, the teachers in public school really needs the support of

the government when it comes to technological innovations. Financial constraints

are one of the major reason why teachers do not have ICT integration inside the

classroom because they are the one who will provide this technology through their

initiative. Lack of support from the government creates a sense of demoralization

among the teachers especially in adapting to computers. Some administrators also

are not supportive to the demands of the teachers when it comes to purchasing

computers, projector and other devices. The training of the teachers is inadequate

and the programs of the government in ICT integration are not implemented well.

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References

Ajzen, I. (2006). Constructing a TpB questionnaire: Conceptual and


methodological considerations. Retrieved from
http://www.people.umass.edu/aizen/pdf/tpb.measurement.pdf

Alharbi ,Asma Mohammed (2013). Teacher's attitudes towards integrating

technology: Case studies in Saudi Arabia and the United States Masters

Theses. Paper 58.

Al-Zaidiyeen , Naser Jamil. (2010). Teachers’ Attitudes and Levels of Technology

Use in Classrooms: The Case of Jordan Schools retrieve from:

http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ies/article/viewFile/5891/4664

Bates, A. W. (1995). Technology, Open Learning and Distance

Education. London: Routledge.

Boyle, T. (2004). Technology and the reflective practitioner.

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Chen, C. (2008). Why do teachers not practice what they believe regarding

technology integration? The Journal of Educational Research, 102(1), 65-

75.

Creswell, John W. (2007). Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mix

method approaches, 116-130.

Frand, J. L. (2000). The information age mindset. Educause review,

September/October, 14-24. Retrieved March 23, 2006

from: http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0051.pdf

Irons, A. and Alexander S. Alexander (Eds.) (2004).. Effective Learning and

Teaching in Computing (pp. 182-188). London: RoutledgeFalmer.

MacKinnon, Soledad (2002).Technology Integration in the Classroom, Is There

Only One Way to Make It Effective?

McNeill Jr. ,Richard G..(2011). Adapting Teaching to the Millennial Generation:

A Case Study of a Blended/Hybrid Course

Price, L. and Kirkwood, A (2006). . Adaptation for a changing

environment: developing learning and teaching with information and

communication technologies.

Swan, K., & Hofer, M. (2011). In search of technological pedagogical content

knowledge: Teachers initial foray into podcasting in economics. Journal of

Research on Technology in Education, 44(1), 75-98

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Wood, E., Specht, J., Willoughby, T., & Mueller, J. (2008). Integrating computer

technology in early childhood education environments: Issues raised by

early childhood educators. Alberta Journal of Educational Research,

54(2), 210-228.

Appendices

APPENDIX A.

Subject Consent to participate the study

Dear Participant,

The following information is to provide you to decide whether you want to


participate in the present study. You should be aware that you are free to decide
not to participate or withdraw at any time without affecting the relationship to school
administration as well as your co-teachers.
The purpose of this study is to understand the “Technology in the classroom: From
the lens of public school teachers”. The procedure is a phenomenological study
design.
Data will be collected at three points-at the beginning of the study, at the midpoint
of the study and at the end of the study. Data collection will be through interviews(
transcript from the participants) and focus group discussion.
Do not hesitate to ask questions about the study either before participating or
during the time that you are participating. I would be happy to share the findings
with you after the research is completed. However, your name will not be
associated with the research findings in any way and only the researcher will know
your identity as a participant.

37
There are no known risks and/or discomforts associated with the study. The
expected benefits associated with your participation are the information about the
live experiences of teachers in adapting to technology in the classroom, the
opportunity to participate in a qualitative research study and co-authorship of the
study.
Please sign your consent with full knowledge of the nature and purpose of the
procedures. A copy of this consent form will be given to you to keep.

Date:______________
Signature of the Participant:___________________

MORRIS JOHN I. LOBETOS


Researcher

APPENDIX B

Participants Acknowledgement to Participate In the Study

Title of the study:

Technology in the classroom: From the lens of public school teachers

This document acknowledges you understand of your rights as a participant in this


study, which the researcher has explained to you prior to signing this document. I
acknowledge that the researcher has explained my rights, the requirements of this
study, and the potential risks involved in participating in this study. I understand
there is no compensation for, or direct benefit of participating in this study. By
signing below and providing my contact information I am indicating that I consent
to participate in this study, that I am at least 18 years of age, and I am eligible to

38
participate in this study. You may withdraw from this study at any time by notifying
me by text or email.

Date: _______________
Signature:_______________
Phone Number, Email Address, or Postal Address:
________________________________________________________________

Thank you for your participation,

MORRIS JOHN I. LOBETOS


Researcher

APPENDIX C

Interview Guide Questions

Interview Guide Questions:

Time of Interview:_____________

Date:________________________

Place:________________________

Interviewer: MORRIS JOHN I. LOBETOS

Interviewee:___________________

39
Position of Interviewee:__________________________

Questions:

1. What are the experiences of a public school teacher in adapting

new technology in the classroom?

2. How do teachers cope in adapting technology for instruction?

Curriculum vitae

MORRIS JOHN I. LOBETOS


Contact Number: 09102002795

Residence: 383 Makiling Road Central Park Subd. Bangkal, Davao City.
E-mail Address: morskee3000@yahoo.com
Date of Birth: Aug. 13, 1986
Place of Birth: Davao City
Civil Status: Single
Age: 29
Sex: Male
Citizenship: Filipino

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Religion: Roman Catholic
Skills: Electrician, Electronics Technician and Computer Technician
Mother’s name: Irene I. Lobetos
Fathers’s name: Carlito V. Lobetos

a. Educational Attainment

Post-Graduate studies: University of Immaculate Conception


Course: currently taking PhD. Major in educational leadership
Award received: Cum Laude

Graduate Studies : Southern Philippines Academy, Inc.

Month and Year Graduated: March 2013

Degree: Master of Educational Management

College: Assumption College of Davao


Month and Year Graduated: April 2007
Degree: Bachelor of Secondary Teacher major in Mathematics
Award received: Cum Laude

Secondary: Gov. Vicente Duterte National High School


Month and Year Graduated: March 2003

Elementary: Leon Garcia Elementary School


Month and Year Graduated: March1999

Trainings Attended:

Research Presenter: Diad Activity on Global Education (Oct. 25, 2015)

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Teacher Induction Program (February 4, 2014)
K to 12 Mass Training ( May 2013)

Working Experience:
Teacher 1 –Maa National High School -2013- Present
Auxiliary Teacher-Talomo National High School-Davao City-2011-2013
High School Teacher-Aquinas School Metro Manila -(2008-2010)

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