104 views

Original Title: Cobem Final

Uploaded by Dimitri Oliveira

- Wind Turbine Construction
- Denmark Community Wind Farm
- Curran Crawford PhD
- Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Conceptual Design Study.pdf
- Small wind turbines with timber blades for developing countries: Materials choice, development, installation and experiences
- 5.4. Thailand Country Presentation by S. Twarath
- Wind Power System Technical Specification
- we1782
- Presentation Uralla
- Wind Turbine Paper
- DOE UL Electrical Safety Update (Childers)
- 3_MW_Product_Brochure.pdf
- Siemens Tech Report
- Computational aerodynamic Optimisation of Vertical axis Wind Turbine blades
- IWP_MagazineFeb_ Mar_2016_ File _forWebupload_1 (3)
- Wind Energy Explained Theory Design and Applicatio
- Discovery Speech
- 18
- Wind Power
- Wind Power

You are on page 1of 8

WIND TURBINES

Dimitri Oliveira e Silva, dimitrioliveiras@hotmail.com

Alexandre Luiz Amarante Mesquita, alexmesq@ufpa.br

Erb Ferreira Lins, erb@ufpa.br

Federal University of Pará, Institute of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belém-Pará, Brazil

Federal University of Pará, Institute of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Belém-Pará, Brazil

Abstract. During the last decades the demand for renewable electric energy production has led to an increasing in

research on wind energy technology. This technology involves technical disciplines such as aerodynamics, structural

dynamics, mechanical as well as electrical engineering. As the improvements in these areas it will lead to further cost

reductions, and for the medium term, wind energy will be able to compete with conventional fossil fuel power

generation technology. The usage of this type of energy generation is quite adequate in certain regions of Amazon,

where there is difficulty of the arrival of electric transmission lines. This paper has as primary objective to present the

results obtained in the studies done in 41 airfoil shapes more used commercially for construction of blades for small

wind turbines. According to operation conditions and dimensions of a rotor, an aerodynamic analysis was performed

and chosen the profile that presents the best power coefficient and angle of attack. In the second part of this paper, a

dynamic analysis was made. Through the finite element method, a modal analysis was accomplished and the first four

modes of vibration of the blade chosen in the previous analysis were determined.

Keywords: Aeolian energy, wind turbine, airfoil shapes, mode shapes, modal analysis.

1. INTRODUCTION

The use of wind turbines to generate electricity has advantages as: generation without pollution, no environmental

impacts, fast installation and commissioning capability, low operation and maintenance cost and taking advantage of

using free and renewable energy (Shokrieh and Rafiee, 2006). In remote areas, wind energy can be used for charging

batteries or can be combined with a diesel engine to save fuel whenever wind is available. Some of the drawbacks are:

the noise produced from wind turbine operation and the fact that wind energy can only be produced when nature

supplies sufficient wind (Hansen, 2008).

Wind turbine transforms the kinetic energy in the wind to mechanical energy in a rotor and shaft and finally into

electric energy in a generator. In general, wind turbine systems consist of five physical components: rotor, transmission,

generator, support structure, and control system (Tempel and Molenaar, 2002). The blade of the rotor is the most

important component in a wind turbine which nowadays is designed according to a refined aerodynamic science in

order to capture the maximum energy from the wind flow (Shokrieh and Rafiee, 2006). The efficiency of a rotor is

characterized by its profile (airfoil section) and the corresponding aerodynamic design. In aerodynamic design,

extensive calculations will be necessary in order to determine the blade parameters, such as chord, thickness and twist

distributions and taper, which are matched with the selected airfoil section (Habali and Saleh, 2000).

Nowadays, blades of horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) are completely made of composite materials. Composite

materials satisfy complex design constraints such as lower weight and proper stiffness, while providing good resistance

to the static and fatigue loading (Shokrieh and Rafiee, 2006). Thus, besides the aerodynamic design, attention must be

paid to dynamic analysis in order to increase their reliability. The fatigue estimation of a rotating blade can be useful for

preventing blade breakage, which is a very frequent problem in the use of wind turbine. The estimation of fatigue for a

rotating blade must go through several steps of calculation: among them the calculation of mode shapes and frequencies

and the computation of displacements and stresses acting on the blades (Mahri and Rouabah, 2002). The numerical

computation of the natural modes of vibration of the blade is necessary to prevent the resonance condition in a design

stage and to comparison with experimental results in order to validate the numerical model.

