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The study below brings to the Orthodox Christians a fundamental doctrine of faith, which came in the last 200 years, to be ignored or completely misunderstood, under pressure from this fallen world, science, philosophy, culture and politics which fight against God. We are talking of the rebellion shown in the in the West of 15th century, after the fall of Constantinople, during the socalled "Renaissance", and continued in the century of the "Enlightenment". Since then it was created a "new world" (New Age), with another theology, another science, another culture than traditional Christian. In these innovations that have shattered the world before, a central and essential occupied the Copernican heresy: heliocentrism, which, once accepted, opened the door to all other erring: evolutionism, atheism, ecumenism, etc. We will try, with all the risk of being a voice crying in the wilderness, a recovery of scriptural and patristic cosmological revelation, that God's cosmology (with the earth in center, with a history of 7500 years, with days of creation of 24 hours, etc..) opposite to all false human cosmology.
The Divine and the human cosmology
- Recovery of scriptural cosmology, with the earth in the center and being 7500 years old Fr. Dan Bădulescu
Why these words? It is because we propose to study the world as a whole, and to consider the universe, not by the light of worldly wisdom, but by that with which God wills to enlighten His servant, when He speaks to him in person and without enigmas. It is because it is absolutely necessary that all lovers of great and grand shows should bring a mind well prepared to study them. (St. Basil the Great, Hexaemeron)
2 Introduction "Notice how it speaks in this way in the case of each day, wanting to rivet the sacred truths in our mind by the repetition in the teaching. Accordingly, let us carve this truths across our heart and hold fast to them, let us shake off all sloth, let us cling carefully to these salutary truths and with all forbearance instruct people ensnared in pagan error not to confuse this order…" (St. John Chrysostom Homilies on Genesis) The notion of dogma was often distorted by understanding it in a one-way meaning, that of eternal and unchangeable truth, taught by the Church under local or Ecumenical Councils. Of course it is so, but in a wider and equally true sense, by the divine dogmas we understand all that is revealed by God and which has to be believed and confessed as those made in the above mentioned Councils. And if that's the case, dogmatic teachings about the Creation of the World must be made in the catechetical teaching, work that the Church did at the outset by the baptismal catechesis, especially those made during The Great Lent. Most known which were preserved were Homilies on Genesis of Saints Basil the Great and John Chrysostom. These revelations, teachings, dogmas, are the only true infallible, eternal, unchangeable, Orthodox ones, spiritual nourishing wheat, being inspired by the Holy Spirit and received by consensus Ecclesiae and consensus Patrum. All other ancient and until today, and which will be in the future until the end of the world, are human heretical philosophical and scientific "discoveries", that is (at least partially) false, fallible, transient and changeable, chaff and hulls or spiritual poison bare at least. These chaff and hulls was weeding from time to time by the Prophets, Apostles and Fathers, who kept the faith and teaching wheat field clean, true, orthodox. But weeds and scum have not ceased to exist, but have removed the head from time to time, being worked by people, by the wicked. The Church has been shaken over the times by various heresies and fought with them in every way, throwing upon them and those unregenerate heresiarchs anathemas to protect the flock from losing wanderings. But heresies, as we said, didn’t stopped, and among them we now refer to those related to cosmology, biology and anthropology, and it should be an urgent pastoral missionary work, because today, the field became in a very dangerous state of decay and the weeds and chaff threatens to smother the wheat. We refer here to the fact that, also in our Romanian society, the official doctrine that is taught in schools, overtly or covertly oppose revelation of the Holy Spirit, wounding tens of millions of souls and minds. And not only has the school done this, but also the "channel" that in this time surpassed its influence: the media, especially the image, television. This becomes the source of the "truth", the authority, and information. But it not only informs, but also forms, or, as they say in computer language, formats consciences. And then, it is the duty of the Church to do, in a good way, exactly what is called "brain wash", and not as pejorative and negative given that action, (such as did the Chinese Communists on American prisoners, from where would be held with due expression), but just in terms of detachment, because the bowl must first cleansed from the inside, and not as the Pharisees did. * Let’s hear what says in this regard St. Theophanes the Recluse: "For what kind of salvation can someone expect who doesn’t keep the true doctrine of the faith and of the Church and thinks wrong or about God, world and man, or about the fallen current state of ours, or about the way of our being’s restoration, which is only one, or about death and our future life, or about any of the dogmas, when the Lord himself tells us that, if someone
3 will deny His words "in this adulterous and sinful generation", this one will be denied by Him before His Father in heaven (Mark 8:38)? And that one who will be denied by the Lord, where will he find the place? Certainly not in the kingdom of heaven. But here there are people who say: "Believe what you want, is enough to live properly and not be afraid of nothing", as you can live properly without sound principles on what we learn from the true faith! Do not be deceived, brethren! In the structure of the real life is included not only the behavior, but also sound judgement, so that about one who lacks it, we can not say that his life is good and right... So, who says: "believe what you want, but live properly", while have the commandment to keep the true faith, resembles that one who destroys its own foundation on which he wants to build the house, or the one who wants to cross a river with a boat whose bottom is pierced by him. " The following on cosmology and the formation of the world, the movements of the stars etc. are all dogmas revealed by the Holy Spirit in the Scripture and commented by the Holly Fathers: "In the seen world, the sky is above us, below us is the earth, and in the sky are the sun, moon and stars, all in their order... To know these and to include them in the mind is the first duty of every believer. Faith cometh by hearing (Romans 10:17), and the hearing is catechized through the teaching preached by the Church, which puts the beginning of faith. In what you believe if you do not know the doctrine?" (St. Theophanes the Recluse Answers to intellectuals’ Questions) And again we said that: wanderings in question began in the 16th century, when some, like Copernicus, disgraced the unique earth, stationary and in the center of the universe, but most of all lived, the only bearer of life, among other dead planets. Further we will show, with the scriptural and patristic arguments that this is the case. "We must strengthen ourselves in faith and spirit awareness of Christian life and an unwavering guarding, to reject anything that not matches it. This awareness will be for us like a rock in the middle of the sea waves. We live in the world, and as such we cannot avoid facing what is happening in it - but those we face cannot force us to be driven by everything, side by side with others. On the contrary, for those who have realized the truth, there is even an impulse to defend it and to expose lies." (St. Theophanes the Recluse Answers to intellectuals’ Questions) The most serious things are in the realm of cosmology, where geostatic and geocentric Scriptural and patristic teachings and was virtually forgotten almost entirely under the pressure and deception of contemporary false science. Like we said, our greatest contemporary spiritual fathers had detachment concerns, prayer, asceticism, healing of those in sin, and some of great heights, as for the seeing of God, hesychia, and such. But they left somehow these "fundamental" things a part, until the "stones spoke". Give for instance a search Google with topic "geocentricism" or "geocentricity" or "Biblical astronomy" and see who are those responsible now: dissidents such as Pentecostal fundamentalists, creationists, alternative Catholic, Lutheran, Hebrew, and even some Muslims... In this list simply we didn’t met Orthodox! It is not better for those serious who will search through libraries and the Internet. * DAY 1 Heaven. Earth. Light. Day. Night In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness [was] upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. And God saw the light, that [it was] good: and God divided the light from the darkness. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.