This paper focuses some aspects in a theory of blade design. The work is divided into two parts. The first one

describes a methodology to choose the profile that best fits the wind conditions for a wind turbine that will be built in

the Amazon region. According to operation conditions and dimensions of the rotor, an aerodynamic analysis was

performed and chosen the profile that presents the best power coefficient and angle of attack. In this study 41 profiles

were analyzed. In the second part of this work, a numerical modal analysis is performed using the finite element

method. In this analysis were determined the first four modes of vibration of the blade chosen in the previous analysis.

Proceedings of COBEM 2009 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering

Copyright © 2009 by ABCM November 15-20, 2009, Gramado, RS, Brazil

The procedure for the specification of blade profile results from the determination of the optimal angle of attack and

the maximum power coefficient of some profiles suitable for the design of rotors of small wind turbines. For the study,

it was used the Blade Element Moment method (BEM) considering the correction of Glauert (1935) and Prandt

(Eggleston and Stoddard, 1987). The empirical model of Glauert corrects the axial induction factor when it reaches

values greater than 0.4, since the method fails for these values. The factor Prandt considers a finite number of blades.

Table 1 shows the profiles studied in this work.

Aerodynamics Profiles

E387 NACA23012 NACA64-221

S822 NACA63-209 NACA64-421

SD2030 NACA63-412 NACA65-415

FX63-137 NACA63-415 NACA652-415

S834 NACA63-615 NACA65-418

SH3055 NACA63-218 NACA653-418

NACA1412 NACA63-418 NACA65-618

NACA2408 NACA63-618 NACA653-618

NACA2410 NACA63-221 NACA65-221

NACA2412 NACA63-421 NACA65-421

NACA2415 NACA64-412 NACA654-421

NACA4412 NACA64-415 NACA747A315

NACA4415 NACA64-418 NACA747A415

NACA4418 NACA64-618

The Blade Element Moment method was implemented in MATLAB language and the computational simulations

were made for the following operational characteristics and dimensions of the rotor:

• Length of the blade: 1,75 m;

• Hub radius: 0,15m;

• Wind average speed: 3 m/s;

• Rotational speed: 130 rpm

The results obtained for the more efficient profiles are listed in Table2.

Table 2. Profiles more efficient for wind with average speed of 3 m/s.

Coefficient

NACA644-421 0.4660 6.5918

The NACA654-421 has a maximum power coefficient (Cp) for an angle of attack of 18,4285o, where the stall is

almost to occur (see Fig.1), causing a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by an airfoil as angle of attack increases.

This situation does not occur with the NACA644-421. The plot of the Fig. 2 shows that for an angle of attack of 4,3469o

(corresponding to the maximum Cp) the lift coefficient is quite far from the beginning of stall, resulting in the

possibility of the rotor experience higher angles of attack. Thus, the NACA644-421 is the profile chosen for the turbine

blade to be manufactured. Figure 3 shows an illustration of this blade.

For the NACA644-421, the Cp remains almost constant for angles of attack between 3o and 6o and the maximum Cp

(46,6%) occurs for an angle around 6,6o (Fig. 4), however, for higher angles of attack the Cp decreases abruptly.

Proceedings of COBEM 2009 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering

Copyright © 2009 by ABCM November 15-20, 2009, Gramado, RS, Brazil

Figure 1. Lift coefficient in relation to the angle of attack for the profile NACA 644-421.

Figure 2. Lift coefficient in relation to the angle of attack for the profile NACA 644-421.

Proceedings of COBEM 2009 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering

Copyright © 2009 by ABCM November 15-20, 2009, Gramado, RS, Brazil

Figure 4. Power coefficient as function of the angle of attack for the profile NACA 644-421.