The fundaments (ground works): heaven and earth Heaven "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth" We receive and confess that at that beginning of the world occurred only heaven and earth, and there was no other celestial body, no planet, satellite, galaxy, star, asteroid, comet, etc., only heaven and earth: "Then that the creation of the heavens and of the earth were like the foundation and the groundwork." (St. Basil the Great, Hexaemeron) What are available information so far about the shape and nature of heaven and earth? "Since, therefore, the Scripture speaks of heaven, and heaven of heaven, and heavens of heavens, and the blessed Paul says that he was snatched away to the third heaven, we say that in the cosmogony of the universe we accept the creation of a heaven which the foreign philosophers, appropriating the views of Moses, call a starless sphere." (St. John Damascene, An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith) What is this about? These "foreign philosophers" were among others Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Iparchus. Which views of Moses was about? Exactly those where Moses was raised and educated in Pharaoh's court, and he excelled in: the astronomical. For it is well known that the Egyptians were among the most advanced in astronomy and mathematics: "That Moses, whose name is a synonym for wisdom, severely trained his mind in the learning of the Egyptians, and thus became able to appreciate their deity." (St. Basil the Great, Homily XXII Adress to young men on the right use of greek literature) Again, Moses lived long before the Greek philosophers remembered. It is clear that so can be explained the value of those scientific knowledge which were left aside in the revealed text of the Scripture as stewards of secondary importance in iconomy of salvation, but were have kept in humanity in this way. Therefore they have lasted thousands of years, as we shall see. We too confess and testify the same as the Fathers and deny and reject completely the interpretations of "allegorical" or "metaphorical" concerning the "apparent" movement of the sun or the sky. In Scripture there are about sixty such passages, we have not listed them all about the sun moving around the earth, so geocentrical ones, and not even a single one showing a heliocentric motion of the earth! Return to the shape of the heaven, we see that St. John Damascene accept no deal that the shape of the heaven is a sphere, which is important for those to come. Another important element is linked to the state or motion of the heaven: "Further, some have thought that the heaven encircles the universe and has the form of a sphere, and that everywhere it is the highest point… …above these on all hands, like a covering, is the circle of air, and all round the air is the circle of ether, and outside air is the circle of the heaven.
5 Further, they say that the heaven moves in a circle and so compresses all that is within it, that they remain firm and not liable to fall asunder… All, therefore, who hold that the heaven is in the form of a sphere, say that it is equally removed and distant from the earth at all points, whether above, or sideways, or below. And by “below” and “sideways” I mean all that comes within the range of our senses. For it follows from what has been said, that the heaven occupies the whole of the upper region and the earth the whole of the lower. They say, besides, that the heaven encircles the earth in the manner of a sphere, and bears along with it in its most rapid revolutions sun, moon and stars…" (An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith)
So far, in this initial moment there is, as we said, only one celestial body. But we have kept in mind about heaven the following elements: spherical shape, texture, and movement from east to west. They are enough so far. The Earth Its location: the center of the universe; status: still; position: upright
Let's see now what we are told about the Earth: Scriptural passages related to stability (immobility) of the Earth If you can rightly say that Scripture nowhere indicates strictly that the Earth is in the middle of the universe, instead it clearly shows that it is still (geostatic), categorically excluding any kind of rotation, either one daily around its axis or a yearly orbital around the sun. Anyway, these movements also have no meaning, no theological or physical or astronomical, being only inventions of some thinkers who have sought alternative explanations to the scriptural and patristic. Scriptural passages are found in many Psalms:
6 Ps. 17, 15, Ps. 95, 10, Ps. 77, 75, Ps. 103, 6 "The world also is stablished, that it cannot be moved." (Ps. 93, 1) "Who laid the foundations of the earth, that it should not be removed for ever." (Ps. 104, 5) And in order not to be accused that we are stacked as the neoprotestant fundamentalists in the strict literally sense of the word, we bring the interpretation of Blessed Theodoret of Cyrus: "5. "Who laid the foundations of the earth And Achille and Simmah "over his stay." that it should not be removed for ever. Because, putting the foundations over itself, gave to it the stillness, and it will remain so as long as He wishes. Thus saith and elsewhere: "hanging the earth over nothing." Ps. 118, 90: "Thou hast established the earth, and it abideth." Blessed Theodoret: "Thou hast established the earth, and it abideth By Thy order the day stay on, You gave the land long-lasting stability. And it remained as You commanded." 2 Kings 23:16, Job 26:5-6, 38:4-8, Isaiah 13, 10, 13, 44:23-24, 48:13, Proverbs 3:19, 8:2729; "One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh: but the earth abideth for ever." (Ecclesiastes 1:4) John 17:24; Hebrew 1:10. "Fear God, whose command the earth strengthened on the waters,... the One Who established the earth on its foundation and it will not shake for ever and ever..." (Exorcisms at the Holy Baptism) How can all these reconcile with the rapid spinning top movements of the earth, as the world teaches us? Will not shake, but will spin dizzily through space?... The only exceptional case of the movement of the earth is the earthquake. But in no case it is any kind of constant rotation, but a temporary wobble: 2 Kings 28:8; 1 Chronicles 16:30; Job 9:6; Ps. 60:2, 77:18; Isaiah 13:10, 13; 24:18. The same St. Basil, who stops the investigation of human curiosity, supports without combat the following sentences: "There are inquirers into nature1 who with a great display of words give reasons for the immobility of the earth. Placed, they say, in the middle of the universe and not being able to incline more to one side than the other because its centre is everywhere the same distance from the surface, it necessarily rests upon itself; since a weight which is everywhere equal cannot lean to either side. It is not, they go on, without reason or by chance that the earth occupies the centre of the universe. It is its natural and necessary position… Thus heavy bodies move from the top to the bottom, and following this reasoning, the bottom is none other than the centre of the world. Do not then be surprised that the world never falls: it occupies the centre of the universe, its natural place. By necessity it is obliged to remain in its place… By the same reason which makes them attract the earth, heavier than water, from the extremities of the world to suspend it in the centre…" (Hexaemeron) Church Fathers and writers continue to teach: "The Earth has kept the place in the middle, giving it a sense of a center and surrounding it with the waters of Ocean, as to enhance the beauty of the blue garb." (Eusebius of Caesarea, Life of St. Constantine the Great)
hoi physikoi was the name given to the Ionic and other philosophers who preceded Socrates. Lucian (Ner. 4) calls Thales physikotatos.