In fact, the use of angles of attack calculated for a maximum efficiency does not always correspond to the best rotor

system. It is necessary to examine the continuity of the curve established for the power coefficient. The immediate

response (if the angle of attack used is appropriate) is the plot of the power coefficient as a function of wind speeds and

also as a function of tip speed ratio (TSR). When abrupt decays occurs in the curves of Cp, as observed in Figs. 5 and 6

for angle of attack 6o, it means that, probably the designed rotor when experiences higher wind speeds it will lose lift

force. Therefore the Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 show that the angle of 4o is actually the best.

Figure 5. Comparison between curves of Cp as a function of wind speed for different angles of attack.

Figure 6. Comparison between curves of curves of Cp as a function of the TSR for different angles of attack (NACA

644-421).

Proceedings of COBEM 2009 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering

Copyright © 2009 by ABCM November 15-20, 2009, Gramado, RS, Brazil

Figs. 7 and 8 show the chord distribution and the pitch angle as a function of the rotor radius.

Figure 7. Chord distribution for wind rotor using the airfoil NACA 644-421.

Figure 8. Pitch angle distribution for wind rotor using the airfoil NACA 644-421.

A structural dynamic analysis means to predict the loads on a wind turbine throughout its lifetime and hence the

stress in the material can be computed. Once the dynamic stresses are known, it is possible to calculate the fatigue

damage using standard methods such as Palmgren-Miner rule (Hansen, 2008). Fatigue is a very important issue in a

wind turbine design. Several factors expose wind turbine blades to the fatigue phenomena (Shokrieh and Rafiee, 2006):

• Long and flexible structures;

• Vibration in its resonant mode;

• Randomness in the load spectra due to the nature of the wind;

• Continuous operation under different conditions;

• Low maintenance during lifetime.

For design against fatigue, loads must be determined. All of the loads that occur can be categorized as follow

(Shokrieh and Rafiee, 2006):

• Aerodynamic loads on the blade;

• Weight of the blade;

• Annual gust;

• Changes in the wind direction;

• Centrifugal force;

• Force that arise from start/stop angular acceleration;

• Gyroscopic forces due yaw movements;

• Activation of mechanical brake;

• Thermal effect.

Proceedings of COBEM 2009 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering

Copyright © 2009 by ABCM November 15-20, 2009, Gramado, RS, Brazil

A necessary tool for accomplish a structural dynamic analysis is a computer simulation of the dynamic system, with

which to study and understand its dynamic behavior and determine how the system should be modified to change that

behavior in favorable directions. Adequate models can and must permit designers to study and improve the system

behavior as though they were running the real turbine (Spera, 1994). For these computer simulations the finite element

method (FEM) is currently widely used. This methodology permits that accurate models of the blade and the whole

system can be obtained.

In order to have an accurate computational model it is necessary validate this model with experimental data. It is

generally accomplished using modal data, i.e., the mode shape and natural frequencies of the numerical (FEM) model

are computed and validate by mode shape and natural frequencies from experimental modal analysis.

Analytical (or numerical) and experimental procedures for determining mode shapes and frequencies are referred to

as modal analysis. Mode shapes and natural frequencies are determined primarily by the distribution of mass and

stiffness throughout the structure and by its boundary conditions. Rotation can alter the natural frequencies of certain

mode shapes, when centrifugal and Coriolis forces change stiffness (Spera, 1994). A plot that shows the variation of the

natural frequencies as a function of the rotational speed is the Campbell diagram. Figure 8 shows the results of a

Campbell diagram displaying the results of a modal analysis in an HAWT (Yamane et al., 1992). In this plot the thick

solid lines and dotted lines denote natural frequencies, and the radial lines of nP can be regarded as the frequency of the

excitation force (P means the rotational speed and n is a integer multiple of the rotational speed). The resonance is a

phenomenon which occurs in structure when the frequency of the excitation equals or nearly equals one of the modal

frequencies of the structure. Thus, in Fig. 9, every intersection of a radial line (nP) and a modal frequency line is a

potential resonance. However, in order to validate models is more common accomplish the numerical and experimental

modal analysis for the structure without rotation. Therefore, the numerical modal analysis for the blade of this work

does not take into account the rotational speed of the rotor. This analysis is shown in the next section.