7 "Since the sky covers everything from his bosom, and gathered itself is infinite, and that's surrounding land and floats in the middle and that all bodies rotate around a fixed point and solid , it is necessarily that the elements that are above ground to and lie beneath him, for the one and the same substance surrounds the mass of the Earth... in the same way with the rotation of the sun, the darkness will always run on the opposite side perpendicular beam, so that both the space above or below ground, is either light, either dark. (St. Gregory of Nyssa, On the Soul and Resurrection) "But as the earth after its nature stands still, also the water... And to the unmoved earth (He) ordained around, as to a center, a circle situated very high up, and (He) tied in a very skillful way the sky that is eternally moving through the middle, and that the world remains both steady, and moving, for bodies in fast and eternal motion are placed in a circle and what is still receiving the necessary place in the middle, with the counter weight for his movement, stillness, not to move out of place, like a cylinder, the sphere of the universe." (St. Gregory Palamas, Homilies) "And some all-round coverage is the sky of all created things visible and invisible. Inside it are also the rational powers of the angels and all the sensible things, the stars and everything else, including the earth itself, which is a point and a center to all world... For indeed, or sphere, or sphere image, which is said to be the realm of the blessed. Of which the uppermost part is the all sides roundness, and the lowest one is the middle, where the earth as a center sits motionless, as the old wise men outside (the Church) and the Divine Scripture also teaches." (St. Athanasius from Paros, Dogmatics) To summarize the above we recapitulate: - At an absolute beginning of time O, God created heaven and earth. - Time and space occur simultaneously from nothing. - Heaven has a perfect spherical shape and a consistency like smoke. It revolves around the earth. - The earth is spherical (and by no means flat), hard, dense, stable, and stays motionless in the midst of heaven (universe) suspended on nothing. - The earth is not a planet.
DAY IV The Lights (planets, stars)
And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good. And the evening and the morning were the fourth day. The Sun: it's location and movement "Then spake Joshua to the Lord in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day. And there was no day like that before it or after it, that the Lord hearkened unto the voice of a man…" (Joshua 10:12-14). "The sun and moon stood still in their habitation: at the light of thine arrows they went, and at the shining of thy glittering spear." (Habakkuk, 3:11) "And Hezekiah said unto Isaiah: What shall be the sign that the Lord will heal me, and that I shall go up into the house of the Lord the third day? And Isaiah said: This sign shalt thou have of the Lord, that the Lord will do the thing that he hath spoken: shall the shadow go forward ten degrees, or go back ten degrees? And Hezekiah answered: It is a light thing for the shadow to go down ten degrees: nay, but let the shadow return backward ten degrees. And Isaiah the prophet cried unto the Lord: and he brought the shadow ten degrees backward." (2 Kings 20:8-11) "And this shall be a sign unto thee from the Lord, that the Lord will do this thing that he hath spoken; Behold, I will bring again the shadow of the degrees, which is gone down in the sun
9 dial of Ahaz, ten degrees backward. So the sun returned ten degrees, by which degrees it was gone down." (Isaiah 38:7-8) "Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun, Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race. His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it: and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof." (Psalm 19:4-6) "One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh: but the earth abideth for ever. The sun also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to his place where he arose." (Ecclesiastes 1:4-5) "If the sun, subject to corruption, is so beautiful, so grand, so rapid in its movement, so invariable in its course; if its grandeur is in such perfect harmony with and due proportion to the universe: if, by the beauty of its nature, it shines like a brilliant eye in the middle of creation..." (St. Basil, Hexaemeron) "For it is night when the sun is under the earth, and the duration of night is the course of the sun under the earth from its rising till its setting." (St. John Damascene, An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith) Like we said before, the sun, although much larger in circumference and volume is only a "light", of course very important, because we shall see that it is the only source of light in the universe, something once again completely contrary to the science allegations. According to patristic teaching the sun is a planet, i.e. a wandering celestial body, which floats and rotates around the earth. We are always aware of the shock and scandal caused by these allegations, always being accused of "medieval", "retrogrades", "Byzantium nostalgics", if not even of the Inquisition, antiscientific obscurantists, ignorants, fanatical, bigoted, talibans and who knows what. We assume this testimony, with the risk of disturbing the ground of the astronomers and of those who blindly believe them "on the word." So, as we said, the sun is a planet and not a star. Star means something else: a celestial body that has a fixed position and is moving with all the sky (firmament). The groups of stars are forming a constellation, a zodia, and they move from east to west retaining the configuration intact. The difference between the sun and stars is what we showed it: the sun moves as it does the planet, plus it is the only source of light in the universe. Scripture reinforces this: "There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars" (1 Corinthians 15:41) The sun gives not only light, but warmth too, as we said, like some kind of a radiator (heat carrier). Of course since its emergence on the 4th day, the seasons emerged too. The Moon “Now God commanded the sun to measure the day, and the moon, whenever she rounds her disc, to rule the night. For then these two luminaries are almost diametrically opposed; when the sun rises, the full moon disappears from the horizon, to re-appear in the east at the moment the sun sets. It matters little to our subject if in other phases the light of the moon does not correspond exactly with night. It is none the less true, that when at its perfection it makes the stars to turn pale and lightens up the earth with the splendour of its light, it reigns over the night, and in concert with the sun divides the duration of it in equal parts…
10 The moon, after having twelve times run her course, forms a year which sometimes needs an intercalary month to make it exactly agree with the seasons. Such was formerly the year of the Hebrews and of the early Greeks.2" (St. Basil Hexaemeron) "It must be understood, then, that the moon derives its light from the sun; not that God was unable to grant it light of its own, but in order that rhythm and order may be unimpressed upon nature, one part ruling, the other being ruled... The eclipse of the moon, on the other hand, is due to the shadow of the earth casts on it when it is a fifteen days' moon and the sun and moon happen to be at the opposite poles of the highest circle, the sun being under the earth and the moon above the earth. For the earth casts a shadow and the sun's light is prevented from illuminating the moon, and therefore it is then eclipsed.