3.2. Results of Modes Shapes and Frequencies of the Blade with Profile NACA 644-421

Once defined the blade profile for the wind turbine that will be built in a site in Amazon, the next step is to create

the finite element model of the blade to obtain the modal parameters (mode shapes and natural frequencies). As the

rotor is very short, the blade will be manufactured in a peculiar manner: first is created a mold of the blade according to

its length and profile. After that, this mold is filled with polyurethane, and hence, it is inserted an aluminum tube inside

of the mold. This tube will make the blade stronger and stiffer and will also have the function of connecting the blade to

the hub. After drying the mixture, the polyurethane and the tube are taken off of the mold; hence a thin layer of glass

fiber is placed externally to the polyurethane in order to give more strength to the blade.

For the analysis in ANSYS, the material properties of the blade are listed in Table 3. The geometric data of the blade

are shown in Table 4. The tube of aluminum has 0.020 m of external diameter and 0.016 of internal diameter.

Proceedings of COBEM 2009 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering

Copyright © 2009 by ABCM November 15-20, 2009, Gramado, RS, Brazil

Density 2700 kg/m³ 1150 Kg/m³ 2440 Kg/m³

Modulus of elasticity 70 Gpa 1.72 Mpa 68.9 Gpa

Coefficient of Poisson 0.35 0.103 0.183

Length of the blade 1.75 m

Maximum chord 0.26 m

Minimum chord 0.05 m

• Finite element: Solid 45;

• Mesh: 268459 elements;

• Mode shape extractor method: Block Lanczos;

• Boundary conditions: Fixed-free. The aluminum tube is fixed to the hub.

The natural frequencies computed are listed in Table 5 and the mode shapes are shown in Fig. 9.

Frequency [Hz] 3.863 3.941 11.885 38.162

Proceedings of COBEM 2009 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering

Copyright © 2009 by ABCM November 15-20, 2009, Gramado, RS, Brazil

4. CONCLUDING REMARKS

This paper presented an aerodynamic and a dynamic analysis of a blade for a wind turbine. This turbine will be

constructed in a site in Amazon where does not exist connection to the national grid of electric energy. In aerodynamic

analysis, it was determined a profile that results in better power coefficient and angle of attack. In the numerical modal

analysis, through finite element method, the four first natural modes of vibration were calculated. It was observed that

the first modal frequency (231 rpm) is higher than the nominal rotational speed of the turbine (130 rpm), thus avoiding

resonance.

5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank the CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) for

the financial support of this project.

6. REFERENCES

Eggleston, D. M., Stoddard, F. S., 1987, “Wind Turbine Enginering Design”, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New

York.

Glauert, H., 1935, “AirPlane Propellers, in Aerodynamic Theory”, Spring Verlag, ed. W. F. Durand, pp. 169-360.

Habali, S. M., Saleh, I. A., 2000, “Local design, testing and manufacturing of small mixed airfoil wind turbine blades of

glass fiber reinforced plastics. Part I: Design of the blade and root”, Energy Conversion & Management, 41, pp 249-

280

Hansen, M., 2008, “Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines”, 2nd Edition, Earthscan.

Mahri, Z. L., Roubah, M.S., 2002, “Fatigue Estimation for a Rotating Blade of a Wind Turbine”. Rev. Energ. Ren.,

Vol.5, pp39-47

Shokrieh, M. M., Rafiee, R., 2006, “Simulation of fatigue failure in a full composite wind turbine blade”, Composite

Structures, 74, pp 332–342

Spera, D. , 1994, “Wind Turbine Technology”, ASME Press.

Tempel, J.V., Molenaar, D.P., 2002,“Wind Turbine Structural Dynamics –A Review of the Principles for Modern

Power Generation, Onshore and Offshore”, Wind Engineering, Vol 26, NO. 4 , pp 211–220

Yamane, T., Matsumiya, H., Kawamura, S., Mizutani, H., Nii, Y, Gotanda, T., 1992,“Vibration Characteristics of an

Experimental Wind Turbine with a 15 m Teetered Rotor”, The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 35, No

02, pp. 268-273

7. RESPONSIBILITY NOTICE

The authors are the only responsible for the printed material included in this paper.

- Wind Turbine ConstructionUploaded byMary Mae Jeremias
- Denmark Community Wind FarmUploaded byNew England Wind
- Curran Crawford PhDUploaded byngar024
- Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Conceptual Design Study.pdfUploaded byfabname
- Small wind turbines with timber blades for developing countries: Materials choice, development, installation and experiencesUploaded byLeon Mishnaevsky
- Wind Power System Technical SpecificationUploaded bydoud98
- we1782Uploaded byecoles123
- 5.4. Thailand Country Presentation by S. TwarathUploaded byquantum_leap_wind
- Presentation UrallaUploaded byNew England Wind
- Wind Turbine PaperUploaded bynathandurfee
- DOE UL Electrical Safety Update (Childers)Uploaded byK.Ramachandran
- 3_MW_Product_Brochure.pdfUploaded byAhmed
- Siemens Tech ReportUploaded byDarren Slotnick
- Computational aerodynamic Optimisation of Vertical axis Wind Turbine bladesUploaded byRob Chris Ellis
- IWP_MagazineFeb_ Mar_2016_ File _forWebupload_1 (3)Uploaded bykpch
- Wind Energy Explained Theory Design and ApplicatioUploaded byDan Snzz
- Discovery SpeechUploaded byPaul
- 18Uploaded byiaetsdiaetsd
- Wind PowerUploaded byRahmat Ardy
- Wind PowerUploaded byAkshay Gatkal
- axis_windUploaded bytrcongchi
- Angles l300 AmericaAngles_L300_AMERICANnUploaded byDisenyo Arkitekto
- TenterfieldStar_WindFarmForumUploaded byNew England Wind
- Wind Turbine TechnologyUploaded bymnt6176
- 2251-4407-1-PBUploaded byKlaus Mausz
- SWES FAQ.docxUploaded byGanesh San
- Raveesh 10810036 ProjectUploaded byrabbi12345
- Site_Evaluation _k00106104_ShaneGarlandUploaded byshanegarland
- AbstractUploaded bySouraj Patel
- Investigation Into the Optimal Wind Turbine Layout PatternsUploaded byRafael Feria

- VELOCITY: 1)What is the Speed of AUploaded byrmoanriy
- SF600 Operation Manual 2009Uploaded byJih Yan Lai
- Delta Wing AerodynamicsUploaded byJohn
- Staircase Pressurization Calculations ProcedureUploaded bycancer24
- SPE 141984 MS P.desbloqueadoUploaded byPedro Pérez Aparicio
- AircraftStructures,MMMUploaded bymikebuts
- Chapter 1 Aircraft Construction and Materials Chapter ObjectiveUploaded bySalvador Morales
- The Fluid Dynamic Field Around a Sport CarUploaded byVyssion
- An Introduction of AerodynamicsUploaded bynajib
- Selecting the Right Technology is Vital in Horizontal Wells _ Exclusive Story _ Web FeaturesUploaded byJessica Cecilia Silva Angulo
- X-Plane 10 Desktop ManualUploaded bytututatatiti
- Armfield C15 WindtunnelUploaded bybgmen01
- ARTIFICIAL_LIFT_METHODS.docUploaded bykumar abhishek singh
- Formula1 Race-car AerodynamicsUploaded byLokesh Patil
- Aerodynamics and Theory of FlightUploaded byhdigdigf
- Thermowell Calculation Guide V1.3Uploaded byfernandovz
- Performance_Analysis_of_Boeing_777-200_E.pdfUploaded byMohamedAhmedShawky
- Aerodynamics of the New BMW Z4Uploaded byVyssion
- IFM Solutions IPM Training CourseUploaded byBrooke Graham
- Propeller Design Workshop Part IUploaded byJasoos Parrier
- Aerodynamics InsectsUploaded byபிரபாகரன் ஆறுமுகம்
- Secret of FlightUploaded bysandhyaramesh91
- Hfh Gloss IndexUploaded byramarao_pand
- Aero- And AstronauticaUploaded byankanarev
- trailing edge rotating cylinder.pdfUploaded byMuthu Kumar
- 1500 passenger aircraft.docxUploaded byrjramanathan
- Microwave HelicopterUploaded byDebajyoti Ghosh
- 1 2 5 a aerodynamic forcesUploaded byapi-254836332
- scissor.pdfUploaded byChandrahas Reddy
- simulation study of supersonic laminar flowUploaded bymusaveer