It should be understood that the moon was made full by the Creator, that is, a fifteen days' moon: for it was fitting that it should be made complete. But on the fourth day, as we said, the sun was created. Therefore the moon was eleven days in advance of the sun, because from the fourth to the fifteenth day there are eleven days. Hence it happens that in each year the twelve months of the moon contain eleven days fewer than the twelve months of the sun. For the twelve months of the sun contain three hundred and sixty-five and a quarter days, and so because the quarter becomes a whole, in four years an extra day is completed, which is called bis-sextile. And that year has three hundred and sixty-six days. The years of the moon, on the other hand, have three hundred and fiftyfour days. For the moon wanes from the time of its origin, or renewal, till it is fourteen and threequarter days' old, and proceeds to wane till the twenty-ninth and a half day, when it is completely void of light And then when it is once more connected with the sun it is reproduced and renewed, a memorial of our resurrection. Thus in each year the moon gives away eleven days to the sun, and so
The Syrians and Macedonians had also an intercalary thirteenth month to accommodate the lunar to the solar cycle. Solon is credited with the introduction of the system into Greece about 594 b.c. But the Julian calendar improved upon this mode of adjustment.
11 in three years the intercalary month of the Hebrews arises, and that year comes to consist of thirteen months, owing to the addition of these eleven days. The phases of the moon
It is in conjunction whenever it is in the same degree as the sun: it is born when it is fifteen degrees distant from the sun: it rises when it is crescent-shaped, and this occurs twice, at which times it is sixty degrees distant from the sun: it is half-full twice, when it is ninety degrees from the sun: twice it is gibbous, when it is one hundred and twenty degrees from the sun: it is twice a full moon, giving full light, when it is a hundred and fifty degrees from the sun: it is a complete moon when it is a hundred and eighty degrees distant from the sun. We say twice, because these phases occur both when the moon waxes and when it wanes. In two and a half days the moon traverses each sign." (St. John Damascene, An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith) Let us add to this the fact that the moon revolves around the earth for 24 hours and not 29 days, how we are learned. It moves (rotates): - around the earth (circular) (approx.) 24 h; - on the complete zodiac path (the straight up-down) in (approximately) 29 days; This latter move makes the moon to look to the earth forever with the same face, called "the light side of the moon," the other one remaining permanently darkened. It may be noted here a respect of this so important planet, the small light, second in importance to the sun, which never turn back to the centered earth, lived, where lives the man, the crown of creation, and where Christ was incarnate. The whole the sky and all heavenly bodies: the planets (including sun, one of them!) the stars revolve around the earth
As was clear to people that the earth is in the middle of the world (universe), as clear was the fact that the sun and the moon revolve around it like satellites. And not only them but the whole sky, the stars, constellations and Zodiac signs. This is the biblical perspective, and it is not invented by Claudius Ptolemy and other "geocentrists". Our senses tell us the exact same thing when we see on the sky the diurnal path of the sun (we leave from now the moon apart) from sunrise to sunset. But perhaps some will say that the senses can deceive us: optical illusions, apparent motion, distortion, halos, parallax, aberrations of all kinds. And not just some, but even the saints drive our attention to that fact. Returning to 'our sheep', conciliatory relativists say this: all depends on the reference frame. If you look from the earth, then you are in the center of the universe and everything else moves around you. But same thing happens if you are in a spacecraft, which becomes the reference frame. The logical appearance deceives our minds today with tremendous easiness our minds weakened and poisoned by the spirits of secularization, and unbelief in the Church and the Scripture, and by the almost total confidence in the capabilities of scientists and technicians. Since we are told, "who sent spacecraft, and has developed a so advanced spatial technology, the saints or the scientists (American, Soviet, Japanese, etc.)? Who is, than, better fit to understand astronomy?" * Scriptural and patristic cosmology
Our small study has no ambition to fully realize this, but just to give some impulse to a further more detailed research. Nevertheless, we shall present representative fragments which describe the way in which the Holly Tradition treated astronomical issues: "but as she [the moon] traverses her own circle of revolution quicker from moving in a narrower space, she herself has completed this more than twelve times before the sun has once traveled round his; whence it happens that her substance is not always covered with light. …Since the vault of heaven prolongs itself so uninterruptedly that encircles all things with itself, and that the earth and its surrounding are poised in the middle, and that motion of all the revolving bodies is round this fixed and solid center, then necessarily it should that the elements that are above the earth to be also beneath it, for one and the same substance rotates around the mass of the earth ...". (St. Gregory of Nyssa, On the Soul and Resurrection) "But of course it's good to look also at the reason why we were ordered to celebrate Easter after the spring equinox; so when God made the world of nothingness into being, from first day to seventh was fully equinox, so that neither day nor night surpassed even as little as one another,
13 because if the fourth day and enjoy the sight of creation of lights, however they were not allowed as nowadays to plane also on the opposite side of the universe, because the sun entering suddenly in the first equinoctial section of the zodiac went into the first grade of Aries, and the moon went immediately in the diametrically opposite side, passing into autumn equinox section, in the Balance, without any haste at all against the sun, as it does at least nowadays, because otherwise it was not possible is strictly keep it’s full light, showing us that God has done from the beginning nothing deficient, because the whole side of the moon being turned towards the shoes us through the distinguished movement the various forms of the lights. Therefore, both lights were moving together in the same time or rather unchanged in the same time with the universe as they would expected the end of creation. And on the sixth day man is formed by God's hands, the equinox still blooming beautifully and the moon being almost as the sun in the fullness of brightness, for it was not proper neither that the first man, who for his great kinship with the light was called even by those by alienated from the religion, by justice as “light”, to be created before the equinox, when everything was covered by darkness, nor that the lights of the world (to be created before that time), of that which should be subject to (the human), surrounding now for the first time as some satellites the one who should reign over creation, for otherwise still having time also to be create, and obviously had the day and night which were now present to start from the even, because it is more natural and before than uneven, in the way that possessions come fore losses, God teaching us from that to the law of equality, in which resides the being of the virtues, before all oversize and mismatch, and then after the seventh day the lights started to run as from open barriers and being made to move by different speed, anomaly was introduced. So, because God has well pleased to restore the fall of man from sin, it was fit that at the equinoctial beginning of time, when the man received his first assembling, to be made also the economy of his restoration, and because (from then on) the light of piety would increase and the darkness of unbelief decrease, the celebration of the salvific Easter is not without meaning after the equinox, when the daylight increase and the darkness of night is diminishing." (Matthew Blastaris – 14th century - Syntagma, Letter P: About Holly Pascha) "And when it reached 532 years of the Creation of the World it was accomplished for the first time the assembly of the heavenly cycles, which do not run in the same time and the return to the first moment of the movement. For in something like five hundred and thirty-two years (532) the cycles of the sun of twenty-eight (28) years, are returning by nineteen (19) times. And the cycles of the moon of nineteen years, are returning by twenty-eight times. Again, the sun and the moon are alike in the running of their cycles as they were in the beginning of the creation and run with their order until they reach the number of those years, after which the cycle number was composed the Paschalion, and then were added the Slavonic letters." (The Chronograph: The acts of the sixth century) In fact we have two motions, one of the starry sky, and – let’s say - the planet's sun - which occur with different speeds and radii. And then for the observer on the earth, it seems that the sun is lagging behind, (or heaven has come before) which translates spatially to a shift opposite the sun, i.e. counterclockwise (trigonometric), leaving the impression of reverse, retrograde movement. And then what about the allegations of the Saints John of Damascus and Gregory Palamas? Do planets move in the opposite to the sky or not? Since the sun is a planet for the Saints too, it would follow that it also would move from west to east. Returning to the apparent movement, and even relative. If we have two circles or spheres of different size wheels or moving one to another (such as sky and sun) in the same direction at different speeds, the smaller and slower will move in the opposite direction. Since the earth is considered a fixed reference frame and absolutely stable, against it the sun and the sky are moving in one direction only: from sunrise to sunset. But if the frame is the sky - a frame mobile and relative! – then the sun - and all the other planets - is moving in the opposite direction.
14 Regarding the allegation of St. John Damascene An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith, we have to mention also the concept of the Aristotelian astrophysical mechanics shared by the Saint. The planets themselves are rotating from west to east, and heaven in reverse. We could call it in modern terms the counterclockwise-clockwise. But because the sky is considered as Primum Mobile, a sort of universal driver, it drives it’s movement to all the seven planets, forcing them to rotate in the direction east-west as we see. The consequence of this could be that, taking the distance from heaven, the action gradually decreases, which means that the daily rotation of the planet slows. This explains the difference of the 'days' of the two extreme planets, Saturn and the Moon, the Moon having the slowest 'day'.
The challenging of the revelation of the Holy Spirit by humanist thinkers
We shall see clearly the same real reason that led Copernicus, Braché, Galileo, Kepler, and even Newton to spy out the movements of the heavenly in the smallest details, with detailed comments on the positions and the and apparent celestial movements, of computing the ephemerides, etc.: astrology. The Fathers think about these observations as follows: "Of what use then are geometry--the calculations of arithmetic--the study of solids and farfamed astronomy, this laborious vanity… But they have become "vain in their imaginations and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools." 3 (St. Basil Hexaemeron) The Holly Fathers showed us what will happen to all those who rely on their powers, and began to issue opinions and "scientific" or philosophical theories:
15 "The philosophers of Greece have made much ado to explain nature, and not one of their systems has remained firm and unshaken, each being overturned by its successor. It is vain to refute them; they are sufficient in themselves to destroy one another." (St. Basil Hexaemeron) Here, for example, sweeping lines to scatter as smoke the Copernican nonsense: "And God set them [the lights] in the firmament of the heaven." - What means: "and set"? For someone could say He fixed them! - God forbid! For we see them in an instant of time going long way, that they never stay in one place, but fulfill their road were commanded by the Master to do so. - Then what is the meaning of "and set"? - These words are in stead of the words: "He commanded them to be in heaven." And you shall further on in the Scripture that says: "And there He put Adam in garden", that does not mean to be fixed in heaven, but He commanded to be in heaven. At the same time we can say about stars also, that God commanded them to be on the firmament of the sky, to send their light on earth... As you cannot during the daylight see the stars walking on the sky – because the sun in its great brightness cover their purpose... Each of the elements retains its way and does not exceed its extent, obeyed its Lord command and fulfill their work." (St. John Chrysostom Homilies on Genesis) Let us send the heretic Copernicus and his absurd "philosophy" about the universe, which opened a real "Pandora's box" (but those "gifts" from the evil one, which began with geocentricism, then continued on the same thread of gravity theory, alternative cosmological assumptions - KantLaplace, Lomonosov, etc. -, evolutionism Darwinian or theist, Marxist theories, nitscheian nihilism, Freudian psychoanalysis, Einsteinian relativity, UFO - ufology -) to the judgement of the Fathers: "And do not let any one compare with the inquisitive discussions of philosophers upon the heavens, the simple and inartificial character of the utterances of the Spirit; as the beauty of chaste women surpasses that of a harlot,4 so our arguments are superior to those of our opponents. They only seek to persuade by forced reasoning. With us truth presents itself naked and without artifice. But why torment ourselves to refute the errors of philosophers, when it is sufficient to produce their mutually contradictory books, and, as quiet spectators, to watch the war?5 …All, equally far from the truth, find each on their side by-ways which lead them to error." (St. Basil the Great, Hexaemeron) Anticopernicane reactions We the Orthodox people are not the followers of medieval Catholic scholars, with its Aristotelian foundation, or followers of Ptolemy. But the statements above, in addition to "common sense consensus" fulfill two more important consensus: consesus Patrum and consensus Ecclesiae! So would have said the Saints Basil the Great, John Chrysostom, Maximus the Confessor, John Damascene, Gregory Palamas... It is usually said that the Holy Fathers made use of the science of their time. Not bad, but it has to be argued strongly that, although we saw that they used Aristotle and Ptolemy, their theology does not depend in the slightest by the scientific research, either ancient or modern (St. Basil lived in the 4th century, and Matthew Blastaris in the 14th century), and not only dependent, but neither would have changed their interpretation depending on who knows what new discoveries or scientific assumptions, transient and subject to deception and change. And then we can not fight Aristotle and Ptolemy, without at the same time fight the Fathers who have received in consensus their physical and cosmological concepts.
Fialon quotes Hor., Ep. i. 18: "Ut matrona meretrici dispar erit atque Discolor." The well known "Per campos instructa, tua sine parte pericli suave etiam belli certamina magna tueri" (Lucr. ii. 5) may be an echo of some Greek lines in the preacher's mind, just as the preceding "suave mari magno" is of Menander.
16 St. John Damascene lived in the eighth century, and Matthew Blastaris in the first half of the 14 century, so Galileo would have encountered no problem to consult them, especially on astronomical issues that were directly connected with Scripture. As about the "physical problems" raised, they are exactly in the field of faith: creation of the world, the earth, sun, moon, stars, heaven, etc., they are dogmas revealed by the Holy Spirit through the prophets, and is without a doubt articles of faith and salvation. Again, in a very great error are those who don’t believe exactly the words of Scripture and preach (even as a working hypothesis) something else, different, or, worse, hostile. The Fathers did nothing of this kind which have been received by the Church!
* As for those who may ask: "But did the Church ever took a position in the issue of heliocentrism? Did she condemned this system as a heretic, as did the Catholic Inquisition?", we resume the passage of "Dogmatics" of St. Athanasius of Paros: "And some coverage over all is the heaven of all the visible and invisible things. That inside it are also the rational powers of the angels and all sensible things, the stars and everything else, including the earth itself, which is as a center point to everything... For indeed, or sphere, or sphere image, in which is said to be dwelling of the blessed ones. Of which the uppermost part of the wreath is on all sides and the bottom is the middle, where the earth as a center sits motionless, and the wise (pagan) old ones and the Divine Scripture also teaches. And now the new philosophers of Europe, think contrary, and are placing the sun in center, and make the earth a planet (i.e. wandering) around the sun, also around the round sphere." * Let's see now what Scripture says: "Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun, which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race. His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it: and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof." (Psalm 19:4-6) At this St. John Chrysostom comments: "Through the words: "from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it:", he showed us that in a moment of time it traverses the entire world, that it throws its rays from one end to another of the earth and bring great benefit." And Blessed Theodoret of Cyrus: "This sais also the Divine David: and He made his sanctuary in the sun, that he should also be, as beauty, as the groom comes out of chamber with plenty of good fit, and in speed - with a giant who runs with great power and strength, no one standing against and tempting and to stop his advancement. So this: rises from the east, and in one day passes the sky and reach the sunset, sharing all of its heat to all the living." The Holy Tradition: "Thou who are priceless myrrh with finest aroma, do not abhor my impurity, and do not fly away from me until the end, but be instead as a guard to me forever, because the sun also passing over the polluted sites does not defile." (Canon's prayer to guardian angel Chant 6) "But also after those wonderful and wise star readers and seers, after the Great Ptolemy and others, these are wrong, that in 300 years, those, and let’s say a little more, one day is added, showing also this, that is not because of the movement of the sun - that makes its quiet movement and unchanged - but after the measurement of the days." (The Statement of the Synod of Constantinople, 1583)
17 "Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils; Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron;" (1 Timothy, 4:1-2) The Orthodox Church should not be considered in line with catholic Inquisition, but neither that been unable to decide firmly on a problem of this type, in which the doctrine of faith is under attack from the fallen human philosophy or science. Also in this respect, we resume passage of "Dogmatics" St. Athanasius of Paros: "And some coverage over all is the heaven of all the visible and invisible things. That inside it are also the rational powers of the angels and all sensible things, the stars and everything else, including the earth itself, which is as a center point to everything... For indeed, or sphere, or sphere image, in which is said to be dwelling of the blessed ones. Of which the uppermost part of the wreath is on all sides and the bottom is the middle, where the earth as a center sits motionless, and the wise (pagan) old ones and the Divine Scripture also teaches. And now the new philosophers of Europe, think contrary, and are placing the sun in center, and make the earth a planet (i.e. wandering) around the sun, also around the round sphere." "The new philosophers of Europe" are just Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton and their descendants, the 18th century Enlightenment, contemporary to the Saint. Saint Athanasius of Paros is considered together with St. Nicodemus Aghiorites and other athonit fathers (St. Makarios of Corinth, Neophyte Capsocalivitis, hieromonk Agapitos) as part of the group "kolyvades", a revival movement of the Orthodox tradition that fought against the modernisms and typikon tresspasings and deviations of the time. St. Athanasius fought with full force those acts which attempted to penetrate in Greece of the 18th century. In the lack of some "official" answers given by the local or pan-Orthodox synods, let’s note, however, an authorized spiritual view of St. Theophanes the Recluse: "Currently6, there is a proliferation of nihilistic, spiritualists and other clever deceit that are deceived by the false teachers of the West. Do you really think that our Holy Church should be silent and not raise their voice to condemn and anathematized them, if their destructive teachings would be something new? In no case. It should be held a council, and in this council all of them with their teachings would be given anathemas, and at the current Synodikon of Orthodoxy would be added the following: "To Büchner, Feuerbach, Darwin, Renan, Cardec and all their followers anathema". But we even don’t need such a council, and such additions. All their false teachings have already been anathematized before in those points in which the anathema was pronounced against those who deny God's existence, the spirituality and the immortality of the soul, the teaching concerning the Holy Trinity and the deity of our Lord Jesus Christ. Don’t you see the wisdom and foreseeing has the Holy Church when she makes us to serve the present Synodikon and listen to it? And still we hear: "That's something passed away." That need is just now. Maybe 100 years ago it would not have been so relevant. But nowadays we can say that if the Synodikon of Orthodoxy wouldn’t exist yet, it would be necessary to compose it, and to be proclaimed not only in cities but also in all places and churches: to gather all the evil teachings that oppose the Word of God, and to bring them to knowledge of all, as for everyone to know what is to be kept and what teachings to be denied. Many have the minds twisted only because of ignorance, and a general condemnation of the poisonous teaching would save them from perishing... If someone is afraid of anathematization, he must refute the teachings which makes him subject to it. If someone is afraid for others, let him bring them to the right teaching. If you are Orthodox and yet are not willing to do this, you will find yourself in self-contradiction. But if you've already left the right teaching, then why do you care about the actions of the Church people who keep it? The mere fact that you have developed a different concept than that held by the Church, you already departed from it. No entry in baptismal register makes member of the Church,
18 but the spirit and content of your views. Whether that your teaching or your name are pronounced under anathema or not, you have already have fallen under it when your opinions are contrary to those of the Church, and you persist in them. Anathema is terrible. Leave all your evil opinions. Amen." *
The results of patristic research showed humility, asceticism, knowledge of Scripture and a lot of prayer and fasting. And even then when they issued certain opinions or retrieve some ancient pagan conceptions (Ptolemy, Aristotle), they sub missed those to the two church's infallibility criteria: consensus Patrum and consensus Ecclesiae, in which is of course implicitly consensus Scripturae. If their opinions fulfilled these consensuses, then their teaching had the mark of infallibility. By confessing that the actual earth concept does not meet these criteria above, the Christians should cease immediately to call it planet! Our dogmatic tells us about the planets: "There are, we are told, seven planets amongst these luminaries, and these move in a direction opposite to that of the heaven: hence the name planets. For, while they say that the heaven moves from east to west, the planets move from west to east." (St. John Damascene, An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith) "Since the vault of heaven prolongs itself so uninterruptedly that encircles all things with itself, and that the earth and its surrounding are poised in the middle, and that motion of all the revolving bodies is round this fixed and solid center, then necessarily it should that the elements that are above the earth to be also beneath it, for one and the same substance rotates around the mass of the earth ..." (St. Gregory of Nyssa, On the Soul and Resurrection) As for the apparently related motions described in current astronomy: the earth rotation around its axis and revolving around the sun, let’s mention a pertinent observation of Nae Ionescu: "We leave aside the fact that movements that spoke above are not real facts, ascertainable by the senses, but the interpretive assumptions of the real facts, done for the sole purpose of putting some logical consistency between facts, possible and probable assumptions, however, metaphysicly speaking, questionable. Real facts, if we understand by that something controlled by the senses – how do our opponents want, are: 1) The so-called apparent movement of the sun around the earth, over the horizon; 2) The movement and the moon phases in the sky..." (Nae Ionescu, Theology) The Scripture confirms this: "One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh: but the earth abideth for ever. The sun also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to his place where he arose." (Ecclesiastes, 1:4-5) In this sense emerges from itself and the following observation: the so-called solar system simply does not exist! We accept only the existence of the seven traditional planets and do not want to know about satellites, the moon also is not the "natural satellite of the Earth", but the very first planet. Moreover, in our church model she turns around the earth for approx. 24 hours, very different from the rotation of approximately 28 days provided by the heliocentric model. We reject also the inclination of 231/2◦ of the earth, the flattening at the poles and other scientific fairy tales. Generally speaking, all the astronomical aberrations, starting with those of Ptolemy himself came when, instead of being limited to knowledge of clear need, such as movements of the moon,
19 sun and zodiac, people were tried to follow the course of all the planets. Certainly they have their purpose too and in the cosmic iconomy, God does nothing in vain and absurd. But, we do say that it is not necessary to us to know the complex movements of the planets, but only if the sinner case when astronomers are in the same time astrologers, as was in fact the case for all, from Ptolemy to Newton at least. And then we understand why those movements had to be known in detail, in order to determine ephemeridae and astrological predictions. The discovery of the telescope, spyglass and more, complicated things, people seemed to see all kinds of satellites, strange movements retrograde planets, nowadays newer galaxies are discovered, let alone mention the SF assumptions such as big bang, black holes, parallel universes, etc. Perhaps these aberrations and heresies would not have arisen if the observations would be limited to three movements of those three: the moon, sun and the zodiac, the earth being as we have testified in the center and still. We do not stop to wonder and grieve us how was possible for the whole humanity, including those of Eastern Orthodox, to abandon the traditional image (the earth in the center, the sun turns around it, as does the vault of heaven, the age of 7500 years old, the days of creation of 24 hours, etc.). and adopt atheistic humanist paradigm! Of course, those 40 years of atheistic communism7 had form(ate)d generations of people in this scientist and evolutionist pattern of thinking, from which is hard to escape. What is worst is that from these generation come the clergy and monks, who think, with the exceptions, in the same pattern! In the cases where conflicts between the two doctrines have become obvious and acute it was sought some compromise to harmonize them, the compromise coming almost exclusively from the Church. The results are hideous hybrids like "theistic evolutionism", or other theories (days = geological erae, etc.) which have not been sanctioned properly (condemnation, etc.) by those entitled to do so. Moreover, it is considered that those are relative and secondary problems which don’t affect in any way dogmas, devotion and salvation. It is true that Genesis does not explicitly speak of the sun's rotation around the earth, but the Scripture continues with other passages. But linking other parts of the same work, and above it claims scriptural and faith consensus Patrum and consensus Ecclesiae, it must be concluded that the Earth is thought by the overwhelming majority to be the center of the universe, motionless, and the sun and the moon, created the fourth day revolves around the earth. Could all Fathers fore a mentioned dare to contradict the revelation of the Scripture, even by speculation? To this we add that although the normative departure is and remains the Holy Scriptures, it is by no means the sole authority in Orthodoxy! Besides we are always in great of interpretations of the Holly Fathers. *
The helio/acentrist heresy can be rightly held to be a "Trojan horse" entered during the nineteenth century in the city of Eastern Orthodox Church. This teaching is coming from the school of this fallen world, enemy of God, His Church and dogmas. True, it was not enforceable, but only discreetly slipped first in the university then in the intellectual circles of Western (French and German) influence. Then, gradually, in the late nineteenth and early 20th century, with the takeover by the state of education at all levels, from primary up, and even while entering in the theological education, seminary and university level, this heresy has become in the twentieth century, and now, regulatory and of a quasi-dogmatic nature. Certainly not in the spiritual and religious sense. Nowhere is provided a dogmatic horos or any canon that says something like: "If anyone does not believe that:
In the eastern Europe countries, such as Romania. In the western side the same thing was achieved by the “welfare” materialistic society…
20 - The earth orbits around the sun annually, thus being a planet in the solar system; a daily rotation around its axis (which is also inclined by X degrees) is added to this movement; and, that the earth is not at all still in the center of the universe, but is a wandering point in the endless universe; - The universe is expanding, emerging from the so-called big bang and has reached the enormous size of X many billion light years. etc., then the clergy man be deposed and the layman to be excommunicated. " The Church, thank God, has not issued such a sentence in its legislation (at least for now!) Those that will penalize those "irregularities" will be the state and society, public opinion and mass media. Now, in these years, provided of course that there are no sanctions in the penal code here, but only bad grades to astronomy, geography, etc. The analogy with the "Trojan horse" was not accidental. We see the consequences of receiving this teaching in its development, namely the receipt, on the same routes (channels): the evolutionism. And then, if those written before show to be the true teaching the of The Holy Spirit trough the Scriptures and the Holly Fathers, we dare to address this call: Orthodox Christians! "The heavens declare the glory of God and the firmament sheweth his handiwork." And: "If we should hold our peace, the stones would immediately cry out." Who ought to testify to the true faith of God's cosmology? Who is the "salt of the earth" that if have lost his savour will be casted out? For Christ's sake, before you say that: - Religion and science are and have been best friends that complete marvelously each other and are staying in a dialogue of brothers; - To mourn someone like Giordano Bruno as an innocent martyr unfairly "persecuted for righteousness"; - To rise in praise some as: Copernicus, Galileo, Einstein, etc. as some brilliant minds in the service of progress of the knowledge. ...Are you sure that you understand what all those people believed, supported and taught? Now, Christian fathers and brothers, let’s compare the teachings of post-Copernican astronomers and scientists with the Scripture and the Fathers and see how it looks? Are the same or opposed? And if opposed it ought not to be discovered and shed? Always and all kinds of heresies had presented a major threat to personal salvation and the church community life. If, for instance, we are called upon to arbitrate the trial of Galileo, how could we might say that he was right and church censorship was wrong, as do contemporary Catholics and their Orthodox acolytes and disciples? Or we will dodge cowardly, saying like that the rabbi that both are right, or that we can not know anything about it for sure? We can not serve two masters!
In the realm of cosmology, the highest possible authority remains the Holy Spirit, Who spoke by the Prophets, Apostles and Fathers. He was not been pleased to discover His mysteries to philosophers, astrologers and profane astronomers, fallen and opaque to grace. Their teachings are based on the different hypotheses and assumptions, but the Spirit does not have such things, but revelation! This being so, we too confess in our turn in one voice (choir) with the first elected by Lord
21 that: - In the beginning there were heaven and earth; - The earth is in the center of the universe and does not move; - The sky moves around the earth from sunrise to sunset; - On the fourth day were made all the other celestial bodies: the lights, planets, stars (constellations, etc.). - All these are moving around the stationary earth from sunrise to sunset; - The Earth is not a planet; - The sun and moon are planets; - There is no solar system; - The only celestial body with live in the universe (three-dimensional beings, "with body") is the earth; - The Earth is unique in the cosmos: there is only one center, it is the only still, is the only carrier of life; here was our Savior incarnate, crucified, rose from the dead and here He will come with glory to judge the living and the dead. By all these the earth land is radically different from all other celestial bodies; Any other teaching that contradicts the above is contrary to the Church, so to the Holy Spirit. We hope and pray to God that those who have now learned the teachings of the Holy Scripture and Holly Tradition to keep this into their hearts with love and courage...
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